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Chapter 1: Overview of Verb Tenses Exercise 1, p. 1. Sample questions 1. What is your name? 2. How do you spell your (lasfirst) name? / How do ‘you spell that? 3, Where are you from? 4. Where were you born? 5. Where do you live? /Where are you living? ©. Why did you come here? 7. How long have you been living here? How long are ‘you going to be living here? / How long do you plan to be here? 8, What is your major? /What is your field of study? / What do you do? 9. What do sou like todo in your free time? What hobbies do you heve? 10. How do you like living here? How do you feel about living here? What do you think about living here? Exercise 2, p. 1. Qmontions to asks Partner A: 1, What do you do every day before you leave home? 2. What have you done / have you been doing since you got up this morning? 3. What are you doing right now? 4. What were vou doing at (this exact time) yesterday? 5. What had you done by the time you gor here today? (also possible: What did you do...) Partner B: 1, What id you do lst night? 2. What ate you going t0 do will you do tomorrow? 3. What have you been doing forthe past five minutes? 4, What will you be doing at (this exact time) tomorrow? 5. What will you have done by the time you go to bed tonight? Exercise 4, p. 2. 1. cooked 4. will be 2. bought 5. am going to watch 3. get Exercise 6, p. 3. 4. sill be watching 5. was watching Exercise 8, p. 4. 1. have done 2. had done 3. vill have done 4, have studied 5. hhad studied Exercise 11, p. 6. |. studies is studying studied was studying. vw study / is going ro study will be studying / is going 10 be studying nas alreaay stualed hhad already studied ). will already have studied 10, thas been studying 11. had been studying 12, will have bean studying Saaperepe Exercise 12, 8, . The speakers are discussing an activity that began and ended in the past. Tense: simple past. 3, ‘The speakers are discussing an acitvity that is happening (is n progress) at the moment of speaking. Tense: presont progressive. ‘The speakers are discussing an activity in progress at & particular time in the past. Tense: past progressive. 5. ‘The speakers are discussing activities that have ‘occurred (oF not occurred) “before now,” at ‘unspecific times in the past. ‘Tense: present perfect 6, The speakers are discussing what wil happen at « specific time in the future. Tense: simple future, 7. ‘The speakers are discussing the duration ofan activity that has already started and will end at a specific ime in the future. Tense: future perfect progressive. 8, This question concerns the duration of an a thot etarted in the poet and is ill in progres ‘Tense: present perfect progressive. 9. This question concerns an activity that started and. ended before another time in the past. Tense: past perfect. iy 465 Exercise 14) p. 9+ ‘Das Pedro walk to work every marning? ‘What are you talking about? Did you finish your work? ‘My fiend doesn’t like her apartment. ‘Are you warking for this company? / Do you wark for this company? What time did your plane arrive? How fong have you been living inthis city? How long have you lived in this cis? 8. Allwon’e be in lass tomorros. Exercise 15, p. 9. 1 6. happened 2. 7. planning 3. 8. enjoyed 4. sitting 9. worried 3. started 10. studying Exercise 16, p. 10. Part I. dating putting enjoying ining stopping happening ssrecing ‘einring syn, Pave H. answered controlled listened permitted offered planned opened preferred Exercise 17, p. 11. Chapter 2: Present and Past; Simple ‘and Progressive Exercise 1, p. 13, - Ldon’e know Sam's wife 2. Myvoomiae usually watches levkon, tans a ‘music, or goes out in the evening. 4, When Ttumed the key, the car started, 5. Alr consists of oxygen, nitrogen, and other gases. 6. ‘The children drew some pictures in schoo! this ‘morning, 7. Right naw Sally is in the kitchen eating breakfast. 8. While I was driving home lastnight, Y heard a swange noite in the engine. \: What are you talking about? 1 situation in my Exercise 2, p 13, (Answers et vary.) 2 Clima ef 5!) 3. No, (The earth revolves around the sun.) 4. Sentence 3 is.@ general truth. 5. Sentence 1's a dally habit. 6. Sentence 2 is something thet is happening right now. Exercise 3, p. 14. Sample seutenees ‘The earth revolves around the sun, Ar contains nitrogen and oxygen. “The human heart beats 72 times per minute (on average).. Snowflakes have six sides, “The average person sleeps eight hours a night, Hybrid cers use les gos. Part I. 2. hid 8, patting 3. running 9. tying 4. ruining’ 10. beginning 3. coming 11. earning 6. writing 12. dying 7. cating Pare I. 2. planning, planned ©. dying, died >. raining, rained 10. employing, 4. taping, taped ‘employed 5. tapping, tapped 6. entering, entered 7. preferring, preferred 8. translating, translated Exercise 18, p. 12. are renting preferred its 8 9. 