r 
of the Subject. A small bungalow in a grove of oak factors remain the same, and calculating the relative value of received
mtside of Riverhead, Long Island, with a line of poles current for various directions of signal wave, we can determine the
d r y road, carrying two copper wires, and ending by a directive properties of the antenna. The result i s best shown by
e miles southwest o f Riverhead,this in brief describes the means of a polar directive curve. For each assumed direction for
Jst tar of the Radio Corporation of America, where the which the received current has been calculated, a radius i.Q h**f,
resages frmn England, France, Germany and Norway are with length proportional to the received current. The curve drawn
izentangled, amplified, converted into current of telephonic through the ends of these radii i s known as the directive curve for the
and automatically relayed over telephone circuits to the antenna. Directive curves are given (Figs.% to 41) which bring
9&e in New York, where operators take the messages by out the eflects of antenna length, relative to the wave length, velocity
,matic recorders mark the dots and dashes on tape. of propagation, and line &nuation. The directive curv(8 are
Pent paper deals with the two copper wires on the line of for the most part drawn with the maximum radius taken as unit
ley constitute the wave antenna which has not only marked length, since this makes comparisons of directive curves easier. I n
advance in the reduction of interference and static, but general, it i s found that moderate line losses are not appreciably
its aperiodic nature and efectiveness as a n energy col detrimental to the directive properties of the antennas, while the fact
made possible the sumultaneous reception of a large that velocities obtainable with unloaded lines are materially below
messages by one antenna, and the automatic relaying of that of light, results in an actual improvement in directive properties
?sover land wires. in most cases. A s a rule the longer the antenna the sharper its
of two wires i s not a n essential feature of the wave antenna directive curve. While it i s possible to obtain fair directive prop
ifizibility in the location o f the receiving station. I n its erties with antennas less than a half wave length long, this length i s
form the wave a t e n n a consists of a straight horizontal considered about the shortest that can be recommended.
(See Fig. 10) of the order of a wave length long, parallel B y a process of balancing, it i s possible to produce a blind spot
tion of propagation of the desired signal, with the receiving or direction of zero reception, at any angle more than 90 deg. f r o m
ded at the end farthest from the sending station and with the signal. One method of obtaining this result i s by p r o d d n g
west the sending station grounded through a resistance of reflections of certain phase and intensity at the end opposite to the
value to practically prevent rejlections. Under these receiver. Rejlections at the receiver end of the antenna, on the other
the desired signal waves produce comparatively feeble hand, do not alter the directive properties of the antenna.
the end nearest the sending station and strong currents at
 Experimental work thus far has given a qualitative check on the
end, while disturbances coming from the opposite direc theory and calculations of the wave antenna, and it is hoped that
feeble currents at the receiver end and strong currents at the further observations and measurements will shortly be made. EX
rt from the receiver (nearest the transmitting station) (See perimental data on wave front tilt, on which the action of the wave
This comparative immunity of the receiving set to dis antenna depends, i s especially meagre.
:oming from a direction opposite to the desired signal i s
&ions are permitted to occur at the end farthest from the Data on wave velocity and line losses on a n ezisting antenna can be
The growth of current in the direction of travel of the space obtained by means of a radio frequency oscillator and one or two
ids on the velocity of propagation of waves on the antenna hotwire milliammeters. Measurements taken by the writers show
:son with the velocity of the space waves, the received current much higher attenuation and lower velocities for ground return
rgcst i f the two are equal. If the characteristic wave circuits than for metallic circuits. Ground resistawe explains this
the antenna i s less than that of the space waves (or less effect. The mean depth of return currents at the longer radio wave
M y of light) increasing the length o f the antenna in lengths appear to be of the order of several hundred feet. The more
: received current u p to a certain point, after which
wires in multiple in the antenna, the lower the velocity and the higher
creme in antenna length reduces the received current. the rate of attenuation (See Fig. 66 and 68). .*v, .< 5 .
,for maximum signal depends on the velocity ratio and Reduction of atmospheric disturbances or static, has probably
a. The slower the antenna or the shorter the wave length received more attention from experimenters than any other one phase
!e shorter the length for maximum signal. ZI i s very of radio reception. O f the various lines of attack none has been
the case, however, that the best directive properties are fruitful than the employment of directive receiving systems. EVWY
Qh a n antenna longer than that which gives the strongest increase in directivity has resulted in an improvement in stray ratio.
The wave antenna carries the principle farther than any previous
ct of the space wave i s to produce in the wire a signal type. Conditions on the eastern coast of North America are esp+
electromotive force which affects the diflerent parts of the cially favorable for taking advantage of differences in direction, for the
rogressively as the space wave passes over the line. O n European stations are to the northeast while the predominating
Ih; receiued cwrent can be calculated in terms of the fre direction of static i s from the southwest.
3 ~
I %I:h e a lar.trom&ve f c ce, the directio.,
I Variozls p: x!i:: m;i:;ng y 4 J n v . p connection with the
ce waves and Ihe length and electrical constants of the wave antenna, including tts applacataon to sttor1 wave ueceyiiwb, *re
By assuming the direction to be changed while all other discussed toward the close of the paper.
wave antenna is a long horizontal antenna and to have been done in the pioneer days of radio by
reforebelongs to the class of antennas usually Marconi, Braun2, Seche?. A short historical sketch
med to as ground antennas, of which it is an
th . 1. Marconi, English Patent No. 12039,1896.
!sat the MidzPinter Convention of the A. I . E. E., 2. F. Braun, D.R.P.No. 115081,1898.
, N . Y., February 1417,1913. 3. E. Secher, Phy. Ztschr. 4,320,1903.
21 5
216 BEVERAGE, RICE AND KELLOW Transactions A. :I
of ground antenna work is given by Zehnde? who was long for maximum reception at the S. W. end. It
also an early worker in this field. be due to the fact that the velocity of the current il
More recently Kiebitzs has studied the transmission wire is considerably slower than the velocity of 1.
and reception using certain forms of ground antennae. and the currents from remote parta of the antenna
A discussion of the operation has been given by Burstyn. in phase behind currents from parts of the antenna
Further experiments and comments on the operation of the receiver. If so, condensers, distributed along
ground antennae are given by Kiebitz, Burstyn, Hans line, could be used to increase the velocity of c w
rath, Mosler. flowing in the wire and make the velocity the sam
In this country early work was done by Clark, Rogers the velocity of light. By inserting series conder
and Taylor. This work has been recorded in the classi in the line Beverage found that he could shift the
cal papers by Taylolg. tion of the points at which the signal maxima occi
Alexandersonss barrage receiver made use of ground and thus utilize longer antennas.
antennae and may be considered as the starting point
of our work. I
The capabilities of the wave antenna were discovered
through work done by Beverage in studying the proper
ties of long ground antennas, of theorder of a half wave
length or more long, in which he discovered that under
certain circumstances they showed marked unidirec
tional properties. One of his antennas consisted of a
No. 14 B & S rubber covered wire approximately six
miles long laid on the scrub oak and sand of Long
Island from Eastport to a point near Riverhead.
This northeasterly direction was chosen in order to
best receive the European stations. The antenna is
pictured diagramatically in Figure 1.
With the receiving set connected between the antenna
and ground at the Eastport end and with the Riverhead
end grounded, Beverage observed strong signals from FIG. %GROWTHO F SIGNAL CURRENTS IN LONQHORIZC
Europe, but when the conditions were reversed and the ANTENNA
receiver was inserted a t Riverhead the European signals
were very weak and the static and stations to the south At about this point in the work Mr. Alexandt
west were strong. This marked unidirectional prop called Rices attention to Beverages important
erty of the antenna was found only when the end covery. Rice and Kellogg, before learning of the re
opposite to the receiver was grounded. of Beverages work, had concluded on purely i
retical grounds that a long horizontal antenna, poi1
in the direction of a sending station, would const
a unidirectional receiver provided the receiver
placed at the end of the antenna remote from the :
ing station, while the end nearest the transmi
station was grounded through a noninductive rr
Beverage next investigated the effect of antenna ance, equal to the surge impedance of the antt
length by listening in series with the antenna a t different If open or dead grounded at the end nearest the t
points along the antenna. The receiver was mounted mitter, reflections would occur, and the aqtenna sl
in a Ford truck and trips were made back and forth show bidirectional properties. Rice explained
along the antenna, stopping to listen at approximately kheory of the operation to Mr. Alexanderson, sugge
every mile. By this process the observations given in that the necessary damping required to makc
Fig. 2 were obtained. antenna unidirectional was due to the resistance c
In commenting on these observations Beverages grcxi2 xwections cambiqed with thc big:, a++#
log reads      It is evident that the antenna is too tion to be expected in an antenna of No. 14 l3 &S ri
4. L. Zehnder, Jahrb. d. drahtl Tele., Vol. 5, 1911, p. 594.
covered wire lying on the sandy soil and bushes.
5. F. Kiebitz, Jahrb. d. drahtl Tele., Vol. 5, 1911, p. 349, Vol. A t Mr. Alexandersons request, Rice joined Bev
6, 1912 p. 1 and p. 554. Also Electrician, Vol LXII, p. 972 and a t Eastport, and a study was made of the propert
Vol. 6 8 , 1 9 1 2 ~868,936,978,1020.
. the rubber covered lines by means of an oscil
6. W. Burstyn, Jahrb. d . drahtl Tele., Vol. 6 , 1912, p. 10 and They also made listening tests which indicated
333.
7. Jahrb d. drahtl Telc., Vol. 6, 1912, p. 359 and p. 570. some resistance, in addition to the ground resist
8. A. Hoyt Taylor, I. R. E., Vol. 7, 1919, p. 337 and p. 559. was best for unidirectional effects.
9. E. F. W. Alexanderson, I. R. E., Vol. 7, 1919, p. 363. The use of the oscillator made it possible to detei

