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CONTROL SYSTEMS ENGINEER
TECHNICAL REFERENCE HANDBOOK

BY CHUCK CORNELL, PE, CAP, PME

International Society of Automation


P.O. Box 12277
Research Triangle Park, NC 27709
CONTENTS

PREFACE xiii

ABOUT THE AUTHOR xv

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xvii

ACRONYMS xix

COMMON ELECTRICAL DEFINITIONS xxiii

1. CSE PE EXAM GENERAL INFORMATION 1

2. MISCELLANEOUS REVIEW MATERIAL 3


2.1 Mathematics 3
2.1.1 SI Prefixes 3
2.1.2 Algebra 3
2.1.3 Trigonometry 6
2.1.4 Calculus 7
2.1.6 Differential Equations 11
2.1.7 Laplace Transforms 11
2.1.8 Bode Plot 11
2.1.9 Nyquist Plot 12
2.2 Thermodynamics 14
2.2.1 Terminology 14
2.2.2 Heat Addition and Temperature 15
2.2.3 Mollier Steam Diagram 15
2.2.4 Psychrometric Chart 15
2.2.5 Properties of Water 17
2.2.6 Properties of Saturated Steam 18
2.2.7 Properties of Superheated Steam 20
2.3 Statistics 22
2.4 Boolean Logic Operations 24
2.5 Conversion Factors 26
2.6 Equations/Laws/Formulas 29

3. MEASUREMENT 35
Topic Highlights 35
3.1 Temperature Measurement Sensors 35

V
3.1.1 Thermocouple (T/C) 35
3.1.2 Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) 38
3.1.3 Thermistor 41
3.1.4 Temperature Switch 42
3.1.5 Temperature Indicator (Thermometer) 42
3.1.6 Thermowell 42
3.2 Pressure Measurement Sensors 45
3.2.1 Manometer 45
3.2.2 Bourdon Tube 46
3.2.3 Pressure Diaphragm 46
3.2.4 Pressure Transducer/Transmitter 47
3.2.5 Diaphragm Seal 47
3.2.6 Pressure Sensor Installation Details 47
3.3 Volumetric Flow Measurement Sensors 49
3.3.1 Sensors Based on Differential Pressure (D/P Producers) 50
3.3.2 Electronic Volumetric Flowmeters 62
3.3.3 Mass Flowmeters 65
3.3.4 Mechanical Volumetric Flowmeters 67
3.3.5 Open Channel Volumetric Flow Measurement 68
3.3.6 Flowmeter Selection Guide 71
3.4 Level Measurement Sensors 72
3.4.1 Inferential Level Measurement Techniques 72
3.4.2 Visual Level Measurement Techniques 78
3.4.3 Electrical Properties Level Measurement Techniques 80
3.4.4 Float/Buoyancy Level Measurement Techniques 82
3.4.5 Time of Flight Level Measurement Techniques 83
3.4.6 Miscellaneous Level Measurement (Switch) Techniques 85
3.5 Analytical Measurement Sensors 86
3.5.1 Combustible Gas Analyzers 87
3.5.2 Dew Point 88
3.5.3 Humidity Sensors 89
3.5.4 Electrical Conductivity Analyzers 91
3.5.5 pH/ORP Analyzers 92
3.5.6 Dissolved Oxygen Analyzers 93
3.5.7 Oxygen Content (in Gas) 94
3.5.8 Turbidity Analyzers 95
3.5.9 TOC (Total Organic Carbon) Analyzers 97
3.5.10 Light Wavelength Type Analyzers 99
3.5.11 Chromatographs and Spectrometers 99
3.5.12 Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) 102
3.5.13 Vibration Analysis 104

4. SIGNALS, TRANSMISSION AND NETWORKING 107


4.1 Signals/Transmission 107
4.1.1 Copper Cabling 107
4.1.2 Fiber Optic Cabling 109

VI
4.1.3 IEEE 802.11 & ISA 100.11a Wireless LAN Communication Protocols 111
4.1.4 Transducers 113
4.1.5 Intrinsic Safety (I.S.) 113
4.2 Networking 115
4.2.1 OSI Model 115
4.2.3 Protocol Stack 116
4.2.4 Network Hardware 116
4.2.5 Network Topology 119
4.2.6 Buses/Protocols 121
4.3 Circuit Calculations 134
4.3.1 DC Circuits 134
4.3.2 AC Circuits 140
4.3.3 Voltage Drop 147
4.3.4 Cable Sizing 148
4.3.5 Electrical Formulas for Calculating Amps, HP, KW & KVA (Table 4-13) 148

5. FINAL CONTROL ELEMENTS 149


5.1 Control Valves 149
5.1.1 Selection Guide 149
5.1.2 Control Valve Inherent Flow Characteristics 149
5.1.3 Control Valve Shutoff (Seat Leakage) Classifications 151
5.1.4 Control Valve Choked Flow/Cavitation/Flashing 151
5.1.5 Control Valve Noise 152
5.1.6 Control Valve Plug Guiding 156
5.1.7 Control Valve Packing 157
5.1.8 Control Valve Bonnets 159
5.1.9 Control Valve Body Styles 159
5.1.10 Common Valve Trim Material Temperature Limits 165
5.1.11 Control Valve Installation 166
5.2 Actuators 166
5.2.1 Failure State 166
5.2.2 Action 167
5.2.3 Valve Positioner 168
5.2.4 Actuator Types 168
5.2.5 Actuator Selection 170
5.3 Control Valve Sizing 171
5.4 Pressure Regulators 175
5.4.1 Pressure Reducing Regulator 175
5.4.2 Back Pressure Regulator 177
5.4.3 Vacuum Regulators & Breakers 177
5.4.4 Regulator Droop 178
5.4.5 Regulator Hunting 178
5.4.6 Pressure Regulator Sizing 178
5.5 Motors 181
5.5.1 Types of Motors 181

VII
5.5.2 Motor Enclosure Types 194
5.5.3 Nameplate Voltage Ratings of Standard Induction Motors 195
5.5.4 Motor Speed 195
5.5.5 Motor NEMA Designations 197
5.5.6 Life Expectancy of Electric Motors 198
5.5.7 Motor Positioning 199
5.5.8 Example Motor Elementary Diagrams 200
5.5.9 Motor Feeder Sizing Table 204
5.6 Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) 205
5.6.1 Types of Variable Frequency AC Drives 205
5.6.2 VFD Applications 206
5.6.3 Harmonics Associated with VFDs 206
5.7 Pressure Safety Devices 207
5.7.1 Terminology 207
5.7.2 Types of Pressure Relief/Safety Valves 208
5.7.3 Tank Venting 209
5.7.4 Types of Rupture Disks 210
5.7.5 Rupture Disk Accessories 211
5.7.6 Rupture Disk Performance 212
5.7.7 Pressure Relief Device Sizing Contingencies 212
5.7.8 Pressure Levels as a % of MAWP 214
5.7.9 Pressure Relief Valve Sizing (per ASME/API RP520) 215
5.7.10 Rupture Disk Sizing (per ASME/API RP520) 217
5.7.11 Selection of Pressure Relief/Safety Devices 219
5.8 Relays/Switches 219
5.8.1 Relays 219
5.8.2 Switches 220

6. CONTROL SYSTEMS 223


6.1 Documentation 223
6.1.1 Instrumentation Identification Letters 223
6.1.2 Instrumentation Line Symbols 224
6.1.3 Instrumentation Location Symbols 225
6.1.4 Binary Logic Diagrams 226
6.1.5 Functional Diagram/Symbols 226
6.1.6 Loop Diagram 229
6.2 Control System - Controller Actions 231
6.2.1 Terminology 231
6.2.2 PID Control 232
6.2.3 Cascade Control 233
6.2.4 Feedforward Control 234
6.2.5 Ratio Control 235
6.2.6 Split Range Control 235
6.2.7 Override Control 236
6.2.8 Block Diagram Basics 236

