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Past simple verb to be

En presente el verbo be tiene tres formas : am, is are, pero en pasado tiene solamente dos was y were,
veamos como se usan.
Affirmative

Present Past

I am Yo estoy, yo soy I was Yo era , yo estaba


He is __________________ He was
____________________________________
She is She was
It is It was
We are We were
You are T eras.T estabas You were
Ustedes eran. Ustedes estaban
They are They were

Negative
I am not= Im not I was not= I wasnt
He is not=He isnt He was not= He wasnt
She is not= She isnt She was not= She wasnt
It ________________ _______________________
__________________ _______________________
___________________ _______________________
__________________ ________________________
___________________ ________________________

Interrogative
En el interrogativo damos vuelta el afirmativo
Yes, he/she/it was.

_________________
Was he/she/it . . . ? Were they. . .?

No, he/she/it wasnt


____________________

Yes, I was.
Were you . . .?
_____________________
No, I wasnt. Were you . . .?

_________________
Los adverbios o frases adverbiales del pasado simple son: last (pasada) e.g. last week,last weekend,last
month,last year.
yesterday (ayer)
ago (atrs) e. g. a week ago, two months ago.

Verbo Haber

Present (Hay) Past (Haba)


There is There was

Singular There is not= There isnt There was not=There wasnt

Is there...? Yes, there is Was there...? Yes, there was


No. there isnt No, there wasnt.

Plural There are _____________________

There are not= there arent _____________________

Were there? Yes, there were ____________________________


No, there werent

Past simple

AffiramtivePara formar una oracin en afirmativo se necesita de la persona(I,You,He,She.....) + el verbo


en pasado. Cmo forammos el verbo en pasado? Existen dos tipos de verbos regulares e rregulares.

Verbos regulares: agregamos ed open____opened

Look si el verbo es monoslabo y termina en consonante +vocal+consonante se


duplica la consonante y luego se agrega ed stop_____stopped

si termina en e slo agremamos d like___liked

si termina en consonate +y se quita la y y se agrega ied copy____copied

Look enjoy___enjoyed
porque termina en vocal +y

Regular verbs. Spelling


1) consonant after short, stressed vowel at the end of the
word double the consonant.
stop stopped swap swapped
If the consonant is not stressed, we do not double it:
benefit - benefited (Here we stress the first 'e', not the 'i'.) In British English we double one
-l at the end of the word:
travel travelled

2) one -e at the end of the word Add only -d. love loved save saved

3) verbs ending in 'y' preceded by a vowel (a, e, i, o, u): Add -ed. Example: I
play - he played
4) verbs ending in 'y' preceded by a consonant: Change 'y' to 'i' Then add -ed.

Example:
I hurry - he hurried

Pronunciation of the ending -ed in the Simple Past


In the Simple Past we add -ed to regular verbs. Be careful pronuncing the verbs:

1) verbs ending in -ed preceded by a voiceless consonant [ p, k, f, , , s, ]


-> speak [t].
The -e is silent. Example: I stop - I stopped [st pt]

2) verbs ending in -ed preceded by a voiced consonant [ b, g, v, , , z, , l, m, n] or a


vowel
-> speak [d].

The -e is silent. Example: I clean - I cleaned [kli:nd]

3) verbs ending in -ed preceded by [t] or [d]


-> speak [d].

The -e changes to []. Example: I visit - I visited [vztd]

Negative
Para formar el negativo se requiere de un auxiliar: did not=didnt + el verbo en
infinitivo (sin ed, d ni ied primera lista)

I didnt listen to music. I didnt send a text message

Look el verbo be en pasado(was o were) no requieren del didnt sino que poseen una
forma negativa propia
(wasnt, werent)
I wasnt late. We werent worry.

Interrogative
Para formar el interrogativo se necesita del auxiliar DID, siendo el orden de la pregunta:

(Question word) + did + sujeto+ verbo en infinitivo(sin ed, d ni ied primera lista)

Did you play football? Did she go to the supermarket?