w
nm r y I c l x c v e
m*.IcII.c
w v
fwwr
llRcI
II
me
tam. a 4 ~
given by Mr. P. S. Carter and Mr. R. D. Greenman.
fwwr *aLOo. ,z 0 4
g a 4 0.
THE NEW RIVERHEAD
ANTENNA
3 ,vcv LCR OSC
31s BEVERAGE, RICE AND KELLOGG Transactions A; I. E. E.
6 shows a photograph of part of the line. A flexible velociw was high and attenuation low compared with
type of line construction was adopted which would the rubber covered wires, and that it had no serious
m k e it possible to try numerous experiments such as a reflection points. Figs. 7,8 and 9 show typical curves
series of loops or series of verticals connected through a obtained with the new antenna. A comparison with
transmission line, etc. Two cross arms were provided, similar curves, taken on the rubber covered groundwires,
one at a height of 18 feet and the other 30 feet aboye brings out the improved electrical properties.
ground. Theupper arm carried two No. 10 B &S copper The failure at the start to get good short circuit
wires and the lower arm four similar wires. All lines reflections when the far end of the line was grounded
were broken every ten poles, and down leads were caused us to suspect that the highfrequency resistance
of the grounds was much g&ater than we had estimated.
These grounds were made with lines of iron wire laid in
water. . The substitution of copper Wires removed this
wave (velocity of light) interference effects develop, strung on a pair of small steel wires a half inch apart in
the wave on the wire building up for a certain distance the case of the lower line and an inch and a half apart
and then decreasing in amplitude. The velocities on in the upper line. The rockers of the upper line are
actual antennas, however, are nearly enough equal to loaded with lead. The inertia of the rocking stick is
that of light so that for considerable lengths the wave analogous to line inductance, while the elasticity of the
on the wire builds up as it would on a light velocity line. connection between successive sticks is analogoustothe
A signal coming from the opposite direction to that capacity between the conductors of an electrical line.
which we have been considering, will build up a wave The velocity can be changed by varying the tension on
on the wire in a similar way, from a small value at B the wires. The dashpots a t the ends practically stop
reflections. The upper line provides a means of im
parting energy progressively to the different portions
Many mechanical analogies will occur to the reader, of the lower line, as a space wave imparts energy to the
nch as the building up of water waves in the direction antenna line. A slight coupling between the two lines
R the wind. An! interesting experiment is to run over is supplied by light rubber banus Atretched Loiu.J~ort
hin ice. If you run a t just the speed of wave propaga hooks on the upper sides of the lower sticks to corres
ion of the ice surface you can build up a larger wave. ponding hooks on the under side of the upper sticks.
f you run too slow or too fast little effect is produced. Waves are imparted to the upper line by moving one
?odemonstrate the manner of building up of waves on a end by hand for an impulse or by a motor driven rocker
rave antenna, Rice and Kellogg built the mechanical for continuous waves.
iodel shown in Figs. 12 to 17. The upper line repre Fig. 12 is a stationary view of the machine.
mts the space wave and the lower line the wave on the Fig. 13 shows a series of views taken with a moving
6re. Each line consists of a series of wooden sticks picture camera, when an impulse is imparted to the
220 BEVERAQE, RICE AND KELLOCfC3 Transactiom A. I. E. E.
upper h e . The growth of the wave on the lower line line (antenna) as the waves progress from left to right.
as it approaches the far end is readily seen. The wave That the upper line carries practically pure traveling
on the lower line appears Pass off the end leaving the waves (i. e. has no return waves) is shown by the nearly
line practically stationary. uniform amplitude throughout its length.
fig. 14, c0mpi.d with 13 shows the effect of re Fig. 16 shows the effect of removing the dashpot at
moving the dashpot, thus permitting a free end re the right hand end of the lower line. Considerable
flectjon. We notice in these pictures a return wave movement at the extreme left end now appears, due to
which on reaching the near end, causes a movement of
~ ~  M E C A A N I C A L~ ~ O D EO F
L WAVEANTENNAWITH FREE
EKD REFLECTIOK
FIG. 17MECHANICAL M ODEL OF W A V E ANTEKNhSLOWED
the first rocker. This illustrates the loss of unidirec D OWN
tional properties if the end is not damped.
Time exposures, with continuous waves of constant the reflected wave. The forward wave (left to right)
amplitude supplied to the upper (space wave) line, built up on the line, is very small near the left end, so we
k n g out the amplitudes developed on various parts of find the amplitude there nearly uniform, as would be
the lower line, or the equivalent of current distribution expected with waves traveling in one direction only
in a wave antenna. (right to left). On the other hand toward the right we
Fie. 15 shows the increase in amplitude on the lower see very clear standing wave effects, for here the for
Feb. 1923 THE WAVE ANTENNA 221
ward (left to right) wave has an amplitude more nearly with a phase adjuster and intensity coupler of the type
equal to that of the return wave. used by Mr. Alexanderson in the barrage receiver. The
In Fig. 17 the right hand end is again damped, and circuit arrangement is shown in Fig. 19.
the lower line has been slowed down by reducing the The two long wave stations New Brunswick (13,600
tension on the wires. This illustrates the building up meters) and Annapolis (16,900 meters) were of great
and down of the waves on the antenna when its velocity assistance in making tests and adjustments. Either
is much below that of the wave in space. station could be entirely put out by using the phase and
intensity adjustments of Fig. 19. It was found that
REDUCTION TO PRACTICAL FORM when the adjustments were made for putting New
After the construction of the Riverhead antenna, Brunswick out, the stray ratio was best on the European
considerable time was devoted to experiments of stations whose wave lengths were near that of New
various kinds with the new antenna, tests and com Brunswick, and that when Annapolis was put out the
parisons of different antenna arrangements, an oscillo adjustments were such as to give the best possible stray
graphic study of static, and tests of station apparatus. ratio for the longer wave European stations. In other
words, the best stray ratio was obtained when the end
conditions were adjusted to put out the image of the
desired European station. If a lightvelocity wave
antenna is an exact number of half wave lengths long,
the mathematical analysis shows that it is unidirectional
FIG. ISARR'ANGEMENTFOR LOCATING RECEIVING SET AT provided the true surge impedance is connected between
SAME E ND AS S URGE RESISTANCE
~
facilitating adjust
ment, the arrangement shown in Fig. 18 was proposed
by Kellogg. The two wires work in multiple as an
antenna, but act as a balanced transmission line to F IG. 2GMETHOD O F BALANCING BACK END CURRENTS B Y
bring the signal currents back from the southwest end. REFLECTIONS FROM DAMPED END
This scheme obviates the use of extra wires for thereturn
transmission line and thus avoids the problem of pre characteristics of antenna and ground at the frequency
venting detrimental effects of nearby conductors. under consideration. Kellogg pointed out that since
the antenna was not an exact number of half wave
lengths long, the back wave effect would prevent the
antenna from being unidirectional even though the
true surge impedance had been used, and it was for this
reason that Beverage found that balances were required
to obtain the best stray ratio. Another method pro
posed by Kellogg of supplying this necessary compensa
FIG. FIRST BALANCING CIRCUIT EMPLOYED FOR OBTAINING tion was to insert a circuit consisting of inductance,
ZERO RECEPTION FROM TEE BACK E ND resistance, and capacity in series in the neutral at the
end nea,rest the transmitting station, as shown in Fig. 20.
When the primary of the "reflection transformer" was By adjusting the resistance and varying the capacity
opened the receiving set was quiet, showing that the through the point where it tuned out the reactance of
transmissiog line although it was not transposed, r: the coil, a wave of any desired intensity and phase
not inkoducing any undesirable electromotive forces. could be reflected down the antenna to exactly compen
Thus a horizontal loop receives neither static or signal. sate for the back wave effectand thus render theantenna
Compensationfor Back Wave. Beverage showed that unidirectional.
while the resistance could be adjusted to give a mini If only one station is to be received the circuit shown
mum for static while listening to European signals, still in Fig. 20 is as satisfactory as any that the writers have
better stray ratios were obtained by combining with the found. For reception of long wave stations an antenna
signal currents brought in over the transmission line, output transformer was used having a stepdown ratio
a small amount of the currents flowing to ground at the of 200 to 10 turns, and hamig a complete iron magnetic
northeast end of the antenna. . This he accomplished circuit of about 3/4 square inch cross section, made of
222 BEVERAGE, RICE AND KBLLOGG Transactions A. I. E. E.
0.0015 enamelled sheet iron of the kind developed for The m n g e m e n t shown in Fig. 21 was worked out, and
the Alexanderson alternators. The secondary was proved entirely satisfactory. Each coupling tube feeds
connected in series with the h t tuned circuit of the a receiving set, and the antenna output transformer and
receiving set. artificial line, with its sliding contacts and potentio
meters, serve to impress the desired potentials on the
grids of the tubes. Since the load is negligible there
is no reaction between the different sets. Grounded
shields between the secondaries of the antenna output
transformer prevent electrostatic reactions. The de
sired component of the currents or potentials in the
ground circuit can be obtained in any desired phase by
moving the sliding contact along the artificial line, and
in the needed intensity by adjusting the potentiometer.
The artificial line has a characteristic impedance of
about 400ohms and reflections are prevented by a
resistance of about this value. This results in a phase
adjustment which gives practically constant intensity.
FIO. 21MULTIPLEX RECEIVINO SYSTEM Five thousand ohms potentiometers are uscd, and these
constitute so small a load on the artificialjliline that the
Multiplex Reception.  The simultaneous reception of adjustment of any one does not appreciabh ?e ~ b b the 7
a number of stations was one of the next objects of our potential distribution on the line. The aniL,,.C2;line,
work. If the surge impedance is set at the best value damped as it is at the far end, acts as a pr9rtically pure
for a mean wave length, and no finer adjustment of the resistance in the antenna surge impedanc wit. By
I
. FIO. 2 2  w A V E ANTENNA CIRCUITS. PREfiENT ATRANGEMENT
backend compensation is attempted, then it is only adjustment of the series and shunt resistance boxes the
necessary to provide more secondaries for the antenna antenna damping resistance may be set at the best
output transformer, Fig. 20. In order that one set average value, leaving only a small residual to be
should not sap too much energy from another, trans cleaned up by the artificial line adjustments.
formas were designed with very slight reaction be Fig. 22 is a more.detailed diagram showing some
tween the secondaries. Some data were taken of the changes which have been made since the original in
best resistance and reactance in the ground circuit, as a stallation.
function of wave lengtl, and networks were figured out Shielded Sets. The aperiodic nature of the wave
which would give the desired impedances at the wave antenna and the success of the coupling tube multiplex
lengths of the stations which it was most important to system made it clear that there would be call for
receive. This system of multiplexing, however, did not operating a number of receiving sets in the same build
appeal to the writers as the most satisfactory solution ing. The artificial line and antenna output transformer
of the problem. A system was wanted in which all had been designed for operating four sets, but this was
the adjustments for each station to be received could be not necessarily the limit. In fact, later, when the new
made without reacting on the adjustments fortheothers. Riverhead station waslaid out a total capacity of nine
Feb. 1923 THE WAVE ANTENNA .
receiving sets was planned, six of which are now in daily signal on the telegraph line a t Riverhead, and auto
operation. The amplifiers, detectors, and tuners matically repeating it at New York into the New
previously used in the receiving sets of the Radio Cor Brunswick control line, so that the operatars in the
poration were unshielded, and the practise had been, British station heard their own signal coming back on
where two sets were in use in the same station, to keep New Brunswicks wave. .
them well separated and operate from separate bat When the success of the wave antenna had been
teries. To meet the new situation, a new line of appara demonstrated at Riverhead similar antennas were
tus was developed. Each piece of apparatus was in a constructed at Chatham, Mass. and Belmar, N. J. where
metal lined box, the metal lining being grounded, and the Radio Corporation was already operating receiving
connections between the boxes were made through stations. These new antennas gave satisfactory per
shielded cable. All tuned inductances consisted of
astatic pairs of coils, of compact form, thus reducing
chances of magnetic coupling. The radio amplifier was
shielded between stages as well as externally. The
amplifiers and detector have individual plate and fila
ment filters in the supply lines. A two stage filter was
introduced in the circuit between the detector and the
audio amplifier in order to prevent radio frequency
currents and potentials from getting into the audio
circuits where they might cause back coupling or inter
ference between sets. Low resistance telephones were
used to minimize electrostatic coupling. These pre

OF
ANTENNA BY VECTOR DIAQRAMS
X
the currents produced by each of the sections d x long
in the line. We may perform the summation by inte
grating equation (4) or (5) between the limits x = o
FIQ.27cURRENTS RESULTINQ FROM VOLTAGE INDUCED IN
and x = I, or by means of a vector diagram as shown
SMALL SECTION OF ANTENNA in Fig. 28. The current at the end of the line d it,, or
d i,, resulting from the induced electromotive force in
We may think of this little section of line as an alternator a section d x long, situated x kilometers from A, has a
Fig. 27, supplying current to two transmission lines in Eod x
W r k , one running to A and the other running to B. maximum cyclic value or vector length  and a
2 2
A line damped at the far end, so as to prevent reflec
tion~,shows an impedance Z = 4LQCC ohms at the phase angle which varies with x, as shown in expression
input end, whatever the iength of the E. Lie have (4) and (5). Hence the summation will consist in
here assumed such damping. If each line has an im Eo d x
pedance 2 ohms the alternator must work through an adding a series of vectors, each  22
long, and each at
impedance 2 2 and will produce a current at X,
10. The Mathematical work of this paper is due to Kellogg.
its proper phase angle. Taking the phase of e, for
11. This expression for Surge Impedance is strictly correct only
reference, the angle of lag of d it,,as shown in (4) is
for ?RrO'loss lines, but at radio frequencies it is a very close
*PProximation for ordinary lines.
". 
&h may be written These diagrams help us to see how we may write out
W U a n expression for the resultant currents. If we divide
$ b z =  {U zx(lY)} . the line into a large number of very short sections the
d from (5) the angle of lag of d i,, is series of vectors form an arc of a circle instead of a
. polygon. The length of this arc is the length of one
+a== w { ~ / V + Z / U }=+Z(I+;> (7)
Eod 5
further change in the form of these expressions will vector  multiplied by the number of sections
2 2
dce for convenience.
1 1 Eo 1
l2 where L and C are which gives 
The velocity u is equal to  . If the vectors all lay on a
4C dx 2 2
3 series inductance and shunt capacity per unit length
Eo 1
line. Then w / u = w d E C , which will be recognized straight line  would be the length of the total cur
. 22
the line wave length constant, for which the symbol
3 frequently employed. rent vector. This condition is met at the end B when
If we let n stand for the velocity ratio u/v and = v. For any other line velocity, or for the current
xtitute B for w / u we get at the end A, the arc while of the same total length,
$'bz=B(lx(1n) 1 (8)
will have a certain curvature, and the length of the
chord subtending the arc, which is the resultant vector,
= B 2 (1 +
n) (') will depend on the curvature. For a given length of
For the Purpose of mmerical cahkition it is con arcthe curvature is measured by the eta1angle, or the
i e n t to express B in terms of X and n as follows: angle between the first and last vectors, corresponding
. V to x. = 0 and z = 1 in (8) or (9). Thus in the case of the
6= w/U = 2 a f andsince X = , I b vector addition we put x = 0 and z = 1 in equation
nv f
~
nX
Eo 1
271. r = 22 
 Eo 1
8) (15)
= 0.522 radians per kilometer. Take sZ(1 n) ZZBZ(1 n)
The length of the chord which is the vector of the
as 1kilometer, giving z the values 0.5, 1.5,2.5, 3.5 resultant current I bis given by
11.5 kilometers. The corresponding phase angles, chord = 2 r sin 1/2 . (angle)
.  . or
ired from expressions ( 8 ) and (9) are Eo 1 1
I b = 2 sin  8 I (1 n)
2281(1n) 2
Eodx 0.01 X 1  
:h vector will have a length ___  Cancelling the 2 I in the numerator and denominator
2 2  1000
gives
I001 amperes or 10 microamperes. Fig. shows E'O I
vector diagrams for the currents at the two ends I b = sin  13 I (1 n) (11)"
2 B (1 n) 2
,he antenna, giving receiver end current I b = 112.2 By the same process using equation (9) we get
'
la= E o / Z xH
1 l o Eo
r 2x
Hence when u = v
I'igure 29" shows the receiver end and back end currents
alculated by equations (lla) and (12) for antennas
If various lengths, assuming
u = o = 3 x lo5 kilometers per second
X = 12kilometers ..
P
Eo = 0.010 volts per kilometers
FICL 3 G E F F E C T OF AYPENNA E I NDUCED ELECTRO
~ X ~ L01:
2 = 500ohms XOTIVE F O R C E PER U NIT LEXGTH
These curves bring out the unidirectional properties
f the wave antenna. No. 2 are in the ratio 1to cos 9, and the induced electro
case I I . Signal at an Angle to Antenna, Zero b s s motive force per unit length will be in the same ratio.
LWnna. So far we have considered only signal waves Another point of view is illustrated in Fig. ~ O B , in
rawling in the direction of the antenna. To calculate which we imagine ourselves as looking at the ends of

he directive properties of the antenna, we must find the the magnetic lines, which now appear as dots. Here
14. This figure is practically areproductionof acurveplotted by the same two wires are shown, and the actual direction
*r p. s. Carter, based on his caloulations previously mentioned. of motion of the magnetic lines is indicated. Only
thoselines within the region a Will cut wire No. 2 which multiplied by E,/Z would give the currents correspond
appears in this projection as A  B, while all those ing to the value assumed for Eo. To show directive
inregion b will cut No. 1, and the ratio of a to b is again properties,.however, it is more satisfactory to give the
cos 8. We shall therefore multiply by cos 8 to take current for any direction in terms of its ratio to the
account of the difference in induced electromotive current which the same signal would produce if it came
force. That is to say if a signal coming in the direction from the direction for which the antenna givesmaximum
of the antenna induces Eo volts per kilometer, a signal reception. Thus column X gives the relative current
of the same intensity coming from an angle 8 to the strengths as found by dividing all the figures of colupm
antenna will induce Eocos 8 volts per kilometer. IX by the largest figure in the column which is 5.6 and
The angle which the signal direction makes with the corresponds to 8 = 0. Fig. 32 shows the directive
antenna also effects the time required for the wave front
to pass over the antenna, and therefore affects the
relative phases of the electromotive forces induced in
the different parts of the antenna. From the time the
maXimum electromotive force occurs at A to the time
the same thing occurs at X the wave has only to travel
a distance x cos 8 as indicated in Fig. 31, and this will
2 cos e
require seconds, where v is the velocity of the
V
TABLE I 3
DIRECTIVE CURVE OF WAVE ANTENNA ZERO ATTENUATION
I = 12m.
U U . A 15km.
e u = 0.80.
a=
EO COB
20.524 (1   O . ~ C O S e)
sin 180 deg. (1  0 . 8 co8 8 ) a PO