400 Answer KEY 11. burying, buried 12, admitting, admitted ting, visited, 1A, waiting, waited °m planning. “m taking am ceplying replied Exercise 4, p. 15. 2. washes 3. usually sits .. siting 4, am tying Exercise 5, p. 15. 1. sight now 2. inthe winter, every April 3. every year Exercise 7, p. 16. 1 3.8 Ze 4a Exercise 8, p. 17. 1, a, smelt describes a state that exists ‘mel! and that aml ie good. have Do you always lock am still waiting. is shining shines . wakes 4. right nov, today 5. every summer, in the spring 6. this week. » the flowers. bo. is smelling describes the action of using one's Chapter 2 think means “believe” in this sentence and deserbes state ‘bi. aw thinking i an action; thoughts are going through the speaker's mind. sue describes a perception that exist ight now as a result ofthe speaker using hisher eyes. ',insasig a doctor moana ia going to « doctor for hhelp;"a general activity in progress at present, ave secng means they re dating each other, @ general activity in progress at present. looks means “appears or seems to be” and eceribes an apparent state that exies: Acted ie apparently col, isloohing describes the ation of using one's eyes is feeling describes the action of using one's sense cof touch. Suc is using her hands to touch the cat's fur, The activity isin progress atthe present be. dels describes a state that exists the state ofthe cea's fark ti so «au wo fling describes the speaker's physical feelings of lis, in progress atthe present. (Wav: The simple presents also possible here ‘with ie difference in meaning (fdr el wal! tadap) ta describe a sate that exist] 4. fee! means “think or believe” inthis sentence and deseribes a state. remennber describes a state that exists is remembering deseribes an activity in progress: memories are going through Aunt Sar’s mind. te describes a state that exists. being describes a temporary behavior: the children are acting fully quiet. is appearing describes the action of performing on stage ina theater, general activity in progress at prevent appears means “seems” and describes an apparent state that exists ve ce Exercise 9, p. 18. 2 5.8 3b 6a ab Exercise 10, p. 18. = is beginning... don’t have ... don’t own... is wearing ... wear 2. ia doing .. ia boing... dosen't want js always 3. amooking looks .. . has... isn’t having 4. A:do you like... Does it need Bi tastes... reminds 5. Avare you looking B: look A: Do you think... resemble Br see 6. am looking . is writing biting scratching .. is staring... seems do you think... is doing Chapter 2 Exercise 12, p. 22. 1. lost 10. knew 2. forgot 11. began 3. made 12. spoke 4, wrote 13. gave 3. took 14. spent & dia 15, told 7. understood 16. taught 8. brought AT. sang 9. got Exercise 13, p. 23. 1. Yes, {found a pet store. 2. Yes, I bought a parrot 3. Yes, Ltook ic our of is cage. 4 Yes, [had some trouble with it ‘Yes, it bit me. Yes, [left the pet store. ‘Yes, Fwvent to the doctor. ‘Yes, I drove to the doctor’ office. Yes, she put a bandage on my finger. ‘Yes, I paid her. Exercise 14, p. 23. 1. swam 8. built 2. stood 9. wrote 3. fall 10. drew 4. ran 1 hid 5. lay 12, aang ©. wore 13. stung 7. dug 14. saw Exercise 15, p. 24. 1, Yes. Thad a great wip. ‘Yess Feame buek feeling reste. ‘Yes, I met many people, ‘Yes, I hung out with local people. ‘Yes, I did alot of tourist activites. ‘Yes, I stood on the Acropolis. ‘Yes, I spent time in museums. ‘Yes, boughe some Greek sandals. ‘Yes, I spoke a little Greek. Yes, [ate in typical Greek restaurants. ‘Yes, I got your emails. 12, Yes, I brought you a present. 13. Yes, I sent you a posteard. 14. Yes, Las sad to leave Greece, 10. a Exercise 16,p.24, 1, woke 8. lay 2. caught 9. slept 3. hure 10. dream 4. took 1. ate 3. had 12. spoke 6 fale 13. took 7. kept 14. read, ANSWER KEV 467 Exercise 17, p. 25. Note: The pronoun jie is being used for these answers. |. Yes, he woke me up a lot. ‘Yes, [heard a tot of noise. . Yes, his cell phone rang many times. Yes, he fought with someone, . Yes. he put on a CD. ‘Yes, he made breakfast at mi | Yes, he ground some coffee beans firs. ‘Yes, he fed the neighbor's cats. . Yes, he swepr the floor afterwards. 11. Yes, he knew I was awake. 12, Yes, he meant to wake me up. 1 2 3. 4 5. 6. Yes, he sang loudly. 