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OCCIDENTAL MUKHAIZNA L.L.C.

Building No. 175, Way No. 61, Ghala, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman

LABORATORY QUALIFICATION TESTING OF


FOUR INTERNATIONAL COATING SYSTEMS

MAY 2014

0604-14-01

PREPARED BY:
APPROVED BY:
SHAILESH DHOKE, PH.D.
RAJASHRI KAMBLE, PH.D.

REVIEWED BY:
AMAL AL-BORNO, PH.D.
AMAL AL-BORNO, PH.D. PRESIDENT

No. 6, 4604 13 Street N.E., Calgary, Alberta T2E 6P1 Canada Tel. (403) 250-3027 Fax (403) 250-1254
www.chartercoating.com
The results contained herein relate only to the items tested. This

report should only be reproduced in full and with the permission

of Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd.

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0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 04

INTRODUCTION 12

LABORATORY TESTS AND METHODOLOGY 13

PULL-OFF ADHESION TEST 13

KNIFE ADHESION TEST 14

FLEXIBILITY TEST 15

CATHODIC DISBONDMENT TEST 16

PRESSURIZED ATLAS CELL TEST 17

AUTOCLAVE TEST 19

PERFORMANCE OF THE COATING SYSTEMS 20

DEVCHEM 253 (INTERNATIONAL PAINTS) 21

DEVCHEM 256 (INTERNATIONAL PAINTS) 38

ENVIROLINE 2450 (INTERNATIONAL PAINTS) 55

ENVIROLINE 450 HT (INTERNATIONAL PAINTS) 72

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0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

This report details the findings of a study conducted by Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. for
Occidental Mukhaizna L.L.C. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of four
commercially available International Paint coating systems (Devchem 253, Devchem 256, Enviroline
2450, and Enviroline 450 HT) for pipeline, vessel and tank internal applications under conditions used in
Mukhaizna field in the Sultanate of Oman. The test protocol included pull-off adhesion, X-cut adhesion,
flexibility, cathodic disbondment, pressurized atlas cell, and autoclave tests as specified by Occidental
Mukhaizna L.L.C. Test results obtained are given in Table 1. Test results are summarized below, shown
in Tables 2-4 and presented in Figures (1-3).

All coating systems showed excellent adhesion to steel substrate.


All coatings demonstrated sufficient flexibility for typical internal lining applications. The degree of
bend at which the coating shows no visual damage was found to be highest for Enviroline 2405
coating system (2.06/PD), followed by Devchem 253 coating system (1.82/PD), Enviroline 405HT
coating system (1.54/PD), and lowest for Devchem 256 coating system (0.77/PD). All coatings
demonstrated sufficient flexibility for typical internal lining applications.
Enviroline 2405 coating showed good resistance to the cathodic disbondment test conditions of
93C/200F and -1.5 V, indicating their suitability for structures with impressed cathodic protection.
However on one test panel of Enviroline 2405 dense size #6 blisters was noted around the intentional
holiday and relatively higher radius of disbondment was obtained which is most likely due to
application problems. Devchem 253, Devchem 256, and Enviroline 405HT coating systems showed
poor performance in cathodic disbondment test indicating their unsuitability for structures with
cathodic protection at high temperatures.
Only Devchem 256 performed well in the pressurized atlas cell indicating that this coating is the
most suitable for pressurized vessels with thermal gradient applications. All other coatings
(Enviroline 2405, Devchem 253, and Enviroline 405HT) showed signs of degradation tested under
similar conditions.
All coating systems performed well in the autoclave test indicating their suitability for pressurized
vessels applications as long as there is no cold wall effect on the coating.

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Table 1. Summary of Test Results

Cathodic
Pull-off
Coating Trade Knife Adhesion Disbondment Test Pressurized Atlas
Adhesion Bend Test Autoclave Test
Name Pre-Test (Average Radius of Cell
Pre-Test
Disbondment)
N/A** No blisters in gas No blistering and no
phase but Dense #2 significant change in
2533 psi /
blisters in aqueous adhesion strength in
Devchem 253 Rating 10 17.5 MPa 1.82/PD
phase. aqueous or gas phase*
Glue Failure
(Fail) (Fail) (Pass)
N/A** No blistering, No blistering and no
cracking, no change in significant change in
coating thickness or adhesion strength in
2889 psi /
smoothness and no aqueous or gas phase*
19.9 MPa
Devchem 256 Rating 10 0.77/PD significant change in
Cohesive
adhesion strength in
Failure
aqueous or gas phase.

(Fail) (Pass) (Pass)


7.7 mm*** Dense #2 Blisters in No blistering and no
gas phase and > Dense significant change in
2968 psi /
#2 in aqueous phase. adhesion strength in
Enviroline 2405 Rating 10 20.5 MPa 2.06/PD
aqueous or gas phase.
Glue Failure
(Two Panels Pass) (Fail) (Pass)
N/A** Blisters Medium #2 in
gas phase and Dense No blistering and no
3004 psi / #2 and cracks in significant change in
Enviroline
Rating 10 20.7 MPa 1.54/PD aqueous phase. adhesion strength in
405HT
Glue Failure aqueous or gas phase.

(Fail) (Fail) (Pass)


* Severe cracking and disbondment were observed on side B of the test panels which was most likely due to application.
**N/A: not evaluated due to coating failure
*** Out of three samples tested, two samples showed low radius of disbondment (CD 1= 2.8 mm & CD2=2.2 mm), while one
sample showed relatively high radius of disbondment (CD3=18.0 mm)

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PERFORMANCE OF FOUR (4) INTERNATIONAL COATING SYSTEMS

Pull-off Adhesion Test

20.7 MPa
Pull-off Adhesion Strength

21 20.5 MPa
20.5 19.9 MPa
20
(MPa)

19.5
19
18.5
17.5 MPa
18
17.5
17
16.5
16
15.5
Devchem 253 Devchem 256 Enviroline 2405 Enviroline 405HT

Figure 1. Pull-off Adhesion Test Performance of the Four Tested Coatings

Figure 1 shows the pre-test pull-off adhesion strength at 232C. All the four coating systems showed very
good adhesion to steel substrate with average pull-off values in the range of 17.5-20.7 MPa / 2533 -3001 psi.
Devchem 256 coating system showed mainly cohesive failure but all the other coating systems showed glue
failure indicating that their adhesion strengths are higher than these values.

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Knife Adhesion Test

10 10 10 10
10
9
X-cut Adheson Strength

8
7
6
(Rating)

5
4
3
2
1
0
Devchem 253 Devchem 256 Enviroline 2405 Enviroline 405HT
Coating System

Figure 2. X-cut Adhesion Test Performance of the Four Tested Coatings

Figure 2 shows the X-cut adhesion strength at 232C. The X-cut adhesion strength was found to be
high and rated 10 for all the coating systems, indicating excellent adhesion of the coating systems to
steel substrate.

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Flexibility Test

Angle of Deflection per Pipe Dimeter Length


2.5
2.06/PD
1.82/PD
2
1.54/PD

1.5
(/PD)

1 0.77/PD

0.5

0
Devchem 253 Devchem 256 Enviroline 2405 Enviroline 405HT

Coating System

Figure 3. Flexibility Test Performance of the Four Tested Coatings

Figure 3 shows the coatings ability to withstand mechanical damage when stretched at 232C. All
coatings demonstrated sufficient flexibility for typical internal lining applications. The degree of bend at
which the coating shows no visual damage was found to be highest for Enviroline 2405 coating system
(2.06/PD), followed by Devchem 253 coating system (1.82/PD), Enviroline 405HT coating system
(1.54/PD), and lowest for Devchem 256 coating system (0.77/PD).

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Cathodic Disbondment Test

Table 2. Cathodic Disbondment Test Results after 28 Days Data Summary

Average Radius of Disbondment


Coating Trade Name
(mm)

Devchem 253 N/A

Devchem 256 N/A*

Enviroline 2405 7.7**

Enviroline 405HT N/A


Note:
N/A Could not be determined due to deterioration and delamination of the coating
* Coating failed after 11 days of exposure
**Out of three samples tested, two samples showed low radius of disbondment (CD 1= 2.8 mm & CD2=2.2
mm), while one sample showed relatively high radius of disbondment (CD3=18.0 mm).

Table 2 shows the performance of the coatings in cathodic disbondment test after 28 days of exposure.
Out of four coating systems studied, Enviroline 2405 coating system showed resistance to disbondment.
out of three samples tested, two samples showed low radius of disbondment (CD1 = 2.8 mm & CD2 =
2.2 mm), while one sample showed relatively high radius of disbondment (CD3 = 18.0 mm) with dense
size #2 blisters around intentional holidays which is most likely due to application. The average radius
of disbondment was 7.7 mm. The other three coatings (Devchem 253, Devchem 256, and Enviroline
405HT) showed poor resistance to the test conditions, resulting in either complete deterioration or
delamination exposing underlying substrate.

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Pressurized Atlas Cell (PAC) Test

Table 3. Pressurized Atlas Cell (PAC) Test Results after 30 Days Data Summary

Adhesion Strength
Blistering/Cracking
Color Change Parallel Scribe Pull-off Adhesion
Coating Trade
Name Aqueous Vapour
Aqueous Vapour Aqueous Phase Vapour Phase Aqueous Phase Vapour Phase
Phase Phase
Phase Phase
28.8 MPa/3453 psi
Devchem 253 N/A Slight N/A B N/A
70% cohesive & 30%
Dense #2 None
adhesive failure.
20.0 MPa /2273 psi 16.0 MPa /2908 psi
Devchem 256 Moderate Moderate A A None None
100% cohesive failure 100% cohesive failure

Enviroline 2405 Moderate Moderate N/A N/A N/A N/A >Dense #2 Dense #2

Dense #2 &
Enviroline 405HT Moderate Moderate N/A N/A N/A N/A Medium #2
Irregular cracks
Note:
N/A Sample was not rated due to blistering observed in PAC test
Pre-test Parallel Scribe adhesion was Rated A

Table 3 shows the performance of the coatings in pressurized atlas cell test after 30 days of exposure. Out of four coating system studied,
only Devchem 256 coating system showed good resistance to the test conditions. Other coating systems, namely Devchem 253, Enviroline
2405, and Enviroline 405HT showed failure in the form of blistering.

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Autoclave Test

Table 4. Autoclave Test Results after 30 Days Data Summary

Adhesion Strength
Blistering/Cracking
Color Change Parallel Scribe Pull-off Adhesion
Coating Trade
Name Aqueous Vapour
Aqueous Vapour Aqueous Phase Vapour Phase Aqueous Phase Vapour Phase
Phase Phase
Phase Phase
23.6 MPa /3420 psi
24.8 MPa /3600 psi
Devchem 253 Moderate Moderate A A 85% Cohesive & 15%
None None
100% Cohesive Failure
Glue Failure.
20.6 MPa /2989 psi
19.6 MPa /2851 psi
Devchem 256 Moderate Moderate A A 95% Cohesive; 5%
None None
100% Cohesive Failure
Glue Failure
16.0 MPa /2314 psi 20.6 MPa/2908 psi
Enviroline 2405 Severe Severe A A 25% Cohesive; 75% 10% Cohesive; 90%
None None
Glue Failure Glue failure
21.2 MPa /3071 psi
17.6 MPa /2550 psi
Enviroline 405HT Severe Severe A A 2% Cohesive;
None None
100% Glue Failure
98% Glue Failure
Note:
N/A Sample was not post-test rated due to blistering observed in PAC test
Pre-test Parallel Scribe adhesion was Rated A

Table 4 shows the performance of the coatings in autoclave test after 30 days of exposure. All four coating systems showed good resistance to
the autoclave test conditions at 95C/203F as indicated by no visual sign of degradation and no significant change in adhesion strength. This
indicates that the coating films are resistant to degradation at this temperatures where there is no thermal gradient across the coating.

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INTRODUCTION

At the request of OCCIDENTAL MUKHAIZNA L.L.C, Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. conducted
laboratory testing to evaluate the performance of five commercially available coating systems for pipeline,
vessel and tank internal applications under conditions used in Mukhaizna field in the Sultanate of Oman.
The test protocol included pull-off adhesion, X-cut adhesion, flexibility, cathodic disbondment, pressurized
atlas cell, and autoclave tests as specified by Occidental Mukhaizna L.L.C.

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of four commercially available International
Paint coating systems (Devchem 253, Devchem 256, Enviroline 2450, and Enviroline 450 HT) for pipeline,
vessel and tank internal applications under conditions used in Mukhaizna field in the Sultanate of Oman.

SCOPE

The scope of this study was as follows:


1. OCCIDENTAL MUKHAIZNA L.L.C provided the test samples and test parameters.
2. The selected coatings for test evaluation were International Paint coating systems namely:
Devchem 253, Devchem 256, Enviroline 2450, and Enviroline 450 HT.
3. Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. performed the laboratory testing that includes: Pull-off
adhesion (ASTM D4541 09e1), Knife adhesion (ASTM D6677-07), Bend test (NACE RP 0394-
2002 Appendix H, Procedure A, modified), Cathodic disbondment (CSA Z245.20-10, Section
12.8), Pressurized atlas cell (NACE TM 017-02 Method A, modified) and Autoclave Test (NACE
TM0185-2006, Modified).