I I1 I11 1 IV I v VI I VII VIII I Ix I x
s
s
8
8 09
0
0 1 .oo 0.8 ,
. 0.2 0.105 36 0.588 5.6 5.6 1 .oo
20 0.94 0.752 0.248 0.13 44.8 0.704 5.4 5.08 0.91
,
~
TABLE I1
DIRECTIVE CURVE OF WAVE ANTENNA
X
I

12km.
12km.
u = 0.8V.
ff = 0.05
&l = .55
Arranging Formula for Calculation of Magnitude and Substituting Numerical Values of Constants, we have
E@ cos 8 Vector Diflerence of 1 .0 and 0.55
Magnitude I = at Angle 450 deg. (1  0.8 cos 8 )
2 2 d ( o . o 5 ) * + (0.654)2(1  o o . 8 c 0 s e ) *
1 I1 VI X
1 I
X
XI

v /
m
0 Y
8
s
on
09
0
0
E Sf
om
I X
8 rl
$+
v
#
10
?$ %c
9 d
0
I
0 1 .oo 0.80 0.2 0.131 0.140 ~ 9 0 1.14 8.14 8.14 1 .o
20 0.940 0.752 0.248 0.162 0.169 112 1.31 7.75 7.3 0.896
40 0.760 0.613 0.387 0.253 0.258 174 1.55 6.0 4.6 0.565
60 0.50 0.40 0.6 0.393 0.396 270 1.14 2.89 1.45 0.178
80 0.1736 0.139 0.861 0.564 0.566 388 0.58 1.02 0.177 0.022
100  0.1736 0.139 1.139 0.744 0.745 513 1.51 2.03 0.35 0.0431
110  0.50  0.40 I .40 0.916 0.916 630 1.14 1.25 0.62 0.0762
140  0.766  0.613 1.613 1.055 1.055 726 0.45 0.427 0.326 0.040
1GO  0.94  0.752 1.752 1.146 1.146 789 0.96 0.838 0.78 0.0958
 180

 1.00  0.80 1 .80 1.18 1.18 810 1.14 0.97 0.97 0.119
Feb. 1923 THE WAVE ANTENNA . 229
point X in Fig. 26 as the source of waves on the antenna. of the problem are the same as in the'case of Fig. 28
We considered the current d i,, and d it,, at the ends of except that for Fig. 33 an attenuation of 0.05 per
the line to have the same strength as the current d i, at kilometer is assumed. The corresponding vectors in
x, since we were treating the caseof a zero loss line. We the two figures have the same pha& angles, but in
now wish to consider a line on which there is attenua Fig. 33 the vectors form a spiral instead of a circular arc.
tion, so the current d i b z at the end B, which is ( I  x) The total end cukents a n be found by integrating
kilometers from the source, will be weaker than the cur equations (15) and (16) in their present form, but the
rent d i, at X , in the ratio E a (I'), and the currentwork is simplified if we make use of vector notation.
d C, at the end A, which is x kilometers from the source, In what follows, the symbols in bold faced type,
will be weaker in the ratio e a x . The phase relations such as E or I stand for vector quantities of the
as before are those corresponding the time differences +
form a J' b, or its equivalent. For reference a sum
1 x X
mary is appended showing typical operations with
seconds and  seconds required for waves vector quantities.
U U
The induced volts per kilometer, E, = Eocos 8 at the
to travel from X to B and X to A respectively. The end A of the antenna in Fig. 26, will be taken as the
e, d ,x reference vector and the phase angle of any current or
currentatxisdi, =  22
, or substituting the value voltage means its angle of lead or lag with respect to E,.
The induced voltage per kilometer, E, at the point
X is of the same intensity as E, but lags behind E, by
. xcos 9
w radians. Therefore the vector of E, is of the
V
z 0
2 Z ( a + j B  j w  ) cos 8 reflections at the ends, and that the signal wave causes
no other electromotive forces in the circuit than that in
wn the horizontal wire. The assumption that the induced
Since w / v =  = j3 n, we may substitute electromotive force per unit length of conductor is the
1F
same in all parts of the antenna, and is independent of
cos e the amplitude of the wave on the wire, means that the
i B (1  n cos e) f o r j B  j 21
, giving reduction in intensity of the space wave by divergence
or ground absorption has been neglected, and that no
 j w I(ms e ) / v  ( a + j s (1  n cose) I 1 saturation effect has been considered. The absorption
Ib = E,cos e (1 E and divergence of the space wave may be estimated with
2 z [CY + j B (1 n cos 0 ) 1 fair approximation, and in most cases with antennas of
(22) moderate length, will be found to be negligible. No
A more satisfactory form of the equation for purposes evidence of saturation has so far cane to the writers'
Of calculation is obtained by separating the atten attention. In cases where the antenna has exceeded
uation and phase angle factors in the expression the length which gave maximum signal, the limit to the
amplitude of the waves on the wire, has been set by the
velocity difference or the line losses.
It will be noticed that (22) is the same as (23)except
27r that the algebraic sign before the term cos 8 is reversed,
and  for @ and the factor E appears in the numerator
nX ('OS ')/'
purpose of the directive curve is to show the relative Figs. 32 to 38 bring out the effects of length, velocity
receiver currents for different signal directions, the and attenuation on the directive properties of a wave
antenna. The value 0.06 per kilometer for a,and 0.8 u
EO
factor  which is the same for all directions, is for u,used in calculating Fig. 36, are mean values ob
22
omitted (or in other words assumed to have a value of 1)
and the relative currents shown in column XI are ob
.
FIG. 3'JDIRECTIVE CURVE OF W AVE ANTJCNNA ONE HALF
WAVELENGTH LONQ. x = 12 KM., 1 = 6 UM., 4 = 0.05, u = 0 . 8 ~
FIQ.~&DIRECTI~E
CURVE OF W AVE ANTENNA. x
1 = 12 KM., a = 0.05, U = 0.8 0
FIQ.
3 s D I R E C T I V E C U R V E OF LOW VELOCITY W A V E A NTENNA.

a = 0.05, n = 0 . 6 , 1 = 12, x = 12
hb =
E~cos e
22
2 * 1 2 * 1
j 7cos 0  a l  j x (1ncosB)
c (1 E 1
FIQ. 41DIRECTIVE C V R V E O F W A V E A NTENNA WITH HIQH
ATTENUATION. (I = 0.10, n = 0.8,1 = 12, x = 12
(224
In order to find the phase angle of the entire expres The bracket is the difference of two vectors, the first
sion, we must first determine the phase angles of the a unit vector with zero phase angle, and the second a
individual vectors of which it is a product. vector having the absolute value E  and ~ ~ the phase
E~COS
6 27r 360 1
Thefirstterm 22 is a purely numerical multi angle   1 (1 n cos 0) radians or  (1 n
. nX nX
.
BEVERA~E,RICE AND KELLOGG Transactions A. I. E. E.
cos 80) degrees. The graphical method of finding the Ration = u/u = 0.8 (numeric)
magnitude and phase of this vector difference is 1
h
B
*
8 85

I
B
s
1
s
,09 2I d a
Z O
8 09 I 4
v
09 0
a3
0
9I I
rl

u
c_   I 0

0 1.0oo 0.m 0.200 0.131 0.140 900 1.14 8.15 8.15 1.OOO +29O 2.62 69.1' 40.1 360 400.1.
20 0.940 0.75:
0.248 0.1625 0.169: 112 1.30 7.65 7.18 0.880 +24' 3.25 72.go 48.9 338 386.9.
40 0.766 0.387
0.01: 0.253 0.258 174.0 1.55 6.02 4.61 0.565 42 O 5.07 78.8O 76.8 276 352.8'
Bo 0.m 0.m 0.600 0.393 0.396 270.0 1.14 2.88 1.44 0.177 , 29' 7.85 82.7O 111.7 180 291.7'
80 0.174 0.13f 0.861 0.563 0.565 387 0.57 1.01 0.175 0.0215 +36O 11.30 85 .Oo 59 0 62.6 121.8. .
100
120
0.174 0.13s 1.139
0.m  0 . a 1.400
0.744
0.916
0.745
0.916
512
830
1.51
1.14
2.03 0.353
1.245 0* 623
0.0433 +LO'
29'
14.9 86.2O 76.2 i62.6  13.6.
0.0765 18.30 86.go 115.9 +180 +.lo
140 0.768 0.61: 1.613 1.055 1.055 726 0.46 0.434 0.333 0.0408 +So 21.10 87.3O 79.3 +276 t 196.7.
160 0.940 0.76: 1.752 1.146 1.146 788 0.95 0.826 0.778 0.0955 433' 22.90 87.6' 54.5 4338 1.283.6
180

1.00 0.m 1.800 1.176 
1.176 810 
1.14 0.970 0.1185 $29' 23.6 87.60 58.80 +360 lia01.4.
TABLE IV
MAGNITUDE AND PHASE OR Zo
I = 12km. a 05
A 12km. u =O.&
v 1

xv
=IZ
I11 IV VI IX X XI XI1 x111 XIV
h
a
8
p; U
h
B
8
61
M
B
'09 F 32 cp 3
8
00
0
+
U
F 9;
0
000
i?1 +x
ov)
1
0 H
8; p4 c:
*ha
9
b
550 2 '4
0
 
0 1.Ooo 0.800 1.800 1.176 1.176 810O 1.14 0.97 0.97 0.1185 +87.6 68.6.
20 0.940 0.752 1.752 1.146 1.146 788O 0.95 0.826 0.778 0.0955 +87.5 54.6.
' 40 0.766 0.613 1.613 1.055 1.055 726' 0.46 0.434 0.333 0.0408 +87.3 79.3
8D 0.500 0.400 1.400 0.916 0.916 636' 1.14 1.245 0.623 0.0765 +86.9 115 .9*
80 0.174 0.139 1.139 0.744 0,745 612' 1.51 2.03 0.353 0.0433 +86.2 78.2
100 0.174 0.139 0.861 0.563 0.565 387' 0.57 1.01 0.175 0.0215 +85.0 59.0'
120 0.500 0.400 0.600 0.393 , 0.396 270' 1.14 2.88 1.44 0.177 +82.7 111.7.
. 140 0.766 0.613 0.387 0.253 0.258 174O 1.55 6.02 4.61 0.565 +78.8 76.8
$60 0.940 0.752 0.248 0.1625 0.1691 112O 1.30 7.65 7.18 0.880 +72.9 48 .9
180 1.Ooo 0.800 0.200 0.131 0.140 90' 1.14 8.15 8.15 1 .Ooo +69.1 40.1
7
A current, however, which is two complete cycles be directive curve of the compensated antenna. The
hind the desired vdw; that is, to say a current  1.76 magnitudes and phase angles of I. and I b are taken from
/+ 571 deg.  720 deg. or  1.76 / 149 deg. will Tables I11 and IV. Instead, however, of rotating
d v e cancellation of all but the 'first two waves of the 0.119 I , backward by 559 deg. and adding it vectoridly
train, and this current which is 109 deg. behind I. to I b , We have rotated i t 180 deg. leaS, and subtracted
' a n be obtained by reflection. Experience h a & o m it Vel%idly from Ia, which is an &er Operation b
that in spite of the failure to neutralize the first two Perfom and the s a m e . m d t . This backward
waves in a train, a very high degree of balance is ob rotation Of 379 de& is, for the Purpose of finding the
tainable, both on signals and static. vector difference, equivalent to one of (379 deg.
.The terminal impedance required to give a specified 360 deg.) = 19 deg. The table shows the values of
reflection, may be determined from the vector relation 0.119 la, rotated bwkward 19 deg., and the V ~ t o r
difference found by subtracting this from the corres
11 I 2 = z 1  12/11
Zt = 2
I1 I2+ 1 12/11 + (25)" ponding I*. Thus to find .the directive curve of any
compensated antenna, we first choose the direction for
in which Zc is the terminal impedance, Z the surge we wish to have reception. Then we
impedance Of the line, 11 the cl.lr"f3lt due b the on pare 1, and for this value of 6 deg. and determine the
coming wave and 1 2 the current due to the reflected factor by which 1, must be and the
wave. In the present case 11 is I. and Iz is the desired angle through which it must be rotated to make
 1.76 / 149 d q . it coincide with I&. Then for each other value of 8
Then deg. we multiply 1, by the same ratio and rotate it
through the same angle, and subtract the vector 50
12/11 =  1  7 6 / ! = 0.216/1090
 8,15/40" e _
found, vectorially from I b .
Inspection of the table shows that in the example we
=  0.070 0.204j
have worked out, the effect of the reflection on the
1  12/11 = 1.070+ 0.204j
1 + 12/11 = 0.930  0.204j
xx 1 I I xxv I
I
xvlll I XIX XXI
I
XXII
I
XXIII XXIV XXVI

