Sie sind auf Seite 1von 6

Modern airborne weather radar operate in which frequency band? 8-12Ghz.

Mature stage of TS lasts approx.? 15-20mins.

Severe turbulence is.? Often experienced 15-20nm.
If you inadvertently find your aircraft within the storm area of an active TSyou
should? Maintain original not turndo not climb to get over the
In Cumuliform cloud, the most severe icing is encountered at outside air temps
between: - 0C & -20C.
Building stage of TS, which of following is true? Only updraughts.
Conditions associated with anticyclones are? - Moderate to poor
convective cloud.
Orthographic lows or lee depressions, are usually associated with.? - Fine, warm
Parcel of air is force to rise & becomes saturated at 3000ft when is it at the same
temp as the surrounding air. The parcel of air will subsequently? Remain at the
same level.
The indicated reading of height on aircraft altimeter is the vertical distance
between? Lowest point on aircraft &a pressure surface in the atmosphere.
Reason for temp increasing in stratosphere? Ozone absorbing short wave UV
The Bora can be accentuated by .., & further intensified by..? The
Siberian High; Valley effect.
Type of precipitation which reduces vis most is? Snow.
Snow Pellets.? Usually conical, and also called soft hail.
Virga generally falls from which cloud type? AS
An extension outward from an anticyclone, ie. A ridge.? 1. Often separates polar
& frontal depressions, 2. May be stationary, 3. Is associated with low wind speeds.
Cold Anticyclones associated with Artic & Polar air masses affecting the UK in
winter could give? - 1. In central areas, cold, clear, frosty weather. 2. On outer
edges: light wind & foggy conditions. 3. On outer edge: Strong winds, ST/SC,
FG is defined as being? - vis less than 1000m due to liquid particles or ice crystals
suspended in the atmosphere.
If you observe drizzle falling, the cloud above you is most likely to be? ST
Which of the following statements is true? Radiation fog cannot form over the
Which of the following gives steady rain or snow? NS
QFE is most accurately defined by? The barometric pressure observed at the level
of the aerodrome, which will read 0ft at the airfield datum.
Within the troposphere? All answers are correct.
The equatorial zone is also called? Tropical Rain Climate.
The Minstral can occur when there is a suitable pressure gradient caused by
a and intensified by the . effect of the valley Cold front, held up
by the alps; Katabatic.
A Fohn wind causes cloud to form by what process? Orthographic lift
In a MCS, what sort of weather would you expect? Thunderstorms, on a large
scale, lasting for several hrs.
During period Dec-April, airfield in Zimbabwe may be affected by? Occasional
thunderstorms on the ITCZ.
Very low cloud, often fog, forms ahead of a warm front mainly due to? Saturation
of the cold air by rain falling into it.
First horizontal movement of air when a sea breeze is developing is? land to sea
at 1000ft.
TSR originate? 5-15 of the equator.
Jet streams are very rare near occluded fronts because? there is not enough temp
difference across the front.
Sub tropical jet stream is? at about 30 lat in winter.
Abbreviations BR in METAR indicates vis of? at least 1000m but not more than
RETS in METAR? Thunderstorms since last report or last hour, whichever period is
shorter, but have now ceases.
Frontal TS are triggered by? Rising air due to falling pressure at air mass
Which TS are most difficult to forecast & detect? Air mass TS
Turbulence cloud describes a cloud which is? Stratiform, extends at low level,
over a large area.
Thermal Turbulence occurs? Above land in daytime, generally associated with
convective cloud.
Vertical Visibility is measured in? Hundreds of feet.
At a stationary front, the cold air mass? Moves parallel to the Front.
Which zone has constant periods of darkness and daytime? Artic zone
Whats a MCS in regards to the ITCZ? Mesoscale Convective System.
What does FC mean in a SIGMET? Tornado (Funnel Cloud)

What does mean? Widespread smoke.