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LABORATORY TEST AND METHODOLOGY

PULL-OFF ADHESION

This test method covers a procedure for evaluating the pull-off strength (commonly referred to as adhesion)
of a coating on rigid substrates such as metal, concrete or wood. The ability of a coating to resist tensile
stress before detaching from the substrate is the measure of its adhesion strength. Pull-off strength
measurements depend upon both material and instrumental parameters. The failure can be adhesive (failure
at the coating / substrate interface), cohesive (failure within the coating film or the substrate) or glue failure
(at the fixture/coating interface). The force per unit area required to reach a failure point as well as the
mode of failure are reported.

METHODOLOGY

Pull-off adhesion test was conducted according to ASTM D4541-09e1, Type IV. This test method used a
class of apparatus known as portable pull-off adhesion testers. The pull-off test was performed by securing
a loading fixture (pull-stub) normal (perpendicular) to the surface of the coating with an adhesive. After the
adhesive was cured, a testing apparatus was attached to the loading fixture and aligned to apply tension
normal (perpendicular) to the test surface. The force applied to the loading fixture was then gradually
increased and monitored until either a plug of coating material was detached, or there was failure of the
glue on the pull-stub. When a plug of material was detached, the exposed surface represented the plane of
limiting strength within the system. The nature of the failure was qualified in accordance with the percent
of adhesive and cohesive failures, and the actual interfaces and layers involved.

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KNIFE ADHESION

This test examines adhesion of a coating to the substrate by applying a force using the levering action of a
knife tip. This is a somewhat subjective test and its value depends upon the technicians experience. There
is no direct correlation to other adhesion test methods such as pull-off or tape. Although this method is a
qualitative and a subjective test, it has been used in industry for many years and can provide valuable
information about the bonding strength at the coating /substrate interface.

METHODOLOGY

The knife adhesion test was conducted according to ASTM D6677 - 07 (2012). Using a sharp and pointed
knife, two incisions of approximately 38.1 mm in length were made through the coating to the steel surface
to form an X with an angle of intersection of approximately 30 to 40. Commencing at the vertex of the
angle, an attempt was made to lift the coating from the steel substrate using the blade of the knife. The
coating X-cut adhesion strength was assessed based on the degree of difficulty to remove the coating from
the substrate and the size of removed coating.

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FLEXIBILITY

In the field, pipeline coatings may be subjected to bending forces as a result of bending of the pipe prior to
installation or deformation during service. The coatings ability to bend with the substrate and remain a
smooth, continuous coating film is a vital property where potential for bending exists.

METHODOLOGY

The flexibility test was conducted according to NACE RP 0394-2002, Appendix H, Procedure A (modified)
with changes in test temperature and mandrel dimensions to determine the bend degree. Test specimens were
1" 8" " strips with all stress raisers removed and substrate exposed along the edges. Dry film thickness
and sample bar thickness measurements were taken and evaluated for the presence of holidays. The test was
carried out at 232C, and the samples were conditioned at 232C for at least one hour before testing.

In order to determine the limit of strain (deflection) in degree per pipe diameter (/PD) that the coating can
withstand without any deformation when bent at 232C, the coated straps were bent over mandrels from
larger to smaller radius. Based on the sample dimensions and coating thickness, the mandrel radius was
calculated and the corresponding angle of deflection (/PD) was noted. The test specimen was clamped on
the hydraulic machine and bent over the mandrel within 10 seconds. The test specimen was then visually
inspected for the presence of cracks and tears in the coating and disbondment. The presence of such defects
within 2.5 mm of the strap edge did not constitute a failure. Also, presence of strain marks alone did not
constitute a failure.

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CATHODIC DISBONDMENT TEST

Cathodic protection is a technique used to reduce the corrosion of a metal surface, by providing it with
enough cathodic current to make its anodic dissolution rate become negligible. This technique can be
detrimental to the performance of the coating applied. The cathodic disbondment test, conducted in the
laboratory, simulates the cathodic protection (CP) system used in the field while providing an indication of
the durability of the coating material under the provided voltage conditions. An aggressive, caustic
environment at the substrate/coating interface develops on the edge of the holiday (the cathode) as a result
of the impressed electrical stress. Coating disbondment is initiated and propagates around the holiday due
to the increase in pH in the immediate environment. The phenomenon is commonly referred to as cathodic
disbonding. The amount of coating disbondment is recorded and based on this disbondment; the coating
material is then rated for its durability under the test conditions.

METHODOLOGY

The cathodic disbondment test was conducted according to CSA Z245.20-10 Section 12.8, at 93C/200F
and an applied voltage of -1.5VDC for 28 days. Test panels were 4"4" one side coated and prior to testing
the coating thickness was measured and each test panel was tested for holidays. The test samples were
prepared by drilling an external holiday, measuring 3.2 mm/0.125" in diameter, through the coating to the
steel surface. A glass cylinder was then centered over the artificial holiday and a seal was made between
the sample and the cylinder using silicone sealant. The cylinder was filled with 3.0% NaCl solution to the
specified level. The test cell was polarized cathodically, by impressing a stress potential of -1.5V (with
respect to a calomel reference electrode) throughout the test and monitored for a 28 day test period. During
the test, the electrolyte level was either maintained by adding distilled water or replaced if the solution
became cloudy.

At the completion of the test, the test cells were disconnected from the cathodic protection circuit and
drained of the test solution. The glass cylinder was removed from the test panel and the test areas were
wiped dry and visually examined for blisters (ASTM D714), cracking, crazing, adhering deposits,
discoloration or change in coating thickness, loosening of coating around the intentional holiday and for any
unintentional holidays. For determining the radius of disbondment at the intentional holiday, radial cuts
were made through the coating to the substrate intersecting at the center of the intentional holiday. The
coating was lifted from the substrate by placing a sharp, thin bladed knife in the cut lines adjacent to the
initial holiday and using a levering action to detach the coating from the metal. The amount of coating
detached is used to assess how much disbondment occurred.
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PRESSURIZED ATLAS CELL (PAC) TEST

The pressurized atlas cell test is designed to simulate conditions in pressurized pipelines, and vessels. It
assesses the resistance of the coating to degradation under the influence of pressure, temperature, and the
internal environment. Coatings demonstrating less or no reaction to the test are considered to be the most
suitable for use in service.

METHODOLOGY

The Pressurized Atlas Test was conducted in accordance with NACE TM0174-02, "Laboratory Methods for
the Evaluation of Protective Coatings Used as Lining Materials in Immersion Service", Method A
Modified. One (1) panel of each coating to be tested was included in this test. Test panels were 203 mm (8
in.) square, and prior to testing each panel was tested for holidays, dry film thickness, gloss and also
visually examined for pre-test blistering, colour, and smoothness. This method consists of mounting two
8" 8" one side coated samples on opposite ends of a cylindrical cell with the coating being exposed to the
test media. The cell was filled to about half full with water phases and the gaseous phase constituted the
other fifty percent (50%) of the cell.
The test conditions are as follows:

Temperature: 95C /203F


Pressure: 60 psi
Gas phase: 50% CO2, 0.5% H2S and 49.5% balance CH4
Aqueous phase: Water with 4000 ppm Cl-
Duration: 30 days
Decompression: Cooled down to 30C/86F
Released from 37 psi to atmospheric pressure in 51 min

Upon test completion, samples were removed, and rated for blisters (ASTM D714) and film integrity
(cracking, as well as changes in coating thickness, colour, gloss, and smoothness). Adhesion was evaluated
by the Parallel Scribe Adhesion (the test method is shown below) and Pull-Off Adhesion (ASTM D4541
09e1).

Parallel Scribe Method for Rating Adhesion of Coating to the Substrate:


The following method with slight variations is used throughout the internal pipe coating industry by
manufacturers, applicators and consumers. The coating is cut to the metal in two parallel scribes

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0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
approximately 1/8" (5mm) apart. A knife blade is then inserted in one of the scribes to lift the coating from
the substrate. The adhesion is rated as follows:

'A' The coating may shear within itself but does not release from the substrate. The only bare metal visible is
in the scribes.
'B' Less than 50% of bare metal is visible between the scribes.
'C' More than 50% of bare metal is visible between the scribes.
'D' All coating releases between scribes when probed with blade, but remains adhered adjacent to cuts.
'F' No bond exists between coating and substrate. Once the film has been scribed, the coating releases.
Designations of '+' and '-' are used to differentiate subtle variations in the adhesion that are not defined by
the above ratings.

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AUTOCLAVE TEST

The Autoclave test is designed to simulate field conditions in a controlled laboratory setting. This test
compares the reactions of one or more coatings to conditions that simulate or exceed an anticipated service.
Coatings are exposed to liquids and gases that reflect the expected service environment. The gas phase is a
mixture of corrosive, flammable, and/or inert mediums. With this mixture of liquid and gas mediums, the
coatings are also exposed to higher temperature and pressure. Depressurization of the test vessel can be
controlled to reflect expected events in service. These conditions help accelerate the process of degradation
of the coating, if any occurs. The coatings that demonstrate the least amount of reaction are considered the
most reliable for use in that particular environment.

METHODOLOGY

The autoclave test was conducted as per modified NACE TM0185-2006, Evaluation of Internal Plastic
Coatings for Corrosion Control of Tubular Goods by Autoclave Testing. Test modifications included test
temperature, pressure, duration and the test media (the ratio of gases in the gas phase and the composition
of chemicals in the aqueous phase). Two (2) 6"1.5" all sides coated panels per coating system were
suspended in a beaker; the test fluid was added and the beaker was placed into the autoclave unit. The unit
was secured and the test gases with defined concentrations were metered in, using partial pressures. The
heat was turned on, and the pressure was monitored until full temperature was reached.

The Autoclave test conditions were as follows:


Temperature: 95C/203F
Pressure: 60 psi
Gas phase: 50% CO2, 0.5% H2S and 49.5% CH4
Aqueous phase: Water with 4000 ppm Cl-
Duration: 30 days
Decompression: Cooled down to 30C/86F
Released from 37 psi to atmospheric pressure in 51 min.

At completion of the tests, the samples was removed and examined for blistering, cracking, swelling,
softening, delamination, colour change, film thickness change, and loss of adhesion (parallel scribe
adhesion and pull-off adhesion as per ASTM D4541 09e1).

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PERFORMANCE OF THE COATING SYSTEMS

This section of the report highlights the performance of the four (4) test coating systems in terms of their
mechanical and barrier properties at high temperature operating conditions. The results for each coating system
are described separately. This data is useful in demonstrating strengths and limitations of the coatings in terms
of their resistance towards degradation under cathodic protection and in the immersion environment
with/without temperature gradient in water/acidic gas environment. The results indicate the types of service
environments for which they are best suited or the environments where they would not be expected to perform
well.

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COATING SYSTEM: DEVCHEM 253
(INTERNATIONAL PAINTS)

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Devchem 253 Coating System

Product Information

Devchem 253 is a two-component high solid epoxy novolac coating system supplied by International Paint.
As per the product data sheet this coating is recommended for industrial storage and process chemical tanks
and pipelines, high pressure crude oil pipes and separation tanks applications. Also it is recommended as a
protective coating for highly corrosive environments.

Conclusions

The Devchem 253 coating system showed good dry adhesion strength as determined by pull-off adhesion,
and X-cut adhesion method. The coating showed flexibility limited to 1.82/PD. The coating showed
resistance to autoclave test condition at 95C/203F, as indicated by no sign of coating degradation and no
significant change in adhesion strength (see note*). However, the coating showed low resistance in the
pressurized atlas cell test and degraded forming dense cracked size #2 blisters in the aqueous phase
indicating loss of barrier property of the coating system. The coating also showed poor resistance to the
cathodic disbondment test conditions at 93C/200F, as indicated by complete deterioration of the coating
exposing underlying steel or delamination.

Based on the results for Devchem 253 coating system, it can be concluded that the Devchem 253 coating
system may be used for structures operating at high temperature in presence of water/acidic gases
environment unless there is a thermal gradient. It should not be used for structures with impressed cathodic
protection at high temperature.

*Note: All post-test evaluation was carried out on side A of the test panels that showed no sign of
degradation. Side B of the test panel showed severe cracking and disbondment.

Test Results

Summary of test results are given in Table 5, shown in Figures 4-9 and data sheets are attached at the end of
this section.