VIII
6.3 Controller (Loop) Tuning 238
6.3.1 Process Loop Types: Application of P, I, D 238
6.3.2 Tuning Map Gain (Proportional) & Reset (Integral) 240
6.3.3 Loop Dynamic Response 240
6.3.4 Loop Tuning Parameters 242
6.3.5 Manual Loop Tuning 242
6.3.6 Closed Loop Tuning 243
6.3.7 Open Loop Tuning 244
6.3.8 Tuning Rules of Thumb 246
6.4 Function Block Diagram Reduction Algebra 246
6.4.1 Component Block Diagram 246
6.4.2 Basic Building Block 247
6.4.3 Elementary Block Diagrams 247
6.5 Alarm Management 250
6.5.1 Good Guidelines for Alarm Management 250
6.5.2 Characteristics of Good System Alarms 251
6.5.3 Alarm Terms 251
6.5.4 Alarm Review Methodology 253
6.6 Types of Control System Programming 254
6.6.1 Ladder Diagram 254
6.6.2 Function Block Diagrams 264
6.6.3 Structured Text 268
6.7 Batch Control 272
6.7.1 Automation Pyramid 273
6.7.2 Physical Model 273
6.7.3 Procedural Model 276
6.7.4 Recipes 277
6.7.5 Sequential Function Chart (SFC) 278
6.8 Advanced Control Techniques 279
6.8.1 Fuzzy Logic 279
6.8.2 Model Predictive Control 280
6.8.3 Artificial Neural Networks 280
6.9 Example Process Controls 281
6.9.1 Boiler Control 281
6.9.2 Distillation Column Control 283
6.9.3 Burner Combustion Control 284

7. ISA-95 285
7.1 ISA-95 Hierarchy Model 285
7.2 ISA-88 Physical Model As It Pertains to ISA-95 286
7.3 Levels 43 Information Exchange 286

IX
8. HAZARDOUS AREAS AND SAFETY INSTRUMENTED SYSTEMS 287
8.1 Hazardous Areas 287
8.1.1 NEC Articles 500504 287
8.1.2 NEC Article 505 (Class I, Zone 0, Zone 1 and Zone 2 Locations) 296
8.2 Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS) 299
8.2.1 Safety Integrity Level (SIL) 299
8.2.2 Relationship between a Safety Instrumented Function and Other Functions 300
8.2.3 Definitions 300
8.2.4 Layers of Protection 301
8.3 Determining PFD (Probability of Failure on Demand) 302
8.3.1 Basic Reliability Formulas 303
8.3.2 Architectures 304

9. CODES, STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS 307


9.1 Standards Listings 307
9.1.1 ISA 307
9.1.2 ASME 310
9.1.3 API 311
9.1.4 NFPA 311
9.1.5 IEC 312
9.1.6 CSA 312
9.1.7 UL 312
9.1.8 FM 312
9.1.9 CE 313
9.1.10 ANSI 313
9.1.11 IEEE 313
9.1.12 AICHE (American Institute of Chemical Engineers) 313
9.1.13 OSHA 313
9.2 NEC 315
9.2.1 Allowable Conduit Fill 315
9.2.2 Wiring Methods 315
9.3 NEMA/IEC-IP Enclosure Classifications 328
9.3.1 NEMA Designations (Non-Hazardous) 328
9.3.2 NEMA Designations (Hazardous) 329
9.3.3 IEC-IP (Ingress Protection) 329
9.4 NFPA 70E Electrical Safety in the Workplace: 330
9.4.1 Shock Hazard Analysis 331
9.4.2 Arc Flash Hazard Analysis 333
9.4.3 Protective Clothing Characteristics 334
9.4.4 Personal Electrical Shock Protection Equipment 335
9.4.5 Qualified Personnel 335
9.4.6 Label Requirements 336
9.5 Lightning Protection 336
9.5.1 Lightning Protection (NFPA 780; UL96 & 96A; LPI 17S; IEEE Std 487) 337
9.5.2 Facility Lightning Protection per NFPA 780 337

X
10. SAMPLE PROBLEMS 341

11. SAMPLE PROBLEMS - SOLUTIONS 351

12. MISCELLANEOUS TABLES/INFORMATION 357


12.1 Viscosity Equivalency Nomograph 357
12.2 Copper Resistance Table (Table 12-1) 358
12.3 RTD Resistance Tables 359
12.4 Thermocouple milliVolt Tables 369
12.5 Instrument Air Quality 375
12.6 Thevenin & Norton Equivalencies 376
12.6.1 Thevenin 376
12.6.2 Nortons Theorem 380

13. UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY (UPS) 387


13.1 UPS Topologies 387
13.1.1 Single-Conversion 387
13.1.2 Double-Conversion 387
13.2 Inverter Technologies 388
13.2.1 Ferro-resonant 388
13.2.2 PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) 388
13.2.3 Step-Wave 388
13.3 Mechanical Flywheel 388

14. RECOMMENDED RESOURCES 391

XI
PREFACE

The information in this book was prepared so that it can serve a dual purpose. The first purpose
is to provide a study aid for the Control Systems Engineering Professional Engineering Exam
that is presided over by the NCEES. The second purpose is to provide a technical reference for
future use by the instrumentation / automation professional.

Where the author cites any references to commercially available products, it is for reference only
and is by no means an endorsement by the author of any commercially available product.

Sample problems presented in this book are not meant to influence the reader on specific
problems that may be on the exam, but rather to reinforce the technical material that has been
presented to the reader.

XIII
2. MISCELLANEOUS REVIEW MATERIAL

2.1 MATHEMATICS
This section only intends to provide a high-level overview of the various math concentrations,
not specific in-depth coverage.

2.1.1 SI Prefixes
The SI prefixes are derived from a Greek, Latin, Italian and Danish names that precedes an SI
unit of measure. This name indicates a decade multiplier or divider.

Table 2-1. SI Prefixes


Prefix Symbol Value
Exa E 1018
Peta P 1015
Tera T 1012
Giga G 109
Mega M 106
Kilo k 103
Hecto h 102
Deca da 101
Deci d 10-1
Centi c 10-2
Milli m 10-3
Micro 10-6
Nano n 10-9
Pico p 10-12
Femto f 10-15
Atto a 10-18
cgs units (centimeter, gram, second)
mks units (meter, kilogram, second)

2.1.2 Algebra
The part of mathematics in which letters and other symbols are used to represent numbers and
quantities in formulae and equations.

Quadratic Equations

ax 2 + bx + c = 0
b b 2 4ac
r1, r2 = a( x r1)( x r2 ) = 0
2a

REVIEW MATERIAL MATHEMATICS 3


The variables r1 and r2 can be real or imaginary depending on the coefficients a, b and c.

If b24ac > 0, then there are two different REAL roots.

- This is an indication of an over-damped system.

If b24ac = 0, then there are two identical REAL roots.

- This is an indication of a critically-damped system.

If b24ac < 0, then there are two complex conjugate roots with the following:

b
Real part:
2a

2
Imaginary part: c b
a 2a

- This is an indication of an under-damped system.

Exponentiation

x a x b = x a+b
1
x a = a
1
x
xa = a x
( )
b
x a = x ab
b

( x)
b
x a = a xb = a

Logarithms
If bx = y, then x=logby.

Example:

If y = 10 x , then x = log10 y OR If e x = y , then x = loge y = ln y


log100 = log10 2 log0.01 = log10 2

Constants:

loga 1 = 0
loga a = 1

4 REVIEW MATERIAL MATHEMATICS


Other Identities:

logb y a = (a)logb y
a
a x = b( x log b )
loga y = (logb y )(loga b)
logb xy = logb x + logb y
y
log( x = jy ) = log( x 2 + y 2 ) + j (log e) tan1
x

Antilog:

The antilog function is the inverse of the log function:

antilog 2 = 102 antilog 2 = 0.01

Matrix Mathematics
A matrix is a rectangular array of numbers.

Addition and Subtraction: Matrices MUST be of the same size in order for addition/subtraction
to work.

0 1 2 6 5 4 0 + 6 1 + 5 2 + 4 6 6 6
9 8 7 + 3 4 5 = 9 + 3 8 + 4 7 + 5 = 12 12 12

1 2 0 0 4 3 1 0 2 ( 4) 0 3 1 6 3
0 3 6 9 4 3 = 0 9 3 ( 4) 6 ( 3) = 9 7 9

3 x 4 6 1 7
2y 0 + 3 1 = 5 1

First simplify the left side of the equation:
3 x 4 6 3 + 4 x + 6 1 7
2y 0 + 3 1 = 2y 3 0 + 1 = 5 1

x + 6 = 7 so x = 1
and 2y 3 = 5 so y = 1

Multiplication: Matrix multiplication is not commutative: the order in which matrices are
multiplied is important. To multiply matrices, their ranks2 must be compatible. In the matrix
example shown below a (2x3) matrix is multiplied by a (3x2). Their product is a (2x2) matrix. To
check for rank compatibility simply write the ranks as (M x N) x (N x Q). The matrices may be
multiplied together ONLY if the (N) values are equal. If the (N) values are indeed equal then the
resultant matrix will have a rank of (M x Q).