Yes, I did No, she didnt

El verbo be (was, were) no requiere del auxiliar , tiene forma interrogativa propia Was she late? Yes,
she was

Were they tired? No,


they werent
Present simple form

Affirmative form

I e.g. I play the guitar(Yo toco la guitarra)

You + verb(e.g. play) You play the guitar(T tocas la


guitarra)

They They play the guitar(Ellos/as tocan la


guitarra)

He +verbs (e.g. plays) e.g. He plays the guitar.(El toca la guitarra)

She + verb es (si elverbo termina

It en s,ss,ch,sh,x,o) She goes to school.(Ella va a la escuela)

+ ies ( si el verbo termina en

consonate + y se cambie y por ies fly It flies.(Vuela)

+ has She has a flat.

Negative el verbo no se modifica

I/You/We/They dont play

He/She/It doesnt play

Interrogative

Question Word + Auxiliar + subject +


verb(sin modoficar)?

Numbers

0 oh/zero

1 one 11 eleven

2 two 12 twelve 20 twenty

3 three 13 thirteen
4 four 14 fourteen

5 five 15 fifteen

6 six 16 sixteen

7 seven 17 seventeen

8 eight 18 eighteen

9 nine 19 nineteen

The Alphabet
A B C D E F
G

ei bi ci di i ef
dzi

H I J K L M
N

eich ai dzei kei el em


en

O P Q R S T
U

ou pi kiu a: es ti
iu

V W X Y Z

vi dabliu ex uai zed

Can= poder
Affirmative form Negative form

I can = I cant
You can=
He
She
It
We
You
They

Interrogative form

Can you dance? Can she dance? Can


they dance?

Can you dance?

Connectors

And= Y ,conecta acciones positivas Ican run, swim and sing.

Or = Ni, conecta acciones negativas I cant ride a horse or a motorbike.

But= Pero, conecta acciones positivas con negativas I can run but I cant
ride a horse
Imperatives. Cuando queremos dar una orden podemos hacerlo de dos
maneras:
1) si tenemos confianza con la persona utilizamos directamente el verbo.
e.g. Go to Menu. ( And a Men).
Keep
the phone still.
Now______Send

Dont move.

2) si queremos expresarnos d euna manera formal utilizamos Can you go to


Menu? Go to Menu , please.
Please, dont move.
Turn these requests(pedidos) into commands(rdenes)
1 Can you please keep the camera still?
2 Can you please phone your parents?
3 Please dont use the mobile phones in class.
4 Can you please give me the number?
5 Please dont tell people my phone number.

Definite article
THE=

Undefinite article

A=

AN=
Do(no se traduce) you play the guitar? Do they play
the guitar?

(T tocas la guitarra) (ellos/as tocan la guitarra)

Yes, I do No, I dont Yes, they do No,


they dont

Does(no se traduce) he play the guitar? Does she


play the guitar?

(l toca la guitarra)

Yes, he does No, he doesnt Yes, she does


No, she doesnt

Does it play the guitar?

Yes, it does No, it doesnt

Prepositions of time

We use at for specific times at four oclock at noon


at midnight at midday

at night at the weekend

We use in for periods of time during the day (except night), months and years

in the morning in the afternoon in the evening in July in 1983

We use on for days and dates

on Mondays/Tuesday on 27 July
We use from.... to for the start to the end of a period of time.

from half past three to quarter past four

Adverbs of frequency

always usually often sometimes never

Position in the sentence Subject + adverb+verb Subject+verb to be (am,is are)+ adverb

I always get up early I am always at school in the


morning
Present continuous or present simple?

We use the present continuous to talk about what is happening now, at the
moment.

Remember you from the present continuous with the verb to be (am, is,are) and
the ing form of the verb which is called the present participle of the verb.

Affirmative

I am/Im playing. You/We/They are (re) playing


He/she/It is (`s)playing.

Yo estoy jugando T ests jugando. Nosotros estamos jugando

Ellos estn jugando

Interrogative

We change the position of the verb to be

Are you/we/they playing? Yes, I am. Yes, we are. Yes, they are

No, Im not. No,we arent. No, they arent

OJO cuando se responde una pregunta en affirmativo NUNCA se abrevia el am,is or


are

Yes, Im. Yes, were Yes,theyre

Se puede preguntar con Am I playing? Yes, you are pero es muy poco probable
que aparezca en un No, you arent.
ejercicio.

Negative

We write the verb to be in negative

I am not playing=Im not playing. We/They are not playing= We/They arent
playing.