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Table 5. Summary of Laboratory Test Results of Devchem 253 Coating Systems

Test Conditions Charter ID Test Results


Pull Off Value (psi/MPa) Mode of Failure Average Pull Value
Pull-off Adhesion PA 1
Temperature: 232C 2543 psi / 17.5 MPa 5% Cohesive; 95% Glue Failure
ASTM D4541 PA 2 2640 psi / 18.2 MPa 5% Cohesive; 95% Glue Failure 2533 psi / 17.5 MPa
PA 3 2417 psi / 16.7 MPa 3% Cohesive; 97% Glue Failure
Average Disbondment Distance from
Rating Pass/Fail
Knife Adhesion the Intersection (mm)
Temperature: 232C PA 1 0.0 mm Rating 10
ASTM D6677 PA 2 0.0 mm Rating 10 Pass
PA 3 0.0 mm Rating 10
F2 Cracks @ 2.54/PD Fail
F 10 Cracks @ 2.0/PD Fail
Bend Test F4 Cracks @ 2.03/PD Fail
NACE Temperature: 232C
F6 Cracks @ 1.97/PD Fail
RP 0394-2002 To determine the bend degree
F3 No cracks, tear or disbondment @ 1.82/PD Pass
(Modified)
F8 No cracks, tear or disbondment @ 1.82/PD Bending Limit
F9 No cracks, tear or disbondment @ 1.82/PD 1.82/PD

Cathodic CD 1
Temperature: 200F/93C Post-test disbondment evaluation was not carried out due to deterioration and delamination of the
Disbondment
Test Solution: 3% NaCl coating.
CD 2
Voltage: -1.5 V Complete deterioration of the coating exposing steel was observed on sample CD 1.
CSA Z245.20-10
Duration: 28 Days Surface bleaching and delamination of the coating were observed on samples CD 2 and CD 3.
Section 12.8 CD 3

Gas Phase
Temperature: 203F/95C
No blistering, cracking and no change in thickness and smoothness were observed.
Pressurized Atlas Pressure: 60 psi
Slight discoloration and reduction in gloss were observed.
Cell Gas Phase: 0.5% H2S, 50% CO2 and 49.5%
No significant change in adhesion strength
CH4
PAC 1 The pull off adhesion was 3453 psi, with 70% cohesive and 30% adhesive failure.
NACE Aqueous Phase: Water with 4000 ppm Cl-
Parallel scribe adhesion was rated B.
TM 0174-02 Decompression Rate: in one (1) hour at room
Modified temperature
Aqueous Phase
Duration: 30 Days
Dense size # 2 cracked blisters were observed.
Temperature: 203F/95C
No blistering, cracking and no change in coating thickness and smoothness were observed in either
Pressure: 60 psi
A 1* phase.
Autoclave Gas Phase: 0.5% H2S, 50% CO2 and 49.5%
Moderate change in colour was observed in both phases.
CH4
No significant change in adhesion strength:
NACE TM0185- Aqueous Phase: Water with 4000 ppm Cl-
The pull off adhesion was 3420 psi, with 15% glue and 85% cohesive failure in gas phase
2006 Decompression Rate: In one (1) hour at room
A 3* and 3600 psi, with 100% cohesive failure in aqueous phase.
temperature
Parallel scribe adhesion was rated A in both phases.
Duration: 30 Days
Note: Pre-test Parallel Scribe adhesion was rated A.
*Side B of the panel showed severe cracking and disbondment.

Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 23


0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
Pull-off Adhesion Test

Coating Side Underside of the Fixture


Sample PA 1

Coating Side Underside of the Fixture


Sample PA 2

Coating Side Underside of the Fixture


Sample PA 3

Figure 4. Photographs of Pull-off Adhesion Tested Devchem 253 Coating System


as per ASTM D 4541-09e1

Figure 4 shows close-up photographs of the pull-off adhesion test carried out on the Devchem 253 coating system
at 232C. The adhesion strength determined on three samples PA1, PA2 and PA3 were 17.5 MPa / 2543 psi,
18.2 MPa / 2640 psi and 16.7 MPa / 2417 psi, respectively. The average adhesion strength of the coating was
17.5 MPa / 2533 psi and the nature of failure was mainly glue, indicating good cohesion in the coating and
interfacial interaction between the coating and steel substrate.
Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 24
0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
CHARTER COATING SERVICE (2000) LTD.
PULL-OFF ADHESION DATA SHEET
(ASTM D4541-09e1)

Project Number: 0604-14-01 Company Name: Occidental Mukhaizna L.L.C.


Coating Name: Devchem 253 Date: February 10th, 2014
Temperature: 232C Instrument: Patti Jr. Apparatus (IV)
Test Performed By: Dr. R. Kamble

Sample No. Film Thickness Pull Off Value Mode of Failure Average Pull Value
(mils) (psi/MPa)

5% Cohesive
PA 1 13.0 - 16.0 2543 psi / 17.5 MPa Failure; 95% Glue
Failure

5% Cohesive
PA 2 13.1 - 16.0 2640 psi / 18.2 MPa Failure; 95% Glue 2533 psi / 17.5 MPa
Failure
3% Cohesive
PA 3 12.0 - 14.1 2417 psi / 16.7 MPa Failure; 97% Glue
Failure

Failure Definitions:
Cohesive - Failure is within the coating film.
Adhesive - Failure is at the coating to substrate bond.
Glue - Failure is at the glue (fixture) to coating bond.

Size of loading fixtures:


0.5 (inches) Loading fixtures were applied to the coating surface.

Approval Authority: Dr. Amal Al-Borno FM-505-00-57 Rev 1 (16/06/2010)

Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 25


0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
Knife Adhesion Test

PA1 PA2 PA3

Figure 5. Pre-Test Photographs (10X) of X-Scribe Adhesion Tested Devchem 253 Coating System
as per ASTM D 6677 - 07 (2012)

Figure 5 shows the X-cut adhesion strength performance of the coatings at 232C. The X-cut adhesion
strength was found to be high and rated 10, indicating excellent adhesion of the coating systems to steel
substrate.

Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 26


0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
ADHESION BY KNIFE TEST DATA SHEET
(ASTM D6677)

Project Number: 0604-14-01 Company Name: Occidental Mukhaizna L.L.C.


Coating Name: Devchem 253 Temperature: 23C/73F
Date: February 12th, 2014 Test Performed By: S. Rao

Average Disbondment Distance from the


Sample ID Rating* Pass/Fail
Intersection (mm)

PA 1 0.0 mm Rating 10 Pass

PA 2 0.0 mm Rating 10 Pass

PA 3 0.0 mm Rating 10 Pass

Note: Disbondment at the point of the intersection is common due to the action of marking the 'X' cut. Therefore, for 1 mm away from the tip of the
intersection any disbondment shall be ignored.
*Cohesive Failure

X-Scribe Adhesion as per ASTM D6677


Rating Description
10 Coating is extremely difficult to remove: Fragments no longer than approximately 0.8 mm by 0.8 mm removed with great difficulty
8 Coating difficult to remove: chips ranging from approximately 1.6 mm by 1.6 mm to 3.2 mm by 3.2 mm can be removed with difficulty
6 Coating is somewhat difficult to remove: chips ranging from approximately 3.2 mm by 3.2 mm to 6.3 mm to 6.3 mm can be removed with slight difficulty
4 Coating is somewhat difficult to remove: chips in excess of 6.3 mm to 6.3 mm can be removed by exerting light pressure with knife blade
2 Coating is easily removed: once started with the knife blade, the coating can be grasped with ones fingers and easily peeled to a length of at least 6.3 mm
0 Coating can be easily peeled from the substrate to a length greater than 6.3 mm

Approval Authority: Dr. Amal Al-Borno FM-505-00-118 Rev 0 (07/03/2012)

Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 27


0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
Flexibility Test

2.54/PD 2.0/PD 2.03/PD 1.97/PD 1.87/PD 1.87/PD 1.87/PD

Cracks
Cracks

Cracks

Cracks

Cracks Cracks Cracks

Figure 6. Flexibility Test Photographs of Devchem 253 Coating System at 232C

Figure 6 shows the flexibility test photographs of Devchem 253 coating system conducted at 232C to
determine the degree of bend where the coating shows no visual damage. The coating showed resistant to bend
degree of 1.82 /PD, as evident by no cracking, tears, or disbondment. Based on the results obtained on the
supplied samples, it was concluded that the coatings ability to withstand mechanical damage to bending stress
is found to be limited to 1.82 /PD at 232C.

Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 28


0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
CHARTER COATING SERVICE (2000) LTD
FLEXIBILITY TEST DATA SHEET
(NACE RP0394-2002 Appendix H, Procedure A Modified)

Project Number: 0604-14-01 Date: February 4th, 2014


Temperature: 232C Tested By: K. Espinoza
Coating Name: Devchem 253

Film Thickness Sample Mandrel Size


Sample ID Thickness Bend/PD1 Cracks/Tear/Disbondment Pass/Fail2
(mils) (Radius in mm)
(mm)
Cracks, No Tear or
F2 16.3 - 19.4 6.8 150 2.54 Fail
Disbondment
Cracks, No Tear or
F 10 19.9 - 25.4 6.9 194 2.00 Fail
Disbondment
Cracks, No Tear or
F4 22.3 - 24.4 7.0 194 2.03 Fail
Disbondment
Cracks, No Tear or
F6 15.4 - 17.6 6.8 194 1.97 Fail
Disbondment
F3 16.8 - 19.3 6.8 211 1.82 No/No/No Pass
F8 15.8 - 18.2 6.8 211 1.82 No/No/No
Bending Limit
F9 16.7 - 17.9 6.8 211 1.82 No/No/No 1.82/PD
1
Angle of deflection per pipe diameter length
2
Pass No cracks, tears and disbonding detected after bend

Approval Authority: Dr. Amal Al-Borno FM-505-00-174 Rev 0 (05/02/2014)


Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 29
0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
Cathodic Disbondment Test

CD 1 CD 2 CD 3

Figure 7. Cathodic Disbondment Post-Test Overview of Devchem 253 Coating System


CAN/CSA Z245.20-10 Section 12.8, Twenty-eight (28) Days at 93C/200F and -1.5V

Figure 7 shows Devchem 253 coating system after 28 days of exposure to the cathodic disbondment test at 93C/200F and an applied voltage
of -1.5 V. The coating showed poor resistance to the cathodic disbondment test conditions. The coating was found to be completely leached
out exposing underlying steel substrate for sample CD1, and complete delamination and surface bleaching was observed for sample CD2 and
CD3.

Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 30


0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
CHARTER COATING SERVICE (2000) LTD.
CATHODIC DISBONDMENT OF THE COATING
(CSA Z245.20 - 10, Section 12.8)

Project Number: 0604-13-01 Company Name: Occidental Mukhaizna L.L.C.


Date Started: January 23th, 2013 Temperature: 93C/200F
Date Finished: February 20th, 2013 Test Voltage: -1.5V
Test Duration: 28 Days Holiday Radius: 1.6 mm
Coating Name: Devchem 253 Tested By: K. Espinoza

Pre-Test Film Post-Test Film


Sample Average Radius of
Thickness Thickness Observation
ID Disbondment (mm)1
(mils) (mils)

CD 1 15.4 - 18.0 N/A N/A Post-test evaluation was not


carried out due to deterioration and
delamination of the coating.

Complete deterioration of the


CD 2 18.2 - 21.7 N/A N/A N/A coating exposing steel was observed
on sample CD 1.

Surface bleaching and


delamination of the coating were
CD3 17.2 - 19.4 N/A N/A observed on samples CD 2 and CD 3.

1
Excludes initial holiday measurement (1.6 mm radius)
N/A: Not evaluated due to deterioration and delamination of the coating.

Approval Authority: Dr. Amal Al-Borno FM-505-00-17 Rev 1 (14/06/2010)

Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 31


0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
Pressurized Atlas Cell (PAC) Test

Gas Phase

Cracked Blisters
Dense # 2

Close-up Showing Blisters

Aqueous Phase

Coating Side Underside of the Fixture

Gas Phase
Post-Test Pull-off Adhesion
Figure 8. Pressurized Atlas Cell Post - Test Photographs of Devchem 253 Coating System
NACE TM 0174 - 2002: Temperature at 95C/203F for Thirty (30) Days

Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 32


0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
Figure 8 shows the post-test photographs of Devchem 253 coating system exposed to PAC test conditions
at 95C/203F for 30 days. The coating system showed low resistance to pressurized atlas cell test
conditions as indicated by dense size #2 cracked blisters in the aqueous phase. The aqueous phase was
not rated due to coating failure. In gas phase, except slight discoloration, no other visible degradation and
loss in adhesion strength were observed when compared with pre-test adhesion strength.

The pre-test parallel scribe adhesion strength of Devchem 253 coating was rated A and the pull-off
adhesion strength of the coating was found to be 17.5 MPa / 2533 psi (mainly glue failure was observed).
The post-test parallel scribe adhesion for the coating was rated B in the gas phase and pull off adhesion
determined in the gas phase was 23.8 MPa / 3453 psi, with 70 % cohesive failure and 30 % adhesive
failure.

Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 33


0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
CHARTER COATING SERVICE (2000) LTD.
PRESSURIZED ATLAS CELL DATA SHEET
(NACE TM 0174 - 2002 - Modified)

Project Number: 0604-14-01 Company Name: Occidental Mukhaizna L.L.C.


Coating Name: Devchem 253 Gas Phase: 0.5% H2S, 50% CO2 and 49.5% CH4
Panel Number: PAC 1 Aqueous Phase: Water with 4000 ppm Cl-
Temperature: 203F/95C Starting Date: January 25th , 2014
Pressure: 60 psi Completion Date: February 25th, 2013
Duration: 30 Days Technician(s): J. Cortes

Post-Test
Physical Parameters Pre-Test
Gas Phase Aqueous Phase
Gas Phase: 16.6 - 19.6
Film Thickness (mils) 16.5 - 18.3 N/A*
Aqueous Phase: 16.0 - 18.0
Parallel Scribe Adhesion A B N/A*
Adhesion Pull-off Adhesion 2533 psi / 17.5 MPa 3453 psi / 23.8 MPa
(ASTM D4541) 5% Cohesive Failure; 70% Cohesive Failure; N/A*
95% Glue Failure 30% Adhesive Failure
Cracked Blisters
Blistering (ASTM D714) None None
Dense # 2
Colour Change Beige Slight N/A*
Gas Phase: 75.0 - 81.0
Gloss @ 60 31.3 - 66.4 N/A*
Aqueous Phase: 76.0 - 83.0
Smoothness Change Uniform Smooth Surface None N/A*

Cracking (ASTM D661) None None N/A*


*Not rated due to blistering.