2. Rank of a matrix is defined as, the maximum number of linearly independent column vectors in the
matrix, OR the maximum number of linearly independent row vectors in the matrix.

REVIEW MATERIAL MATHEMATICS 5


Example:

Multiply the ROWS of Matrix A by the COLUMNS of Matrix B.

0 3
1 0 2 (1 0) + (0 ( 2)) + (( 2) 0) (1 3) + (0 ( 1)) + (( 2) 4)
0 3 1 2 1 = (0 0) + (3 ( 2)) + (( 1) 0) (0 3) + (3 ( 1)) + (( 1) 4) =
0 4

Matrix A Matrix B

(0 + 0 + 0) (3 0 8) 0 5
(0 6 + 0) (0 3 4) = 6 7

Division: There is NO such operation as matrix division. You MUST multiply by a reciprocal.
Not all matrices may be inverted because there is no inverse of zero and you cannot divide by zero.

8 3 w y
If A = Let A1 =
5 2 x z
8w + 3 x 8 y + 3z 1 0
Then AA1 = =
5w + 2 x 5 y + 2z 0 1
8w + 3 x = 1 8 y + 3z = 0
The resulting equations
5w + 2 x = 0 5 y + 2z = 1
Have the solution w=2; x=-5; y=-3; z=8
2 3
A 1 =
5 8

2.1.3 Trigonometry
The branch of mathematics dealing with the relations of the sides and angles of triangles and
with the relevant functions of any angles.


r 180 180
(360 ) = 1 radian = = 57.3

2 r

csc-1 c ot
1-sin

B t an
csc sin sin


Opposite

1-cos 1-sec
c s e
nu a cos
pote
H y
sec
Adjacent
A C
b

opposite a hypotenuse c 1
sin = = csc = = =
hypotenuse c opposite a sin A

6 REVIEW MATERIAL MATHEMATICS


adjacent b hypotenuse c 1
cos = = sec = = =
hypotenuse c adjacent b cos A

opposite a sin A adjacent b cos A


tan = = = cot = = =
adjacent b cos A opposite a sin A

Trigonometric Identities

sin2x + cos2 x = 1
1 + tan2 x = sec 2x
1 + cot 2x = csc 2x
sin2x = 2sinx cosx
2 tan x
tan2 x =
1 tan2 x
cos 2 x = 2cos2 x 1 = cos2 x sin2 x = 1 2sin2 x
sin( x + y ) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y
sin( x y ) = sin x cos y cos x sin y
cos( x + y ) = cos x cos y sin x sin y
cos( x y ) = cos x cos y sin x sin y
2sin x sin y = cos( x y ) cos( x + y )
2cos x cos y = cos( x y ) + cos( x + y )
2sin x cos y = sin( x + y ) + sin( x y )

2.1.4 Calculus
A form of mathematics that deals with the finding and properties of derivatives and integrals of
functions, by methods originally based on the summation of very small differences. The two
main types are differential calculus and integral calculus.

Differential Calculus
Differentiation is the procedure used to take the derivative of a function. The derivative is a
measure of how a function changes as its input changes, as indicated by a tangent line to a curve
on the graph (Figure 2-1). For commonly used derivative formulas, reference Table 2-2.

f(x)

f(x0)= Slope of the


tangent line

x0

Figure 2-1. Derivative

REVIEW MATERIAL MATHEMATICS 7


The derivative method is used to compute the rate at which a dependent output y changes with
respect to a change in the independent input x. This rate of change is called the derivative of y
with respect to x (i.e. the dependence of y upon x means that y is a function of x). If x and y are
real numbers, and if the graph of y is plotted against x, the derivative measures the slope of this
graph at each point. This functional relationship is often denoted y = (x), where denotes the
function.

The simplest case is when y is a linear function of x, meaning that the graph of y against x is a
straight line. In this case, y = (x) = m x + b, for real numbers m and c, and the slope m is given
by:

change in y y
m = =
change in x x

The idea is to compute the rate of change as the limiting value of the ratio of the differences
y/x as x becomes:

dy
dx

Differentiation Rules
Constant Rule: if (x) is constant, then f = 0

Sum Rule: for all functions and g and all real numbers a and b. (af + bg) = af +bg

Product Rule: for all functions and g. (fg) = fg + fg

Quotient Rule: for all functions and g where g 0.

'
f f ' g fg '
=
g g2

Power Rule: if f(x)=x, then f(x) = nx(n-1)

Chain Rule: If f(x) = h(g(x)), then F(x) = h(g(x)) * g(x)

Examples:

dy 3x + 5
Find if y=
dx 2x 3 4
if y = find y ' at (2,1)
x+2
dy 3(2x 3) 2(3x + 5)
= =
dx (2x 3)2 y ' = 0( x + 2) 1(4)
Find f '(3) if f ( x ) = x 2 8 x + 3
6x 9 6x 10 19 f '( x ) = 2 x 8 4 4 1
= at (2,1); y ' = = =
(2x + 3)2 (2x + 3)2 f '(3) = (2)(3) 8 = 2 (2 + 2)2 16 4

8 REVIEW MATERIAL MATHEMATICS


Alternate solution to the above example (right):

1 11 4 4
y = 4 ( x + 2) y ' = 4 ( x + 2 ) = y ' ( 2,1) ) = =1
2 2 4
( x + 2) ( 2 + 2)

Table 2-2. Table of Derivatives


Power of x
d d d n
C=0 x =1 x = nx ( n 1)
dx dx dx
Exponential / Logarithmic
d x d x d 1
e = ex b = b x ln(b ) ln( x ) =
dx dx dx x
Trigonometric
d d
sin x = cos x csc x = csc x cot x
dx dx
d d
cos x = sin x sec x = sec x tan x
dx dx
d d
tan x = sec 2 x cot x = csc 2 x
dx dx
Inverse Trigonometric
d 1 d 1
sin1 x = csc 1 x =
dx 2
x 1 dx x x2 1
d 1 d 1
cos1 x = sec 1 x =
dx 1 x 2 dx x x2 1
d 1 d 1
tan1 x = cot 1 x =
dx 1 + x2 dx 1 + x2
Hyperbolic
d d
sinh x = cosh x csc hx = (coth x csc hx )
dx dx
d d
cosh x = sinh x sec hx = (tanh x sec hx )
dx dx
d d
tanh x = 1 tanh2 x coth x = 1 coth2 x
dx dx

Integral Calculus
A common application of integration is to find the average value of a function.

For a function u, the average value from x = a to x = b is:

1 b
b a a
u= udx

It is defined informally to be the net signed area of the region in the xy-plane bounded by the
graph of , the x-axis, and the vertical lines x = a and x = b (Figure 2-2). For commonly used
integral formulas, reference Table 2-3.

The term integral may also refer to the notion of the antiderivative, a function F whose derivative
is the given function .

REVIEW MATERIAL MATHEMATICS 9


y = f(x)

b
area = a
f ( x )dx

a b

Figure 2-2. Average Value of a Function

Product Rule: d (uv ) = udv + vdu

Quotient Rule: u vdu udv


d =
v v2

Chain Rule: (u v )' = (u ' v )v '

Table 2-3. Table of Integrals


f ( x)dx = F( x) + C
kf ( x)dx = k f ( x)dx [f ( x) g( x)]dx = f ( x)dx g( x)dx
x ( n1)
kdx = kx + C x dx =
n
+ C; n 1
n +1
sin xdx = cos x + C cos xdx = sin x + C
sec xdx = tan x + C csc dx = cot x + C
2 2

sec x tan xdx = sec x + C csc x cot xdx = csc x + C


dx
e dx = e
x x
+C = ln x + C
x
tan xdx = ln cos x + C cot xdx = ln sin x + C
sec xdx = ln sec x + tan x + C csc xdx = ln sec x + tan x + C
dx x dx 1 x
2
a x 2
= sin1
a
+C a 2
+x 2
= tan1 + C
a a
dx 1 x
x x a2 2
=
a
sec 1 + C
a
Examples:

8dx = 8x + C
3x dx = x + C
2 3

6x3 5x 2
(6x
2
+ 5 x 3)dx = + 3 x + 2 = 2x 3 + 2.5 x 2 3 x + C
3 2

10 REVIEW MATERIAL MATHEMATICS


2.1.6 Differential Equations
A differential equation is a mathematical expression combining a function and one or more of its
derivatives.