7. 8 9. 10. 13. Yes, he upset me. 14, Yes, Iwas upset. Exerelse 15, p. 25. |. happy, good abour my decision . two clases, at night ‘he car with gas any hurd, sorte thee these jeans, my shirt Exercise 19, p. 25. Porth LF 4 2F 5. 3.F 6. Port It fad 2. burst 10. broke rs woke 12, heard 13, shook rs hid 13, nd i reise 20, p. 26. different - different different Exercise 21, p. 27. LW ‘a. 1a 2 lar 5. fod! Bhd 6. 468 ANSWER KEY with colored pencils, several faces, for several hours 5. in the woods, some money 9. from the math class, some money from the bank the sad ending, when the play finished over the fence, very quickly, in a sunny spot sped got ‘caught fale upsee same . different 7. 1a gw 9. fea Exercise 22, p. 27. 5. departed/ed/.. Ianded/ad/ . asked... suagested/ad! 1. ‘yawned/dl stretched? 2. ‘vacuumed/d/...dusted/ad/ 3 2 ended/ad/ 4. jumpedit.. ylled/a/ 5. 6 Exercise 23, p. 28. a fa Id! chased accepted fixed complained needed snissed died requested pushed played thanked rained worked worried Exoreise 24, p. 28. combed/d/ exercised/d! Drushed/’ caked! | cooked! surfed/t/ waited/ad/ ‘ranslated/ad/ walked added/ad washed’! cleaned/a ‘pedi! listened/ay ‘worked’? Exercise 25, p. 28. 1. Rita stood tndera tee when ic began co rain. 2, Rita wat standing under a tee whan it hogan to rain. Exercise 26, p. 29. La aa 2b 4a Exercise 27, p. 30. called... wasn’t. was studying didn’'chear was Sleeping ‘was shining was blowing ... were singing were arguing. walked 5. opened... ound was raading fll A: Did you hear BB: wasnt listening... was thinking as snowing... Was shining ... were shoveling. was ying «lated ,.. sneakad/enuck Exercise 28, p. 31. 1. A: wae waiting 3: Did they call 2, Aidid you break slipped .... was crossing 3. B: was looking A: Did you find B: parked 4. A: Did you ask... saw BB: was working -- -looked . .. decided ‘Chapter 2 i 5. Bs happened Az got... vas driving ... wasn't paying... didn't see. sep Exercise 29, p. 32. 1. found 5. looked 2, we8 6. walked 3. were speaking 7. stopped 4. were sitting Exercise 33, p. 33. All the sentences are correct. Always can also be used swith the present progressive. Exercise 34, p. 33. Sample sentences: 2. Ho's always leaving his dirty dishos on che table 3, He’ constantly borrowing my clothes without fsking me. 44, He's always trying to show me he's smarter than me. 5. He's forever bragging about himself 6. He's constantly cracking his knuckles while I'm trying to study, 7. He's always forgetting to give me my phone messages. Exercise 35, p. 33. ‘Sample sentences: 1. playing the music t90 loud. 2. talking on the phone. 3. leaving her clothes on the floor. 4. inviting friends over for parties. Exercise 36, p. 34. In, the focus is on the activity. In B, the focus is on me place. Exercise 37, p. 34. 3. inhis bedroom watching TV. 4. watching TV in his bedroom. 5. taking a nap on the couch in the living room. 6. on the couch a the living room tking «nap. 7. attending a conference in Singapore, Exercise 38, p. 35. 1. Rrealefast is an important meal, T always oat breakfast. 2, While I was working in my office yesterday, my cousin stopped by to visit me. 3. Yuki stayed home because she caught a bad cold. 4. My brother looks like our father, but I resemble ‘my mother, 5. Jun, are you iistentng to me? Iam talking to you! 6. While Iwas surfing the internet yesterday, I found @ realy interesting Web site. 7. Did you speak English before you came here? Chapter 3 8, Yesterday, while Iwas working wt my computer, Shelley suddenly came into the room. I didn’t know she was there, Iwas concentrating hard on ‘my work. When she suddenly spoke, I jumped. She startled me, Chapter 3: Perfect and Perfect Progressive Tenses | Exercise 1, p. 36. Questions: Have yon ever 1, bought a boat? 2. broken a window? 3, hidden from the police? 4. taught English? 3. made fee ercars? 6. won a contest? 7. ridden an elephant? 8. flown an sirplane? 9. caught a bucterfiy? 10. left our umbrella at a restaurann? 11. dug a hole to plant a tree? 12, driven a school bus? 13, drawn a picture of yourselt? 14, buile« house? 15, forgotten your own name? len off ladder? 17. held a poisonous snake? 18, stolen anything? 19, eaten a duck egg? 20, swung a baseball bat? 21. fed a lion? 22. splic wood with an axe? 23, hica baseball? 24. read a play by Shakespeare? 25, grown tomatoes from a seed? 26, torn a page out ofa library book? Exercise 2, p. 37. 1. written, 9, taken 2. lost 10. shaken 3. climbed 11. helped. 4 given 12. slept 5. wold 13. driven 6. cung 1a. had 7. maden 15. studied 8. drunk 16. played Exercise 4, p. 39. 