RATING KEYS:

Blistering: Rated as per ASTM D714


Adhesion: Rated as per parallel scribe
Size Density
A - Coating may shear within itself but does not release from substrate
Few (F)
B - Some metal is visible but more than 50% of the coating remains adhered
#2 #4 #6 #8 Medium (M) C - More than 50% of the coating is removed
Large <---> Small Medium-Dense (MD) D - All coating releases between scribes but remains firmly adhered adjacent to cuts
Dense (D) F - No bond exits between coating and substrate

Pull-off Adhesion: as per ASTM D4541:


Cracking: Rated as per ASTM D661 Colour Change Failure Definitions:
Type Degree None(N) Cohesive - Failure is within the coating film.
Irregular Slight(S) Adhesive - Failure is at the coating to substrate bond.
#2 #4 #6 #8 Glue - Failure is at the glue (fixture) to coating bond.
Line Moderate(M)
Severe <--> Slight
Sigmoid Severe(SE) Size of loading fixture: 0.5 inches

Approval Authority: Dr. Amal Al-Borno FM-505-00-05 Rev 1 (11/06/2010)


Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 34
0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
Autoclave Test

Side A Side B
Side A Side B

Sample A1 Sample A3

Coating Side Underside of the Fixture

Gas Phase

Aqueous Phase Gas Phase

Coating Side Underside of the Fixture


Parallel Scribe Adhesion
Aqueous Phase

Pull-off Adhesion
Figure 9. Autoclave Post-test photographs of Devchem 253 Coating System
60 psi at 203F/95C using 0.5% H2S, 50% CO2, 49.5% CH4, and Salt Water with 4000 ppm Cl- for 30 Days
Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 35
0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
Figure 9 shows the post-test photographs of Devchem 253 coating system exposed to autoclave test
conditions at 95C/203F for 30 days. The coating system showed good resistance to the test conditions
as indicated by no sign of degradation (side A). The coating also showed no significant change in
adhesion strength when compared to pre-test adhesion strength. The only change observed was moderate
discoloration in both phases.

The post-test pull off adhesion rated on sample A1 showed 23.6 MPa / 3420 psi in the gas phase (15%
glue and 85% cohesive failure) and 24.8 MPa / 3600 psi (100% cohesive failure) in the aqueous phase.
The parallel scribe adhesion for the coating was rated A for both phases.

Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 36


0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
CHARTER COATING SERVICE (2000) LTD.
AUTOCLAVE TEST DATA SHEET
NACE TM0185-2006

Project Number: 0604-14-01 Date: February 10 - March 12, 2014 Technician: J. Cortes
Temperature: 203F/95C Gas: 0.5% H2S, 50% CO2 and 49.5% CH4 Release Temperature: 86F/30C
Pressure: 60 psi Aqueous: Water with 4000 ppm Cl- Release Pressure: From 37 psi to atmospheric
Duration: 30 Days Coating System: Devchem 253 Release Time: 51 Min

Pre-test Post-test
Sample Test Film Parallel Film Parallel
ID Phase Thickness Scribe Pull-Off Adhesion* Thickness Scribe Pull-Off Adhesion Blistering Cracking Colour Smoothness
(ASTM (ASTM
(ASTM D4541) (ASTM D4541)
D714) D661)** Change Change
(mils) Adhesion (mils) Adhesion
Gas Phase:
Gas 22.2 - 30.5 21.0 - 29.2 A None None Moderate No Change
3420 psi/ 23.6 MPa
A1 85% Cohesive;
Aqueous 24.2 - 33.3 2533 psi / 17.5 MPa 23.0 - 31.5 A 15% Glue Failure None None Moderate No Change
A 5% Cohesive;
Gas 24.0 - 26.2 95% Glue Failure 23.0 - 25.1 A Aqueous Phase: None None Moderate No Change
A3 3600 psi/ 24.8 MPa
100% Cohesive
Aqueous 22.6 - 26.2 21.0 - 25.0 A None None Moderate No Change
Failure
Remarks:
*Pre-test adhesion test on a retain sample.
**Side B of the panel showed severe cracking and disbondment.

RATING KEYS:
Adhesion: Rated as per parallel scribe Pull-off Adhesion: as per ASTM D4541:
A - Coating may shear within itself but does not release from substrate Failure Definitions:
Cohesive - Failure is within the coating film.
B - Some metal is visible but more than 50% of the coating remains adhered
Adhesive - Failure is at the coating to substrate bond.
C - More than 50% of the coating is removed Glue - Failure is at the glue (fixture) to coating bond.
D - All coating releases between scribes but remains firmly adhered adjacent to cuts
Size of loading fixtures: 0.5 inches
F - No bond exits between coating and substrate

Blistering: Rated as per ASTM D714


Size Density Colour Change
Few (F) None(N)
#2 #4 #6 #8 Medium (M) Slight(S)
Large <---> Small Medium-Dense (MD) Moderate(M)
Dense (D) Severe(SE)
Approval Authority: Dr. Amal Al-Borno FM-505-00-07 Rev 1 (11/06/2010)

Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 37


0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
COATING SYSTEM: DEVCHEM 256
(INTERNATIONAL PAINTS)

Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 38


0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
Devchem 256 Coating System

Product Information

Devchem 256 coating system is a two-component high solid epoxy novolac coating system supplied by
International Paint. As per the product data sheet this coating is recommended for industrial storage and
process chemical tanks and pipelines, ideal for crude immersion in tanks, treaters, separators, and flare
knockouts up to 149C (300F). Also it is recommended as a protective coating for highly corrosive
environments.

Conclusions

The Devchem 256 coating system showed good dry adhesion strength as determined by pull-off adhesion, and
X-cut adhesion method. The coating showed flexibility limited to 0.77 /PD. The coating showed resistance
to pressurized atlas cell test conditions and autoclave test condition at 95C/203F, as indicated by no sign of
coating degradation and no significant change in adhesion strength. The coating showed low resistance to the
cathodic disbondment test conditions at 93C/200F, as indicated by signs of deterioration in the form of size
#2 blisters and unintentional holidays during early exposure period. The test was terminated before the
schedule test duration of 28 days.

Based on the results obtained for Devchem 256 coating system, it can be concluded that the coating can be
used for structures operating at high temperature with or without a thermal gradient, in presence of
water/acidic gases environment. However it is not suitable for structures with impressed cathodic protection at
high temperature.

Note: All post-test evaluation was carried out on side A of the test panels that showed no sign of degradation.
Side B of the test panel showed severe cracking and disbondment mainly in the gas phase.

Test Results
Summary of test results are given in table 6, shown in Figures 10-15 and data sheets are attached at the end of this
section.
Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 39
0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
Table 6. Summary of Laboratory Test Results of Devchem 256 Coating Systems

Test Conditions Charter ID Test Results


Pull Off Value (psi/MPa) Mode of Failure Average Pull Value
Pull-off Adhesion PA 1
Temperature: 232C 2997 psi / 20.7 MPa 75% Cohesive; 25% Glue Failure
ASTM D4541 PA 2 2745 psi / 19.0 MPa 20% Cohesive; 80% Glue Failure 2889 psi / 19.9 MPa
PA 3 3453 psi / 23.8 MPa 100% Cohesive Failure
Average Disbondment Distance
Rating Pass/Fail
Knife Adhesion from the Intersection (mm)
Temperature: 232C PA 1 0.0 mm Rating 10
ASTM D6677 PA 2 0.0 mm Rating 10 Pass
PA 3 0.0 mm Rating 10
F2 Cracks @ 1.31/PD Fail
F3 Cracks @ 1.02/PD Fail
Bend Test F5 Cracks @ 0.89/PD Fail
NACE Temperature: 232C
To determine the bend degree F6 Cracks @ 0.81/PD Fail
RP 0394-2002
(Modified) F7 No cracks, tear or disbondment @ 0.77/PD Pass
F8 No cracks, tear or disbondment @ 0.77/PD Bending Limit
0.77/PD
F9 No cracks, tear or disbondment @ 0.73/PD

Cathodic CD 1 Post-test disbondment evaluation was not carried out due to premature failure of the coating.
Temperature: 200F/93C
Disbondment The coating showed few size # 2 blisters and unintentional holidays after 4 days of exposure.
Test Solution: 3% NaCl
CD 2 Samples were downloaded after 11 days before scheduled test duration of 28 days due to dense size
Voltage: -1.5 V
CSA Z245.20-10 # 2 blisters all over the test area that extended to substrate, coating deterioration, cracking and cell
Duration: 28 Days
Section 12.8 CD 3 leakage.

Temperature: 203F/95C
No blistering, cracking and no change in coating thickness or smoothness were observed in either
Pressurized Atlas Pressure: 60 psi
phase.
Cell Gas Phase: 0.5% H2S, 50% CO2 and 49.5%
Slight change in gloss and moderate change in colour were observed in both the phases.
CH4
PAC 1 No significant change in adhesion strength:
NACE Aqueous Phase: Water with 4000 ppm Cl-
The pull off adhesion was 2908 psi, with 100% cohesive failure in gas phase and 2273 psi,
TM 0174-02 Decompression Rate: in one (1) hour at room
with 100% cohesive failure in aqueous phase.
Modified temperature
Parallel scribe adhesion was rated A in both phases.
Duration: 30 Days
Temperature: 203F/95C
No blistering, cracking and no change in coating thickness and smoothness were observed in both
Pressure: 60 psi
A 1* phases.
Autoclave Gas Phase: 0.5% H2S, 50% CO2 and 49.5%
Moderate change in colour was observed in both phases.
CH4
No significant change in adhesion strength:
NACE TM0185- Aqueous Phase: Water with 4000 ppm Cl-
The pull off adhesion was 2989 psi, with 5% glue and 95% cohesive failure in gas phase and
2006 Decompression Rate: In one (1) hour at room
2851 psi, with 100% cohesive failure in aqueous phase.
temperature A 3*
Parallel scribe adhesion was rated A in both phases.
Duration: 30 Days
Note: Pre-test Parallel Scribe adhesion was rated A.
* Side B of the panel showed severe cracking and disbondment mainly in the gas phase.

Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 40


0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
Pull-off Adhesion Test

Coating Side Underside of the Fixture


Sample PA 1

Coating Side Underside of the Fixture


Sample PA 2

Coating Side Underside of the Fixture


Sample PA 3

Figure 10. Photographs of Pull-off Adhesion Tested Devchem 256 Coating System
as per ASTM D 4541-09e1

Figure 10 shows close-up photographs of the pull-off adhesion test carried out on the Devchem 256
coating system at 232C. The adhesion strength determined on three samples PA1, PA2 and PA3 were
20.7 MPa / 2997 psi, 19.0 MPa / 2745 psi and 23.8 MPa / 3453 psi, respectively. The average adhesion
strength of the coating was 19.9 MPa / 2889 psi and the nature of failure was mainly cohesive,
indicating good interfacial interaction between the coating and steel substrate.
Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 41
0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
CHARTER COATING SERVICE (2000) LTD.
PULL-OFF ADHESION DATA SHEET
(ASTM D4541-09e1)

Project Number: 0604-14-01 Company Name: Occidental Mukhaizna L.L.C.


Coating Name: Devchem 256 Date: January 30th, 2014
Temperature: 232oC Instrument: Patti Jr. Apparatus (IV)
Test Performed By: Dr. R. Kamble

Sample No. Film Thickness Pull Off Value Mode of Failure Average Pull Value
(mils) (psi/MPa)

75% Cohesive
PA 1 17.6 - 22.4 2997 psi / 20.7 MPa Failure; 25% Glue
Failure

20% Cohesive
PA 2 15.0 - 18.3 2745 psi / 19.0 MPa Failure; 80% Glue 2889 psi / 19.9 MPa
Failure

PA 3 100% Cohesive
16.1 - 17.1 3453 psi / 23.8 MPa
Failure

Failure Definitions:
Cohesive - Failure is within the coating film.
Adhesive - Failure is at the coating to substrate bond.
Glue - Failure is at the glue (fixture) to coating bond.

Size of loading fixtures:


0.5 (inches) Loading fixtures were applied to the coating surface.

Approval Authority: Dr. Amal Al-Borno FM-505-00-57 Rev 1 (16/06/2010)

Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 42


0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
Knife Adhesion Test

PA1 PA2 PA3

Figure 11. Pre-Test Photographs (10X) of X-Scribe Adhesion Tested Devchem 256 Coating System
as per ASTM D 6677

Figure 11 shows the X-cut adhesion strength performance of the Devchem 256 coatings at 232C. The
X-cut adhesion strength was found to be high and rated 10, indicating excellent adhesion of the
coating systems to steel substrate.

Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 43


0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
CHARTER COATING SERVICE (2000) LTD
ADHESION BY KNIFE TEST DATA SHEET
(ASTM D6677)

Project Number: 0604-14-01 Company Name: Occidental Mukhaizna L.L.C.


