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Total Quality


Submitted to: Submitted

Dr. Gunmala
Suri Anubha
Blog 1: Principles of Total Quality Management

Author: Patrick Reynolds

Date: July 22, 2013


Summary: Total Quality Management (TQM) is a management approach

focusing on the improvement of quality and performance in all functions,
departments, and processes across the company to provide quality services
which exceed customer expectations. TQM expands the scope of quality of
every department from top management to lower level employees.

TQM is broadly based on the following principles:

1. Customer Centric Approach Consumers are the ultimate judge to
determine whether products or services are of superior quality or not.
2. Employee Involvement Ensuring total employee involvement in
achieving goals and business objectives will lead to employee empowerment
and active participation from the employees in decision making and addressing
quality related problems
3. Continual Improvement Continual improvement will lead to improved
and higher quality processes.
4. Strategic Approach to Improvement Businesses must adopt a strategic
approach towards quality improvement to achieve their goals, vision, and
5. Integrated System Everyone in the company should have a thorough
understanding of the quality policies, standards, objectives, and important
6. Decision Making For efficient TQM, companies must collect and
analyze data to improve quality, decision making accuracy, and forecasts.
7. Communications Employees need to be involved as much as possible in
the day to day operations and decision making process to really give them a
sense of empowerment.
Blog 2: Implementing Quality Assurance Controls
for Call Centre Projects

Author: Nancy Wright

Date: July 08, 2016


Summary: Following are the steps or ways to implement Quality Assurance

Controls for Call Centre Projects:

1. Gather Requirements from Client: You may find during the Discovery
process as you gather requirements for the project from your client that
there are particular deliverables required for a QA process.
Recommendations could range from the content of the Audit tools to
White-Label configuration of the QA software. During this phase you can
establish expectations and act as Trusted Advisor.

2. Identify and Equip Personnel Dedicated to the Project: QA personnel

must be independent thinkers with attention to detail who can objectively
score a call or chat with consistency. This step will ensure that high levels
of accuracy are not only established but maintained and measured
throughout the life of the program.

3. Develop QA Audit Tools: Once the process flow has been mapped, the
specific behaviors which are critical to the success of each customer
interaction must be identified, defined and weighted. The most typical
rubric is to achieve a total possible score of 100% with higher values
assigned to the most influential behaviors.

4. Reporting Detail and Broad Trends: It is advisable to structure the

reports which will be generated so that analysis may be made of
individual agent behaviors, team performance, and broader segmentation
if the project is located in multiple locations to target performance gaps.
Reports should be used to close loop the performance management
process and should be an iterative process so that the tools accommodate
the desired outcome.

5. Monitoring and Improvement: Once the initial implementation work has

been completed, the longer term processes should include steps to seek
constant improvement, both on the individual level and for the
organization as a whole. Establishing a closed loop feedback process will
become a critical part of the quality culture.

Blog 3: 5 Effective Ways to Measure the Quality

of Your Customer Service

Author: Jim Iyoob

Date: September 15, 2016


Summary: A business owner who is interested in customer service quality

monitoring, the five following quality assurance techniques below may be able
to provide him with guidance.

1. Look for Flaws or Shortcomings in Your Operation: At times, the

quality of your customer service can be linked to an unnoticed flaw or
shortcoming in your daily business operations.
2. Evaluate the Supply and Demand of Your Products: Supply and
demand are a major component of economics and business, but did you
know that this concept can also be used to evaluate the quality of your
customer service. Satisfied consumers tend to purchase more products
from the same company.
3. Research the Competition: Many business owners neglect to research
their competitors approach to customer service.
4. Examine the Number of Complaints You Receive: It is impossible to
satisfy every single customer, but you can use the number of complaints
you receive as a measuring tool.
5. Ask Customers Directly: Some business owners prefer to ask customers
directly, while others encourage them to fill out surveys. If neither of
these tactics sounds appealing to you, follow-up phone calls can also help
you better understand customer opinions.

Blog 4: 13 Questions Reveal the Benefits of

Manufacturing Execution Systems

Author: Conrad Leiva

Date: October 27, 2014


Summary: If you need to take another tour of your facility and interview
people with some of these questions in hand. Here are seven key questions:

1. Has a product quality problem affected the last unit produced or the last eight
hours of production?
2. Are we delivering to the daily production schedule? Can you tell?
3. Is the problem identified by routine tests at every shift change, or by an alert
4. Does the situation only occur when a specific product or product grade is
being produced?
5. Do all units, lines, or pieces of similar equipment experience the same issue?
6. How are you measured and what KPIs/metrics matter to you?
7. Are there wasteful steps identified in the AS-IS business processes?

A problem or inefficient process typically impacts multiple departments and

individuals in terms of time, materials and, ultimately, dollars. Representatives
from operations, business management, support organizations, suppliers, and
customers should be interviewed.
Additional questions may include:

8. How is the situation affecting the entire manufacturing process?

9. What ancillary activities are being performed as a result of the problem?
10. Does one department adjusting a recipe to compensate for an equipment or
raw material issue potentially disrupt downstream processes?
11. How much product has been produced out of spec?
12. Does this result in scrap or a downgraded product?
13. How much material, machine time, and labour are wasted?

Blog 5: How to Improve Quality Management

with Manufacturing Systems

Author: Conrad Leiva

Date: November 10, 2014


Summary: In todays progressive organizations, quality assurance is no longer

viewed as a silo department verifying product quality at the end of the
manufacturing process. Best practices are to integrate and build quality
management into the production process. Following are ways to improve
Quality Management with Manufacturing Systems:

1. Documentation and instruction: Standard procedures should be

documented for commonly used manufacturing processes, and personnel
should be trained on these procedures. Organizations that assemble
products with complex configurations and variations need to confirm that
all component parts are coming from the correct bill of material (BOM) at
the correct engineering revision level. An MES integrated with an
Engineering system can ensure that the list of parts reflects the proper
component parts and cross references to any incorporated Engineering
Change Notices (ECNs), approved deviations, and part alternates.
2. Process and personnel inspection: In-process inspection
verifies critical product attributes and characteristics during the
manufacturing process, and is usually performed by the technician instead
of the inspector. Statistical Process Control (SPC) is a technique that
utilizes statistical methods and control charts on collected data to detect
and control variation, change, inefficiencies and deficiencies.
3. Tool calibration: Some QA organizations have people dedicated to
collecting log books from the shop floor and manually verifying that all
the appropriate forms have been filled out. This function can be fully
automated with an MES system for organizations that have to assemble
this type of paperwork as part of the documentation package that is
delivered with the product to the customer.
4. Failures and corrections: Failure Reporting, Analysis and Corrective
Action (FRACAS) capabilities are used to document non-conformance
issues, approved deviations, rework and corrections, and track corrective
actions to eliminate the recurrence of problems.