First Order (Linear): A first order differential equation is an equation that contains a first, but no
higher, derivative of an unknown function. It can be written as a sum of products of multipliers
of the function and its derivatives. If the multipliers are scalar then the differential equation is
said to have constant coefficients. If the function or one of its derivatives is raised to some power
the equation is said to be non-linear. The form for the first order linear equation is y + p(x)y =
q(x) where p and q are continuous functions of x.

Second Order (Linear): A second order differential equation is an equation that involves the
second derivative of an unknown function, but no derivative of a higher order:

y + p(x)y + q(x) = r(x) where p, q and r are continuous functions of x.

Homogeneous: The sum of the derivatives terms is equal to zero.

Non-Homogeneous: The sum of the derivative terms is equal to non-zero.

2.1.7 Laplace Transforms


The Laplace transform3 is an important tool for solving systems of linear differential equations
with constant coefficients. The strategy is to transform the more difficult differential equations
into simple algebra problems where solutions are more easily obtained.

This book will not attempt to teach Laplace transforms, but rather just provide a table of
commonly used transforms (Table 2-4).

2.1.8 Bode Plot


A Bode plot (Figure 2-3)4 is a graphical representation of a system, used to evaluate its stability
and performance. It is a combination of two graphs (plots) on log (logarithmic) paper and
consists of a Bode phase plot and a Bode magnitude (gain) plot. They are both drawn as
functions of frequency where each cycle represents a factor of ten in frequency. The Bode
magnitude plot is a graph where the frequency is plotted along the x-axis and the resultant gain
(represented as decibels dB) at that frequency is plotted along the y-axis. The Bode phase plot is
a graph where the frequency is again plotted along the x-axis and the phase shift of that
frequency is plotted along the y-axis.

A passband is the range of frequencies or wavelengths that can pass through a circuit without
being attenuated.

A stopband is a band of frequencies, between specified limits, through which a circuit does not
allow signals to pass.

3. Named for French mathematical astronomer Pierre-Simon Laplace.


4. Image derived from Wikipedia.

REVIEW MATERIAL BODE & NYQUIST PLOTS 11


Table 2-4. Laplace Transforms

(t) [(t)]

1
1
s

e at 1
s a
sinat a
s + a2
2

cos at s
s + a2
2

t sin at 2as
(s )
2
2
+ a2

t cos at s 2 a2
(s )
2
2
+ a2

e at sin bt b
(s a)
2
+ b2

e at cos bt s a
(s a )
2
+ b2

tn 1
;nN
n! s n +1

tn 1
e at ;nN
(s a )
n +1
n!

2.1.9 Nyquist Plot


A Nyquist5 plot (Figure 2-4) exhibits a relationship to the Bode plots of the system. If the Bode
phase plot is plotted as the angle , and the Bode magnitude plot is plotted as the distance r, then
the Nyquist plot of a system is the polar representation of the Bode plot.6

Nyquist Stability Criteria


This is a test for system stability. The criteria states that the number of unstable closed-loop poles
(zeroes) is equal to the number of unstable open-loop poles (zeroes) plus the number of
encirclements of the origin of the Nyquist plot of the complex function D(s) (aka the Argument
Principle7).

5. Named after Harry Theodore Nyquist of Bell Labs.


6. Image derived from www.math.uic.edu.
7. Developed by Augustin Louis Cauchy.

12 REVIEW MATERIAL BODE & NYQUIST PLOTS


Cutoff Frequency

Magnitude (dB)
Slope:
20 dB/decade

Passband Stopband
Phase (deg)

Passband Stopband

Frequency (rad/sec)
Figure 2-3. Bode Plot

Imaginary G
(contour) F(s)

F(S) Plane
Real G

Figure 2-4. Nyquist Plot

A feedback control system is stable if, and only if, the contour F(s) in the F(s) plane does
not encircle the (-1, 0) point when P (number of poles) is 0 (i.e. the point (1, 0) is used
because that is where a unit circle drawn with its center at the origin (0,0) crosses the real-
axis which means that point is -180 from the origin). Therefore, the feedback control
system is stable when the unit circle crossing point is at a frequency lower than -180.
A feedback control system is unstable when the same unit circle crossing point on the
real-axis is at a frequency higher than -180.

REVIEW MATERIAL BODE & NYQUIST PLOTS 13


2.2 THERMODYNAMICS
Thermodynamics is the study of the effects of work, heat, and energy on a system. There are
three laws:

First Law (Law of Conservation): Energy can be changed from one form to another, but it cannot
be created or destroyed. U = Q W (U = internal energy; Q = heat added to system; W = work
done by system).

Second Law (Law of Entropy): Energy spontaneously disperses from being localized to
becoming spread out if it is not hindered from doing so (i.e., heat is transferred from high
temperature to low temperature regions).

Third Law: This law is an extension of the second law: as temperature approaches absolute zero,
the entropy of a system approaches a constant.

2.2.1 Terminology
Exothermic: A type of chemical reaction that releases energy in the form of heat, light, or sound.
This type of reaction may occur spontaneously.

Endothermic: A type of chemical reaction that must absorb energy in order to proceed. This type
of reaction does not occur spontaneously because work must be done in order to get this reaction
to occur.

Entropy (s): Entropy is a measure of how much heat must be rejected to a lower temperature
receiver at a given pressure and temperature (measured in BTU/lbmR). Heat Q released by a
system into its surroundings is indicated by a negative quantity (Q<0); when a system absorbs
heat from its surroundings, Q is indicated by a positive value (Q>0). An example of this heat
rejection is to place a glass of hot liquid into a colder environment, this results in a flow of heat
from the glass to the environments surrounding atmosphere until an equilibrium is reached.

Q
s= Q = heat content of the system T = Temperature of the system (R)
T

Enthalpy (h) (inherent heat): Enthalpy is measured in British thermal units per pound (mass), or
BTU/lbm, and represents the total energy content of the system (the enthalpy SI unit is J/kg). It
expresses the internal energy and flow work, or the total potential energy and kinetic energy
contained within a substance.

h = U + PV (U = internal energy; P = pressure; V = volume)

Adiabatic process: A thermodynamic process in which there is no transfer of heat between the
process and the surrounding environment. An adiabatic process is generally obtained by
surrounding the entire system with a strong insulating material or by carrying out the process so
quickly that there is no time for significant heat transfer to take place.

Isothermal process: A thermodynamic process in which no temperature change occurs (T = 0).


Note that heat transfer can occur without causing a change in temperature of the working fluid.

14 REVIEW MATERIAL THERMODYNAMICS


2.2.2 Heat Addition and Temperature
When heat is added to a material, one of two things will occur: the material will change
temperature or the material will change state. When a substance is below the temperature at a
given pressure required to change state, the addition of sensible heat will raise the temperature of
the substance. Sensible heat applied to a pot of water will raise its temperature until it boils.
Once the substance reaches the necessary temperature at a given pressure to change state, the
addition of latent heat causes the substance to change state. Adding latent heat to the boiling
water does not get the water any hotter, but changes the liquid (water) into a gas (steam).

One can state that a certain amount of heat is required to raise the temperature of a substance one
degree. This energy is called the specific heat capacity (Q=mcT). The specific heat capacity of a
substance depends upon the volume and pressure of the material, except for water, the specific
heat capacity is 1 BTU/lbm-F (1kcal/kg-C in SI units) and remains constant. This means that if
we add 1 BTU of heat to 1 lbm of water, the temperature will rise 1F. The specific heat value and
the specific heat capacity value for water are equal.

2.2.3 Mollier Steam Diagram


A Mollier diagram (Figure 2-5) can be used to determine enthalpy versus entropy of water and
steam with the pressure identified on the y-axis in a log scale, and enthalpy identified on the x-
axis. Other properties identified on the Mollier diagram are constant temperature, density and
entropy lines. The Mollier diagram8 is useful when analyzing the performance of adiabatic
steady-flow processes.9

How To Read A Mollier Diagram


Example: Superheated steam at 700psi and 680F is expanded at constant entropy to 140psi.