0 0.97 0.115 8.15 58.60  77.1 400.1 323.0 8.05 1.00
20 0.778 0.093 7.18 54.50  73.0 386.9O 313.9 7.12 0.883
40 0 333 0.040 4.61  79.30  97.8 352.8 255.0 4.62 0.573
60 0.623 0.074 1.44 115.9O 134.4 291.7 157.3 1.51 0.187
80 0.353 0.042 1.75 76.2' 94.7 121 .BO 26.9 1.72 0.213
100 0.175 0.021 0.353 59. o o 77.5 '13.6' + 63.9 0.343 0.043
I20 1.44 . 0,172 0.623 111.7' 130.2 +64.1 +194.3 0.79 0.098
140  4.61 0.55 0.333 713.8~ 95.3 +196.7O +292.0 0.53 0.066 *
180 . 7.18 0.855 0.778 +350.9 0.16 0.020
180 8.15 0.970  0.970 +360 .O 0 0
Solving far I,
FIG.&DIRECTIVE CURVE 9 WAVE ANTENNA. COM
PENSATED B Y REFLECTION F O R ZERO B ACK E ND. A = 12 KM .,
1 = 12 KM., a 0.05, U = 0 . 8 V
8
From (26) the total current in the receiver is receiver end, we have a transformer having 400 ohms
inductive reactance and 100 ohms effective resistance. '
If the reflection coefficient a t either A or B is small Without reflection at B, the receiver current of the
(which is generally true) or if the line attenuation is compensated antenna, as shown in Column XVII of
high, c d will be small and the steady state value of + +
Table v was I b c I. or 1 b I, X 0.119 i5590/57.3)
receiver current is approached very quickly. With the reflections caused by the receiver circuit
Let us apply equation 30 to the case of the compen we have just been considering the current in the trans
Wed 12 kilometer antenna whose directive curve is former primary w
illbe
shown in Fig. 44. Here in order to give zero reception j ( 28.6"/57.3) j ( 559"/57.3)
1.323 E ( I b f 1, x 0.119 E 1
for 0 = 180 deg., we produced a reflection at A such as
or a current of 32.3 per cent greater for each value of
give a current at B whose magnitude is 0.119 of that
Of 10and whose phase is 559 deg. behind I,. Hence 8 than that given in column XVII d Table V. The
j (559"/57.3")
directive curve or relative current for different values of
c = 0.119 E 8 is the same as before. Fig. 45 shows the vector
'"FWse that instead of the surge impedance at the relations of the currents at the ends of the line, for the
Peb. 1923 THE WAVE ANTENNA 239
signal direction 6 = 120 deg. Both Ib and I, as given multiplex reception with the wave antenna had been
ljy formulas (22) and (23) have negative signs, and the worked out.
negative signs are retained throughout rather than At the suggestion of Mr. R. H. Ranger, of the Radio
reversing the vectors in the .diagrams, which would Corporation, calculations were made by Kellogg of the
somewhat obscure the angular relations. If the entire directive properties of short antennas on which the
diagram is turned 180 deg. (looked at up side down) the velocity had been reduced by loading to the best value
vectors appear in their true positions. for the wave length and antenna length in question.
Short. Antennas. The question of the possibility of Mr. Ranger reasoned that since reducing the velocity
obtaining in less space directive properties approaching sharpened the directive curve of a full wave length
those of a full wave length antenna is of considerable antenna, it might be possible, by sufficiently reducing
\ the velocity, to compensate for reduced length and
P P perhaps obtain a good directive curve in very small
I space. The most favorable velocity was found to be
that which gave zero (or minimum) reception at the
back end, without compensation. The condition for
this is that
VIU = X / l  1
in which I is the length of the antenna
v is the velocity of light
u is the antenna velocity
X is the wave length
Figs. 48 and 49 show directive curves for quarter and
eighth wave length antennas with velocities equal to one
third and one seventh of that of light respectively in
accordance with the above equation.
fig. 62 shows the directive curve for an 18kilometer Compared with the simple unloaded, compt3nsated
wave length of the slowed down antenna, whose antenna, the slowed down antenna has a better directive
directive curve for X = 12 kilometers is shown in Fig. curve at one wave length, but a narrower range of
48.. The dotted line A Fhows the directive properties satisfactory multiplex reception. The signal strength
without compensation and the solid line B is the
directive curve with compensation. Fig. 53 shows the
directive curve for the same antenna receiving an eight

TABLE VI
RELATIVE SIGNAL INTENSITIES ON SHORT ANTENNAS
Wave
Length
Kilometers
I velocity
Ratio
Attenuation
Constant
a
Directive
Curve
No.
Intend@
Factor
~
Ideel Antenna. one eighth wave length long,Uncompensated. ..... 1.6 12 1 .o 0.0 1.6
........
Sloweddown Antenna I 
Same, Cbmpensaed for mro receptionat e 
Average U n l d e d Antenna, 1 = 1/8 A. Uncompensated,.
.......
180 deg..
1/8 A, No compensation..............
1.5
1.6
1.6
12
12
12
0.8
0.8
0.143
0.05
0.05
0.06
51
49
I .44
0.33
0.44

Ideul. QuartermvelengthAntenna, Uncompensated..
Average Unloaded Antenna 1 1/4 h Uncompensated.
..........
..........
Same.4ompensaed to give zero reception for e = 180 deg.. ..
3
a
3
12
12
12
I .o
0.8
0.8
'
0
0.06
0.06
47
60
3.0
2.8
1.92

Sloweddown, Qwrtermve Antenna. 1 = 1/4 A, No Compensation
8ame. Oompensated to give zero reception at e 180 deg..
.........................................
3 12 0.333 0.05 48 1.78
.
fork = 18
Same. Compensated to give mro reception at e
for A 8

 .........................................
180 deg.,
3
a
18
8
0.333
0.333
0.05
0.06
52
53
1.73
0.44
.......................
Average Antenna, one wave length long. 12 12 0.8 0 .OK 35 8.15
intensity factor for a full velocity, zero attenuation 'ing, be kept negligibly small compared with the signal,
line is included for reference. but if the signal produced by the antenna is weak, or
It will be observed that in all cases where unidirec if it is a small remainder after comparatively strong
tional properties are obtained on an antenna a small currents are combined to give neutralization for a
fraction of a wave length long, there is considerible certain direction, the directive properties actually
sacrifice of signal intensity. If this could be made up obtained are likely to be decidedly inferior to those
with amplification the disadvantage would not be indicated by calculations, based on assumed ideal con
serious. Residual voltages are, however, inevitable ditions.
Wherever possible, therefore, the writers have advo '
cated building full wave length or at least, half wave
length antennas for commercial reception.
FUNDAMENTAL EXPERIMENTS
While for the most part the experimental work on
the wave antenna has been directed toward practical
utilization, some tests have been carried out whose
purpose was the verification of theory: That the waves
built up on the wire in the direction of signal travel,
as indicated by the mathematical analysis, had been
shown qualitatively by Beverage's early data, some of
which is given in curve form in Fig. 2. The series
condensers also worked just as predicted by the theory.
Tests Bearing on Wave Tilt Theory. A question which
was at first the subject of some discussion among those
interested in the wave antenna was whether the collec
tion of energy from the space wave depended on wave
front tilt, or upon the height of the wire above the
earth and the space potential corresponding to its
position. If a signal causes a vertical potential gradient
F IG. 53A UNCOMPENSATED. B COMPENSATED. 1 = 3, + G volts per meter, a wire h meters above earth would
x = 8, a = 0.5,n = 0.333 tend to assume the potential +
G h. A half wave
length away where the potential gradient due to the
in radio receiving' systems. For example, electromotive signal wave is  G; the wire would tend to assume the
forces are induced in the end verticals, of which no potential  G h, and the potential difference along the
account is taken in the calculations given here; foreign wire would give rise to a current. According to such a
circuits at crossings or unavoidable short parallels in picture the wave antenna would be equivcllent to an
duce electromotive forces in the antenna wires, trans infinite number of small static antennas whose charging
mission lines used to carry signal or compensating current is carried over the line to the ends. If a formula
currents are not absolutely quiet, transformer or for the end current is worked out on this basis i t shows
receiving circuit coils pick up some disturbances, and the same directive properties as the formula we have
where high amplification is employed tube noises are a developed, except that the factor cos 0 by which Eo is
factor. With strong signals such as obtained with full multiplied in (22) is omitted. Thus in Table I1 we
length antennas, these effects may, by careful engineer should use the figures in column IX instead of column
242 BEVERAGE, RICE AND KELLOW Transactions A. I. E.E.
x obtain the directive curve. The difference is ably in this case the low resistance ground was too
especially marked in the case of a half wave length restricted and local to have any appreciable effect on the
antenna with signals coming at right angles to the tilt of the twelve to fourteen kilometer waves on which
antenna, If the half wave length wave antenna were the observations were made. For ground of a given
acting like a series of static antenna the reception for resistance the wave front tilt increases as the wave
8 = 90 deg. would be about half of the full intensity or length decreases, and for short waves (less than 1000
half that for 8 = 0. On the other hand if the wave meters) there is a substantial tilt, sufficient for satis
antenna depends on wave front tilt the reception from factory operation even over wet ground.
90deg. to the antenna would be zero for all lengths. As Zenneckl has worked out equations for the forward
a test of this the Belmar wave antenna was cut at a tilt of the wave front as a function of wave length, and
point ahout 5.8 kilometers from the station, giving a the specific resistance and dielectric constant of the
short antenna, with the 200 kw. New Brunswick send soil. The tilt is expressed as the ratio of the horizontal
*
ing station (x = 13,600 meters) on the side. The to the vertical potential gradient of the space wave.
reception of New Bnmswick, only 50 miles away, was In its general form Zennecks formula is I
100
I k = Dielectric
constant
80
Fresb Water.. . . . . . . . . . 1O.OOO to 1OO.OOO 8 0 
dence on this point has come to the writers attention. Moist Earth.. ............... lo00 to 1OO.OOO 5 to 15
Before conclusions can be drawn from tests or compari Dry Earth................... 1,OOO.OOO and u p 2to6
Wet Sand.. .................. 100 to 10,OOo 9
sons it is necessary to make sure that conditions are the Dry River Band.. ............ very large 23
*me in other respects. In one instance with which the Wet Clay.. .................. 100 to 1o.OOO
Dry Clay.. .................. l,oOo,o00 and up 25
writers are familiar, two antennas, in locations several
miles apart were constructed parallel and as much alike
as possible. One followed a small stream and the other
W a s over comparatively dry ground. The two antennas
gave substantially equal signal intensities. Presum
. Feb. 1923 THE WAVE ANTENNA 243
 Fig. 55 shows the values of X/Z for various values ductor in which the electromotive force induced in it
~ of wave length A, specific resistance p and dielectric is zero. This may account for the doubtful results
&nstant K . With long waves and lowresistance soils obtained in attempts to measure wave tilt by observing
g c i s negligible compared with g, in which case the angle of zero or minimum electromotive force in a
straight conductor rotated in a vertical plane parallel
x/z = \i jwc 8
(33) to the signal direction. Wherever the tilt isconsiderable
so that it might be readily measured, the minimum is
This is a function of wave length and specific resistance, correspondingly dull.
and is shown in the sloping lines of Fig. 55. On the More satisfactory as a test of the theoretical con
other hand if the waves are so short and the soil re clusions, would be quantitative measurements of the
sistance so high that g is negligible compared with relative magnitudes of the electromotive forces induced
w c we have
in horizontal and vertical conductors, for various wave
x/z = d/C/G. = dTpT (34) lengths and ground conductivities. Determination of
which is independent of wave length or soil conductivity the phase relations wourd provide a further check.
and is shown for several values of K in the horizontal An observation of relative signal intensities on a
lines at the top of the figure. To find the value of large loop and a wave antenna, indicated a wave tilt
X/Z for a certain wave length and a soil of a given of the order of magnitude called for by Zennecks
resistivity and dielectric constant we use whichever formula, but little data of this kind have been taken.
curve (the sloping line of equation (33) or the horizontal The large values of horizontal voltage gradient found
line of equation (34) gives the lower value for X/Z. If in the measurements mentioned below by Beverage
near the intersection of the two straight lines we use the and Weinberger were at first considered greater than
could be accounted for by wave tilt. Assuming
probable values of ground resistance, the ratio of
horizontal to vertical potential gradient according to
Zennecks formula is of the order of magnitude of one
or two per cent, whereas the measured horizontal
gradient was about 30 per cent of the vertical gradient
calculated by Austins formula. The space potential
theory of action however is still less capable of account
ing for the potentials observed. If we assume ground
water to be 100 feet (30 meters) below the surface of
the ground, and the earth above ground water level to
have a specific resistance of 2 x lo6ohms per centimeter
cube, which is about the value found by measurement,
we find for a 15,000 meter wave length that the poten
FIG.5 g W A V E F RONT TILT, x / z BY ZENNECKS F ORMULA
tial difference between ground water and surface would
be less than that corresponding to a difference of eleva
tion of two feet in the space above ground. Consider
transition curve which is shown dotted. To illustrate, ing the ground as constant potential, and expressing
if X = 1000 meters and K = 4,we find the vertical potential gradient as G E  ( ~ r z X )
X/Z = 1 . 3 + 1 0 f o r p = 1 X lo5 (in which e  l ( 2 r Z / h ) expresses the change of phase
2 . 5 + 10forp = 4 X lo5 with distance 5 measured in direction of propagation)
 3 . 9 + 10 for p = 1 x 106 . (on transition the potential of the wire at a height h with respect to
curve) ground would be h G E  j ( T z and the potential
4 . 9 + 10 for p = 4 X lo6 or greater. (On
d
horizontal line for K = 4). gradient along the wire would be  h G E
dx
 (2 *= )
carries current by conduction rather than by capacity) wire is 10 meters and the wave length 15,000 meters the
in which case the phase angle is nearly 45 deg. The magnitude of the horizontal potential gradient would be
phase difference means that the vertical and horizontal 2nh 27rx10
potential gradients do not become zero simultaneously,
but the electric field is a rotating one, Under these
x G = 15,000 G = 0.0042 G or 0.0042 of that
circumstances if a straight conductor is held in various of the vertical gradient, which is less than Zennecks
positions in. a vertical plane parallel to the direction of formula gives for the horizontal potential gradient
wave propagation, there will be no direction of the con due to wave tilt. Theoretical analyses agree more
BEVERAGE, RICE AND KELLOOG Tmnmtions A. I. E. E.
244
thqt there is no electromotive force induced in a account of the nearness of the sending station. Addi
hokontal Wire over a perfectly conducting earth, and tional observations hadbeen planned, but the work was
therefore the space potentid picture of operation is interrupted before another directive curve could be
untenable. obtained. As it stands the directive curve shown in
E~pmh.e&zl Directive Curve. Fig. 56 shows a direct Fig. 56 serves as a qualitative check on the theory.
ive curve obtained experimentally. A transmitting During the same series of short wave tests, readings
s t was operated, supplying about 5 kilowattstoasmall were taken to show the building up of the current in an
v&i& antenna, at 12Ometers wave length. On a antenna. A wire sectionalized every ten meters was
field about 600meters from the transmitting station used in the antenna which pointed toward the trans;
a system of wave antennas was erected consisting of
twentyfour lines each 55 meters long and about one
meter above ground, radiating from a central point
like the spokes of a wheel. By joining two opposite
spokes together at the center, a wave antenna was
obtained 110 meters long. Using the next pair gave a
similar antenna 15deg. from the last. A ground of
about 20ohms resistance was provided at each end of
Y
L
end of the antenna, and adjusted to give as loud a tone : g%J
in the receiver as the European signal which was being
measured. The results of Mr. Beverages and Mr. F IG. 61REFERENCE F IGURE FOR DISCUSSION OF LINE IM
Weinbergers observations were, P. 0. Z. Nauen, PEDANCE
e m i t e d . The frequencies at which the maxima and This becomes equal to Z if Iz = 0, and becomes  2
minima occur indicate the line velocity, while the ratio if 11= 0. The negative sign means that power is
of minimum to maximum impedance gives a basis for being supplied from the line to the terminal circuit by
calculating the attenuation. waves which travel in the direction B  A, instead of
Determination of constants from Input Impedance. from the terminal circuit to the line as is the case for
fig. 61 shows a generator (or oscillator) supplying waves leaving A. If the waves leaving A are larger
alternating current to a line. This results in waves than those arriving at A (i. e. if I1 E > Iz E~) there
which travel from A to B. Assuming for the time being is a net power supply to the line.
that there is no reflection at B and no return waves, If the line is made very short Z,, the impedance
the relation of voltage to current is E/I = Z in which Z at A, of the line plus the terminal circuit, must eventu
is the surge impedance of the line. When the generator ally become equal to that of the terminal circuit alone
makes the point A positive with respect to ground it or equal to Zc. Setting I = 0 in (39) and equating to
. supplies a current in the direction A  B. Let us now Z , we have
imagine the generator and the absorbing terminal cir
ZA (for I = 0 ) = Z I 1  I 2
= zt
, cuit interchanged so that the generator supplies current
to the end B and the waves travel from B to A . The
11 I2 + (40)
The value of Z1relative to Z determines the relation
impedance measured at the terminals of the generator
of the reflected wave I2 t o the oncoming wave I r at
will be the same as before, but when the line is positive
the reflection point B. From (40)
with respect to ground the current will be flowing in the
direction B  A. Therefore if we defme the voltage as
positive when the line is positive with respect to ground,
and the current as positive when in the direction Adding 1 to each side of this equation,
A  B, then for waves traveling in the direction A  B
+
the voltage is E = Z I, but for waves traveling in I1 +I1
I2
= 1 + zt/z (42)
the direction B  A the relation is E =  Z I. Subtracting 1 from each side of (41)
If the forward wave leaves the end A with a mag  212
IZ = 1  zt/z
nitude and phase represented by I. it will reach
B with the magnitude and phase I. E  ( O + ~ @ ) or 11 + 12= Z,/Z 1 or
From 42 and 43
11 + Iz (43)
+
10t  Y in which y = a j B. We shall represent the
1  zt/z
forward wave as i t reaches B by the symbol I,. Then
since I1 = I. e, I. = II/e = I1 E ~ . Likewise at
12/11
1 zt/z
=
+ (44)
any point X, Fig. 61, 2 kilometers from B measured This is the general vector expression for reflection,
which was given on page 56, where an illustrative prob
toward A, the current of the forward wave is I1 E ~ .
And the voltage of the forward wave at X is Z I1 e Y x .
lem was worked. We have used the term reflection
If the reflected wave leaves B with a magnitude andcoefficient for the ratio 12/II.
phase represented by Is, it will be 1, E = when i t reaches
If the line is short circuited at the end, Z t = 0 and
x,and IZ E when it reaches A . And the voltage (44) becomes 12/11 = 1 or I 2 = I1. The total current
of the return wave is  Z I, at B,  Z I 2 E  ~ at X +
I1 Iz then becomes 2 11 which is the familiar case of
and  Z I2 E? at A? the current doubling at a shortcrcuit reflection.
When waves traveling in both directions are present,. If Z t = 2,12/11 = 0, or IZ = 0 or there is no reflec
the total current in the line at any point X will be the
tion.
vector sum of the currents due to the two trains of With an open circuit at the end Z t = C O , 12/11
waves or becomes  1, or I 2 =  11, the total current at the
+
I, = I , E Y X 1 2  y x
+
reflection point being I1 I2 = I1  I1 = 0. The
(36) total voltage at the reflection point becomes Z (I1
+
And the total voltage will be the vector sum of the  12) = Z (I1 11) = 2 Z I1 or twice that due to the
Voltages Z I, eYz and  Z I2 E  ~ , or oncoming wave alone. This is the case of doubling
of voltage at an open circuit reflection.
E, = Z I 1 Z X  z 1 2  ~  7 X (37) Fig. 62 shows the current and voltage vectors at
The ratio of voltage to current, or the impedance at X 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and I; kilometers from a shortcircuit
is reflection, the attenuation constant being taken as
0.05 per kilometer, the wave length 15 kilometers and
&/Iz = Z I1 E r X  I 2 )IX
(38) the velocity ratio n = 0.8 so that the length of a wave
on the wire is 12 kilometers. Since in the case of a
or a t A the impedance is short circuit reflection I 2 = 11,their vectors coincide
at the reflection point. The vector I 1 c7 of the
I2 y 
ZA = z
I1 E7 I 
(39) forward wave, is advanced in phase and increased
11 cy + I2 E
BY 1
in magnitude as we proceed toward the source, or away
, Feb. 1923 THE W A V E ANTENNA 247
from the reflection point, while the vector of the numerator and denominator by E 'I", which simplifies
_.reflected wave, Iz r  x, becomes smaller and retarded the expression, we get
in phase. At 3 kilometers from the reflection end, 11  e
 2 y x
1 e
 2 1 %
the current vectors have rotated 90 deg. each, in EJIs = Z
I1
=z
, opposite directions, and are therefore 180deg. apart, I, + 11 E
 2 y x
l+
 2 y x
. ,
rL 27r nX