1. since 3. for 2. for 6. since 3. for 7. for 4. since 8. since ANSWER KEY 469 Exercise 7, p. 40. Present pefact carbs: 1. "vehad 5, have met... haven't 2. "ve missed 6. Tue eaten 3. haven't eaten, 7. haven't read... haven't 4. hase’t finished had ‘Mine frame: 1, from the beginning of the week to now (Wed.) 2, from the beginning of the term to now 3. from the time speaker got up to now 4, from right after dinner to now 5. unspecified time ©. unspecified time from the time she/he got the book up to now Exercise 11, p. 42. Lis 6. ts planning 2. hat already loft 9. have you been 3. have already left 10. has been 44, have you been 1 is 5. hhas she done 12. has been 6. bas come 13. have finished 7. have lived 14. has read Exercise 13, p. 44, 1. has never seen 2 saw had... went haven't had has been has just occurred ... occurred 3. have gotten .. saw... am aso getting have already taken .. took ‘nave known knew Exercise 14, p. 45. 1. Have you ever broken something valuable? What did you break? 2. Hive you ever lost something important? Whar did you lose? 3. Have you ever stayed up all night? Why did you stay up all night? 4, Have you ever traveled to an interesting place? Where did you travel to? 5. Flave you ever been in a eur weeieleme? When were you in a car accident? 6. Have you ever played a team sport? Which sport did you play? Exereise 15, p. 45. 1eae 2 ae 470 ANSWER KEY Exercise 16, p. 47. 2. is reviewing... hhas been reviewing 3. is standing... has been standing 4. has been playing, 5. have been practicing 6. have been sleeping Exercise 17, p. 47. Passile sentences using the present perfect progressive: He has been cooking some food He has been fixing the table. He has been memorizing vocabulary, He has been planting flowers, He has been vacuuming. teas been washing the windows. si g ing yesterday plus the simple past: ‘He cooked some food yesterday. He fixed the table yesterday. ‘He memorized vocabulary yesterday. He planted flowers yeeterday. ‘He vacuumed yesterday. He washed the windows yesterday. hig poe pre pf: “He has just cooked some food. ‘He has Just fixed the table. He has just memorized vocabulary. He has just planted flowers. He has just vacuumed. He has just washed the windows. Exercise 18, p. 48. 1. have you been 2. Pve been taking 3. haven't been working 4. how are 5. haven't seen 6. They're doin 1. ‘They're traveling 8. have they been 9. It’s been 10. they've been traveling 11, They've been staying 12. spending 13. they're enjoying Exercise 19, p. 48. 4, has been waiting 5. have liked 6. has been watching 7. thas buen teaching / hae taught 8. have been playing ... has been playing / has played Exercise 20, p. 49. 1. has been waiting... 9:00 A. 2. hae owned... one month 3. has not decided 4. has been sitting «7:00 5. have been playing... three hours Chapter 3 i Exercise 22, p. 49. 1, Someone had knocked... 2. ‘The teacher had writen Exercise 23, p. 51. fale... took . had already given was... had stoppe «became / had become hhad never teen... visited . ad leftett looked «had loft. saw... ae not seen. lost 10. emigrated got appeared ad forgotten... offered didn’t recognize... ad apie had never traveled . ad always wanted settled ... grew Exercise 24, p. 52. Past perfect verbs: 1, had forgotten .. . had called ... had rushed (Fiction ‘writing uset more pase perfec 2, no past perfect verbs (Spoken English uses more past tense.) 3. had had ... had passed away ... had grown (Fiction writing uses more past perfect.) (Note: ‘moved could be either had moved or moved. If past perfect, the second had does not need to be repeated} Exercise 25, p. 52. 1. wead 3. Fad 2, moviewsd 4, roommate-ad Exercise 26, p. 53. 1. We had 4. (uo redncton) He had 5. flood had They had 6. Where had 2. children had 7. Thad (Ist sentence) 3. roommates hed Exercise 27, p. 53. 2 hod 4. had 3. has 5. had 6. would 8 is. 1. have has Exercise 28, p. 54. 1. had already eaten 5. hadn't called 2. she'd been 6. she'd forgotton, 3. she'd had 7. Ira been 4. there'd been Exercise 29, p. 55. La 3b 2b 4a Exercise 30, p. 55. 3, have been studying 4, had been studying had been daydreaming 3. have been sleeping. Chapter 4 Exercise 31, p. 56. Sample answers: 2. had been talking 3. had been playing 4. had been dancing 5. had been looking 6. had been drawing 7. had been studying Exercise 32, p. $7. 2. Mr. Sanchez 6. Mr. Fox 3. Alice 7. Dan 4. Carlos 8. Ken 5. Jane 9. Robert Exercise 33, p. 58. 1a aa 2b 5b 3b Exerelsc 34, p. $8. 