1. Locate point 1 at the intersection of the 700psi and 680F line then read h (h = 1333
BTU/lbm).

2. Follow the entropy line downward vertically to the 140psi line and read h (h = 1178
BTU/lbm)

h = 1178 1333 = 155 BTU/lbm.

2.2.4 Psychrometric Chart


A psychrometric chart (Figure 2-6) is graphical representation of the thermodynamic properties
of moist air. The chart is used to determine the state of an air-water vapor mixture when at least
two properties are known.

How to Use a Psychrometric Chart


Example: Assume dry bulb temperature = 78F and wet bulb temperature = 65F.

8. Mollier diagrams are named after Richard Mollier, a professor at Dresden University who pioneered the
graphical display of the relationship of temperature, pressure, enthalpy, entropy and volume of steam
and moist air.
9. Reference www.chemicalogic.com for a blank example of this Mollier Diagram.

REVIEW MATERIAL THERMODYNAMICS 15


v = specific volume Entrpoy
s=1.0 s=1.1 s=1.2 s=1.3 s=1.4 s=1.5 s=1.6

s=1.7

s=1.8

s=1.9

s=2.0

s=2.1

s=2.2

s=2.3

s=2.4

s=2.5

s=2.6

s=2.7

s=2.8

Figure 2-5. Mollier Diagram (based upon the Scientific IAPWS-95 formulation)
Sp me
Vo

ec
lu
ific

Intersection
Point Dewpoint

78F

Figure 2-6. Psychrometric Chart (Linric Company)

16 REVIEW MATERIAL THERMODYNAMICS


First locate 78F on the DB Temperature Scale at the bottom of the chart.

Then locate 65F WB on the saturation curve scale.

Extend a vertical line from the 78F DB point and a diagonal line from the 65F WB point
to intersect the vertical DB line.

The point of intersection of the two lines indicates the condition of the given air. As a
result:

- Enthalpy of air = 30 BTU/lb


- Specific volume of air = 13.7 ft3/lb
- Dewpoint = 57.5F

2.2.5 Properties of Water

Table 2-5. Properties of Water


Temperature Saturation Specific Weight Weight
Of Water F Pressure psia Volume ft3/lb Density lb/ft3 lb/gal
32 0.08859 0.016022 62.414 8.3436
40 0.12163 0.016019 62.426 8.3451
50 0.17796 0.016023 62.410 8.3430
60 0.25611 0.016033 62.371 8.3378
70 0.36292 0.016050 62.305 8.3290
80 0.50683 0.016072 62.220 8.3176
90 0.69813 0.016092 62.116 8.3037
100 0.94924 0.016130 61.996 8.2877
110 1.2750 0.016165 61.862 8.2698
120 1.6927 0.016204 61.7132 8.2498
130 2.2230 0.016247 61.550 8.2280
140 2.8892 0.016293 61.376 8.2048
150 3.7184 0.016343 61.188 8.1797
160 4.7414 0.016395 60.994 8.1537
170 5.9926 0.016451 60.787 8.1260
180 7.5110 0.016510 60.569 8.0969
190 9.340 0.016572 60.343 8.0667
200 11.526 0.016637 60.107 8.0351
210 14.123 0.016705 59.862 8.0024
212 14.696 0.016719 59.812 7.9957
220 17.186 0.016775 59.613 7.9690
240 24.968 0.016926 59.081 7.8979
260 35.427 0.017098 58.517 7.8226
280 49.200 0.017264 57.924 7.7433
300 67.005 0.01745 57.307 7.6608

REVIEW MATERIAL THERMODYNAMICS 17


350 134.604 0.01799 55.586 7.4308
400 247.259 0.01864 53.684 7.1717
450 422.55 0.01943 51.467 6.8801
500 680.86 0.02043 48.948 6.5433
550 1045.43 0.02176 45.956 6.1434
600 1543.2 0.02364 42.301 5.6548
650 2208.4 0.02674 37.397 4.9993
700 3094.3 0.03662 27.307 3.6505

B
A
(C +T )
Saturation Pressure: P = 10

A, B and C are the values of the Antoine constants A, B and C for the temperature T from NIST.

Density: = P/RT (P in Pascal; T in Kelvin)

Specific Volume: 1/

Linear Interpolation in Tables


Linear interpolation is a convenient way to fill in holes in tabular data. The formula for linear
interpolation is:

g g1
d = d1 + ( d2 d1 )
g2 g1

Example: Find the saturation pressure for water at 575F.

From Table 2-5:


d1 = 1045.43 psia
d2 = 1543.2 psia
g = 575F
g1 = 550F
f2 = 600F

575 550
d = 1045.3 + (1045.43 1543.2 ) =
550 600
1045.3 + ( 0.5 ) ( 497.77) = 1045.3 + 248.89 = 1294.19psia

2.2.6 Properties of Saturated Steam


Saturated steam occurs when steam and water are in equilibrium. Once the waters boiling point
is reached, the waters temperature ceases to rise and stays the same until all the water is
vaporized. As the water goes from a liquid state to a vapor state it receives energy in the form of
latent heat of vaporization. As long as there is some liquid water left, the steams temperature
is the same as the liquid waters temperature. This type of steam is called saturated steam.
Industries normally use saturated steam for heating, cooking, drying and other processes.

18 REVIEW MATERIAL THERMODYNAMICS


Table 2-6 lists the properties of saturated steam at different pressures.

Table 2-6. Properties of Saturated Steam10


Specific Volume V Heat Content Latent Heat of
Saturated ft3/lb BTU/lb
Pressure Vaporization
Temperature
psig Saturated Saturated Saturated Saturated (hfg)
F
Liquid (Vf) Vapor (Vg) Liquid (hf) Vapor (hg) BTU/lb
0 212 0.0167 26.8 180 1150 970
1 215 0.0167 24.3 183 1151 967
2 218 0.0167 23.0 186 1153 965
3 222 0.0168 21.8 190 1154 963
4 224 0.0168 20.7 193 1155 961
5 227 0.0168 19.8 195 1156 959
6 230 0.0168 18.9 198 1157 958
7 232 0.0169 18.1 200 1158 956
8 235 0.0169 17.4 203 1158 955
9 237 0.0169 16.7 205 1159 953
10 239 0.0169 16.1 208 1160 952
11 242 0.0169 15.6 210 1161 950
12 244 0.0170 15.0 212 1161 949
13 246 0.0170 14.5 214 1162 947
14 248 0.0170 14.0 216 1163 946
15 250 0.0170 13.6 218 1164 945
16 252 0.0170 13.2 220 1164 943
17 254 0.0170 12.8 222 1165 942
18 255 0.0170 12.5 224 1165 941
19 257 0.0171 12.1 226 1166 940
20 259 0.0171 11.1 227 1166 939
25 267 0.0171 10.4 236 1169 933
30 274 0.0172 9.4 243 1171 926
35 281 0.0173 8.5 250 1173 923
40 287 0.0173 7.74 256 1175 919
45 292 0.0174 7.14 262 1177 914
50 298 0.0174 6.62 267 1178 911
55 302 0.0175 6.17 272 1179 907
60 307 0.0175 5.79 277 1181 903
65 312 0.0176 5.45 282 1182 900
70 316 0.0176 5.14 286 1183 897
75 320 0.0176 4.87 290 1184 893
80 324 0.0177 4.64 294 1185 890
85 327 0.0177 4.42 298 1186 888
90 331 0.0178 4.24 301 1189 887
95 334 0.0178 4.03 305 1189 884
100 338 0.0178 3.88 308 1190 882
105 341 0.0179 3.72 312 1191 877
110 343 0.0179 3.62 314 1191 877
115 347 0.0180 3.44 318 1192 872
120 350 0.0180 3.34 321 1193 872

REVIEW MATERIAL THERMODYNAMICS 19


125 353 0.0180 3.21 324 1193 867
130 355 0.0180 3.12 327 1194 867
135 358 0.0181 3.02 329 1194 864
140 361 0.0181 2.92 332 1195 862
145 363 0.0181 2.84 335 1196 860
150 366 0.0182 2.75 337 1196 858
155 368 0.0182 2.67 340 1196 854
160 370 0.0182 2.60 342 1196 854
165 373 0.0183 2.53 345 1197 852
170 375 0.0183 2.47 347 1197 850
175 378 0.0183 2.40 350 1198 848
180 380 0.0184 2.34 352 1198 846
185 382 0.0184 2.29 355 1199 844
190 384 0.0184 2.23 357 1199 842
200 388 0.0185 2.14 361 1199 838
210 392 0.0185 2.05 365 1200 835
220 396 0.0186 1.96 369 1200 831
230 399 0.0186 1.88 373 1201 828
240 403 0.0187 1.81 377 1201 824
250 406 0.0187 1.75 380 1201 821
260 410 0.0188 1.68 384 1201 817
270 413 0.0188 1.63 387 1202 814
280 416 0.0189 1.57 391 1202 811
290 419 0.0190 1.52 394 1202 807
300 421 0.0190 1.47 397 1202 805

2.2.7 Properties of Superheated Steam


As opposed to saturated steam, when all the water is vaporized any subsequent addition of heat
will raise the steams temperature. Steam heated beyond the saturated steam level is called
superheated steam. Superheated steam is used almost exclusively for turbines. Turbines have a
number of stages. The exhaust steam from the first stage is directed to a second stage on the same
shaft, and so on. This means that saturated steam would get wetter and wetter as it went through
the successive stages. This is due to the fact that saturated steam has a greater volume of water in
it as the pressure gets lower. Not only would this situation promote water hammer11, but the
water particles would cause severe erosion within the turbine.