Coating Name: Devchem 256 Temperature: 23oC/73oF
Date: February 5th, 2014 Test Performed By: S. Rao

Average Disbondment Distance from the


Sample ID Rating* Pass/Fail
Intersection (mm)

PA 1 0.0 Rating 10 Pass

PA 2 0.0 Rating 10 Pass

PA 3 0.0 Rating 10 Pass

Note: Disbondment at the point of the intersection is common due to the action of marking the 'X' cut. Therefore, for 1 mm away from the tip of the
intersection any disbondment shall be ignored.
*Cohesive Failure

X-Scribe Adhesion as per ASTM D6677


Rating Description
10 Coating is extremely difficult to remove: Fragments no longer than approximately 0.8 mm by 0.8 mm removed with great difficulty
8 Coating difficult to remove: chips ranging from approximately 1.6 mm by 1.6 mm to 3.2 mm by 3.2 mm can be removed with difficulty
6 Coating is somewhat difficult to remove: chips ranging from approximately 3.2 mm by 3.2 mm to 6.3 mm to 6.3 mm can be removed with slight difficulty
4 Coating is somewhat difficult to remove: chips in excess of 6.3 mm to 6.3 mm can be removed by exerting light pressure with knife blade
2 Coating is easily removed: once started with the knife blade, the coating can be grasped with ones fingers and easily peeled to a length of at least 6.3 mm
0 Coating can be easily peeled from the substrate to a length greater than 6.3 mm

Approval Authority: Dr. Amal Al-Borno FM-505-00-118 Rev 0 (07/03/2012)

Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 44


0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
Flexibility Test

1.31/PD 1.02/PD 0.89/PD 0.81/PD 0.77/PD 0.77/PD 0.73/PD

Sample F2 (10x)

Sample F3 (10x)

Cracks

Cracks
Cracks Cracks Sample F5 (10x)

Sample F6 (10x)

Close-up of Cracks

Figure 12. Flexibility Test Photographs of Devchem 256 Coating System at 232C

Figure 12 shows the flexibility test photographs of Devchem 256 coating system conducted at 232C to
determine the degree of bend where the coating shows no visual damage. The coating showed resistant to bend
degree of 0.77 /PD, as evident by no cracking, tears, or disbondment. Based on the results obtained on the
supplied samples, it was concluded that the coatings ability to withstand mechanical damage to bending stress
is found to be limited to 0.77 /PD at 232C.
Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 45
0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
CHARTER COATING SERVICE (2000) LTD
FLEXIBILITY TEST DATA SHEET
(NACE RP0394-2002 Appendix H, Procedure A Modified)

Project Number: 0604-14-01 Date: February 6th , 2014


Temperature: 232C Tested By: K. Espinoza
Coating: Devchem 256

Film Thickness Sample Mandrel Size


Sample ID Thickness Bend/PD1 Cracks/Tear/Disbondment Pass/Fail2
(mils) (Radius in mm)
(mm)
Cracks, No Tear or
F2 14.9 - 16.3 6.8 294 1.31 Fail
Disbondment
Cracks, No Tear or
F3 15.2 - 16.8 6.8 380 1.02 Fail
Disbondment
Cracks, No Tear or
F5 15.5 - 17.4 6.8 435 0.89 Fail
Disbondment
Cracks, No Tear or
F6 15.3 - 17.8 6.8 480 0.81 Fail
Disbondment
F7 15.5 - 18.5 6.8 530 0.77 No/No/No Pass
F8 15.7 - 17.3 6.8 500 0.77 No/No/No
Bending Limit
F9 14.4 - 17.5 6.8 500 0.73 No/No/No 0.77/PD
1
Angle of deflection per pipe diameter length
2
Pass No cracks, tear and disbonding detected after bend

Approval Authority: Dr. Amal Al-Borno FM-505-00-174 Rev 0 (05/02/2014)

Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 46


0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
Cathodic Disbondment Test

CD 1 CD 2 CD 3

Figure 13. Cathodic Disbondment Post-Test Overview of Devchem 256 Coating System
CAN/CSA Z245.20-10 Section 12.8, Eleven (11) Days at 93C/200F and -1.5V

Figure 13 shows the cathodic disbondment tested Devchem 256 coating system after 11 days of exposure at 93C/200F and an applied voltage of
-1.5 V. The coating was not found to offer resistance to the cathodic disbondment test condition and failed prematurely during early period of
exposure. After 4 days, the coating showed sign of degradation in the form of few size #2 blisters and unintentional holidays. After 11 days, the
coating was found to be leached and the blisters grown to dense size #2 all over the test area.

Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 47


0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
CHARTER COATING SERVICE (2000) LTD.
CATHODIC DISBONDMENT OF THE COATING
(CSA Z245.20 - 10, Section 12.8)

Project Number: 0604-13-01 Company Name: Occidental Mukhaizna L.L.C.


Date Started: January 23th, 2013 Temperature: 93C/200F
Date Finished: February 20th, 2013 Test Voltage: -1.5V
Test Duration: 28 Days Holiday Radius: 1.6 mm
Coating Name: Devchem 256 Tested By: K. Espinoza

Pre-Test Post-Test
Film Film Average Radius of
Sample ID Observation
Thickness Thickness Disbondment (mm)1
(mils) (mils)

CD 1 17.1 - 20.0 N/A N/A


Post-test evaluation was not carried out
due to premature failure of the coating.

The coating showed sign of deterioration


in the form of few size # 2 blisters and
unintentional holidays after 4 days of
CD 2 16.4 - 18.7 N/A N/A N/A exposure.

Samples were downloaded after 11 days


before scheduled test duration of 28 days
due to dense size # 2 blisters all over the
test area that extended to substrate, coating
deterioration, cracking and cell leakage.
CD3 17.7 - 20.0 N/A N/A

1
Excludes initial holiday measurement (1.6 mm radius)
N/A: Not evaluated due to blistering and premature failure of the coating

Approval Authority: Dr. Amal Al-Borno FM-505-00-17 Rev 1 (14/06/2010)

Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 48


0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
Pressurized Atlas Cell (PAC) Test

Gas Phase

Coating Side Underside of the Fixture


Gas Phase

Aqueous Phase
Coating Side Underside of the Fixture

Aqueous Phase
Post-Test Pull-off Adhesion

Figure 14. Pressurized Atlas Cell Post - Test Photograph of Devchem 256 Coating System
NACE TM 0174 - 2002: Temperature at 95C/203F for Thirty (30) Days

Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 49


0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
Figure 14 shows the post-test photographs of Devchem 256 coating system exposed to pressurized atlas
cell test conditions at 95C/203F for 30 days. The coating system showed good resistance to pressurized
atlas cell test conditions as indicated by no sign of degradation in both phases. The coating showed no
significant change in adhesion strength after the test in both phases when compared with pre-test adhesion
strength (19.9 MPa / 2889 psi, 75% cohesive failure and 25% glue failure).

The post-test pull off adhesion rated in the gas phase was 20.0 MPa / 2908 psi and in the aqueous phase
was 16.0 MPa / 2273 psi. The coating showed cohesive failure, indicating the coating had good adhesion
to the steel substrate. The parallel scribe adhesion for the coating was rated A for both phases.

Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 50


0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
CHARTER COATING SERVICE (2000) LTD.
PRESSURIZED ATLAS CELL DATA SHEET
(NACE TM 0174 - 2002 - Modified)

Project Number: 0604-14-01 Company Name: Occidental Mukhaizna L.L.C.


Coating Name: Devchem 256 Gas Phase: 0.5% H2S, 50% CO2 and 49.5% CH4
Panel Number: PAC 1 Aqueous Phase: Water with 4000 ppm Cl-
Temperature: 203F/95C Starting Date: January 25th, 2014
Pressure: 60 psi Completion Date: February 25th, 2013
Duration: 30 Days Technician(s): J. Cortes

Post-Test
Physical Parameters Pre-Test
Gas Phase Aqueous Phase
Gas Phase: 16.6 - 18.8
Film Thickness (mils) 16.9 - 18.6 16.0 - 18.3
Aqueous Phase: 16.2 - 19.0

Parallel Scribe Adhesion A A A


Adhesion 2889 psi / 19.9 MPa*
Pull-off Adhesion 2908 psi / 20.0 MPa 2273 psi / 16.0 MPa
75% Cohesive Failure;
(ASTM D4541) 100% Cohesive Failure 100% Cohesive Failure
25% Glue Failure
Blistering (ASTM D714) None None None

Colour Change White Moderate Moderate


Gas Phase: 27.0 - 29.0
Gloss @ 60 21.0 - 24.6 20.3 - 23.4
Aqueous Phase: 28.0 - 31.0
Smoothness Change Uniform Smooth Surface None None

Cracking (ASTM D661) None None None

RATING KEYS:
Blistering: Rated as per ASTM D714
Adhesion: Rated as per parallel scribe
Size Density
A - Coating may shear within itself but does not release from substrate
Few (F)
B - Some metal is visible but more than 50% of the coating remains adhered
#2 #4 #6 #8 Medium (M) C - More than 50% of the coating is removed
Large <---> Small Medium-Dense (MD) D - All coating releases between scribes but remains firmly adhered adjacent to cuts
Dense (D) F - No bond exits between coating and substrate

Pull-off Adhesion: as per ASTM D4541:


Cracking: Rated as per ASTM D661 Colour Change
Failure Definitions:
Type Degree None(N) Cohesive - Failure is within the coating film.
Irregular Slight(S) Adhesive - Failure is at the coating to substrate bond.
#2 #4 #6 #8
Line Moderate(M) Glue - Failure is at the glue (fixture) to coating bond.
Severe <--> Slight
Sigmoid Severe(SE) Size of loading fixture: 0.5 inches

Approval Authority: Dr. Amal Al-Borno FM-505-00-05 Rev 1 (11/06/2010)

Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 51


0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
Autoclave Test

Side A Side B Side A Side B

Sample A1 Sample A3

Coating Side Underside of the Fixture


Aqueous Phase

Aqueous Phase Gas Phase


Coating Side Underside of the Fixture

Gas Phase
Parallel Scribe Adhesion

Pull-off Adhesion
Figure 15. Autoclave Post-test photographs of Devchem 256 Coating System
60 psi at 203F/95C using 0.5% H2S, 50% CO2, 49.5% CH4, and Salt Water with 4000 ppm Cl- for 30 Days.

Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 52


0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
Figure 15 shows the post-test photographs of Devchem 256 coating system exposed to autoclave test
conditions at 95C/203F for 30 days. The coating system showed good resistance to the test conditions as
indicated by no sign of degradation. The coating also showed no significent change in adhesion strength
when compared to pre-test adhesion strength. The only change observed was moderate discoloration in
both phases.

The post-test pull off adhesion rated on sample A3 showed 20.6 MPa/2989 psi in gas phase (5% glue and
95% cohesive failure) and 19.6MPa / 2851 psi (100% cohesive failure) in the aqueous phase. The parallel
scribe adhesion for the coating was rated A for both phases.

Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 53


0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
CHARTER COATING SERVICE (2000) LTD.
AUTOCLAVE TEST DATA SHEET
NACE TM0185-2006

Project Number: 0604-14-01 Date: February 10 - March 12, 2014 Technician: J. Cortes
Temperature: 203F/95C Gas: 0.5% H2S, 50% CO2 and 49.5% CH4 Release Temperature: 86F/30C
Pressure: 60 psi Aqueous: Water with 4000 ppm Cl- Release Pressure: From 37 psi to atmospheric
Duration: 30 Days Coating System: Devchem 256 Release Time: 51 Min

Pre-test Post-test
Sample Test Film Parallel Pull-Off Film Parallel
Pull-Off Adhesion Blistering Cracking Colour Smoothness
ID Phase Thickness Scribe Adhesion* Thickness Scribe (ASTM (ASTM
(ASTM D4541)
D714) D661)** Change Change
(mils) Adhesion (ASTM D4541) (mils) Adhesion
Gas 17.9 - 26.2 17.4 - 17.8 A Gas Phase: None None Moderate No Change
2989 psi/ 20.6 MPa
A1 95% Cohesive; 5%
Aqueous 16.4 - 26.8 2889 psi / 19.9 MPa 15.7 - 24.4 A Glue Failure None None Moderate No Change
A 75% Cohesive;
Gas 16.4 - 22.3 25% Glue Failure 15.9 - 22.1 A Aqueous Phase: None None Moderate No Change
A3 2851 psi / 19.6 MPa
100% Cohesive
Aqueous 18.5 - 26.1 17.5 - 24.1 A None None Moderate No Change
Failure
Remarks:
*Pre-test adhesion test on a retain sample.
** Side B of the panel showed severe cracking and disbondment mainly in the gas phase.

RATING KEYS:

Adhesion: Rated as per parallel scribe Pull-off Adhesion: as per ASTM D4541:
A - Coating may shear within itself but does not release from substrate Failure Definitions:
Cohesive - Failure is within the coating film.
B - Some metal is visible but more than 50% of the coating remains adhered
Adhesive - Failure is at the coating to substrate bond.
C - More than 50% of the coating is removed Glue - Failure is at the glue (fixture) to coating bond.
D - All coating releases between scribes but remains firmly adhered adjacent to cuts
Size of loading fixtures: 0.5 inches
F - No bond exits between coating and substrate

Blistering: Rated as per ASTM D714


Size Density Colour Change
Few (F) None(N)
#2 #4 #6 #8 Medium (M) Slight(S)
Large <---> Small Medium-Dense (MD) Moderate(M)
Dense (D) Severe(SE)
Approval Authority: Dr. Amal Al-Borno FM-505-00-07 Rev 1 (11/06/2010)
Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 54
0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
COATING SYSTEM: ENVIROLINE 2405
(INTERNATIONAL PAINTS)

Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 55


0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
Enviroline 2405 Coating System

Product Information

Enviroline 2405 is a two-component ultra-high solid epoxy based polycyclamine cured lining system supplied
by International Paint. As per the product data sheet this coating have excellent chemical resistance, high
temperature resistance and has excellent thermal and mechanical shock resistance and flexibility. It is
recommended for steel and concrete lining in the oil and gas, chemical, mining and water industries on assets
such as crude and petroleum bulk storage tanks, down hole tubular, down hole casing exteriors, interior and
exterior pipes, floors, tank pads, trenches, troughs, sumps and pits, free water knockouts, treaters and
separators.