A
x 7 = 7/2, and 2 8 x = T. The factor
FI Q. 62AcURRENTS AT V A R I O U S DISTANCES FROM SHORT C I R 
CUIT (HEAVYARROWS ARE VECTORS OF T
OTAL CUERENT)
Zmax = z 1+ c 2 (46)
The three kilometers, or distance at which the im 1   2 ffx
pedance minimum was reached in Fig. 62, is a quarter
of the length of a wave on the wire. Let us compare At six kilometers or a half wire wave length from the
this result with that given by equation (38). Restating shortcircuit reflection, we find in Fig. 62 that the total
the equation. voltage is a minimum and the total current a maximum,
so that the line impedance is a t a minimum value.
I1EYX I 2 P
Ez/Iz = Z (38) 1 2~
I1 E Y X +
I2 EyX Herex=nX,Bz=X
2 nX
nX
2
 T, and 2 B x
In the 'case of a shortcircuit reflection I2= 1,.
Making this substitution in (38) and multiplying = 2 a. Therefore r j 13 = E  j = 1. Using +
248 BEVERAGE, RICE AND KELLOGG Transactions A. I. E. E.
this in .(45) we find that the impedance a half wire In Fig. 62 the minimum current or voltage is seen
wave length from a shortcircuit reflection is to be the difference between the lengths of the vectors
1 2a of the forward and return waves. If these are very
Znri = z (47) nearly equal, the impedance becomes very high at a
1 e2 O X +
The factor e j again reaches the value  1,
when2fizbecomes 37r, 67r, 7?r, 97r, or ......
when the distance z is equal to any odd number of
quarter wave lengths, and it becomes 1 when 2 0 x +
equals 2 T,4 7r, 6 7r, 8 P, ......
or when x is an
even number of quarter wave lengths. Therefore the
impedance of a shortcircuited line is expressed by (46)
if 2 is an odd number of quarter wave lengths and by
(47) if z is an even number of quarter wave lengths.
(It being understood that wave length in this con
nection refers to the Wire wave length, n X)
In the case of an opencircuit reflection Iz =  11, FIQ. *CURVE FOR DETERMININQ LINE ATFEN
UATION FROM
IMPEDANCE RATIO
and the general expression (38) for impedance becomes
11 2 12 ^IX
=z I1 2 + I 1 e ^I current node, and very low at a voltage node. On the
EJIz = Z
I1 2 + I 2  ^ I X * I1 2  I1  ^ I x other hand if the return wave is small compared with
= z 1 + e 22 aa xx
the forward wave, the impedance varies through a
=z 1 + 2rx e j 2 # * (48) much smaller range. Thus the ratio of minimum ts
 j 2 8 x
1 e2r 1 E e maximum impedance shows the magnitude of the return
TABLE VIII ,
CONDITIONS FOR MAXIMUM OR MINIMUM IMPEDANCE OF LINE
Dbhnce from point of reflection, wave lengths.. .............
Impedance. with shortrcircuit reflection.. ....................
Impedance. withopencircuitreflection. ..................... I min. I max. I min. I max. I min. 1 max. I min. I max I mia.
m e n  j 2 8 =  1, or when z is an odd number of wave as compared with the forward wave, or in other
quarter wave lengths, the impedance (48) takes the words it shows the attenuation which the waves undergo
minimum value shown in (47), and when E  j = in traveling to the end of the line and back.
+ 1 or 2 is an even number of quarter wave lengths If the frequency of the current being supplied to the
the impedance z kilometers from the end of the open line, (in Fig. 61) is such that there are a whole number
circuited line has the maximum value given by (46). of quarter waves on the line, and we take measurements
Summarizing, the impedance of the line takes the of the input impedance, with the far end open, and also
minimum value (47) or the maximum value (46), with it shortcircuited, we obtain a maximum im
depending on the type of reflection and the distance pedance (46a) and a minimum impedance (47a) for
from the reflection point, as shown in Table VIII. the same frequency. Letting m stand for the ratio
Since in the present case the impedance is to be meas of the minimum to maximum impedance, we may
uredat the end of the line we substitute 1 for z in (46) calculate the attenuation as follows:
and (47) giving for the line input impedance.  2 a l
1 E
Zmax = Z
1 E2a1 + (464
Z
1+2a1
1 E
 2 a l m = Zmitt/Znrax =
1 E
 2 a l
Z
1 + E2a
Zmin = Z (474  2 a l
1 + E  2 a 1
1 E
 2 a l
ma and minima as indicated in Table VIII is also ob 1 E
tained if the length of the line is constant and the
4% = (49)
1+ P a l
wave length, or frequency is changed. This is what is
done when we take the measurements for plotting the 2
&i+1=
input impedance curve like that shown in Fig. 60. 1+E2a1
.Feb. 1923 THE WAVE ANTENNA 249
RRrxr m=s,m%&
Fro. CURVE FOR D ETERMINING ATTENUATION CONSTANT
fig. 69 shows the apparatus which the writers have reflection. For a given frequency the line presents a
for measuring line input impedance. At either definite impedance at its terminals, and adding re
a voltage or current node the line is substantially a sistance in the supply circuit merely reduces the current
unity power factor load a n d ,its impedance may be and voltage supplied to the line without altering the
determined by finding the naninductive resistance ratio of voltage to current at the line terminals.
which will give thesame current. The pickup coil It is desirable in some cases to check the values of line
should preferably have a low reactance compared with constants as determined from the input impedance, by
the impedance to be measured. When a current maxi direct measurement. Arrangement is made for tele
mum is observed, the resistance is substituted for the phone communication over the line as shown in Fig. 71
line and the condenser C,adjusted to tune out the react the circuits being designed to have negligible effect on
ance of the pickup coil. The circuit is then switched the radio frequency currents. Various resistances are
back to the line and the oscillator frequency read tried at the far end of the line, until a value is found
justed to give current maximum. If the change of which gives constant impedance at the oscillator end,
oscillator frequency has been considerable a repetition
of the process will be needed. In the case of a low loss
line it is desirable to use a relatively highreactance
pick up coil and high sensitivity meter for measuring
the impedance maxima and. a lower impedance coil
FIG. 7&cIRCUIT FOR MEASURING TNPUT IMPEDANCE OF L O W
Loss LINES
xr
trial at the far end. The presence of partial reflections
attenuation constant. If reflections occur either at small resistance is shown in series with the line to ground
the end or at any other point on the line there will be capacity and a higher resistance in the horizontal return
humps or hollows in the curve. With the end open conductor, which is at a depth corresponding to the
circuited or grounded, this method of study shows the mean depth of the earth currents. The capacity of
standing wav& on the line, from which the velocity and such a line would be substantially the same as for a
attenuation can be calculated. Curves of this kind wire of the same height, over a perfectly conducting
are shown in Figs.3; 4,6,7,8and 9. earth. The inductance would be that corresponding to
Interpretation of Observed Line Constants. The +
a wire H D meters above a conducting plane which
explanation of the manner in which velocity and at forms the return conductor. There would be a small
tenuation are affected by frequency, is to be found in added charging current loss due to the resistance in
the varying depth of penetration of the return currents series with the capacity and a much larger loss due to
into the ground; Fig. 72 shows the general shape of the the resistance of the horizontal return conductor.
path of the ground current. There is a skin effect Since the depth of penetration increases with wave
which tends to concentrate the earth currents near the length we should expectgreater inductance and therefore
surface. If it were not for this skin effect the mean lower velocities on long waves. The greater the
depth of the earth currents in ground of uniform con penetration the lower the resistance to the earth cur
ductivity would be a considerable fraction of a wave rents. Therefore the losses are less and the attenuation
length, probably between one and two thousand meters less on long waves. Highground resistance increases
with a twelve thousand meter wave. As it is, most of the penetration and loss at thesame time, and therefore
the earth current is within one hundred meters of the reduces the velocity and increases the attenuation.
surface, with waves of this length and soil of moderate Beverage found for the sandy soil near Eastport, L. .
conductivity. Zenneckss analysis gives the depths of I. a specific resistance of about 2 x lo6 ohms per
penetration of earth currents for the case of space waves centimeter cube. Since ground water occurs at a depth
of plane wave front from which we can obtain a rough of something less than 100 feet (30 meters) the excess
idea of the order of magnitude for the case of waves on a resistance and inductance of the Riverhead antenna are
wire supported a short distance above earth. materially less than those corresponding to this value
of soil resistance.
OF m
O c ~ C r o U vS npnr .TlO,+ Table IX shows the calculated inductance and
  &  __   capacity of a one, two, and a four wire line based on
perfectly conducting ground. The wire spacing is
 b taken as 4 feet (1.3 meters) each way with 20 feet (6.6
FIG. 72DISTRIBUTION O F G ROUND CURRENTS UNDER WIRE meters) clear above ground.
CARRYING WAVES
TABLE IX.
CONSTANTS OF LINE OVER PERFECT GROUND
If the earth carries current almost entirely by con
duction rather than by capacity, which is true for all
,.lI
1 wire
except short wave lengths or extremely highresistance
ground, Zennecks formula for penetration may be mh
L., inductance,, perfect wound.. ...... 1.86 1:14 0.8
stated in the following form. . km
D = 50.dp/f .
6 capacity, m f perfect ground.. .........
km
0.006 o.on98 0.0139
in which D is the depth in meters a t which the earth
current density is reduced to 1/e = 0.368 of its value ohms .............
DC. resistance of wires,  3.3 1.64 0.82
a t the surface. km.
high and the accuracy of the bridge was not checked, impedance. The full expression for surge impedance
we shall assume the capacity to be 10 per cent greater in vector terms is
than the calculated value CO. This gives the constants
z=JR+jwL
shown in Table X for a two wire line. G joC +
TABLE X. in which G represents a shunt conductance of such
I
T o Wire Line
value as to give the equivalent of all the dielectric loss.