There is a good reason why superheated steam is not as suitable for process heating as is
saturated steam. Superheated steam has to cool to saturation temperature before it can condense
to release its enthalpy of evaporation. The amount of heat given up by superheated steam as it
cools to saturation temperature is relatively small in comparison to its enthalpy of evaporation.
Thus, if the steam has a large degree of superheat, it may take a relatively long time to cool,
during which time the steam will release very little energy.

10. There are many free online tools available to calculate these values based upon the pressure in psig,
www.spiraxsarco.com is just one example of a website that makes one of these calculation tools available
free of charge.
11. Water hammer (aka fluid hammer) is a pressure surge that occurs when the fluid in motion is suddenly
stopped or forced to change directions abruptly. This pressure wave then propagates throughout the
equipment causing noise and vibration.

20 REVIEW MATERIAL THERMODYNAMICS


Table 2-7 lists the properties of superheated steam at various pressures.

Table 2-7. Properties of Superheated Steam12


Pressure Sat. Total Temperature F
Temp
psia psig . 350 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1300 1500
15 0.3 213.03 V 31.939 33.963 37.985 41.986 45.978 49.964 53.946 57.926 61.905 69.858 77.807
hg 1216.2 1239.9 1287.3 1335.2 1383.8 1433.2 1483.4 1534.5 1586.5 1693.2 1803.4
20 5.3 227.96 V 23.900 25.428 28.457 31.466 34.465 37.458 40.447 43.435 46.420 52.388 58.352
hg 1215.4 1239.2 1286.9 1334.9 1383.5 1432.9 1483.2 1534.3 1586.3 1693.1 1803.3
30 15.3 250.34 V 15.859 16.892 18.929 20.945 22.951 24.952 26.949 28.943 30.936 34.918 38.896
hg 1213.6 1237.8 1286.0 1334.2 1383.0 1432.5 1482.8 1534.0 1586.1 1692.9 1803.2
40 25.3 267.25 V 11.838 12.624 14.165 15.685 17.195 18.699 20.199 21.697 23.194 26.183 29.168
hg 1211.7 1236.4 1285.0 1333.6 1382.5 1432.1 1482.5 1533.7 1585.8 1692.7 1803.0
50 35.3 281.02 V 9.424 10.062 11.306 12.529 13.741 14.947 16.150 17.350 18.549 20.942 23.332
hg 1209.9 1234.9 1284.1 1332.9 1382.0 1431.7 1482.2 1533.4 1585.6 1692.5 1802.9
60 45.3 292.71 V 7.815 8.354 9.400 10.425 11.438 12.446 13.450 14.452 15.452 17.448 19.441
hg 1208.0 1233.5 1283.2 1332.3 1381.5 1431.3 1481.8 1533.2 1585.3 1692.4 1802.8
70 55.3 302.93 V 6.664 7.133 8.039 8.922 9.793 10.659 11.522 12.382 13.240 14.952 16.661
hg 1206.0 1232.0 1282.2 1331.6 1381.0 1430.9 1481.5 1532.9 1585.1 1692.2 1802.6
80 65.3 312.04 V 5.801 6.218 7.018 7.794 8.560 9.319 10.075 10.829 11.581 13.081 14.577
hg 1204.0 1230.5 1281.3 1330.9 1380.5 1430.5 1481.1 1532.6 1584.9 1692.0 1802.5
90 75.3 320.28 V 5.128 5.505 6.223 6.917 7.600 8.277 8.950 9.621 10.290 11.625 12.956
hg 1202.0 1228.9 1280.3 1330.2 1380.0 1430.1 1480.8 1532.3 1584.6 1691.8 1802.4
100 85.3 327.82 V 4.590 4.935 5.588 6.216 6.833 7.443 8.050 8.655 9.258 10.460 11.659
hg 1199.9 1227.4 1279.3 1329.6 1379.5 1429.7 1480.4 1532.0 1584.4 1691.6 1802.2
120 105.3 341.27 V 3.7815 4.0786 4.6341 5.1637 5.6813 6.1928 6.7006 7.2060 7.7096 8.7130 9.7130
hg 1195.6 1224.1 1277.4 1328.2 1378.4 1428.8 1479.8 1531.4 1583.9 1691.3 1802.0
140 125.3 353.04 V - 3.4661 3.9526 4.4119 4.8588 5.2995 5.7364 6.1709 6.6036 7.4652 8.3233
hg - 1220.8 1275.3 1326.8 1377.4 1428.0 1479.1 1530.8 1583.4 1690.9 1801.7
160 145.3 363.55 V - 3.0060 3.4413 3.8480 4.2420 4.6295 5.0132 5.3945 5.7741 6.5293 7.2811
hg - 1217.4 1273.3 1325.4 1376.4 1427.2 1478.4 1530.3 1582.9 1690.5 1801.4
180 165.3 373.08 V - 2.6474 3.0433 3.4093 3.7621 4.1084 4.4508 4.7907 5.1289 5.8014 6.4704
hg - 1213.8 1271.2 1324.0 1375.3 1426.3 1477.7 1529.7 1582.4 1690.2 1801.2
200 185.3 381.80 V - 2.3598 2.7247 3.0583 3.3783 3.6915 4.0008 4.3077 4.6128 5.2191 5.8219
hg - 1210.1 1269.0 1322.6 1374.3 1425.5 1477.0 1529.1 1581.9 1689.8 1800.9
220 205.3 389.88 V - 2.1240 2.4638 2.7710 3.0642 3.3504 3.6327 3.9125 4.1905 4.7426 5.2913
hg - 1206.3 1266.9 1321.2 1373.2 1424.7 1476.3 1528.5 1581.4 1689.4 1800.6
240 225.3 397.39 V - 1.9268 2.2462 2.5316 2.8024 3.0661 3.3259 3.5831 3.8385 4.3456 4.8492
hg - 1202.4 1264.6 1319.7 1372.1 1423.8 1475.6 1527.9 1580.9 1689.1 1800.4
260 245.3 404.44 V - - 2.0619 2.3289 2.5808 2.8256 3.0663 3.3044 3.5408 4.0097 4.4750
hg - - 1262.4 1318.2 1371.1 1423.0 1474.9 1527.3 1580.4 1688.7 1800.1
280 265.3 411.07 V - - 1.9037 2.1551 2.3909 2.6194 2.8437 3.0655 3.2855 3.7217 4.1543
hg - - 1260.0 1316.8 1370.0 1422.1 1474.2 1526.8 1579.9 1688.4 1799.8
300 285.3 417.35 V - - 1.7665 2.0044 2.2263 2.4407 2.6509 2.8585 3.0643 3.4721 3.8764
hg - - 1257.7 1315.2 1368.9 1421.3 1473.6 1526.2 1579.4 1688.0 1799.6
320 305.3 423.31 V - - 1.6462 1.8725 2.0823 2.2843 2.4821 2.6774 2.8708 3.2538 3.6332
hg - - 1255.2 1313.7 1367.8 1420.5 1472.9 1525.6 1578.9 1687.6 1799.3

REVIEW MATERIAL THERMODYNAMICS 21


340 325.3 428.99 V - - 1.5399 1.7561 1.9552 2.1463 2.3333 2.5175 2.7000 3.0611 3.4186
hg - - 1252.8 1312.2 1366.7 1419.6 1472.2 1525.0 1578.4 1687.3 1799.3
360 345.3 434.41 V - - 1.4454 1.6525 1.8421 2.0237 2.2009 2.3755 2.5482 2.8898 3.2279
hg - - 1250.3 1310.6 1365.6 1418.7 1471.5 1542.4 1577.9 1686.9 1798.8
380 365.3 439.61 V - - 1.3606 1.5598 1.7410 1.9139 2.0825 2.2484 2.4124 2.7366 3.0572
hg - - 1247.7 1309.0 1364.5 1417.9 1470.8 1523.8 1577.4 1686.5 1798.5
400 385.3 444.60 V - - 1.2841 1.4763 1.6499 1.8151 1.9759 2.1339 2.2901 2.5987 2.9037
hg - - 1245.1 1307.4 1363.4 1417.0 1470.1 1523.3 1576.9 1686.2 1798.2
3
V = specific volume, ft /lb
hg = total heat of steam, BTU/lb

2.3 STATISTICS
Degrees of Freedom (df)

df is the number of values that are free to vary in the final calculation of a statistic:

df = n 1 where n = number of samples.