He/She/IT is not playing= He/She/It isnt playing.

Spelling.

Si el verbo termina en e se quita la e y luego se agrega ing make


making
Si el verbo es monoslabo y termina en consosnate+vocal+consonate se duplica la
consonante run runnnig

We use the present simple to talk about states, routines, timetables, regular
actions and jobs.

I have a brother. She lives in York los states son verbos que describen una accin
que persura por un largo tiempo,por ejemplo
love,like,enjoy,live,have.

I get up at 7 am. She goes to work at 8 am. las routines describe lo que se
hace a una determinada hora, everyday, in
the morning/afternoon/evening, at midday/midnight

I have maths from 9.15 to 10. He has English before PE los timetables in
dican a que hora se realizan las
acciones.

I usually studies geography. She never cooks the lunch. Las regular actions son
las descrpitas por los
adverbios de frecuencia(always,usually,often,sometimes,never)

Present simple form Past simple from

Affirmative form Affirmative form

I I +verb ed (si el
verbo termina en e solo

You + verb(e.g. play) You


agregamos d, e.g. arrived)

They They + duplicamos la


consonante

e.g. I play the guitar(Yo toco la guitarra) He

You play the guitar(T tocas la guitarra) She

They play the guitar(Ellos/as tocan la guitarra) It

He +verbs (e.g. plays)

She + verb es (si elverbo termina

It en s,ss,ch,sh,x,o)

+ ies ( si el verbo termina en

consonate + y se cambie y por ies

+ has

e.g.He plays the guitar.(El toca la guitarra)

She goes to school.(Ella va a la escuela)

It flies.(Vuela)

She has a flat


Negative

I/You/We/They dont play I /You/We/They didnt play

He/She/It doesnt play He/She/It didnt play

Interrogative Interrogative

Auxiliar + subject+ verb(en infinitivo)? Auxiliar + subject+ verb?

Do(no se traduce) you play the guitar? Did(no se traduce)


you play the guitar?

(T tocas la guitarra) (T tocaste, tocabas la


guitarra)

Yes, I do No, I dont Yes, I did. No, I


didnt

Do they play the guitar? Did they play the


guitar?

(ellos/as tocan la guitarra) (ellos/as tocaron,tocaban la


guitarra)

Yes, they do No, they dont Yes, they did


No, they didnt

Does(no se traduce) he play the guitar? Did(no se traduce)


he play the guitar?

(l toca la guitarra) (el toc, tocaba la guitarra)

Yes, he does No, he doesnt Yes, she did


No, she didnt

Does she play the guitar? Did he play the


guitar?

Yes, she does No, she doesnt Yes, he did. No, he


didnt

Does it play the guitar? Did it play the guitar?

Yes, it does No, it doesnt Yes, it did No, it


didnt

Possessive adjective (+noun) Possessive pronoun

my mine

your yours

his his

her hers

its -

our ours

your yours

their theirs
Whos Quien es Whose de quin/de quienes

Whose is this pencilcase? or Whose pencilcase is this?

Its my pencilcase. Its mine Its her pencilcase. Its hers. Its Anitas.

Whose trainers are these? or Whose are these trainers?

They are his trainers/his/Carls.

Cmo se dice que un objeto o persona pertenece a alguien?

Existen tres posibilidades:

1. utilizando un possessive adjective e.g. This is my bag. Those are


her silver earrings.

Esta es mi bolsa. Aquellos son


tus aros de plata.

2. utilizando un possessive pronoun e. g. This is mine. Those are hers.

Esto es mo. Aquellos son suyos.

Un error muy frecuente que cometen los alumnos es elegir el possessive adjective
or possessive promoun en funcin del objeto. e.g. Anita has a pair of jeans.
This pair of jeans are theirs.

This pair of jeans are hers.


(los jeans le pertenecen a
una chica)

3.utilizando el possessive case

These are Steves sunglasses. This is Amy and Kierans cottage. These are
my friends phone numbers.

Present Continuous

You from the present continuous with the verb to be (am, is,are) and the ing
form of the verb

Affirmative

I am/Im playing. You/We/They are (re) playing


He/she/It is (`s)playing.