Conclusions

The Enviroline 2405 coating system showed good dry adhesion strength as determined by pull-off adhesion,
and X-cut adhesion method. The coating showed flexibility limited to 2.06 /PD. The coating showed
resistance to autoclave test condition at 95C/203F, as indicated by no sign of coating degradation and no
change in adhesion strength. The coating showed resistance to the cathodic disbondment test conditions at
93C/200F, as indicated by low radius of disbondment. However, the coating showed dense size #6 blisters
around the intentional holiday and relatively higher radius of disbondment on one of the tested sample. The
coating showed low resistance to pressurized atlas cell test conditions at 95C/203F and degraded forming
dense cracked size #2 blisters in the gas phase and dense blisters >size #2 in aqueous phase indicating loss of
barrier property of the coating system.

Based on the results obtained for Enviroline 2405 coating system, it can be concluded that the coating can be
used for structures operating at high temperature in presence of water/acidic gases environment and with no
thermal gradient. It is also suitable for structures with impressed cathodic protection.

Test Results and Discussion

Summary of test results are given in table 7, shown in Figures 16-21 and data sheets are attached at the end of
this section

Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 56


0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
Table 7. Summary of Laboratory Test Results of Enviroline 2405 Coating Systems
Test Conditions Charter ID Test Results
Pull Off Value (psi/MPa) Mode of Failure Average Pull Value
Pull-off Adhesion PA 1 3209 psi / 22.1 MPa
Temperature: 232C
ASTM D4541 PA 2 2648 psi / 18.3 MPa 100% Glue Failure 2968 psi / 20.5 MPa
PA 3 3046 psi / 21.0 MPa
Average Disbondment Distance from
Rating Pass/Fail
Knife Adhesion the Intersection (mm)
Temperature: 232C PA 1 0.0 mm Rating 10
ASTM D6677 PA 2 0.0 mm Rating 10 Pass
PA 3 0.0 mm Rating 10
F 10 Cracks @ 2.69/PD Fail
F9 Cracks @ 2.65/PD Fail
Bend Test
F4 Cracks @ 2.39/PD Fail
NACE Temperature: 232C
To determine the bend degree
F6 No cracks, tear or disbondment @ 2.06/PD
RP 0394-2002 Pass
(Modified) F5 No cracks, tear or disbondment @ 2.06/PD Bending Limit
F3 No cracks, tear or disbondment @ 2.06/PD 2.06/PD
F1 No cracks, tear or disbondment @ 1.53/PD
Average Radius of Disbondment
Observation
Cathodic (mm)
Temperature: 200F/93C
Disbondment 2.8 mm
Test Solution: 3% NaCl CD 1 The coating showed dense size # 2 blisters around
Voltage: -1.5 V intentional holiday on sample CD 3.
CSA Z245.20-10 CD 2 2.2 mm Average of 7.7 mm
Duration: 28 Days Surface bleaching was observed on samples CD 1, CD 2
Section 12.8
CD 3 18.0 mm and CD 3.

Temperature: 203F/95C
Pressurized Atlas Pressure: 60 psi
Cell Gas Phase: 0.5% H2S, 50% CO2 and 49.5% Dense size # 2 blisters in gas phase and Dense blisters > size # 2 in aqueous phase was
CH4
Aqueous Phase: Water with 4000 ppm Cl-
PAC 1 observed.
NACE
TM 0174-02 Decompression Rate: in one (1) hour at room Moderate change in colour was observed in both phases.
Modified temperature
Duration: 30 Days
Temperature: 203F/95C No blistering, cracking and no change in coating thickness and smoothness was
Pressure: 60 psi observed in both phases.
Autoclave Gas Phase: 0.5% H2S, 50% CO2 and 49.5% A2
Severe change in colour was observed in both phases.
CH4
Aqueous Phase: Water with 4000 ppm Cl-
No significant change in adhesion strength was observed :
NACE TM0185-
2006 Decompression Rate: In one (1) hour at room The pull off adhesion was 2908 psi, with 90% glue and 10% cohesive failure in gas
temperature A3 phase and 2314 psi, with 25% cohesive and 75% glue failure in aqueous phase.
Duration: 30 Days Parallel scribe adhesion was rated A in both phases.
Note: Pre-test Parallel Scribe adhesion was rated A.

Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 57


0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
Pull-off Adhesion Test

Coating Side Underside of the Fixture


Sample PA 1

Coating Side Underside of the Fixture


Sample PA 2

Coating Side Underside of the Fixture


Sample PA 3

Figure 16. Photographs of Pull-off Adhesion Tested Enviroline 2405 Coating System
as per ASTM D 4541-09

Figure 16 shows close-up photographs of the pull-off adhesion test carried out on the Enviroline 2405
coating system at 232C. The adhesion strength determined on three samples PA1, PA2 and PA3were,
22.1 MPa / 3209 psi, 18.3 MPa / 2648 psi and 21.0 MPa / 3046 psi, respectively. The average adhesion
strength of the coating was 20.5 MPa / 2968 psi, 100 % glue failure, indicating good interfacial
interaction between the coating and steel substrate.
Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 58
0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
CHARTER COATING SERVICE (2000) LTD.
PULL-OFF ADHESION DATA SHEET
(ASTM D4541-09)

Project Number: 0604-14-01 Company Name: Occidental Mukhaizna L.L.C.


Coating Name: Enviroline 2405 Date: February 4th, 2014
Temperature: 232oC Instrument: Patti Jr. Apparatus (IV)
Test Performed By: Dr. R. Kamble

Sample No. Film Thickness Pull Off Value Mode of Failure Average Pull Value
(mils) (psi/MPa)

PA 1 26.0 - 31.5 3209 psi / 22.1 MPa

PA 2 27.0 - 31.0 2648 psi / 18.3 MPa 100% Glue Failure 2968 psi / 20.5 MPa

PA 3 22.2 - 26.2 3046 psi / 21.0 MPa

Failure Definitions:
Cohesive - Failure is within the coating film.
Adhesive - Failure is at the coating to substrate bond.
Glue - Failure is at the glue (fixture) to coating bond.

Size of loading fixtures:


0.5 (inches) Loading fixtures were applied to the coating surface.

Approval Authority: Dr. Amal Al-Borno FM-505-00-57 Rev 1 (16/06/2010)

Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 59


0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
Knife Adhesion Test

PA 1 PA 2 PA 3

Figure 17. Pre-Test Photographs (10X) of X-Scribe Adhesion Tested Enviroline 2405 Coating System
as per ASTM D 6677

Figure 17 shows the X-cut adhesion strength performance of the Enviroline 2405 coatings at 232C.
The X-cut adhesion strength was found to be high and rated 10, indicating excellent adhesion of the
coating systems to steel substrate.

Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 60


0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
CHARTER COATING SERVICE (2000) LTD
ADHESION BY KNIFE TEST DATA SHEET
(ASTM D6677)

Project Number: 0604-14-01 Company Name: Occidental Mukhaizna L.L.C.


Coating Name: Enviroline 2405 Temperature: 23oC/73oF
Date: February 5th, 2014 Test Performed By: S. Rao

Average Disbondment Distance from


Sample ID Rating* Pass/Fail
the Intersection (mm)

PA 1 0.0 Rating 10 Pass

PA 2 0.0 Rating 10 Pass

PA 3 0.0 Rating 10 Pass

Note: Disbondment at the point of the intersection is common due to the action of marking the 'X' cut. Therefore, for 1 mm away from the
tip of the intersection any disbondment shall be ignored.
*Cohesive Failure

X-Scribe Adhesion as per ASTM D6677


Rating Description
10 Coating is extremely difficult to remove: Fragments no longer than approximately 0.8 mm by 0.8 mm removed with great difficulty
8 Coating difficult to remove: chips ranging from approximately 1.6 mm by 1.6 mm to 3.2 mm by 3.2 mm can be removed with difficulty
6 Coating is somewhat difficult to remove: chips ranging from approximately 3.2 mm by 3.2 mm to 6.3 mm to 6.3 mm can be removed with slight difficulty
4 Coating is somewhat difficult to remove: chips in excess of 6.3 mm to 6.3 mm can be removed by exerting light pressure with knife blade
2 Coating is easily removed: once started with the knife blade, the coating can be grasped with ones fingers and easily peeled to a length of at least 6.3 mm
0 Coating can be easily peeled from the substrate to a length greater than 6.3 mm

Approval Authority: Dr. Amal Al-Borno FM-505-00-118 Rev 0 (07/03/2012)

Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 61


0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
Flexibility Test

2.69/PD 2.65/PD 2.39/PD 2.06/PD 2.06/PD 2.06/PD 1.53/PD

Sample F10 (10x)

Sample F9 (10x)

Cracks Cracks Cracks

Sample F4 (10x)

Close-up of Cracks

Figure 18. Flexibility Test Photographs of Enviroline 2405 Coating System at 232C

Figure 18 shows the flexibility test photographs of Enviroline 2405 coating system conducted at 232C
to determine the degree of bend where the coating shows no visual damage. The coating showed
resistant to bend degree of 2.06 /PD as evident by no cracking, tears, or disbondment. Based on the
results obtained on the supplied samples, it was concluded that the coatings ability to withstand
mechanical damage to bending stress is found to be limited to 2.06 /PD at 232C.

Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 62


0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
CHARTER COATING SERVICE (2000) LTD
FLEXIBILITY TEST DATA SHEET
(NACE RP0394-2002 Appendix H, Procedure A Modified)

Project Number: 0604-14-01 Date: February 5th, 2014


Temperature: 232C Tested By: K. Espinoza
Coating Name: Enviroline 2405

Film Thickness Sample Mandrel Size


Sample ID Thickness Bend/PD1 Cracks/Tear/Disbondment Pass/Fail2
(mils) (Radius in mm)
(mm)
F1 26.1 - 31.9 7.1 262 1.53 No/No/No
Pass
F3 24.3 - 30.0 7.1 194 2.06 No/No/No
F5 26.2 - 35.5 7.1 194 2.06 No/No/No Bending Limit
2.06/PD
F6 24.5 - 30.8 7.1 194 2.06 No/No/No
Cracks, No Tear or
F4 23.7 - 28.3 7.1 167 2.39 Fail
Disbondment
Cracks, No Tear or
F9 27.2 - 32.6 7.2 150 2.65 Fail
Disbondment
Cracks, No Tear or
F 10 23.9 - 31.4 7.1 150 2.69 Fail
Disbondment
1
Angle of deflection per pipe diameter length
2
Pass No cracks, tear and disbonding detected after bend

Approval Authority: Dr. Amal Al-Borno FM-505-00-174 Rev 0 (05/02/2014)

Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 63


0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
Cathodic Disbondment Test

Dense
Size # 2
Blisters

CD 1 CD 2 CD 3
Before Rating

CD 1 CD 2 CD 3
After Rating
Figure 19. Cathodic Disbondment Post-Test Overview of Enviroline 2405 Coating System
CAN/CSA Z245.20-10 Section 12.8, Twenty-eight (28) Days at 93C/200F and -1.5V

Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 64


0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
Figure 19 shows cathodic disbondment test results of Enviroline 2405 coating system before and after
rating. After 28 days of cathodic disbondment test at 93C/200F and an applied potential of -1.5V with
respect to calomel reference electrode, two test samples (CD1 and CD2) showed surface bleaching and
low radius of disbondment of CD1=2.8 mm and CD2=2.2 mm, respectively. No blistering or any other
sign of defects was observed as a result of cathodic disbondment test. For, sample CD3, the coating
showed dense size #2 blisters around intentional holiday, surface bleaching and relatively high radius of
disbondment, CD3= 18.0 mm. The average radius of disbondment on three panes was found to be 7.7
mm.

Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 65


0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
CHARTER COATING SERVICE (2000) LTD.
CATHODIC DISBONDMENT OF THE COATING
(CSA Z245.20 - 10, Section 12.8)

Project Number: 0604-13-01 Company Name: Occidental Mukhaizna L.L.C.


Date Started: January 23th, 2013 Temperature: 93C/200F
Date Finished: February 20th, 2013 Test Voltage: -1.5V
Test Duration: 28 Days Holiday Radius: 1.6 mm
Coating Name: Enviroline 2405 Tested By: K. Espinoza

Pre-Test Film Post-Test Film


Sample Average Radius of
Thickness Thickness Observation
ID Disbondment (mm)1
(mils) (mils)

CD 1 33.1 - 41.1 32.0 - 39.1 2.8 mm

The coating showed sign of


Average deterioration in the form of dense
Radius of size # 2 blisters around intentional
CD 2 28.2 - 30.0 28.2 - 35.4 2.2 mm holiday on sample CD 3.
Disbondment
7.7 mm Surface bleaching was observed
on samples CD 1, CD 2 and CD 3.
CD 3 28.5 - 30.0 25.2 - 29.8 18.0 mm

1
Excludes initial holiday measurement (1.6 mm radius)

Approval Authority: Dr. Amal Al-Borno FM-505-00-17 Rev 1 (14/06/2010)

Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 66


0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
Pressurized Atlas Cell (PAC) Test

Blisters Dense # 2

Gas Phase

Aqueous Phase Blisters Dense > 2

Close-up Showing Blisters

Figure 20. Pressurized Atlas Cell Post - Test Photographs of Enviroline 2405 Coating System
NACE TM 0174 - 2002: Temperature at 95C/203F for Thirty (30) Days

Figure 20 shows the post-test photographs of Enviroline 2405 coating system exposed to PAC test conditions at 95C/203F for 30 days. The
coating system showed low resistance to pressurized atlas cell test conditions as indicated by sign of degradation in the form of dense size #2
blisters in the gas phase and dense blisters > size #2 in the aqueous phase. The coating was not rated for adhesion strength due to blistering.