Standard Deviation () is a measure of the spread of the data about the mean value. Reference
Figure 2-7 for the normal distribution curve between standard deviations.

2
(x x )
= x = sample value; x = mean value; n = # of samples; n 1 = df
n 1

Example:
Consider a population consisting of the following values:

2, 4, 4, 4, 5, 5, 7, 9

There are eight data points in total, with a mean (or average) value of 5:

2 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 7 + 9 40
= =5
8 8

To calculate the population standard deviation, we compute the difference of each data point
from the mean, and square the result:

(2 5)2 = (3)2 = 9

(4 5)2 = (1)2 = 1

(4 5)2 = (1)2 = 1

12. There are many free online tools available to calculate these values based upon the pressure and super-
heat temperature, www.spiraxsarco.com is just one example of a website that makes one of these calcu-
lation tools available free of charge.

22 REVIEW MATERIAL STATISTICS


(4 5)2 = (1)2 = 1

(5 5)2 = (0)2 = 0

(5 5)2 = (0)2 = 0

(7 5)2 = (2)2 = 4

(9 5)2 = (4)2 = 16

Next we average these values and take the square root, which gives the standard deviation:

9 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 0 + 0 + 4 + 16 32
= = 2.138
8 1 7

34.1% 34.1%

2.1% 2.1%
0.1% 0.1%
13.6% 13.6%

3 2 1 Mean +1 +2 +3

Figure 2-7. Percentages in Normal Distribution between Standard Deviations

Six Sigma
Six Sigma comes from the notion that if one has six standard deviations between the process
mean and the nearest specification limit, there will be practically no items that fail to meet
specifications. To achieve Six Sigma, a process must not produce more than 3.4 defects per one
million opportunities.

1.5 Sigma Shift


It has been shown that in the long term, processes usually do not perform as well as they do in
the short term. As a result of this performance, the number of sigmas that will fit between the
process mean and the nearest specification limit is likely to drop over time, as compared to an
initial short-term study. To account for this real-life increase in process variation over time, an
empirically-based 1.5 sigma shift is introduced into the calculation.

According to this concept, a process that fits Six Sigmas between the process mean and the
nearest specification limit in a short-term study will, in the long term, only fit 4.5 sigmas. Either
the process mean will move over time, or the long-term standard deviation of the process will be
greater than that observed in the short term, or possibly both. Therefore, the widely accepted
definition of a Six Sigma process is one that produces 3.4 Defective Parts per Million
Opportunities (DPMO).

REVIEW MATERIAL STATISTICS 23


This definition is based on the fact that a process that is normally distributed will have 3.4
defective parts per million beyond a point that is 4.5 standard deviations above or below the
mean. So the 3.4 DPMO of a Six Sigma process corresponds in fact to 4.5 sigmas, that is, 6
sigmas minus the 1.5 sigma shift introduced to account for long-term variation. This is done to
prevent underestimation of the defect levels likely to be encountered in real-life operation.

Table 2-8 gives long-term DPMO values corresponding to various short-term sigma levels.

Table 2-8. Long-Term DPMO Values


% %
Level DPMO
Defective Yield
1 691,462 69% 31%
2 308,538 31% 69%
3 66,807 6.7% 93.3%
4 6,210 0.62% 99.38%
5 233 0.023% 99.977%
6 3.4 0.00034% 99.99966%

2.4 BOOLEAN LOGIC OPERATIONS13


AND Gate: All inputs must be true for output to be true

In1 In2 Out


0 0 0
In1
0 1 0 Out
In2
1 0 0
1 1 1

NAND Gate: All inputs must be false for output to be true

In1 In2 Out


0 0 1
In1
0 1 1 Out
In2
1 0 1
1 1 0

13. Developed by George Boole (1815-1864).

24 REVIEW MATERIAL BOOLEAN LOGIC


OR Gate: Any input can be true for output to be true

In1 In2 Out


0 0 0
In1
0 1 1 Out
In2
1 0 1
1 1 1

NOR Gate: If any input is true the output will be false

In1 In2 Out


0 0 1
In1
0 1 0 Out
In2
1 0 0
1 1 0

XOR Gate: All the inputs must be different for the output to be true

In1 In2 Out


0 0 0
In1
0 1 1 Out
In2
1 0 1
1 1 0

S-R Flip-Flop: Latch Circuit

S R Q Q

0 0 Keep output state Keep output state


0 1 0 1
1 0 1 0
1 1 Unstable condition Unstable condition

S
NAND Q
SET
S Q

NAND Q
R R CLR Q
Equivalent Circuit

REVIEW MATERIAL BOOLEAN LOGIC 25


2.5 CONVERSION FACTORS

Table 2-9. Common Conversion Factors


Unit = Unit
Gallon 8.34 Lbs Water @ 60F
3
Density of Water 62.4 Lbs/Ft
Density of Air 0.07649 Lbs/Ft3
SG Water @ 60F 1
MW of Air 29
SG of Liquid MW of Liquid 18.02
SG of Gas MW of Gas 29

Table 2-10. Distance Factors


Multiply By To Obtain
Inch 2.54 Centimeter
Centimeter 0.3937 Inch
Foot 0.3048 Meter
Meter 3.28083 Foot

Table 2-11. Volume Factors


Multiply By To Obtain
Gallon 0.13368 Ft3
Gallon 0.003754 M3
Gallon 3.7853 Liter
Liter 0.2642 Gallon
Liter 0.03531 Ft3
Liter 0.001 M3
Ft3 7.481 Gallon
3
Ff 28.3205 Liter
3
Ft 0.028317 M3
M3 35.3147 Ft3
3
M 3.28083 Gallon
3
M 1000 Liter

Table 2-12. Mass Factors


Multiply By To Obtain
Pound 0.4536 Kilogram
Kilogram 2.2046 Pound

26 REVIEW MATERIAL CONVERSION FACTORS


Table 2-13. Force Factors
Multiply By To Obtain
Newton 0.22481 Pound-Force
Pound-Force 4.4482 Newton

Table 2-14. Energy Factors


Multiply By To Obtain
BTU 778.17 Ft-Lbf
BTU 1.055 KJoules
BTU/Hr 0.293 Watt
HP 0.7457 Kilowatt
HP 2545 BTU/Hr

Table 2-15. Temperature Factors


Unit Use Equation To Obtain
F (F 32)*1.8 C
F (F + 459.67)/1.8 K
F (F + 459.67) R
C (C 1.8) + 32 F
C C + 273.15 K
C (C 1.8) + 32 + 459.67 R
K (K 1.8) 459.67 F
K K - 273.15 C
K K 1.8 R
R R 459.67 F
R (R 32 459.67)/1.8 C
R R/1.8 K