Yo estoy jugando T ests jugando. Nosotros estamos jugando

Ellos estn jugando

Interrogative

We change the position of the verb to be

Are you/we/they playing? Yes, I am. Yes, we are. Yes, they are
No, Im not. No,we arent. No, they arent

OJO cuando se responde una pregunta en affirmativo NUNCA se abrevia el am,is or


are

Yes, Im. Yes, were Yes,theyre

Negative

We write the verb to be in negative

I am not playing=Im not playing. We/They are not playing= We/They arent
playing.

He/She/IT is not playing= He/She/It isnt playing.

Spelling.

Si el verbo termina en e se quita la e y luego se agrega ing make


making

Si el verbo es monoslabo y termina en consosnate+vocal+consonate se duplica la


consonante run runnnig

Present simple Past simple


Affirmative form Affirmative form
I I
You + verb(e.g. play) You
They They + verb ed (si el verbo
termina en e solo
e.g. I play the guitar(Yo toco la guitarra) He agregamos
d, e.g. arrived)
You play the guitar(T tocas la guitarra) She
They play the guitar(Ellos/as tocan la guitarra) It
He I played the guitar. (Yo toque
o tocaba la guitarra
She +verbs(e.g. plays) You played the guitar( T
tocaste,t tocabas...)
It para fly es flies They played the
guitar(Ellos/as tocaron,tocaban..
e.g.He plays the guitar.(El toca la guitarra) He played the guitar(El toc,
l tocaba...)
She plays the guitar.(Ella toca la guitarra) She played the guitar(Ella
toc,ella tocaba...)
It plays the guitar.(Toca la guitarra) It played the guitar(Toc,
tocaba...)
Questions Questions
Auxiliar + subject+ verb? Auxiliar + subject+ verb?
Do(no se traduce) you play the guitar? Did(no se traduce) you play
the guitar?
(T tocas la guitarra) (T tocaste, tocabas la
guitarra)
Yes, I do No, I dont Yes, I did. No, I
didnt

Do they play the guitar? Did they play the


guitar?
(ellos/as tocan la guitarra) (ellos/as tocaron,tocaban la
guitarra)
Yes, they do No, they dont Yes, they did No,
they didnt

Does(no se traduce) he play the guitar? Did(no se traduce) he play


the guitar?
(l toca la guitarra) (el toc, tocaba la guitarra)
Yes, he does No, he doesnt Yes, she did No, she
didnt

Does she play the guitar? Did he play the guitar?


Yes, she does No, she doesnt Yes, he did. No, he
didnt

Does it play the guitar? Did it play the guitar?


Yes, it does No, it doesnt Yes, it did No, it
didnt
Personal Promouns: Questions Words
I=yo What= Qu,
cual/cuales
You=t, Where= Dnde
He=l When= Cuando
She=ella How=Cmo
It= no se traduce, se usa para cosas en singular Why= Por qu se
responde
We=nosotros/as con Because
You= ustedes Who=Quin/Quienes
They=ellos/as Whose= De quin
Present Simple :Verb to be
Affirmative form:
I am=Im= Yo soy, yo estoy
He is= Hes= El es, l est
She is=Shes = Ella es, ella est
It is=Its= es, est(It is a harmonica, It is sunny)
You are= T eres, t ests. Ustedes son/Ustedes estn
They are= Ellos/as son, ellos/as estn.
Questions
Is he from Manchester? Yes, he is No, he isnt
Is she from Manchester? Yes, she is No, she isnt

Is it from Manchester? Yes, it is No, it isnt


Are they from Manchester? Yes, they are No, they arent
Are you from Manchester? Yes, I am No, Im not.
Present continuos
We form the present continuous with the verb (to be= am, is, are) and add ing to the base
form of the verb.

Affirmative form:
I am playing= Yo estoy jugando.
He is playing= El est jugando
She is playing= Ella est jugando
It is playing= Ests jugando
You are playing= T ests jugando. Ustedes estn jugando
They are playing= Ellos/as estn jugando
Questions
Is he playing? Yes, he is No, he isnt
Is she playing? Yes, she is No, she isnt
Is it playing? Yes, it is No, it isnt
Are they playing? Yes, they are No, they arent
Are you playing? Yes, I am No, Im not.
Verb have got
Affirmative form
I have got=Ive got =Yo tengo He has got=Hes got= El tiene
You have got=Youve got= T tienes She has got=Shes got= Ella
tiene
They have got= Theyve got= Ellos/as tienen It has got=Its got= Tiene

Questions
Have you got...? Has he got....?
Yes, I have No, I havent Yes, he has No, he
hasnt

Have they got...? Has she got....?