1. Since Tame to this country, T havo loaned / have ‘been Iearning a lot about the way of life here. 2. Tarrived here only a short time ago, Thave been. here since last Friday. 3. How long have you been living here? Thave been here for almost two years 4, Why fnawon’e you been in claus forthe last couple of days? 5. Thave been coaching a soccer team forthe lest 10 months. 16, My grandfather lived in a small village in Italy when he was « child, Atnineteen, he moved to Rome, ‘where he met and married my grandmother in 1957, My father was born in Rome in 1960. I was ‘born in Rome in 1989. 7. Thave been living in my cousin’s apartment since I arrived here. Itis very smell and we are sharing the bedroom. Ineed my own place, but I haven’t Found onc 90 far. 8, When I was 8 child, [lived with my grandmother instead of my parents. Grandpa had died / died before I was born, so I never knew him. Grandma raised me alone, Chapter 4: Future time Exercise 1, p. 60. 1. future 6. present 2. future 7. present 3. present 8. future 4. forure ©. fotare 5. future 10. present Exercise 2, p. 60. 1. Marie will e00k some chicken and rice for dinner tonight, ‘Where will you be tomorrow morning? . Lwon"t/ will not ride the bus to work tomorrow. |. Marco will probably call us this evening. - Lam going to look for # new apartment. ANSWER KEY 471 Exercise 3, p. 61, no 5. yes 2 ye 6. yes 3. yes 7. yes 4. no 8. no Exercise $, p. 62. 1. You will need 2. We wil review 3. test will ave A There will be You will have nobody will Iewill be results will be Exerelse 6, p. 62. 1. going to 3. going to 2. gonna 4. gonna Exercise 8, p. 63. Lb Dawe Be Exercise 9, p64. Le ae ee ae © Bb Exercise 10, p. 64 1. willingness 2. plan 3. prediction 4. plan willingness prediction weillingnose plan Exercise 11, p. 65. 3. B:tldo Celhdo 4. S going to erase 3, B: tl meet AL'llsee *'m going to meet won’s tall \won"t open. Exercise 12, p. 66. La 4 ak Ba Ba Exercise 14, p. 67. 2. (er tern taps) 1m gong sveep the font porch, 3. T'm going to start making ainner (before my wife sets home feom work today] 4. I'm going to wait right here (until Sonya comes.] 5. [As soon asthe war i over] there will be new elections. 6. Right now the tide is low, bur {when the tide comes {nl the ship wil leave the harbor. 7. {While Em driving to work tomorrows] I'm going to listen to my Greek language CD. 472 ANSWER KEY Exercise 15, p67. ‘eat. . will probably take / am probably going 3. get... will give / am going to give 44, watch... will call/am going to call 5. will wait / am going to wait... comes ©. stops ... Will Walk am going to walk 7. graduate ... intend . .. will go / am going to go get 8, will isten / am going to listen... am sleeping Exercise 16, p. 68. What are you going todo after you wake wp 2. What are you going to do as soon as class ends today? 3. Before you go to bed tonight, what are you going todo? 4, What are you going to do when you have free time thls weekend? 5, When you finish school, what are you going to do? Exercise 17, p. 68. All the sentences have a future meaning, Exercise 18, p. 69. 4d, in the future 11. habitually 5. inthe future 12, A: now 6. now B: now 7. in the future As in the future 8. habitually 13, Av in the future 9. in the future 'B: in the future 10. in the fuvure AA: in che future Exercise 19, p. 70. Sample anneers: ing /am catching am quitting Exercise 21, p. 71. All the verbs take a progressive form (present; pasty future), Exercise 22, p. 72. 1, is going to be studying / will be studying ... am going to be finishing / will be finishing 2. is going to be seeing / willbe seeing... is going to be doing / will be doing ... is going to be talking / will be talking. Exercise 23, p. 72. 1, arrive... is going to be waiting / will be waiting 2. get... 18 golng to be shining / will be shining... are going to be singing / will be singing ... is still going to be lying will still be lying Chapter 4 3. Bram going wo be enjoying / will be enjoying ‘As am going to be thinking / will be thinking ‘will be / am going to be in Chicago visting will be / am going to be working Exercise 24, p. 73. All the verbs are in a form of the perfect. Exercise 25, p. 73. 1, have been... had been ... will have been. ve already arrived . .. will already have got In have been sitting. boon sitting ‘wil have begun ... will have been teaching will have been driving get / will have taken will have been running will have been ing... will have Exercise 26, p. 74. 2. He will shave, shovter, and then make a light breakfast. 