REVIEW MATERIAL CONVERSION FACTORS 27


Table 2-16. Pressure Factors
Multiply By To Obtain
Atmosphere 1.01295 Bar
Atmosphere 29.9213 Inches Hg
Atmosphere 760 mm Hg
Atmosphere 406.86 Inches WC *
Atmosphere 14.696 PSI
5
Atmosphere 1.01295 x 10 N/M2 or Pa
Bar 0.9872 Atm
Bar 29.54 Inches Hg
Bar 750.2838 mm Hg
Bar 401.65 Inches WC
Inches WC 0.03612 PSI
Inches WC 0.07354 Inches Hg
Inches WC 1868.1 mm Hg
Inches WC 248.9 N/M2 or Pa
Inches WC 0.001868 Micron or mtorr
PSI 27.68 Inches WC
PSI 2.036 Inches Hg
PSI 51.71 mm Hg
PSI 0.068046 Atm
PSI 0.068948 Bar
PSI 6892.7 N/M2 or Pa
Micron or mtorr 0.0005353 Inches WC
2
N/M or Pa 0.004018 Inches WC
2
N/M or Pa 0.00014508 PSI
* WC indicates water column

Table 2-17. Viscosity


Multiply By To Obtain
cSt 0.999g/cm3 cP
cP 1/0.999g/cm3 cSt
Kinematic viscosity (stoke) = Absolute viscosity (poise)/S.G.
Dynamic viscosity (cP) = 0.001 Pa-s

28 REVIEW MATERIAL CONVERSION FACTORS


2.6 EQUATIONS/LAWS/FORMULAS

Pressure

F
P=
A

F = Force applied
A = Area

Boyles Law

1 1 = P2V2
PV

Boyles law states that at constant temperature, the absolute pressure and the volume of a gas are
inversely proportional. The law can also be stated in a slightly different manner: that the product
of absolute pressure and volume is always constant.

P = Pressure in PSIA
V = Volume in Ft3

Charless Law

V1 V2
= OR V1T2 = V2T1
T1 T2

These expressions may be combined into the form of PV/T = constant for a fixed mass of gas.

Charless law states that at constant pressure, the volume of a given mass of an ideal gas increases
or decreases by the same factor as its temperature on the absolute temperature scale (i.e., the gas
expands as the temperature increases, the temperature is the average of molecular motion,
therefore, the molecular motion will increase with a corresponding temperature increase, thus
causing the gas to expand.).

T = Temperature in R (Note the absolute temperature scale)


V = Volume in Ft3

Gay-Lussac's Law

P1 P2
= OR 1 2 = P2T1
PT
T1 T2

The pressure of a fixed mass and fixed volume of a gas is directly proportional to the gas's
temperature.

T = Temperature in R
P = Pressure in PSIA

REVIEW MATERIAL EQUATIONS/LAWS 29


Ideal Gas Law (for compressible fluids)

PV = RT

R = Gas Constant (Value = 1544/MW)


P = Pressure in PSIA
V = Volume in Ft3
T = Temperature in R
MW = Molecular Weight

Pascals Law
Pascals Law states that a change in the pressure of an enclosed incompressible fluid is conveyed
undiminished to every part of the fluid and to the surfaces of its container. Note: this is the
principle used in the pressure factor table (Table 2-16) to convert between pressure and inches-WC, mm-
Hg, etc.

P = g (h)

P = Hydrostatic pressure
= Mass density
g= Gravitation constant
h = Difference in elevation between the two points within the fluid column

Bernoullis Equation
The Bernoulli equation states that as the speed of a moving fluid increases, the pressure within
the fluid decreases:

PV
1 1 PV
= 2 2
T1 T2

P + v2 + gh = Constant
P = Pressure in PSIA
= Mass Density
g = Gravitation constant
h = Height above reference level
v = Velocity

This form of the Bernoulli equation ignores viscous effects. If the flow rate is high, or the flowing
material has a very low viscosity, Bernoullis equation should not be used. For example, liquid
flowing in a pipe may be more accurately described with Poiseuilles equation14 to account for
flow rate, viscosity and pipe diameter. Poiseuilles equation states:

14. Also known as the Hagen-Poiseuille Law that states that the volume flow of an incompressible fluid
through a circular tube is equal to /8 times the pressure differences between the ends of the tube, times
the fourth power of the tube's radius divided by the product of the tube's length and the dynamic vis-
cosity of the fluid.

30 REVIEW MATERIAL EQUATIONS/LAWS


P r 4
Q=
8

Q = Volumetric flow rate, in3/sec


= Tube length, inches
r = Tube radius, inches
= Viscosity, lbsec/in2

Volumetric Flow Rate


Q = AV Q(gpm) = 3.12 A(sq in) x V(ft/sec)

Q = Volumetric Flow Rate


A = Cross Sectional Area of the Pipe
V = Velocity of the Fluid

Darcys Formula (general formula for pressure drop)

fLV 2
h=
2Dg

h = Pressure drop in feet of fluid


L = Length of pipe (feet)
V = Velocity of the fluid (ft/sec)
g = Acceleration of gravity (32.2 ft/sec2)
D = Pipe ID (feet)
f = The Darcy-Weisbach friction factor f = 16 Re (Re = Reynolds Number)

Velocity of Exiting Fluid

V = 2gh Q = A 2gh

V = Velocity of the fluid (ft/sec)


g = Gravitation constant (32.2 ft/sec2)
h = Height above reference level (in feet)
A = Area of opening (in sq ft) (the smaller the area, the greater the fluid velocity)
Q = Volumetric flow rate (ft3/sec)

Convert Actual Cubic Feet per Minute (ACFM) to Standard Cubic Feet per Minute (SCFM)

14.7 Ta P1V1 P2V2


ACFM = SCFM equivalent to =
Pa 519.67 T1 T2

REVIEW MATERIAL EQUATIONS/LAWS 31


Pa = Actual pressure (PSIA)
Ts = Standard temperature (519.67R) NOTE: R =60F+459.67 (convert from F to R)
Ta = Actual temperature (R)

Joule-Thomson (Kelvin) Effect/Coefficient


When the pressure of a non-ideal (real) gas changes from high to low (such as through a valve), a
change of temperature occurs, proportional to the pressure difference across the restriction. The
Joule-Thomson coefficient (JT) is the change of temperature per unit change of pressure.

The rate of change of temperature T with respect to pressure P in a Joule-Thomson process (that
is, at constant enthalpy H) is the Joule-Thomson (Kelvin) coefficient. This coefficient can be
expressed in terms of the gas's volume V, its heat capacity at constant pressure Cp, and its
coefficient of thermal expansion as:

T V
JT = (T 1)
P H CP
Wh
Where:
V = Volume of gas
Cp = The gas heat capacity at constant pressure
= The gas coefficient of thermal expansion
H = Enthalpy constant
T = Rate of change of temperature
P = Rate of change of pressure

The value of JT is typically expressed in C/bar (SI units: K/Pa)

Table 2-18 defines when the Joule-Thomson effect cools or warms a real gas:

Table 2-18. Joule-Thomson Effect


Gas Temperature JT is: sign of P sign of T The gas

< Inversion Temperature (1) Positive Negative (2) Negative COOLS


> Inversion Temperature (1) Negative Negative (2) Positive WARMS
(1) Inversion Temperature: The critical temperature below which a non-ideal (real) gas that is expanded (with a
constant enthalpy) will experience a temperature decrease.
(2) When a gas expands the pressure is always lower; therefore P is always negative.

Mass Flow Gas Equations


Substitute Q for V/t: Substitute for Q:

m M V p MQ p Mk f
w= = 3 w=
t 10 R t T 103 R T Q = k D;k =
103 R

32 REVIEW MATERIAL EQUATIONS/LAWS


p
Simplified: w = k D
T

w = Mass flow rate (kg/sec)


Q = Volume flow rate (m3/sec)
p = Absolute pressure (pascal)
T = Absolute temperature (Kelvin)
M = MW (g/mol)
R = Universal gas constant = 8.314 J (K x mol)
D = Flowmeter D/P (pascal)
k = Mass flow proportionality constant
kf = Flowmeter proportionality constant
M = AV
M = Mass flow rate (lbs/sec)
A = Cross sectional area (ft2)
= Fluid density (lbs/ft3)
V = Velocity (ft/sec)

Density will vary in inverse proportion to temperature, and in direct proportion to pressure.

Surface Area Formulas

Sphere: 4 r 2

Right Circular Cone: r 2 + rs

Right Circular Cylinder: 2 rh + 2 r 2

Pyramid: Area of Base + Area of the (4) Triangular Sides

Volume Formulas

Sphere:

4 3
r
3

Right Circular Cone:

1 2
r h
3

Right Circular Cylinder:

r 2h

Pyramid:

1
A h (A = Area of base)
3

REVIEW MATERIAL EQUATIONS/LAWS 33