Charter Coating Service (2000) Ltd. 67


0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
CHARTER COATING SERVICE (2000) LTD.
PRESSURIZED ATLAS CELL DATA SHEET
(NACE TM 0174 - 2002 - Modified)

Project Number: 0604-14-01 Company Name: Occidental Mukhaizna L.L.C.


Coating Name: Enviroline 2405 Gas Phase: 0.5% H2S, 50% CO2 and 49.5% CH4
Panel Number: PAC 1 Aqueous Phase: Water with 4000 ppm Cl-
Temperature: 203F/95C Starting Date: January 25th , 2014
Pressure: 60 psi Completion Date: February 25th, 2013
Duration: 30 Days Technician(s): J. Cortes

Post-Test
Physical Parameters Pre-Test
Gas Phase Aqueous Phase
Gas Phase: 31.1 - 37.1
Film Thickness (mils) N/A* N/A*
Aqueous Phase: 26.9 - 37.6

Parallel Scribe Adhesion A N/A* N/A*


Adhesion
Pull-off Adhesion 2968 psi / 20.5 MPa*
N/A* N/A*
(ASTM D4541) 100% Glue Failure

Blistering (ASTM D714) None Dense # 2 Dense > # 2

Colour Change Grey Moderate Moderate


Gas Phase: 91.0 - 96.0
Gloss @ 60 N/A* N/A*
Aqueous Phase: 91.0 - 95.0
Smoothness Change Uniform Smooth Surface N/A* N/A*

Cracking (ASTM D661) None N/A* N/A*


*Not rated due to blistering.

RATING KEYS:
Blistering: Rated as per ASTM D714
Adhesion: Rated as per parallel scribe
Size Density
A - Coating may shear within itself but does not release from substrate
Few (F)
B - Some metal is visible but more than 50% of the coating remains adhered
#2 #4 #6 #8 Medium (M) C - More than 50% of the coating is removed
Large <---> Small Medium-Dense (MD) D - All coating releases between scribes but remains firmly adhered adjacent to cuts
Dense (D) F - No bond exits between coating and substrate

Pull-off Adhesion: as per ASTM D4541:


Cracking: Rated as per ASTM D661 Colour Change
Failure Definitions:
Type Degree None(N) Cohesive - Failure is within the coating film.
Irregular Slight(S) Adhesive - Failure is at the coating to substrate bond.
#2 #4 #6 #8
Line Moderate(M) Glue - Failure is at the glue (fixture) to coating bond.
Severe <--> Slight
Sigmoid Severe(SE) Size of loading fixture: 0.5 inches

Approval Authority: Dr. Amal Al-Borno FM-505-00-05 Rev 1 (11/06/2010)

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0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
Autoclave Test

Side A Side B Side A Side B

Sample A2 Sample A3

Coating Side
Underside of the Fixture
Aqueous Phase

Aqueous Phase Gas Phase

Coating Side Underside of the Fixture


Parallel Scribe Adhesion Gas Phase

Pull-off Adhesion
Figure 21. Autoclave Post-test photographs of Enviroline 2405 Coating System
60 psi at 203F/95C using 0.5% H2S, 50% CO2, 49.5% CH4, and Salt Water with 4000 ppm Cl- for 30 Days
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0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
Figure 21 shows the post-test photographs of Enviroline 2405 coating system exposed to autoclave test
conditions at 95C/203F for 30 days. The coating system showed good resistance to the test conditions
as indicated by no sign of degradation. The coating also showed no significent change in adhesion
strength when compared to pre-test adhesion strength. The only change observed was severe
discoloration in both phases.

The post-test pull off adhesion rated on sample A2 showed 20.6 MPa / 2908 psi in the gas phase (90%
glue and 10% cohesive failure) and 16.0 MPa / 2314 psi (75% glue and 25% cohesive failure) in the
aqueous phase. The parallel scribe adhesion for the coating was rated A for both phases.

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CHARTER COATING SERVICE (2000) LTD.
AUTOCLAVE TEST DATA SHEET
NACE TM0185-2006

Project Number: 0604-14-01 Date: February 10 - March 12, 2014 Technician: J. Cortes
Temperature: 203F/95C Gas: 0.5% H2S, 50% CO2 and 49.5% CH4 Release Temperature: 86F/30C
Pressure: 60 psi Aqueous: Water with 4000 ppm Cl- Release Pressure: From 37 psi to atmospheric
Duration: 30 Days Coating System: Enviroline 2405 Release Time: 51 Min

Pre-test Post-test
Sample Test Film Parallel Film Parallel
ID Phase Thickness Scribe Pull-Off Adhesion* Thickness Scribe Pull-Off Adhesion Blistering
(ASTM
Cracking Colour
(ASTM
Smoothness
(ASTM D4541) (ASTM D4541)
D714) D661) Change Change
(mils) Adhesion (mils) Adhesion
Gas Phase:
Gas 21.8 - 28.7 22.2 - 28.9 A None None Severe No Change
2908 psi/ 20.6 MPa
A2 10% Cohesive;
Aqueous 19.7 - 27.5 21.4 - 28.8 A 90% Glue failure None None Severe No Change
2968 psi / 20.5 MPa
A
100% Glue Failure
Gas 22.0 - 26.8 22.7 - 26.9 A Aqueous Phase: None None Severe No Change
A3 2314 psi/ 16.0 MPa
25% Cohesive;
Aqueous 20.2 - 26.5 22.4 - 28.4 A 75% Glue Failure None None Severe No Change
Remarks:
*Pre-test adhesion test on a retain sample.

RATING KEYS:

Adhesion: Rated as per parallel scribe Pull-off Adhesion: as per ASTM D4541:
A - Coating may shear within itself but does not release from substrate Failure Definitions:
Cohesive - Failure is within the coating film.
B - Some metal is visible but more than 50% of the coating remains adhered
Adhesive - Failure is at the coating to substrate bond.
C - More than 50% of the coating is removed Glue - Failure is at the glue (fixture) to coating bond.
D - All coating releases between scribes but remains firmly adhered adjacent to cuts
Size of loading fixtures: 0.5 inches
F - No bond exits between coating and substrate

Blistering: Rated as per ASTM D714


Size Density Colour Change
Few (F) None(N)
#2 #4 #6 #8 Medium (M) Slight(S)
Large <---> Small Medium-Dense (MD) Moderate(M)
Dense (D) Severe(SE)
Approval Authority: Dr. Amal Al-Borno FM-505-00-07 Rev 1 (11/06/2010)

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0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
COATING SYSTEM: ENVIROLINE 405 HT
(INTERNATIONAL PAINTS)

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Enviroline 405 HT Coating System

Product Information

Enviroline 405 HT coating system is a two-component ultra-high solid epoxy novolac based polycyclamine
cured lining system. As per the product data sheet this coating has excellent chemical, high temperature and
has excellent thermal and mechanical shock resistances and flexibility. It is recommended for steel and
concrete lining in the oil and gas, chemical, mining and water industries on assets such as crude and
petroleum bulk storage tanks, down hole tubular, down hole casing exteriors, interior and exterior pipes,
floors, tank pads, trenches, troughs, sumps and pits, free water knockouts, treaters and separators.

Conclusions

The Enviroline 405 HT coating system showed good dry adhesion strength as determined by pull-off
adhesion, and X-cut adhesion method. The coating showed flexibility limited to 1.54/PD. The coating
showed resistance to autoclave test condition at 95C/203F, as indicated by no sign of coating degradation
and no change in adhesion strength. The coating showed low resistance to pressurized atlas cell test
conditions at 95C/203F and degraded forming medium size #2 blisters in the gas phase and dense size #2
blisters in aqueous phase indicating loss of barrier property of the coating system. Also, the coating showed
poor resistance to the cathodic disbondment test conditions at 93C/200F, as indicated by complete
deterioration of the coating exposing underlying steel substrate.

Based on the results obtained for Enviroline 405HT coating system, it can be concluded that the coating can
be used for structures operating at high temperature in presence of water/acidic gas environment unless there
is a thermal gradient. It is not suitable for structures with impressed cathodic protection at high temperature.

Test Results and Discussion

Summary of test results are given in table 8, shown in Figures 22-27 and data sheets are attached at the end
of this section.

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Table 8. Summary of Laboratory Test Results of Enviroline 405HT Coating Systems

Test Conditions Charter ID Test Results


Pull Off Value (psi/MPa) Mode of Failure Average Pull Value
Pull-off Adhesion PA 1
Temperature: 232C 3063 psi / 21.1 MPa
ASTM D4541 PA 2 2957 psi / 20.4 MPa 100% Glue Failure 3004 psi / 20.7 MPa
PA 3 2992 psi / 20.6 MPa
Average Disbondment Distance from
Rating Pass/Fail
Knife Adhesion the Intersection (mm)
Temperature: 232C PA 1 0.0 mm Rating 10
ASTM D6677 PA 2 0.0 mm Rating 10 Pass
PA 3 0.0 mm Rating 10
F2 Cracks @ 2.58/PD Fail
F3 Cracks @ 2.39/PD Fail
Bend Test F4 Cracks @ 1.74/PD Fail
NACE Temperature: 232C
To determine the bend degree F7 Cracks @ 1.60/PD Fail
RP 0394-2002
(Modified) F1 No cracks, tear or disbondment @ 1.53/PD Pass
F8 No cracks, tear or disbondment @ 1.54/PD Bending Limit
1.54/PD
F9 No cracks, tear or disbondment @ 1.53/PD

Cathodic CD 1
Temperature: 200F/93C
Disbondment
Test Solution: 3% NaCl Post-test evaluation was not carried out due to complete deterioration of the coating exposing the
Voltage: -1.5 V CD 2 underlying steel substrate.
CSA Z245.20-10
Duration: 28 Days
Section 12.8 CD 3
Temperature: 203F/95C
Pressurized Atlas Pressure: 60 psi
Cell Gas Phase: 0.5% H2S, 50% CO2 and 49.5%
Medium size # 2 blisters in gas phase and Dense size # 2 blisters, along with severe irregular
CH4
PAC 1 cracks in aqueous phase were observed.
NACE Aqueous Phase: Water with 4000 ppm Cl-
Moderate change in colour was observed in both phases.
TM 0174-02 Decompression Rate: in one (1) hour at room
Modified temperature
Duration: 30 Days
Temperature: 203F/95C
No blistering, cracking and no change in coating thickness and smoothness were observed in
Pressure: 60 psi
A2 both phases.
Autoclave Gas Phase: 0.5% H2S, 50% CO2 and 49.5%
Severe change in colour was observed in both phases.
CH4
No significant change in adhesion strength was observed :
NACE TM0185- Aqueous Phase: Water with 4000 ppm Cl-
The pull off adhesion was 3071 psi, with 2% cohesive and 98 % glue failure in gas phase and
2006 Decompression Rate: In one (1) hour at room
A3 2550 psi, with 100% glue failure in aqueous phase.
temperature
Parallel scribe adhesion was rated A in both phases.
Duration: 30 Days
Note: Pre-test Parallel Scribe adhesion was rated A.

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0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
Pull-off Adhesion Test

Coating Side Underside of the Fixture


Sample PA 1

Coating Side Underside of the Fixture


Sample PA 2

Coating Side Underside of the Fixture


Sample PA 3

Figure 22. Photographs of Pull-off Adhesion Tested Enviroline 405 HT Coating System
as per ASTM D 4541-09

Figure 22 shows close-up photographs of the pull-off adhesion test carried out on the Enviroline 405 HT
coating system at 232C. The adhesion strength determined on three samples PA1, PA2 and PA3
were, 21.1 MPa / 3063 psi, 20.4 MPa / 2957 psi and 20.6 MPa / 2992 psi, respectively. The average
adhesion strength of the coating was 20.7 MPa / 3004 psi, 100 % glue failure, indicating good interfacial
interaction between the coating and steel substrate .
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CHARTER COATING SERVICE (2000) LTD.
PULL-OFF ADHESION DATA SHEET
(ASTM D4541-09)

Project Number: 0604-14-01 Company Name: Occidental Mukhaizna L.L.C.


Coating Name: Enviroline 405 HT Date: February 4th, 2014
Temperature: 232oC Instrument: Patti Jr. Apparatus (IV)
Test Performed By: Dr. R. Kamble

Sample No. Film Thickness Pull Off Value Mode of Failure Average Pull Value
(mils) (psi/MPa)

PA 1 20.6 - 36.8 3063 psi / 21.1 MPa

PA 2 26.0 - 36.0 2957 psi / 20.4 MPa 100% Glue Failure 3004 psi / 20.7 MPa

PA 3 22.0 - 36.2 2992 psi / 20.6 MPa

Failure Definitions:
Cohesive - Failure is within the coating film.
Adhesive - Failure is at the coating to substrate bond.
Glue - Failure is at the glue (fixture) to coating bond.

Size of loading fixtures:


0.5 (inches) Loading fixtures were applied to the coating surface.