3. After he eats breakfast tomorrow, he will get ready to go ee work. By the time he gets to work tomorrow. he will have drunk three cups of coffee, 5. Between 8:00 and 9:00, Bill will answer his email and (will) plan his day. 6. By 10:00 tomorrow, he will have called his new clients. 7. At 11:00 tamarrow, he will he attending a stall meeting. He will go to lunch at noon and have a sandwich 1nd a bowl of soup. 9. After he finishes eating, he will take a short walkin the patk before he returns to the office. He will work at his desk until he goes to another ‘meeting in the middie of the afternoon. By the time he leaves the office, he will have attended three meetings. When Bill gets home, his children will be playing in the yard. ‘They will have beon playing since 3:00 in the afternoon, ‘As soon a he finishes dinner, he will ake the children for a walk toa nearby playground. Afterward, the whole family will sit in the living room and discuss their day. ‘They will watch telovision for a while, and then he and his wife will pur the klds to bed. . By the time Bll goes to bed tomorrow he will have hhad a full day and will be ready for sleep. 10. rs 2 13. 14. 45, 16, Chapter 5 | Chapter 5: Review of Verb Tenses. Exercise 1 p76, have been studying here since last January. 2. By the dine Hasan tetarned wo ie country he had ‘been away trom home for more than three years, 3. After graduate, am going o return to my hometown. 4, By the end ofthe 21st century, man will have discovered the cure forthe common cold. 5, want wo get maried, but [haven't met the right person yet. 6. Tihave soon that movi three times, and now T want to see it again, 7. Tdon't like my job. My brother wants me 1 4 think he i ig. 8, While Pm studying tonight, I'm going to listen to classical music 9, We washed the dishes and cleaned up the kitchen after our dinner guests left. ‘My neighbors are Mr. and Mrs. Sanchez, Thave Known them ever since Iwas child. “Many scientists believe there will be « major earthauake in California in the near future, 1 16, a Exercise 2, p. 76. 1. is studying... is also taking... begin 2. hha already eaten. left 3. always eats... goes... goes called... was attending will be attending got... was sleeping... had been sleeping ‘staking... fell... as been sleping eats... i going to go / will o will have eaten 1 B08 Started... hasn't finished .... has been reading has finished... is reading ... has been reading... intends .. as read... has ever read - will eat/is going Exercise 4, p. 78. Partt. LF FE 27 aT Part I, 1. got 8. didn't see 2, took 9. saw 3. pur 10. had been trying 4 didn't open 11, apotogizec 5. ied 12, went 6. knocked 13, felt 7, opened 14. had done | Exercise 6, p. 79. 1. got 2. have been trying 3. have been ANSWER KEY 473 4. have hd eae 5. has been staying 6. have been spending / have spent / are spending 7. have been 8. went 9. watched 10. have barely had IL is 12. am sitting 13. have been sitting 14. leaves /is going to leave / will leave 15. decided /nave decided 16. am writing 17. am getting 18. am going to take / will tke 19. get 20. are you getting 21, are your classes going Exercise 8, p. 80. a 3b 2a aa Exercise 9, p. 80. has experienced . will experience /is going to experience began . have occurred . have developed ld / ere holding . moves know + happened struck were sitting . suddenly found 5. died 5. colapsed will the next earthauake occur is the nent earthquake going to occur 19. have often helped 20. are studying 21. also appear 22. seem 23. have developed 24, sill be / are going v0 be 25. strikes Exercise 13, p. 82. 1. Thaven’t been in this town very long, Teame here Just two weeks ago. 2. Dormitory ifs not quiet. Everyone shouts and makes alot of noise in the halls. 3. My friends will meet me when T arrive at the airport. 474 ANSWER KEY 4. Hasn't enyone ever told you to knoe on the door ‘before you enter someone else's room? Didn't your parents teach you that? 5. The phone rang while Iwas doing the dishes. T dried my hands and answered it, When I heard ‘my husband’s voice, I was very happy. 6. Thave been in the United States for the last four ‘months. During this time, I have done many things and seen many places. 7. When the old man started to walk back ta his hut, the sun had already hid / hidden itself behind the ‘8, While I was writing my composition last night, someone knacked on the daor. 9. Why did you write a children’s book? 10. Pm really glad you are going to / will visit my hometown next year. 11, While I was visiting my cousin in Los Angeles, we \went to 2 restaurant and ateTinal food. 12, When I was a ebild, I vowed things from a much lower height. Many physical objects around me appeared very large. When I wanted to move something such as a chair, Ineeded help. 13, When I was in my country, I was afraid to come to the United States. T thought I couldn't walk outside at night because of the terible erime, But now I hhave a different opinion. I have lived in this small town for three months and (have) learned thet there is very lite crime here, Chaptar 6: Subject-Verh Agreament Exercise 1p. 84. 