.............................
u 
~puency.. 12.000
observed velocity. lrm. per see.. ........ 2.33 X10
20,000 30,000
2.37 X l d 2.42 Xld
The phase angle of 2 is 1/2 tan
(

R G
.n I 5 U
velocity ratio.. ............. 77.4 79 80.6
L   1
u* (1.1 9)
Mective inductance.. ... I .73 1.66 1.69 which becomes  1/2 tan
OL
when G = 0. From
Lp =LI& =added inductance for
........ the values of L, C, and R given in the above tables we
D  mea+th
ground.mh.perkm 0.59
of earth currents (meters), . 118
0.52
83
0.45
56 fmd the values for the surge impedance shown in
z  Jk SUrgeImpedance ........... 4oo 393 384 Table XII. The figures preceded by  j are ohms of
a
R
 observed attenuation per kilometer. ...
2a 2 redstance to give observed at
0.033 0.044 0.066
capacity reactance. The actual amount of reactance
would be slightly less than this, since G is not actually
tenuation. ohms per k. m.. ... 26.5 34.5 43 zero.
R, = R  Rw = eguiwlent registance Of
w L  ground..................
Inductive reactance per kilometer. .. 131
24.3 31.75
208
39.7
300
DIRECTIVE RECEPTION AND STRAY RATIO
Direction of Static. The general opinion that, on the
average, summer static comes from a definite direction,
The ground losses and penetration would not be for example from a southwesterly direction on our North
materially different for the one and four wire lines. Atlantic coast, seems to have been brought to a focus
Taking the values of R, and L, for the two wire line as by Pickards classical paper2on Static Elimination by
applicable to the one and four wire lines, we may calcu Directional Reception. In the discussion Pickard
late the attenuation and velocity to be expected on the cites an interesting note made by Marconi in 1906,
latter as follows: giving the results of his observation on the directivity
of static.
The formulas 2 = d r C ,a
 =
R 2
2 andu=
i The remarks by Austin, Blatterman, Hoxie and
4LC Beverage are of particular interest in showing the trend
are approximations applicable when the resistance is of opinion as based on observation. The early work
small compared with the inductive reactance. In this of TaylorZ2isalso of considerable interest in this con
nection. Taylor found that atmospherics were very
strong on the high vertical antennas contemplated
for European reception. After describing tests of
various heights and lengths of antenna with the result
that the signal to static ratio remained constant, he
FIG. 73cIRClJIT APPROXIMATELY EQUIVALENT
TO G ROUND goes on to sayOne of the first questions that
naturally arises in connection with these sturbs is,
instance w L is more than four times R for all the cases where do they come from? and it was considered that
calculated and the errors in the magnitudes of a,u, and if their office of origin could be located this might help
Z, due to the use of these abbreviated formulas are solve the problem of their elimination. For this pur
small. There is however an appreciable phase angle pose an investigation has been conducted a t the Belmar
to the vector of the surge impedance 2,which i t is of Station, where a directive antenna of the BelliniTosi
interest to estimate. If the losses were equally divided type was erected. The conclusions from his observa
between dielectric and vertical ground current losses tions are that static a t Belmar has an average direction
on the one hand and wire resistance and horizontal of south to southwest, as later observations have shown.
ground current losses on the other, or to put it differ Alexanders~n~~ had also observed the marked directivity
erently if a short section of line with ground return had of static with his Barrage Receiver. More recently a
the same power factor, considered as an inductance as it great deal of very valuable systematic experimental
has when treated as a condenser, then the surge work has been done by Austinz4on this subject.
impedance, would have zero phase angle or be equiva 21. Institute of Radio Engineers 1920 Vol. 8, P. 397.
lent to a pure resistance. In the present case the ground 22. C. H. Taylor, Direction of Maximum Atmospheric Dis
10 are for the most part equivalent to the effect of turbances on Wave Range 6OOO to 12OOO Meters Belmar, N. J.
an added resistance in the line. If we assume all the Sept., Oct. 1915 and Nov., Jan. 1916, Yearbook of Wireless
Telegraphy and Telephony 1917 P. 726743.
l0s to be the result of line resistance we shall obtain 23. E. F. W. Alexanderson. 1. R. E. AUE.1919.
a maximum value for the Dhase angle  of the
 ~  siirg.~
  ~~
c '= 1,.1Co
1
+

L = b Lo = total inductance.............................
Capacity.....................................
2.45
0.0066
2.38
0.0066
2.31
0.0066
1.39
0.0153
. 1.32
0.0163
1.25
0.0163
n  u