Yes, they have No, they havent Yes, she has
No, she hasnt

Has it got....?
Yes, it has
No, it hasnt
Can

Can you...? Yes, I can Can you...? Yes, I can

No, I can`t. No, I can`t.

Can she...? Yes, she can. Can she...? Yes, she can.

No, she cant No, she cant

Can she...? Yes, she can. Can she...? Yes, she can.

No, she cant No, she cant

Verbo Haber

Present (Hay) Past (Haba)

There is There was

Singular There is not= There isnt There was not=There wasnt

Is there...? Yes, there is Was there...? Yes, there was

No. there isnt No, there wasnt.


Plural There are There were

There are not= there arent There were not= There werent

Are there...? Yes, there are Were there? Yes, there were
No,
there werent

No, there arent

There is a tomato. There are some tomatoes.


Hay un tomate. Hay algunos tomates.

There is some fish


Hay algo de pescado.

There is/There are

Recuerdas que over here or here significa aqu y over there or


there significa all ? Bueno la palabra there tiene otro uso:

There is= Theres= hay ,cuando nos referimos a cosas en singular o incontables.

There is a cinema. There is sugar.

There is some sugar. hay algo de


azucar

There is a lot of sugar.

There are= hay cuando nos referimos a plural.

There are cinemas.

There are some cinemas. Hay algunos cines

There are a lot of cinemas.


La forma negativa es:

There isnt a cinema There isnt any sugar. no hay nada


de azucar

There arent any cinemas. No hay ningn cine

La forma interrogativa.

Is there a cinema? Is there any sugar? hay algo de


azucar?

Are there any cinemas? Hay algunos cines?

Recuerda el some significa: algo de , algunos o algunas


y se usa en affirmative y en preguntas solamente cuando pedimos u
ofrecemos Can I have some garlic? Puedo tomar algo de ajo? Would youi like some
garlic?

any significa algo de , algunos/as , nada de , ninguno/a


, o , y se usa en negativos y preguntas

Personal Pronouns Object Pronouns

I me
You you
He him
She her
It it
We us
You you
They them

Despus de un verbo o una preposicin se deben escribir los object


pronouns.
She gave me a present. She gave I a present.
They told we about the city tour. They told us about the
city tour.

verb + indirect/direct object

Remember
Verb + person (object pronoun) + thing.

e.g. Ill give you a map. / Ill give Laura a map.

Verb + thing + for/to + person (object pronoun).

e.g. Ill give a map to you. / I bought the present for Sally.
Tenses
Present simple.
Form AFF. For he,she,it we add s,es(ch,sh,x,o),ies(consonant +y), has
NEG. I,you, we ,they dont + verb he,she,it doesnt+verb( sin
modificar)
INT. DO(I,you,we,they) or Does(he,she,it) + sujeto + verb(sin
modoficar?
USES: Routine/Habits (always, usually,often,sometimes,hardly ever, never,
everyday/week/month/year, once/twice/three times a week/month, in the
morning/afternoon/evening at night, at noon, at the weekend)
States (have, like, hate, enjoy,think,want)

Present continuous
Form AFF. Subject+am/is/are +verb(ing)
NEG. Subject+am not/is not/are not +verb(ing)
INT. am/is/are +Subject+ verb(ing)?
USES: now at the moment Im writing at the moment.
Temporary situations (this month, this, weekend, this year, for
this month,tomorrow) My father is working in Australia this year.
Fixed arrangenment(son arreglos agendados por ej con
expresiones como this afternoon, tonight, today, this summer, after
lunch) Are you meeting Jane after work?
Spelling write writing ojo see seeing be being get getting play
playing