Approval Authority: Dr. Amal Al-Borno FM-505-00-57 Rev 1 (16/06/2010)

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0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
Knife Adhesion Test

PA 1 PA 2 PA 3

Figure 23. Pre-Test Photographs (10X) of X-Scribe Adhesion Tested Enviroline 405 HT Coating
System as per ASTM D 6677

Figure 23 shows the X-cut adhesion strength performance of the Enviroline 405 HT coatings at 232C.
The X-cut adhesion strength was found to be high and rated 10, indicating excellent adhesion of the
coating systems to steel substrate.

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CHARTER COATING SERVICE (2000) LTD
ADHESION BY KNIFE TEST DATA SHEET
(ASTM D6677)

Project Number: 0604-14-01 Company Name: Occidental Mukhaizna L.L.C.


Coating Name: Enviroline 405 HT Temperature: 23oC/73oF
Date: February 4th, 2014 Test Performed By: Dr. Amal-Al-Borno

Average Disbondment Distance from the


Sample ID Rating* Pass/Fail
Intersection (mm)

PA 1 0.0 Rating 10 Pass

PA 2 0.0 Rating 10 Pass

PA 3 0.0 Rating 10 Pass

Note: Disbondment at the point of the intersection is common due to the action of marking the 'X' cut. Therefore, for 1 mm away from the tip of the
intersection any disbondment shall be ignored.
*Cohesive Failure

X-Scribe Adhesion as per ASTM D6677


Rating Description
10 Coating is extremely difficult to remove: Fragments no longer than approximately 0.8 mm by 0.8 mm removed with great difficulty
8 Coating difficult to remove: chips ranging from approximately 1.6 mm by 1.6 mm to 3.2 mm by 3.2 mm can be removed with difficulty
6 Coating is somewhat difficult to remove: chips ranging from approximately 3.2 mm by 3.2 mm to 6.3 mm to 6.3 mm can be removed with slight
difficulty
4 Coating is somewhat difficult to remove: chips in excess of 6.3 mm to 6.3 mm can be removed by exerting light pressure with knife blade
2 Coating is easily removed: once started with the knife blade, the coating can be grasped with ones fingers and easily peeled to a length of at least 6.3
mm
0 Coating can be easily peeled from the substrate to a length greater than 6.3 mm

Approval Authority: Dr. Amal Al-Borno FM-505-00-118 Rev 0 (07/03/2012)


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0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
Flexibility Test

2.58/PD 2.39/PD 1.74/PD 1.60/PD 1.54/PD 1.53/PD 1.53/PD

Sample F2 (10x)

Cracks

Sample F3 (10x)
Cracks
Cracks
Cracks

Sample F4 (10x)

Sample F7 (10x)

Close-up of Cracks

Figure 24. Flexibility Test Photographs of Enviroline 405 HT Coating System at 232C

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0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
Figure 24 shows the flexibility test photographs of Enviroline 405 HT coating system conducted at 232C
to determine the degree of bend where the coating shows no visual damage. The coating showed resistant
to bend degree of 1.54 /PD, as evident by no cracking, tears, or disbondment. Based on the results
obtained on the supplied samples, it was concluded that the coatings ability to withstand mechanical
damage to bending stress is found to be limited to 1.54 /PD at 232C.

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CHARTER COATING SERVICE (2000) LTD
FLEXIBILITY TEST DATA SHEET
(NACE RP0394-2002 Appendix H, Procedure A Modified)

Project Number: 0604-14-01 Date: February 5th, 2014


Temperature: 232C Tested By: K. Espinoza
Coating Name: Enviroline 405HT

Film Thickness Sample Mandrel Size


Sample ID Thickness Bend/PD1 Cracks/Tear/Disbondment Pass/Fail2
(mils) (Radius in mm)
(mm)
Cracks, No Tear or
F2 16.2 - 25.7 6.9 150 2.58 Fail
Disbondment
Cracks, No Tear or
F3 20.2 - 36.5 7.1 167 2.39 Fail
Disbondment
Cracks, No Tear or
F4 18.6 - 33.6 7.1 230 1.74 Fail
Disbondment
Cracks, No Tear or
F7 20.9 - 35.1 7.1 250 1.60 Fail
Disbondment
F1 20.1 - 34.9 7.1 262 1.54 No/No/No Pass
F8 12.4 - 23.5 6.8 250 1.53 No/No/No
Bending Limit
F9 15.1 - 31.5 7.1 262 1.53 No/No/No 1.54/PD
1
Angle of deflection per pipe diameter length
2
Pass No cracks, tear and disbonding detected after bend

Approval Authority: Dr. Amal Al-Borno FM-505-00-174 Rev 0 (05/02/2014)

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Cathodic Disbondment Test

CD 1 CD 2 CD 3

Figure 25. Cathodic Disbondment Post-Test Overview of Enviroline 405 HT Coating System
CAN/CSA Z245.20-10 Section 12.8, Twenty-eight (28) Days at 93C/200F and -1.5V

Figure 25 shows the cathodic disbondment tested Enviroline 405 HT coating system after 28 days of exposure at 93C/200F and an applied
voltage of -1.5 V. The coating showed poor resistance to the cathodic disbondment test condition. The coating was found to be completely
deteriorated exposing underlying steel substrate.

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CHARTER COATING SERVICE (2000) LTD.
CATHODIC DISBONDMENT OF THE COATING
(CSA Z245.20 - 10, Section 12.8)

Project Number: 0604-13-01 Company Name: Occidental Mukhaizna L.L.C.


Date Started: January 23th, 2013 Temperature: 93C/200F
Date Finished: February 20th, 2013 Test Voltage: -1.5V
Test Duration: 28 Days Holiday Radius: 1.6 mm
Coating Name: Enviroline 405 HT Tested By: K. Espinoza

Pre-Test Film Post-Test Film


Sample Average Radius of
Thickness Thickness Observation
ID Disbondment (mm)1
(mils) (mils)

CD 1 21.4 - 26.4 N/A N/A

Post-test evaluation was not


carried out due to complete
CD 2 26.5 - 38.0 N/A N/A N/A deterioration of the coating
exposing the underlying steel
substrate.

CD 3 27.0 - 37.3 N/A N/A

1
Excludes initial holiday measurement (1.6 mm radius)
N/A: Not evaluated due to deterioration of the coating

Approval Authority: Dr. Amal Al-Borno FM-505-00-17 Rev 1 (14/06/2010)

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0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
Pressurized Atlas Cell (PAC) Test

Blisters Medium # 2

Gas Phase

Irregular
Cracks

Aqueous Phase
Blisters Dense # 2

Close-up Showing Blisters and Cracks

Figure 26. Pressurized Atlas Cell Post - Test Photographs of Enviroline 405 HT Coating System
NACE TM 0174 - 2002: Temperature at 95C/203F for Thirty (30) Days

Figure 26 shows the post-test photographs of Enviroline 405 HT coating system exposed to PAC test conditions at 95C/203F for 30 days.
The coating system showed low resistance to pressurized atlas cell test conditions as indicated by medium size #2 blisters in the gas phase and
dense blisters greater than size #2, along with severe irregular cracks in the aqueous phase. The coating was not rated for adhesion strength
due to blistering.
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CHARTER COATING SERVICE (2000) LTD.
PRESSURIZED ATLAS CELL DATA SHEET
(NACE TM 0174 - 2002 - Modified)

Project Number: 0604-14-01 Company Name: Occidental Mukhaizna L.L.C.


Coating Name: Enviroline 405 HT Gas Phase: 0.5% H2S, 50% CO2 and 49.5% CH4
Panel Number: PAC 1 Aqueous Phase: Water with 4000 ppm Cl-
Temperature: 203F/95C Starting Date: January 25th , 2014
Pressure: 60 psi Completion Date: February 25th, 2013
Duration: 30 Days Technician(s): J. Cortes

Post-Test
Physical Parameters Pre-Test
Gas Phase Aqueous Phase
Gas Phase: 25.6 - 38.5
Film Thickness (mils) N/A* N/A*
Aqueous Phase: 24.9 - 30.1

Parallel Scribe Adhesion A N/A* N/A*


Adhesion
Pull-off Adhesion 3004 psi / 20.7 MPa*
N/A* N/A*
(ASTM D4541) 100% Glue Failure
Blistering (ASTM D714) None Medium # 2 Dense # 2

Colour Change Pale Yellow Moderate Moderate


Gas Phase: 31.1 - 37.1
Gloss @ 60 N/A* N/A*
Aqueous Phase: 26.9 - 37.6
Smoothness Change Uniform Smooth Surface N/A* N/A*

Cracking (ASTM D661) None None Irregular # 2


*Not rated due to blistering.

RATING KEYS:

Blistering: Rated as per ASTM D714


Adhesion: Rated as per parallel scribe
Size Density
A - Coating may shear within itself but does not release from substrate
Few (F)
B - Some metal is visible but more than 50% of the coating remains adhered
#2 #4 #6 #8 Medium (M) C - More than 50% of the coating is removed
Large <---> Small Medium-Dense (MD) D - All coating releases between scribes but remains firmly adhered adjacent to cuts
Dense (D) F - No bond exits between coating and substrate

Cracking: Rated as per ASTM D661 Colour Change Pull-off Adhesion: as per ASTM D4541:
Type Degree None(N) Failure Definitions:
Irregular Slight(S)
Cohesive - Failure is within the coating film.
#2 #4 #6 #8 Adhesive - Failure is at the coating to substrate bond.
Line Moderate(M)
Severe <--> Slight Glue - Failure is at the glue (fixture) to coating bond.
Sigmoid Severe(SE)
Size of loading fixture: 0.5 inches

Approval Authority: Dr. Amal Al-Borno FM-505-00-05 Rev 1 (11/06/2010)

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0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
Autoclave Test

Side A Side B Side A Side B

Sample A2 Sample A3

Coating Side Underside of the Fixture

Aqueous Phase

Aqueous Phase Gas Phase Underside of the Fixture


Coating Side
Parallel Scribe Adhesion Gas Phase

Pull-off Adhesion
Figure 27. Autoclave Post-test photographs of Enviroline 405 HT Coating System
60 psi at 203F/95C using 0.5% H2S, 50% CO2, 49.5% CH4, and Salt Water with 4000 ppm Cl-
for 30 Days
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0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
Figure 27 shows the post-test photographs of Enviroline 405 HT coating system exposed to autoclave test
conditions at 95C/203F for 30 days. The coating system showed resistance to the test conditions as
indicated by no sign of degradation. The coating also showed no significent change in adhesion strength
when compared to pre-test adhesion strength. The only change observed was severe discoloration in both
phases.

The post-test pull off adhesion rated on sample A3 showed 21.2 MPa / 3071 psi in the gas phase (98%
glue and 2% cohesive failure) and 17.6 MPa / 2550 psi (100% glue failure) in the aqueous phase. The
parallel scribe adhesion for the coating was rated A for both phases.

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0604-14-01 Laboratory Testing of Four International Coating Systems
AUTOCLAVE TEST DATA SHEET
NACE TM0185-2006

Project Number: 0604-14-01 Date: February 10 - March 12, 2014 Technician: J. Cortes
Temperature: 203F/95C Gas: 0.5% H2S, 50% CO2 and 49.5% CH4 Release Temperature: 86F/30C
Pressure: 60 psi Aqueous: Water with 4000 ppm Cl- Release Pressure: From 37 psi to atmospheric
Duration: 30 Days Coating System: Enviroline 405HT Release Time: 51 Min

Pre-test Post-test
Sample Test Film Parallel Film Parallel
ID Phase Thickness Scribe Pull-Off Adhesion* Thickness Scribe Pull-Off Adhesion Blistering
(ASTM
Cracking Colour
(ASTM
Smoothness
(ASTM D4541) (ASTM D4541)
D714) D661) Change Change
(mils) Adhesion (mils) Adhesion
Gas Phase:
Gas 27.3 - 43.3 26.1 - 37.9 A None None Severe No Change
3071 psi/ 21.2 MPa
A2
2% Cohesive;
Aqueous 26.9 - 35.5 26.6 - 34.6 A None None Severe No Change
3004 psi / 20.7 MPa 98% Glue Failure
A
100% Glue Failure
Gas 26.2 - 37.1 25.4 - 33.2 A None None Severe No Change
Aqueous Phase:
A3
2550 psi/ 17.6 MPa
Aqueous 24.9 - 32.2 25.8 - 30.4 A None None Severe No Change
100% Glue Failure
Remarks:
*Pre-test adhesion test on a retain sample.

RATING KEYS:

Adhesion: Rated as per parallel scribe Pull-off Adhesion: as per ASTM D4541:
A - Coating may shear within itself but does not release from substrate Failure Definitions:
Cohesive - Failure is within the coating film.
B - Some metal is visible but more than 50% of the coating remains adhered
Adhesive - Failure is at the coating to substrate bond.
C - More than 50% of the coating is removed Glue - Failure is at the glue (fixture) to coating bond.
D - All coating releases between scribes but remains firmly adhered adjacent to cuts
Size of loading fixtures: 0.5 inches
F - No bond exits between coating and substrate

Blistering: Rated as per ASTM D714


Size Density Colour Change
Few (F) None(N)
#2 #4 #6 #8 Medium (M) Slight(S)
Large <---> Small Medium-Dense (MD) Moderate(M)
Dense (D) Severe(SE)

Approval Authority: Dr. Amal Al-Borno FM-505-00-07 Rev 1 (11/06/2010)


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