. 3x106
= velocity.ratio.. ............................. 0.827 0.84 0.853 0.72 0.74 0.76
R, = ground resistance. 
O h
..............................
I
24.3
I31.75 39.7 !4.3 t1.75 39.7
R = R, + RW
km
Rw = wireresistance .................................
Ohms
km
...........................
= totalreststance..
1
28.7
4.4 1 5.5
37.25
6.6
16.3
1.1
15.4
1.4
B.15
1
41.3
1.6
R
a =  = attentuationconstant........................... 0.0235 0.031 0.039 0.042 0.0565 0.072
2 2
Z = L/C = surge impedance............................... 610 602 592 301 294 286
w L = inductive reactance per km.. .......................... 185 299 435 105 166 236
TABLE XI1
0
Frequency .............................
O L ................................... 1 1 I
12.000
185
20.000
299
30.000
435
12.000
131
20,000
208
30.000
300
12.000
105
20.000
166
30000
236
R .....................................
Tag R
.  .......
WL
.......1 28.7
8.801
37.2
7.001
46.3
6.00
26.5
11.4'
34.5
9.4
43
8.20
25.4
13.6O
33.1
11.3'
41.3
loo
Angleof2 = 1/2TanI
R
WL
..........1 4.401 3.501 3.0' 5.70 4.70 4.10 6.8' 5.65' 5'
1 1 1 1 1 1
I I I I ~~
I ~~
Components. R ...... 1. .
Z = Total Impedance.. .................
................
X .........................
610
608
47j 1 602
371
601
592
591
3lj
400
398
4Oj
393
. 392
32i 1 384
27j
383
301
299
36j
294
292
29j
286
285
25j
Austin's conclusions on the directivity of static for various directions as compared with the loop. The area
the wave length range of 8000 to 18,000 meters are of the directive curve of the loop is onehalf that of the
briefly as follows: static antenna when both have the same sensitiveness
1. U . S. Atlantic Coast static mainly southwest. for signal. Thismeans that if disturbancescome equally
2. Gulf Coast roughly southwest. from all directions, the loop will receive just half the
3. Seattle (vicinity) roughly east. energy from the disturbing waves which the static
4. Sun Francisco and Sun Diego sharply east. antenna receives.
5 .  Porto Rico two marked directions, namely, west The combination of loop and static antenna while no
and south. more sharply directive than the simple loop from the
Gain from Directive Receivers. Even at times when standpoint of the area of its directive curve, can be
static shows no marked predominating direction, a adjusted so that reception from certain directions is
directive receiving system will obviously reduce or prevented. Fig. 75 shows the directive curve of the
eliminate that fraction of the static which comes from combination of loop and static antenna when the inten
directions to which the receiving system is insensitive. sities of the two are adjusted to equality for signal.
When. static is sharply directional the possibilities of By using less energy from the static antenna than from
improving the stray ratio through the use of a suitable the loop the directive curve can be made to assume any '
directive receiving system are still greater. form such as Fig. 76, intermediate between the cardioid
An important step in the improvement of stray ratios of Fig. 75 and the lemniscate of Fig. 74. This is a n
was taken when loops superseded static antennas for exceedingly useful property, particularly if static or
long wave reception. A further improvement resulted other disturbances comes largely from a certain direc
from combining a loop with a static antenna to give a tion.
unidirectional antenna system. The loop is more At times static has a predominating direction, while
directive than the static antenna. Fig. 74 shows the at other times it appears to be widely distributed, so
iirective curve of a loop, the large circle being drawn that both features are importantdirective curve of
3 show the relative sensitiveness of a static antenna for small area, and ability to prevent reception entirely
254 BEVERAGE, RICE AND KELLOGG Transactions A. I. E. E.
from certain directions. If static, while not confined to opposite to the desired signal. The spacing of the loops
a specificdirection, comes largely from a certain quarter, is preferably between an eighth and a quarter wave
it is important to have an antenna system whose length. Compared with systems which obtain their
directive curve has a small &a within the angle from directivity in a small space, the full length wave antenna
which the heaviest static comes. has the advantage mentioned in connectioli with the
discussion of short wave antennas, namely, that the
signal currents developed are strong in comparison with
residuals, and therefore there is a better chance of
very small so that disturbances coming from any direc some of which coincide with the static disturbances in
tion more than 90 deg. from the signal have relatively the radio receiving sets. Among these noises is an
small effect, and we have shown in the discussion of the occasional ping, or sound of dehitely musical
reflection balance, that a blind spot can be produced for character, resembling the sound given out when a bare
any direction more than 90 deg. from that of the signal. telephone or telegraph wire is struck a sharp blow. No
The benefit resulting from reduction in directive curve such sound in the receiver is heard, however, when the
area is illustrated by the fact that in a number of com outside wire is actually struck.
parisons the full wave antenna has always shown The manner in which such continuous trains of waves
noticeably better stray ratios than an antenna half the might originate is not evident, but the following analogy
length, although the difference in calculated area is is of interest. If you throw a stone into the water, you
comparatively slight. will note two or three circular waves as soon as the
Directive Efects for Impukes. The question will splash has subsided. Three or four seconds later you
naturally arise whether directivity curves calculated for can count seven or eight waves, of substantially uniform
continuous waves, are applicable to the steep wave size with a calm area inside, and after some ten seconds
fronts and pulses of static. The experimental evidence there may be a dozen t o twenty waves. This analogy
is that they are applicable. It is clear that in the case may haveno significance in connection with ether waves,
of the wave antenna, waves on the wire will build up in but it suggests a possibility. If it is true that static
the direction of travel of the space wave, and relatively contains trains of waves of moderately low decrement,
feeble waves will reach the opposite end of the antenna, this would in part explain the failure of attemptsto
whatever the wave shape or number of waves in the improve stray ratio by interior circuits (apart from the
train. As applied to antennas or circuits in which a frequency selectivity obtainable by highly tuned cir
balance of some sort i s employed, to give zero reception cuits) and point to the conclusion that increased direct
for continuous waves from certain directions, the ivity must be our main reliance for further improve
explanation of our experience with static is to be found ments in receiving through static.
in the great frequency selectivity of our receiving sets.
Harmonic analysis of a pulse would show it to be equiva GENERAL ENGINEERING FEATURES
lent to the sum of a large number of trains of waves of Tgpe of Construction. It is brought out in the dis
different frequencies. Of these the receiving set rejects cussion of the theory that, so far as collecting signal
all but the waves of signal frequency. Another view of energy is concerned, there is no object in placing the
the problem is the following: wires of a wave. antenna higher than is required for
Any circuit which produces a balance or zero recep security and to pass obstructions. A high line will
tion for continuous waves of a certain frequency will show slightly greater wave velocity and less attenua
react to a single pulse in such a way as to cause a second tion than a low line, and be less affected by changes in
pulse in the opposite direction, simultaneously or a ground conditions or proximity of trees, which some
whole number of cycles later, or else a second pulse in times cause sufficient changes in the line constants to
the receiver in the same direction as the original, but give rise to slight reflections. The differences in favor
an odd number of half cycles later. The receiving of the higher line, however, are so small that they
set has a tuned circuit and a detecting system which would rarely warrant the.expense of taller poles.
integrates over many cycles the effects of the oscillation Apart from the importance of a straight line and
o the tuned circuit. If the neutralizing pulse is avoiding proximity of other conductors, the specifi
simultaneous with the original, the tuned circuit is cations for wave antenna construction might be taken
unaffected; otherwise the tuned circuit is set into bodily from those written for an open wire copper
oscillation by the initial pulse, but immediately stopped telephone circuit. Any change in construction or
by the neutralizing pulse. The integrated effect of the material which will appreciably alter the line impedance
brief oscillation is comparatively slight. If there were and give rise to reflections, should be avoided. Special
no neutralizing pulse the tuned circuit would (assuming care should be given to obtaining clean surfaces for
a reasonably low loss circuit), execute something like a making joints, since we are dealing with voltages which,
hundred oscillations before the amplitude is reduced to on the average, are hardly a tenth of those developed
half the initial value. in ordinary telephone circuits. Sleeve joints are
While we have discussed static as if it consisted of recommended for permanence. The smallest coppex
single pulses or of waves of very high decrement, it may wire which will stand the storms will make as satis
well be that some of our static consists of trains of many factory an antenna as a heavier wire. Good balance,
waves of a fairly constant frequency. The wave where two wires are used, is important, and for this
antenna, being aperiodic, provides a means of studying reason firstclass insulation should be provided. We
some of these disturbances without altering their have seen that a singlewire antenna shows lower at
character. If we insert an ordinary telephoce receiver tenuation and higher velocity than a two wire antenna.
in the ground lead, at one end of a wave antenna, we For the same reasons, although in less degree, the use
hear a variety of crackling and sputtering noises, of small wire, and placing the wires near together (if
256 BEVERAGE, RICE AND KELLOGQ Transactions A. I. E. E.
the ante consists of several wires in multiple) is ab and dc would by no means neutralize. On theother
conducive to high velocity and small attenuation. . , sections a6 and cb, which are
hand, in Fig. 7 8 ~the
Except for t e m p o w or experimental purposes, affected by disturbances at right angles to the antenna,
t W 0  d antennas are practically always desirable, are a small fraction of a wave length apart, and the
since they permit adjustments in the station for putting effects of the disturbance would nearly neutralize each
out ''back end" disturbances. The use of more wires other in the two sections.
will, in some cases, collect slightly more energy, It is important to provide grounds at the ends of the
but has no other advanta antenna which will not change sufficiently to upset
Whether a d n i m m ' o uation and a high adjustments. A body of water in which several
velocity are desirable depends primarily on the length hundred feet of copper wire can be laid is the most
of the antenna. For an antenna a wavelength long, desirable terminal for the antenna, but fairly satis
the best directive properties are obtained with a velocity
between 0.7 and 0.8 of that of light. Higher velocities
IIfit
.. .
are desirable for longer antennas and lower velocities
for shorter antennas; These considerations may govern
p
the choice of number of wk&, or other features of the
: : : T1j j I
.
Zircuits, but they should be transposed frequently common resistance in the ground. Fig. 82 shows a
znough to prevent picking up radio frequency currents circuit designed to isolate a portion of a telephone line
by induction from other circuits. for antenna purposes. This provides both chokes and
Transmission lines will inevitably act as antennas and a drain, and the coils and condensers are proportioned
waves will be built up on them by disturbances traveling to cause minimum interference with the passage of the
parallel with the direction of the transmission lines. telephonic currents. If the grounding of the wires
[f the lines are balanced, these waves will cause no through the 0.3 microfarad condensers makes the
iifference of potential between wires, but only potentials telephone line noisy, a 0.2 microfarad condenser in the
;o ground. Balanced transformers at the ends, with ground lead will reduce this tendency.
~ledrostaticshielding between primary and secondary, All parallel wires. which are not used as part of the
d l in general suffice to prevent any effects of the antenna should be sectionalized for radio frequency
xmsitic waves from entering the receiver. Cases may currents, either by coils, or by links of artificial line
uise,however, in which the waves built up on the trans like that shown in Fig. 82, at intervals of a quarter or a
nission line are especially strong, making adequate third wavelength or less, of the shortest waves for
d a n c e difficult. There are several possible measures which the antenna is to be used.
or reducing the antenna effectsof the transmission lines,
uch as
1. Loading to give low velocity.
2. Sectionalizing with transformers.
3. Draining.
If the loading coils in the two wires are inductively FIQ. 8 1  8 ~ ~ ~ 1 R TRANSMISSION
oupled, they may be made to introduce comparatively LINES, WITH BYPASS FOR DIRECT CUBRENT
_DnrcCnO+J W
S l W
The principal disadvantages of using telegraph or
telephone wires for an antenna are the compromise
antenna design which is likely to result, and the diffi
culty of making tests on the antenna for balance or
leakage. The latter applies especially to telegraph
lines. If the wires are used for telephony only, large
stopping condensers which will permit the telephone
ringing currents to pass, may be introduced in series
with the wires, at the ends of the antenna, thus per
mitting direct current tests to be made on the antenna.
Antenna Testing. In any permanent receiving sys
FIQ. ALTERNATIVETO FIQ.79 tem it should be possible, from the station, to test the
continuity and insulation of the antenna and the balance
ttle inductance in the transmission line and a higher or quietness of the transmission line. Fig. 83 shows an
iductance in the ground return line. A shortcircuited
xondary of suitable resistance will cause high loss to
rdio frequency currents in the two wires in multiple, ' MToTlrVU5D
w M U N 4
ut have no effect on the currents in the metallic circuit. 
Sectionalizing as shown in Fig. 81 is one of the most
Tective means of preventing antenna effects in a
xnsmission line. Drains from the neutrals of the FIG. 82ISOLATION O F PART O F TELEPHONE LINE FOR USE A 8
ansformer are also shown, to dissipate energy and A NTENNA
revent standing waves from building up.
Use of Existing Wires for Antenna. Existing copper arrangement which Beverage applied to the Riverhead
ire lines, if uniform throughout the required length, antenna. With the switch S1open, the line is insulated
Id having the proper bearing, may be utilized as wave from ground and may be tested for leakage by voltmeter
itennas. If the wires are in use for telegraph service, or megger. Throwing the switch S?to the battery side
ils of 0.075 to 0.1 henry inductance may be used to operates the relay at the far end of the antenna. This
olate the part of the line which is to be used as an cuts out the reflection transformer, and if the trans
Itenna. The remainder of the line may be drained mission line is balanced the receiving set becomes al
rough condensers if objectionable disturbances get most entirely quiet. Fig. 84 shows the application of
2st the coils into the antenna section. Unless the the same method of testing to the case where the re
ltenna ground is of very low resistance the ground for ceiving station is connected through transmission lines
kidrain should be separate, in order that disturbances to the antenna. Arrangements for more complete tests
d l not be carried through to the antenna, owing to are obviously possible, employing polarized relays or
258 BEVERAGE, RICE AND KELLOGG Tranmtions A. I. E. E.
selector switches, but the need of any more elaborate reflection transformer. This consists in grounding one
testing system has not yet arisen. . wire of the antenna and leaving the other opencir
Protection. Potentials of several hundred volts are cuited. The signal wave currents built up on the
not uncommon on the wave antenna, even with no antenna flow in the same direction in the two wires.
storm in the immediate vicinity. All coils which may When the waves reach the end of the antenna, reflec
have to stand these voltages should therefore have tions occur in opposite phase on the two wires, so that
substantial insulatim. Condensers rated at 1000 volts the waves which travel back toward the receiving
have been used in the installations at Belmar, Chatham, station are of opposite sign,and are received by a trans
and Riverhead. Vacuum tube lightning arresters former in the station connected across from wire to wire,
rated at 360 volts are connected between antenna wires exactly as is the case when a reflection transformer is
and ground at both ends. The switch S, in Fig. 83, is used.
closed except during tests, to prevent static potentials Iron core transformers have been used for the antenna
from accumulating. output, or between the transmission line and the re
Apparatus Used with Wave Antenna. Some idea of ceiving set. The core is of 0.0015 in. enamelled iron,
the design of the essential pieces of apparatus which go and is approximately a square inch in crosssection.
with the wave antenna, may be of interest. The primary, or line winding, is in two equal coils of 60
The reflection transformer for long wave work con turns each, placed symmetrically on the core and
sists of three 84 turns pancake coils. The two out symmetrically with respect t o the secondary windings.
side coils in series constitute the secondary winding There are four secondary windings of 160 turns each
with a grounded tinfoil shield between each winding and
the next to prevent electrostatic coupling. The.
*secondarywindings are connected to thegridsof pliotron
tubes. A greater stepup ratio might have been em
ployed, with consequent increase in signal strength, but
the method of compensation, or back end balance, did
not provide sufficient potentials t o permit using any
FIQ. ~BARRANGEMENTS FOR INSULATINO AND B ALANCE TESTB
more secondary turns on the output transformer.
Another type of antenna output transformer has been
7 l
used in which the secondary winding is connected
directly in series with a tuned circuit of the receivingset.
This transformer was essentially like the one already
described, except that the secondary windings were of
ten turns each.
The artificial line which is used t o adjust phase for the
back end compensation, consists of a wooden cylinder
4 inches (10 cm.) in diameter, on which is wound a single
FIQ. @R ELAY CIRCUIT FOR TESTINQ ANTENNA OVER TRANS layer 36 in. long of 0.0126 enamelled copper wire spaced
MISSION LINER
46 turns per inch. A tap is brought out, 3/4 in. from
the end, and every 1% inches thereafter, giving a total
which is connected between the antenna wires. The of 24 taps. A 0.005 microfarad condenser is connected
middle coil, which is the primary winding, is connected from each winding tap t o the common conductor, which
from ground to the neutral of the secondary. Each forms the other side of the line. A damping resist
coil is approximately 8 in. by 11in. diameter by 1/2 in. ance of about 400 ohms, wound on a card, is connected
thick. The conductor consists of seven strands of across one end of the line. The line has an electrical
0,010 in. wire with double cotton covering and a cotton length of about 16,000meters and an intensity loss of
braid, thus giving a loose, lowcapacity winding. The about 5 per cent from end t o end. Four sliders are
whole transformer is placed in a wooden box which is provided, with doublecontact phosphor bronze springs
filled with paraffin to exclude moisture. The following which bear lightly on the Wires of the solenoid.
readings show the inductance: A trap to prevent interference from the transmitting
Primary (84 turns) with secondary station at Marion, Mass., which is directly in front of
open. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.4 millihenrys the Riverhead antenna, was used to advantage by
Primary with secondary shortcir Beverage. This consisted in a lowresistance series
cuited .......................... 0.56 tuned circuit (about 15 millihenrys and a 0.005 micro
Secondary (168 turns) with primary . farad variable air condenser) connected between the
open. ......................... .7.5 U wires of the antenna in the station, thus shunting the
Secondary with primary shortcir primary of the output transformer. This formed such
cuited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 U a lowimpedance shunt when tuned t o Marions wave
An arrangement suggested by Kellogg eliminates the length as to practically extinguish his signals. Subse
Feb. 1923 THE WAVE ANTENNA 259
quently, with receiving sets in which additional fre order to lessen the effect of the vertical conductors at
quency selectivity was provided, this shunt trap was the ends. Fig. 85 shows suitable arrangements for
omitted, but it has a field of usefulness, and the high short wave reception. The surge impedance for a given
power factor of the circuit, where it is applied, makes its type of construction will be slightly less on short waves
operation simple and satisfactory. than on long waves. The double wire antenna with
Application to Shrt Waves.26 We have discussed the reflection transformer has a decided advantage in
wave antenna as applied to long wave reception only; convenience compared with .a singlewire antenna.
that is, to the reception of waves ranging from 7000 to The equivalent of the reflection transformernamely,
25,000 meters, used in transoceanic communication. grounding one wire and leaving the other opencircuited,
It was in this field that the need of greater directivity will, as a rule, be prefened for its simplicity. Rear
in reception seemed most urgent, and in this field that end compensation by means of the reflection balance
the wave antenna was developed. The writers early is desirable and easily applied. This calls for a series
demonstrated, in the short wave tests at Schenectady, tuned circuit in series with the surge impedance, as
that the wave antenna functioned in the same way on shown in Fig. 85. The resistance should be variable
short waves as on long waves. and the capacity reactance and inductive reactance
The first commercial application to shorter waves should preferably not exceed about 500 ohms each.
was the construction of a 2000meter antenna at For output a coil of about 0.1 millihenry in the ground
Chatham, Mass., for ship reception. This antenna was lead of a singlewire antenna, or, if the reflection trans
built in the summer of 1921 and is used for receiving former system is followed, a 0 . 2 millihenry coil con
traffic from ships having 1800 to 3000 meter continuous nected between the two wires of the antenna is suit
wave transmitting sets. It was in no wise a disap able. The h t tuned circuit of the receiving setrmay
pointment, for it resulted in a great improvement in then be coupled to this output coil.
reception, making it possible to receive ships from
practically all the way across the Atlantic.
The next important trial of the wave antenna for
short wave reception was during Mr. Paul F. Godleys
transoceanic reception tests at Ardrossan, Scotland.
Using a wave antenna about 400 meters long, pointed
toward the TvTnited States, and using the best short wave
receiving apparatus obtainable, Mr. Godley copied
messages from many American amateur stations, on
1 /a 900
.00,
.og..r.
n#
=.
APPENDIX B
Analysis of Action of Wave Antenna
The following treatment of the problem of the wave
To divide one vector quantits by another we take antenna, was worked out by Mr. Ivar Herlitz or Kel
the quotient of their lengths and the difference of their logg's request. Mr. Herlitz was at the time pursuing
graduate studies in electrical engineering at Union
College as exchange student of the American Scandi
. .
. navian Foundation. The treatment is given here partly
'
by way of a?,knowledgmentfor the substantial assistance
Multiplication and division may also be performed
+
with the vectors in the form a jb, thus (a j b) (c + derived from Mr. Herlitz's solution of the problem,
at an early date in the evolution of the theory of the
+ i d ) = a c + j a d + j b c + j 2 b d = (a c  b d )
antenna, and partly because the equations are derived
+j(ad+bC) in a radically different manner, and provide a valuable
a+jb  (a + i b ) (c  i 4 means of checking results as calculated by the expres
c+jd +
 (c j d ) (c  i d ) sions given in the body of the paper.
+ + +
 ( a c b d ) j ( a d b c ) Referring to Fig. 26, x is a distance measured along
+
cZ dz the antenna from the end A , nearest the source of
In the foregoing any component or any angle may signals, and I is the total length of the antenna.
have a negative sign. As in the discussion given in the paper, the induced
+ +
In the expression u j b = 4az b2 (COS cp j sin + voltage per unit length of wire at the point X,is taken
+
9)where cp = tan' b / a the quantity 1/ u2 b2 taken
as
E, = E~cos e
 j w x (cos e ) / 9
by itself would have zero phase angle, and the quantity
+
(cos cp jsin p) has a phase angle cp and a length The following new symbols will be used.
unity (since cos2 p+ sin' p = 1 and therefore i = current in wire at X
/, cos2 cp + sin2cp = 1). Multiplying by cos cp + j sin e = potential of wire at X, with respect to ground.
The potential gradient along wire is the resultant
9, or its equivalent P thus simply causes a counter
clockwise rotation or phase advance by the amount of of that due to the passage of current through the line
the angle cp. Multiplying by ~  j * or cos ( cp) + j inductance and resistance, and the voltage induced
sin (  cp) which is cos cp  j sin (a, causes clockwise in the wire by the space wave, or
rotation or phase retardation by the amount of the d=e  . ( R + j w L) i + E,cos 8 E j w x (fos
e)/9
.
angle cp. dx
From the rule for multiplication it follows that to (52)
square a vector quantity we square its length and The current in the wire changes from point to point
double its angle. Thus (A / P ) ~= A2 /2 cp and con by the amount of the leakage and charging currents,
versely to find the square r o o t o f a vectorwe take the or
square
 root of its length and divide its angle by two, di   ( G + j o C ) e
dx (53)
d A & = d>/1/2v.
Differentiation of a vector quantity A, with respect de
to some variable X, on which A depends, gives the Differentiating (53) and solving for 
d x gives
vector change in A per unit change in X .
d A  A z  A1
dx 2.2 21
 (G+jd)Eocos8e
j w x (ws @ ) / v
from which
and since Z (G + j w c) y
D( Y' + w2y2e
) (G + = j w C ) Eocos 8
E~cos e
=
Y + j
cos e
D = (G + j wwC2 )cos2
Eocos 8 B=
cos2 e
YZ+
e (60) 2z Y2 + w2
v2
= E~ cos e
Using this value of D in (571, we have as the gen (63)
eral expression for current 2 z [ ~  j cos 1
i = A ~ ~ ~ + B ~  ~ ~ Next setting x = I in (61) and (62) and equating +Zi
(G + j w C ) E, cos e  j to e we have
+ w2 cos2
ccOs
e
e)/r
(61)
z A z + z B E' '
Y2 + vs
(G + j w C)cos2
Eo cos 8 I I (cos e)/r
The constants A and B depend on the terminal im +Z w2e E
pedagce and we must find an expression for the volt r+ v2
82
in which we may substitute the value of  given in
dx 2ZAZ'=
(58) using the value given in (60) for D
 Y A Z" Y B E  ' ~
e=G+jwC+G+jwC
. cos e E, cos e
+ J v  i w x (cos e ) / v