Past Simple
Form AFF. Was/were ed, 2nd list
NEG. was not/were not didn`t +verb(sin modoficar)
INT. DID+ sujeto + verb(sin modoficar?
USES: Acciones que estn terminadas (last week, last night,
yesterday, two years ago, when I was five, in 1998,on 2 nd
September)
Una serie de eventos I got up, had breakfast and went to
school
Past continuous
Form AFF. Subject+ was/were +verb(ing)
NEG. Subject+ was/were +verb(ing)
INT. Was/Were +Subject+ verb(ing)?
USES: Para una accin larga interrumpida por una en past simple.
She was waiting for the next wave
when the shark bit off her arm.
Para una accin que estaba pasando a un tiempo especfico
en el pasado.
She was working yesterday at two oclock. Si dijiese
solamente yesterday usaramos past simple.
Algunos conectores que usamos en oraciones en pasado simple y pasado
continuo son when(seguido de past simple) while(significa mientras y va
seguido de past continuous) My dad was watching TV while my mum was
doing the dishes.

Going to
Form AFF. Subject+am/is/are + going to verb (sin modificar)
NEG. Subject+am not/is not/are not + going to verb(sin modificar)
INT. am/is/are +Subject+ going to verb(sin modificar)?
USES: Plans (Next weekend, next summer, expresiones como I know)
Im going to visit my cousin next summer. A: This t-shirt is blue. B:
Im going to wash it
Predictions based on evidence. Look at the boy! Hes going
to fall off the bike.

Esta es la evidencia

Will
Form AFF. Subject+ will+ verb (sin modificar)
NEG. Subject+ will not or wont verb(sin modificar)
INT. Will +Subject+ verb(sin modificar)?
USES: Predictions with expressions with Maybe/ Perhaps(Quizs), I
think,I hope, Im sure, I expect,I promise.
I think I will visit my cousin next week. (No importa que est next
week, va will porque est I think, si no estuviese I think va Im going to
visit)
Decisiones espontnea A:Im hungry. B:Ill make you a
sndwich.
Se puede usar la palabra shall para inviter a alguien a hacer algo. Ej Shall w
ego to the party? Vamos a la fiesta?

Present perfect
Form AFF. Subject+have/has + verb (en participio pasado, ed o 3 rd list)
NEG. Subject+have/has not + verb (en participio pasado, ed o 3 rd list)
INT. Have/has +Subject+ verb (en participio pasado, ed o 3 rd list)
USES: Se usas para acciones que ya pasaron pero que no se dice
cuando. I have broken my arm. Si dijiese cuando uso past simple. I broke
my arm yesterday. Si pude decir this morning/year pero no last I have
broken my arm this mornig.
Acciones que empezaron en el pasado y todava
continan. I have lived in Peyrano all my life.
Con palabras como already(ya) se usa en afirmativo, just(recin) se
usa en afirmativo,
yet(an ,todava) se usa en negativo y pregunta, ever(alguna vez) se usa en
pregunta y con oraciones en superlativo,(never) en oraciones afirmativas.
Con expresiones como for y since Ive studied English for six years. Ojo si
la accin est terminada va past simple aunquew est el for I lived in New
for a year. Now I live in Chicago.
.
Past perfect
Form AFF. Subject+ had + verb (en participio pasado, ed o 3 rd list)
NEG. Subject+had not+ verb (en participio pasado, ed o 3 rd list)
INT. Had+Subject+ verb (en participio pasado, ed o 3 rd list)
USES: Se eusa combinado con el past simple para indicar la accin
que pas primero.
After I had finished work I went to party. Before I went to the
party I finished my work. By the time I finished my work I went to
the party
En un ejercicio de tiempo de verbo conviene leerlo y ponerle en que tiempo
lo vas a completar y luego completar todas las oraciones pertenecientes al
mismo tiempo de una sola vez.

Passive voice

Passive voice

Remember, you form the passive voice with

the verb to be(in the same time as active voice) + the past participle of the
main verb

e.g. I make a cake every weekend. (Active Voice, present simple)

A cake is made (by me) every weekend (Passive voice, is present


simple of be, made past participle
of make)

by me no ira porque no es un sustantivo propio.

Marie Curie invented the radium.(Active voice) The radium was


invented by Marie curie.(Ac va porque es un sustantivo propio)

Reported speech

Turn into reported speech

Para hacer el reported speech necesitamos usamos 3 reporting verbs: ask-


tell-say

Siempre los vamos a utilizar en past simple o sea asked, told, said. Ahora
bien , cuando usamos cada uno?

Para reportear comannds usamos told, para reportear requests y preguntas


usamos ask y para reportear oraciones usamos told o said.

