Sie sind auf Seite 1von 10


Environmental Studies
with Glossary
(for Undergraduate Students of
All Indian Universities
JRF, SRF, ARS, NET, SLET, Civil Services
& Other Competitive Examinations)

Dr. C.S. Bohra

Assistant Professor & Coordinator
Department of Environmental & Mechanical Engineering
Amrapali Institute of Technology & Sciences (AITS)
Haldwani 263 139, Uttarakhand

Dr. B.S. Jina

Senior Lecturer
Department of Biotechnology
Infusion College of Science and Technology
Haldwani 263 139, Uttarakhand

Delhi - 110 035

ISBN 81-7035-661-X
ISBN 978-81-7035-661-5

All rights reserved. Including the right to translate or to reproduce this

book or parts thereof except for brief quotations in critical reviews.

Published by : Daya Publishing House

1123/74, Deva Ram Park
Tri Nagar, Delhi - 110 035
Phone: 27383999
Fax: (011) 23260116
e-mail :
website :

Showroom : 4760-61/23, Ansari Road, Darya Ganj,

New Delhi - 110 002
Phone: 23245578, 23244987

Laser Typesetting : Classic Computer Services

Delhi - 110 035

Printed at : Chawla Offset Printers

Delhi - 110 052

Dedicated to
my uncle
Late Shri Chandan Singh Bohra


Today, conservation of ecological habitat has acquired

significance due to the burning problems of the pollution and fast
depletion of natural habitat. Hence, based on the directions of the
Honorable Supreme Court of India, UGC had made it compulsory
for all the Indian Universities to introduce a course in Environmental
Studies at undergraduate levels in higher education.
Environmental Studies is a fast growing area which relates to
the study of environment in its totality with special emphasis on
man and his adaptability.
The present work entitled Objective Environmental Studies with
Glossary has been prepared to fulfill the needs of undergraduate
classes. The Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) test a candidates
ability to apply his knowledge gained during class work in the subject.
Environmental Studies is not a new subject but an extension of
ecological approach that stresses upon the study of the environment
in its totality. The MCQs in the book have been with great care and
after an exhaustive and extensive study of pattern of multiple choice
questions in the subject. The questions are precise and clear enabling
the reader to make correct choice based on his understanding of the

Several books are published on this subject but a glossary of

terms frequently encountered in environmental science in a simple
to understand and comprehensive meaning to capture the
understanding of the subject by the young brains, academicians,
policy makers and anyone else will unveil the substance of the
terminology instant. With this background a humble effort is made
to collect and coalesce the terms frequently used in the form of ready
to hand material. This compilation will not only open new vistas in
better and fast understanding but also open new criticisms for further
We are confidant that the present book will prove useful to the
students of undergraduate classes of Indian Universities.
Constructive criticism and valuable suggestions from the readers
for the improvement of the book will be greatly appreciated.
Dr. C.S. Bohra
Dr. B.S. Jina

Preface v
Syllabus xi


1. Environmental Studies: Scope and Importance 3
2. Natural Resources 17
3. Ecosystem 33
4. Biodiversity and its Conservation 51
5. Environmental Pollution 81
6. Social Issues and the Environment 121
7. Human Population and the Environment 139
Practice ExercisesI 153
Practice ExercisesII 167


AZ 183
For undergraduate courses of all
branches of Higher Education

UNIT-I: The multidisciplinary nature of

Environmental Studies
Definition, Scope and Importance, Need for Public Awareness.
UNIT-II: Natural Resources
Renewable and Non-renewable Resources
1. Forest Resources: Use and over exploitation, deforestation,
case studies, timber extraction, mining, dams and their
effects on forests and tribal people.
2. Water Resources: Use and over exploitation of surface
and ground water, floods, drought, conflicts over water,
dams; benefits and related problems.
3. Mineral Resources: Use and over exploitation,
environmental effects of extracting and using mineral
resources, case studies.
4. Food Resources: World food problems, changes caused
by agriculture and over grazing, effects of modern

agriculture, fertilizers, pesticide problems, water logging,

salinity, related case studies.
5. Energy Resources: Growing energy needs, renewable and
non- renewable energy resources, use of alternate energy
resources, case studies.
6. Land Resources: Land as a resource, land degradation,
man induced land slides, soil erosion and desertification.
Role of an individual in conservation of natural resources.
Equitable use of resources for sustainable life style.

UNIT-III: Ecosystem
Concept of an ecosystem, structure and function of an ecosystem,
producers, consumers, decomposers, energy flow in the ecosystem,
ecological succession, food chain, food webs and ecological
pyramids. Introduction, types, characteristic features, structure and
function of the following ecosystems; Forest, grassland, desert,
aquatic ecosystem (pond, lakes, streams, rivers, oceans and estuaries).
UNIT-IV: Biodiversity and its Conservation
Introduction, definition, genetic, species and ecosystem
diversity; Biogeographical classification of India, value of
biodiversity; consumptive use, productive use, social, ethical and
esthetic values, biodiversity at global, national and local levels, India
as a mega diversity nation, hot spots of biodiversity, threats to
biodiversity; habitat loss, poaching of wildlife, man-wildlife
conflicts, endangered and endemic species of India, conservation of
biodiversity; In- situ and Ex-situ conservation of biodiversity.
UNIT-V: Environmental Pollution
Definition, causes, effects and control measures of; Air pollution,
Noise pollution, Water pollution, Soil pollution, Marine pollution,
Thermal pollution, Nuclear pollution.
P Solid waste management: Causes, effects and control
measures of urban and industrial wastes; role of an
individual in prevention of pollution, pollution case
studies, disaster management; floods, earthquakes,
cyclones and land slides.

UNIT-VI: Social Issues and the Environment

From unsustainable to sustainable development, urban
problems related to energy, water conservation, rain water
harvesting, watershed management, resettlement and rehabilitation
of the people, its problems and concerns, case studies, environmental
ethics; issues and possible solutions, climate change, global
warming, acid rain, ozone layer depletion, nuclear accidents and
holocaust, case studies. Wasteland reclamation, consumerism and
waste products. Environmental Protection Acts; Air (prevention and
control of pollution) Act, Water (prevention and control of pollution)
Act, Wild Life Protection Act, Forest Conservation Act, issues involved
in enforcement of environmental legislation, public awareness.
UNIT-VII: Human Population and Environment
Population growth, variations among nations, population
explosion, family welfare programmes, environmental and human
health, human rights, value education, HIV/AIDS; women and child
welfare, role of information technology in environment and human
health, care studies.