For a given pressure gradient, the strongest wind will be? Gradient wind.
What phenomena forms in the transition zone between two air masses? A front.
Flying through warm front, precipitation changes from steady rain to heavy
showers meaning? The warm air mass is unstable and CBs are present.
World climates are classified by? Koppen Climate.
Rain max terminal velocity? 9 m/s
Drizzle max terminal velocity? - 4 m/s
Anticyclones classified by? Cold, warm, temporary, permanent.
Is wind velocity true or magnetic in a METAR? True.
Wind in a METAR is measured from? 10 meters above the surface (AAL)
Tropical Inversion? Polar tropopause undercuts the warmer air of the tropical
tropopause in the polar front.
CAT is unlikely? Below CB.
Cat is likely? Above the jet core and on cold air side.
Doldrums? Weak inter-tropical convergence zones.
Polar continental air mass? Only reaches the western European coastline in
For sea breeze; wind speed, range and height? 15kts, 10nm, 1000ft.
The final stage of a thunderstorm is reached when? A well developed anvil can be
Cold air passes over warm surface? CU, CB and advection fog.
Air mass thunderstorms are formed by? Convection and orthographic uplift.
Sea Breeze: - 500ft, decrease in pressure at upper levels.
Fohn wind? Chinook
Subsiding air in DALR gives rise to? a stable air and low relative humidity.
ITCZ in Jan and July 0-10N
Orthographic Fog caused by? Adiabatic cooling.
SIGMET 4hrs validity.
ACARS link? Air/ground Met.
Person measurement of visibility at airport? Meteorological visibility.
Warm Front? Fractostratus.
Rain makes objects appear? Closer than actual.
TS stages? Cumulus or building, mature, dissipating.
Heavy rain at night on the approach, runway lights may appear? Either close or
further away.
Light rain at night on the approach, runway lights may appear? Always closer.
In a snow shower, when it turns to rain the freezing level will often become lower
due to? Latent heat or fusion reducing the temp.
The icing in cloud which forms over hills is likely to be more severe than over flat
terrain? Enforced ascent of air released more water, which is retained in the
Which of these phenomena usually form in the transition zone between two air
masses? Frontal low pressure.
Fohn Wind? Warm and dry air descending day or night.
ITCZ? Its associated weather is invariably strong convergence and heavy
cumuliform cloud.
The Minstral is a strong? North/North Westerly; above the Rhone Valley;
winter/early spring.
The degree of turbulence to be expected from SC cloud is? moderate in the
In nimbostratus cloud, there may be and you could expect? rain, snow and sleet,
severe turbulence and severe icing.
Which is correct? The outflow from the Siberian high over northern china and
japan is initially north westerly.
The gradient wind speed around a high pressure is? greater than geostrophic in
either hemisphere.
Geostrophic wind constant in direction as latitude changes, but? it has more
speed in 30N than in 50N.
The heat energy that is required when changing liquid water into water vapour is?
stored within water vapour as latent heat.
Lines on contour chart? Join points of equal height.
Contour heights? True heights AMSL
Strong wind perpendicular to ridge or reverse in direction at medium and high
levels? Likely result in travelling rotors with very strong turbulence.
Frontal TS are triggered by? Rising air due to falling pressure at air mass
When flying through a cold front in the summer the weather? Towering cloud
with showery precipitation.
What is most likely to occur with maritime air moving into the north of Scotland?
Snow showers.
Warm occulusion? Cold air is forcing warm air to rise over colder air.
Land breeze blow from? Land to sea at night, more noticeable in slack pressure
Thermal low forming over the British Isles in summer? Usually with high variable
winds, with reference to anticyclone affecting UK.
Hong kong with ITCZ? North of it in July.
The Bora? Gusts of up to 100kts, CU/CB over the coastline.
Behind cold front? Wind may back slowly, increase with height.
Jet stream? Large difference in mean temp, in horizontal.
Geostrophic Force? Acts at right angles to the wind and affects direction but not
Pressure is constant all over upper wind charts.
Weather associated with UK? In central area, light variable or calm.
Thermal lows over British Isles in summer? Shallow light variable light winds.
Cold anticyclones? Central:Cold, Outer:Light, Outer:Strong.
Advection fog? Air cooler by at least 10C, moving over moist surface.
ELR=2.9C? Conditionally unstable.
Extensive sratiform cloud associated with? - Warm front.
During the period Dec-April, an airfield in Zimbabwe may be affected by?
Occasional TS on the ITCZ.
A sea breeze blows from sea to land by day due to an? increase in pressure at
upper levels over the land.
The cloud sequence associated with the passage of a cold front is ST/SC ahead of
the front (warm sector) and? CU, CB, NS at the front.
In January mean high-pressure area usually present over? The Azores, Alectians,
South Pacific.
In a high relative humidity condition? Low evaporation rate, reduced latent heat
absorption, small wet/dry bulb difference.
AS and NS are examples of cloud formed by? Air Mass ascending
Subsidence in an anticyclone produces? dry air and an inversion.
Weather conditions usually associated with a polar low near the British Isles are?
CU, rain or snow showers, CB likely.