Lo que hay que tener en cuenta sobre los reporting verbs es lo siguiente:

Told va seguido siempre de un pronombre objetivo o un sustantivo propio


She told me(that)/She told the children(that).
Said puede ir o no acompaado de un pronombre objetivo o sustantivo
propio en cuyo caso se separa con to. She said(that) She said to
me(that).

Asked puede o no estar seguida de pronombre o sustantivo propio. She


asked me to/She asked..

First conditional : for probable situations .


If +present simple, future simple
If I study I will pass the exam. (si estudio pasar el exmen)
or
I will pass the exam if I study (Pasar el exmen si estudio)

Second conditional : for imaginary situations.


If +past simple(en el condicional se traduce estudiara,caminara) would
+infinitive

If I studied I would pass the exam. (Si estudiara pasara el exmen)


or
I would pass the exam if I studied (Pasara el exmen si estudiara)

Be careful If I were rich I would buy a house. ( Si yo fuera rica comprara


una casa)

el verbo be se escribe siempre como were en condicional


Present perfect simple

We make the present perfect tense with have/has + past participle (for
regular verb add ed , for irregular verbs look at the third list)

Usamos for para expresar la duracin de una accin, y since para indicar
cundo comenz la accin.
- I've worked here for twelve months (for twenty years, etc).
He trabajado aqu durante doce meses (durante veinte aos, etc)
- I've worked here since January (since 1990, since Christmas, etc).
He trabajado aqu desde Enero (desde 1990, desde Navidad, etc)
A menudo el presente perfecto se utiliza con los adverbios just (justo), yet
(ya, an), still (todava), already (ya), ever (alguna vez), never (nunca),
recently (recientemente), lately (ltimamente), so far (hasta aqu), up to
now (hasta ahora). Observa algunos ejemplos:
Just: indica que la accin se ha realizado recientemente y generalmente va
en afirmativo,despus de have or has
They 've just signed an important contract.
Ellos acaban de firmar un importante contrato.
Already We've already had our breakfast.

Yet

We usually put it at the end of a sentence en negativos y preguntas. Sheila


hasn't received an answer yet. Sheila no ha recibido respuesta an.

- Has the post arrived yet? Ha la correspondecia arrivado ya?


Ever

In questions about experiences


Have you ever used this type of machine?
Has utilizado alguna vez este tipo de mquina?
to emphasise the superlative.
Its the worst film Ive ever seen. Es la peor pelcula que he visto

Never
I have never visited Argentina. Nunca he estado en Argentina

Comparatives and superlatives

En castellano los comparative y superlatives no existen.


Los comparatives se usan en Ingls cuando compara dos personas o dos
cosas, es muy comn que aparezca la palabra than (que). Para formarlos
tengo que tener en cuenta la cantidad de slabas.

Monoslabos: -agrego er small late

- si termina en consonante+vocal+consonante duplico


consonante big hot
Adjetivos que terminan en y: quito la y y agrego ier noisy silly

Adjetivos de dos o ms slabas: agrego more expensive


exciting

Look! excepciones clever cleverer


simple simpler
e. g. Carnival in Rio is bigger than carnival en Notting hill.
Rome is more famous than Rosario.
Which is more expensive Cordoba or Mar del Plata?
Who is noisier Jack or Tomek?

Los superlatives se usan cuando se compara una persona o cosa con un


grupo. Generalmente de les antepone el the

Monoslabos: -agrego est small late

- si termina en consonante+vocal+consonante duplico


consonante big hot

Adjetivos que terminan en y: quito la y y agrego iest noisy


silly

Adjetivos de dos o ms slabas: agrego most expensive


exciting

Look! excepciones clever cleverest simple


simplest

e. g. Who is the smallest pupil in the classroom?


Rio is the most popular Carnival in the world.
Como notars la traduccin del comparative y superlative es la misma , por
eso es que no nos podemos dar cuenta cual va solo traduciendo. Spring is
hotter than autumn. Summer is the hottest.
Existen algunas formas irregulares que debers estudiar

Comparative Superlative
good better best
bad worse worst

-el opuesto de more es less Notting Hill is less expensive than Rio.
-el opuesto de less es least They stayed in the least expensive hotel.