2. My parents visit many countries when they travel in Europe. 3. Robert cings when he takes a shower, 4. Chickens, ducks, and turkeys lay eggs. 5, Anna wears gloves on her hands when she works in her garden, 6. She seratches her chin wh itches. Exercise 2, p. 84. 2. plural, noun 5. singular, verb 3. singular, verb ©. plural, noun 4. plaral, noun Exercise 3, p. 85. 2. writesfed 6, locksle! 3. robs 7. wishestoa! 4. rugs! 8, pages/ae! 5. sleepsis! 9. months’! Exercise 4, p. 86. 4. bushes/oa’ 9. touches/oxt 5. hate! 10, coughele! 6. risesfan! 11, methods 17. seasons/2! 12, languages/a2! 8. developsis! Chapter 6 Exercise 5, p. 86, Cats sleep «hours 2 shapes aes 3. practices... sentences 4. cafeteria ... serves... . sandwiches 5. teacher .. encourages ©. coughs... sneezes Exercise 6, p. 86. (Opera singers sing. An opera singer sings. ‘Teachers teach. A teacher teaches. Butterflies fly. A butterfly flies. Balla bounce. A ball bounces. ‘Doors open and close. A door opens and closes. “Mosquito bites itch. A mosquito bite itches. Hungry babies ery. A hungry baby cries. Students ask questions. A student asks questions. Snakes hiss. A snake hisses Dogs say “arfarf” in English. & dog cays “aefart” in English. Beenoyeepr Exercise 7, p87. |. The verb agrees with the subject: In sentence athe subject is singular, so the verb is singular. In b, there is a plural subject, so the verb i plural In as there i plural subject so the verb is plural, In ’ba every is followed by a singular noun, so the verb is singular. 3, Ina. and b, the subjects fruit and apples, not the prepositional phrases that follow, determine agreement. In any vegerales i the plural subject 20 the vert ia plural. In b, the gerund earings the subject, not vegetables. Gerunds require a singular verb, 23 4 Exercise 8, . 87. A is 6. agree LL. do 2. are 7. approves 12. was 3. astounds 8. has 1B. were 4. are 14. Is 5. is 10. is 15. is Exercise 9, p. 88. 1, know 5. kevows 2. know 6. know 3. knows 7. knows, 4. knows 8. knows Exercise 10, p. 88. In most expressions of quantity, the verb is determined by the noun that follows of (items 1,2, 3,4). Exceptions: one of and each of take a plural noun but a singular verb Gems 5, 6). Exercise 11. p. 89. 2. apples ... are 3. movie. .-is Chapter 6 4. movies 5, students » 6 money... 7, 8, ws atudonts Does... . homework students fone was... Exercise 12, 9.90. 2. are 15. is 3 is 10. ar 16. i dae his 17, are 3 is 12 is 18, 6 is 13. are 1. is Ts ren 20. are 8 is Exercise 14, p. 91. 1arent. 7. was Qin ki 3 are 9. are as 10. fas been 5. are 11, have been 6. isn't Exercise 15, p. 91. 2 Tere. eahere Be 6. Are there There are there are ner 8. Isthere Exercise 17, p. 92. Lis 2. is — 3. mre we ANSWER KEY 475, Exercise 20, p. 94. 2. Linguistics is 6. 70 percent. 3. Diabetes is fone percent . is 256 . ‘The Netherlands is . Fish are . Some of the people are friendly. One of the gids is absent. Italian is a Romance language. 5. Two-thirds of the food is gone. (©. ‘The clothes in that store are expensive, 17. The clothing in those stores is inexpensive. 8. Most of the stores in tourist towns are overpriced. Exercise 24, p. 96. 1. has 5. is a & 3. need 7 is 4. needs 8. are Exercise 25, p. 96. 3. Tare 2. Ip work ac 10.6 5. 1. Tare 6. Tare 2¢ 7¢ 13. € 8. has 14, Tycontain Exercico 26, p. 97. 2. are 1. are 3. keeps 12, Are 4, makes 13. is 5. is 4 is 6 is 15. appears 7. Does 16, ace 8. Do 17. Is 9. is 18, provides 10. are Exercise 27, p. 9 3. Alot ofthe people in my class work during the day and attend class in the evening. 4. Many of the satelites orbiting the earth are used for 3. (no error) 6. Studying a foreign language often leads students to Jearn about the culture ofthe countries where itis spoken. 7. One of the most common names for dogs in the United States is “Rover” 476 ANSWER KEY 8. io errors) 9. Most of the mountain peaks in the Himalayan. Range are covered with snow the year round. 110. vo errors) 11. Seventy-five percent of the people in New York City five in upstairs apartments, not on the ground floor. 