w2 cos2 8
Y2 + v2
y +j'id cos 4
Y c
Since = Z, the expression for e becomes.
G+jwc
~ =  Z A E ~ ~ + Z B ~  ' ~
262 BEVERAGE, RICE AND KELLOGG Transactions A. I. E. E.
e)/o
E~cos e r
j w 1 (cos
With these values for A and B and with y/Z sub 
+
stituted for G j w C, equation (61) for current be +
2 Z [ (Y j S (1  n cos 0) ] X
comes
The back end current is found by setting z = 0
in (65) which gives

 [Y + 3 w I (COO e)/v
1  w z i, = E~cos e
r 1
e
APPENDIX C
 j w I (cos e)/o
List of Symbols
+ 2 r
Symbols in heavy faced type, as I, E, Z stand for
vector quantities.
L = Series inductance of antenna conductors, henrys
 ~ ~ c eo s  j w 1 (cos e ) / v
per kilometer.
 22
(7j
wcos8 ) C = Shunt capacity of antenna, farads per kilometer
R = Effective series resistance of antenna, ohms per
kilometer
G = Leakage conductance to ground, mhos for one
kilometer, (effective value at high frequency)
Z = Characteristic or surge impedance of antenna

7 I +j
w 1 (cos e)/w
+
Y + j
COS
..
e
} Z = 4 +j
G+jwC
or for most purposes at radio
frequency Z = d L/C
y = Propagation constant for antenna
+
Y = 4 ( R j w L ) (G j w C) +
a = Attenuation constant per kilometer = real part
cos e
u = Antenna wave velocity, kilometers per second Pickard, G. W. Elec. Rev. 50, 963, 985; 52, 262; 53, 494;
u = w / P or u = l/d/Lc approximately Electrician 59,563,1907.
BelliniTosi. Telegraphie et Telephonie sans fi1 dirigeables.
v = Velocity of space waves
Tosi. Bull. Soc. Znt. des Electriciens 8, 707730, second series.
= Velocity of light = 3 x 105 kilometers per 1908.
second E. Bellini. Uber einige Luftgebilde fur gerichtete drahtlose
n = Velocity ratio of antenna = u/v Telegraphie. Jahrbuch 2,381496, 1908.
f = frequency of signal waves, cycles per second Bellini and Tosi. Methods of Obtaining Directed Waves.
Electrician 60, 748, 1908; 62, 598, 1908; 68,381, 1909; 62, 608,
3 x 105 1909.
X = Signal wave length = 7 kilometers Bellini and Tosi. Directive Wireless Telegraphy. Proc.
Phys. SOC.London, 21,305, 1908; Elec. Engineering 3,348, 1908;
w =27rj Bellini, Jahrbuch 2,381,808,19091910.
Blondel, A. Uber die Bestimmung der Richtung von Schiffen
e = Base of natural logarithms = 2.718 =
Vermittels der Hertzchen Wellen. Jahrbuch 8,190,1908.
100.4343x
F. Kiebitz. Gerichtete drahtlose Telegraphie. Verh, d.
I = Length of antenna in kilometers deutsch. Physik, 10. 934944, 1908. Mitt, Tel. Ver. 6, 22, 1910.
6 = Angle between direction of signal and direction J. Zenneck. Uber die Wirkungsweise der sender fur gerichtete
of antenna drahtlose Telegraphie. Phys. Zeits, 9,553456,1908.
E. Bellini et A. Tosi. La Portee et les Avantages des Aeriens
Eo = Measure of signal intensity = Induced volts per Dirigeables et le Radiogoniometre BelliniTosi. Lumiere Elec.
kilometer in horizontal conductor parallel to 2nd series, 6, page 263268. Feb. 27,1909.
signal direction G. Eichhorn. Das Radio Goniometer von Bellini und Tosi.
I b = Current at receiver end of antenna (both ends Jahrbuch d. drahtl. Tel. 2,511425. 1909.
of antenna assumed to be damped by surge T. Karrass. Geschichte der Telegraphie. (Book). Page 43.
Brunswick, Germany, 1909, Vieweg. In Bureau of Standards
impedance)  library.
1, = Current at back end of antenna (both ends C. Montu. Recent Progress in Directive Wireless Telegr?phy.
assumed damped) Elettricita (Milan), 33, 291293, Nov. 25, 1909. Describes
P = Specific resistance of earth, ohms for one centi BelliniTosi system.
meter cube. Greenleaf W. Pickard. Antennae. Proceedings 01the Wire
less Institute of America. Vol. 1, No. 2, May 1949. (Meeting
Bibliography on Antennas in New York City, May 5,1909.)
A. Sommer6eld. Uber die Ausbrettung der Wellen in der
DIRECTIONAL, GROUND, UNDERCROUND AND drahtlosen Telegraphie. Ann d. Phys. page 665736, 1909.
UNDERWATER Jahrb. d. drahtl. Tel. 4,157176. 1911.
E.Rotheman. Telegraphie ohne metallische Leitung. E . T . H.,Behnken. Eine Method zur Messung der Wirksamen
2. Vol. 15. Page616618. 1894. Kapazitat von Antennen. Phys. Zeit. 1.6, page 430433, 1913.
I(. Strecker. Ueber die Ausbreitung starker elektrischer Mitt. Tel. Ver., 7, 173, 1910.
StromeinderErdoberflache. E . T . Z . Vol. 17. Page 106110,1896. E. BelLini. Constancy of the Coupling in the BelliniTosi
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264 BEVERAGE. RICE AND KELLOGG Transactions A. I. E. E.
telegraphic Station. Lum. Elec. 13, 227230, 1911; Sci. Abs. B , Verein z. Bef6rd des Gewerbfleisses Verh. No. 4, pp. 225295,
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1911. A. Artom. Directivity of Electrie Waves. ( h a d . Lincei.
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1013, 1912. Sci. Abs. B , p. 518, 1912. E . T . 2. 33,615. June H. Brand. Experiments in Sending with Low Horizontal
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scriptive. Jahrbuch 14, 146152, July 1919.
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266 BEVERAGE RICE AND KELLOQQ Transactions A. I. E. E.
tion Finder Locates Ship with Great Aocurtloy. Wireless in the paper gave the ratio of horizontal to vertical voltage
Age, 6, 10,June 1919. gradient as 30 per cent. This measurement was based on com
Direction fiding by Wireless. London Times Eng. Sup. paratively few observations and was not checked simultaneously
June 1919. against an antenna of known effective height. Furthermore,
Artoms Visual Receiver for Directive Wireless Telegraphy. the measurements were based on vertical gradients calculated
Wireless Age, $1,August 191% by Austins formula, which gives values much lower than ob
served values at certain periods of the day.
Richtungsbestixnmung h mugeug mittels drahtlosen Tele
graphic, Lujtfahrf $3,April 1919. Recently, a much more accurate quantitative method has been
developed for measuring signal intensity, and many measure
Marconi Radiogoniometer. Electrician 83, 142, August 8,
ments have been made on the wave antenna at Belmar. In this
1919. case, the effective height of the wave antenna wals determined by
Radiogoniometrie. R. (f.E . 6, 112D,Nov. 1, 1919. La simultaneous observations on a vertical antenna of known effect
Nature, June 28,1919. p. 404414. ive height. Measurements made by H. H. Beverage and H. 0.
The U. S . Navy Radio Compass. Everyday Engineering, 8, Peterson indicated that the average effective height of the Belmar
10911,Nov. and Dec., 1919. long wave antenna was 200 meters. Since the horizontal length
Radiogoniom6tre. La Nature. No. 2361. 404414, June was 12,500meters, the horizontal potential gradient is 1.6 per
28,1919. cent of the vertical potential gradient. A t 11,OOO meters, the
Rogers Underground Aerials. Wireless Age, 6, 31, August effective height was somewhat greater than this average value,
1919. and at 19,OOO meters the effective height was lower than the
The United States Naval Communication Service. Journal average value. These observations give the same order of
ojfhe Franklin Institute, 188,751,Dec. 1919. magnitude as the calculations by Zennecks formula for wave
tilt.
How Bureau of Standards Helped Win the War. Washingten
Star, August 24, 1919. On short wave lengths, that is, 200 to 600 meters, the horizon
tal gradient appears to be around 5 per cent to 6 per cent of the
The Submarines UnderWater Radio. Electrical Experi vertical gradient over soil of moderately low conductivity such
menter 7,539,October 1919. November 1919,7,p. 661 as is found at Belmar. This increase in tilt with shorter wave
Ralph R. Batcher. Loop Antenna for Submarines. The length is in accordance with Zennecks formula.
Wireless Age, 7,28,Jan. 1920. A further check on the wave tilt theory has been noted by
A . Hoyt Taylor. The Use of Ground Wires at Remote Con comparing the effective height of short wave antennas over earth
trol Stations. Proc. I . R. E., 1920. of high and low conductivity. These antennas were about 400
meters long, and measurements made by Peterson on 400 meters
indicated that the signal strengt,h on an antenna over moderately
Discussion conducting ground was three to four times as great as on a similar
H. H. Beverader Since the wave antenna paper was written, antenna partly over salt water and partly over a marsh. In this
more quantitative measurements have been made on the effect case, comparisons were made directly with a local loop in order
ive height of the wave antenna. Tbe measurements mentioned to check the field intensity in the vicinity of the wave antennas.
Feb. 1923 . THE WAVE ANTENNA 265
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