3 main class of air masses based on their source region are? Polar, Tropical,
If cold air takes the place of warm air the boundary between them is called? A
cold front.
Cloud which produce most rain/snow? NS.
Precipitation in the form of snow will not reach the surface unless the surface temp
is? Less that 4C
Intensity of precipitation is described as either? Light, Moderate, Heavy.
Solid precipitation, transparent/translucent in colour, formed by FZ raindrops or FZ
of melted snow and bounces off hard surfaces is description of? Ice Pellets.
Thermal Turbulence? Above land in daytime, generally associated with convective
Most severe turbulence will be encountered in mountain waves? In roll cloud.
Building stage of thunderstorm lasts for approximately? -20mins.
An important characteristic of windshear is that? It is an atmospheric condition
that may be associated with a low level temperature inversion, a jes stream or a
frontal zone.
Which type of thunderstorms can be the most difficult to avoid? Frontal TS.
The icing in cloud which forms over hills is likely to be more severe than in the
same type of cloud over level terrain because? Enforced ascent of air releases
more water, which is retained in the cloud by the increase upward components.
The alternative name for air mass thunderstorms is? Heat Thunderstorms.
If you cannot avoid penetrating a thunderstorm, which is the best area to
penetrate? The sides.
One of the most severe consequences of icing on the wings of an aircraft is? the
stalling speed increases substantially
The most common and severe hazards of a thunderstorm to aircraft in flight are?
Hail, turbulence, icing, lightning..
METARS issued? Every 30mins.
When flying from high to low contour values, which of the following is incorrect?
The true height of the aircraft will be falling.
Which of the following will not be found in a SIGMET? MIFG
SIGMET warnings normally have a validity period of? 4hrs.
At an airport various types of visibility are reported. One of these is determined by
the observer by means of place marks at known distances? Meteorological
Cloud base reported in a METAR? Steps of 100ft up to 10,000ft and in steps of
1000ft above 10,000ft.
Anticyclone has close isobars and? Descending air.
Subsidence in anticyclone produces? Isothermal layer, dry and stable air.
Thermal lows forming over large areas of inland water can give? Showers of snow
or rain by day or night.
Which of the following cloud types is least likely to produce precipitation? CI.
Hail occurs when? Supercooled water droplets freeze.
Conditions favorable for the development of radiation fog FG are? High relative
humidity, little or no cloud, little wind (2-8kts or calm).
The following clouds could give severe icing? NS, ACCAST, CU.
Steaming fog occurs? when evaporation takes place from a warm surface into
colder air.
The type of cloud from which continuous moderate or heavy rain is likely to fall is?
The degree of turbulence to be expected from SC cloud is? Moderate in the
The air masses involved in the development of a frontal depression affecting NEW
Europe are usually? Polar Maritime and Tropical maritime.
With a short sea track, the weather well inland over UK due to polar continental air
in winter is likely to be? - Cold, clear, dry.
The expected sequence of clouds associated with the approach of a warm front is?
cirrus, cirrostratus, altostratus, nimbostratus and fractostratus.
How does the level of the tropopause vary with latitude in the NH? it decreases as
you travel from S to N.
In the ISA the temperature is isothermal? From 36,090ft to 65,617ft.
When the subscale is set to QNH of an airfield the pressure altimeter indicates?
elevation while landing.
Within the lower levels of the earths atmosphere the gas content is taken to be?
just over one fifth oxygen.
A barograph displays? Surface pressure.
Carbon dioxide within the atmosphere? Absorbs long wave terrestrial radiation.
Before landing, an altimeter set to QFE indicates? in standard atmosphere, the
height of the aircraft above the official airport elevation.
With regard to stability of the air one of the following is not true? Stable air when
forced to move vertically remains at the new level, even after the lifting force has
been removed.
The radiation of the sun heats? The surface of the earth, which heats the air in
the troposphere.
The most likely location for low pressure in January is? Iceland/Greenland.
On arrival at Delhi in august the most likely weather conditions are? Heavy rain
from thunderstorms under the influence of the SW monsoon.
When water evaporates into unsaturated air? Heat is absorbed.
A cumulus cloud, base 2000ft, has a temp of +8C. The dewpoint temp at the
surface is approx? - +9C.
The effect of curved isobars on geostrophic wind speed correction is? Less at
high latitudes.
Maximum daily temperature experienced will normally occur at? 14:30 LMT
solar radiation is decreasing and terrestrial radiation is at maximum.
Which of following statements is true? Radiation fog cannot form over the sea.
Annex A. Cloud with a base in square C6 is? CB.
Annex A. Cloud with a base in square I6 is? NS.
Annex A. Conditions an aircraft in F5 is most likely to be flying in are? VMC on
Annex B. August Chart, position X, diurnal change in surface wind? Veering and
increasing by day from the wind at night.
Annex C. North east trade winds are found in? Zone D with the SE trades in zone
Annex C. High pressure is found in zones? A and C.