12, (io errors) 13. Unless there is a profound and extensive reform of government policies in the near future, the economic ‘conditions in that country will continue to deteriorate. 14. While Twas in Paris, some of the best food I found ‘was not at the well-known eating places but in small outaf-the-way cafés. Chapter 7: Nouns Exercise 1, p. 100. 2. branches 9. echoes 3. mice 10. photos 4. enemies 11. zeros/zeroes 5. valleys 12, erises ©. shelves, 13, curricula 7. beliefs 14, offspring ‘8. women Exercise 2, p. 100. 2. poratves 8. geese 3. fish 9. donkeys 4. sandwiches 10. deer 5. carrots LL. wolves 6. vegetables 12, sheep 7, kangaroos Exercise 4, p. 102. beliets memos chiefs photos clouds videos kilos 2008 heroes potatoes boxes tomatoes classes fishes (posible, Bue rare) matches knives scarves leaves shelves lives wolves loaves no change deer fish sheep chopter 7 i Exercise 5, p. 103. attorneys discoveries... laboratories boxes... oxen beaches. lif pianos phenomena ‘media Exercise 6, p. 104, (1) Bacteria are the smallest ving things, They are simple organiams that consist of one col. (2) Bacteria exist almost everywhere, They are in the water andl soil as well asin the bodies ofall ving, creatures. @) There are thousands of kinds of bacteria, Most of them are harmless to human beings, but some cause diseases such es tuberculosis end pneumonia. (@) Viruses are also microscopie organisms, but viruses live in the cell of other living things. By themselves, they are reproduce, but inside af can multiply hundreds of times. @) Viruses caune many disenses, They infecr human beings with such illnesses as influenza, the common. cold, measles, and AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). (6) Viruses are tiny. The virus that causes AIDS is 230 million times smaller than the period atthe end of, this sentence. Some viral infections are difficult ot impossible to treat. Exercise 7, p. 104. i53} 42 21 32 aa @1 Exercise 8, p. 105. 2. boy's 3. boys? 4 children’s 3. chile’s 1 6 Sally's Bess's/Bess! today's ‘month's Jackand Larry's Exercise 9, p. 105. 3. My uncle is my father’s brother 4 Thave four aunts. All of my aunts’ homes are within walking distance of my mothar's aparmnans. 5. Bstedan'y aune’s oldest son is @ violinist. 6. Btls wife ea factory worker. 7. walked into my boss's oss office. 8. Thorrowed the secretary's pen till out the application form. 0. Five astronauts were aboard the space shure, The astronauts" safe return to earth Wasa Welcome fight to milions of television viewers. 10, is the people's right to know what the city is ‘going to:do about the housing problem, Chapter 7 11, Quite a few diplomats are assigned t0 our city. Almost all ofthe diplomats® children arrend & special school. 12. A diplomat's work invariably involves numerous. meetings. Exercise 10, p. 106. 2. Psychologists have developed many diferent kinds oftests. A "personality test” is use 10 evaluate an individual's personal characteristic, such as friendliness or trustworthiness 3. Many mythological stories el of hero encounters with giants or dangerous animals. In fone story, the hero's encounter with a dragon saves avillage from destruction 4. Children’s play is en important par of thei ives. Te teaches them about their environment while they are having fun, For instance, they can learn that boats float and can practice ways to make boats move across water. Toys are not limited to children Adults have their own toys, such as pleasure boats, and children have theirs, such os miniature boats. Adults’ toys are usually much more expensive than children's toys. Exercise 11, p. 106. 1. computer error computer sereen computer skills 2. airplane passenger aixplane pilot airplane ticket Exercise 12, p. 107. 2, flowers... flower 3. beans... bean 4. babies... baby 5. children «child 6. salads... salad 1. 8 9. 10. mosquitoes/mosquites vorhour ... wo hours ten years old... ten-year-old three-letter... three letters mosquito Exercise 14, p. 108. 1. taxi, drivers 5. 2. drivers, taxis 3. office, managers 4. managers, offices planes, seats 6. airplane, seats 7. schools, activities 8. school, activities Exercise 15, p. 108. L abe 2 aod Exercise 16, p. 109. 2, Jewelry (NC) 9, mountains ¢C) rings (©) fields (C) bracelets (©) lakes (©) necklace (C) scenery (NC) ANSWER KEY 477 4. Gold (NC) 6. car (C) iron (NC) engine (C) metals (C) furniture (NC) refrigerator (C) 5. iron (C) junk (NC) Exercise 17, p 111. trees, bushes, gras, dirt, flowers 4 sare somes 5. words, voeabulary 6. glasses, water 7. Windows, glass 6. lasses, eyesight 9. time, homework, assignments 10. times, time 11, smoke, dust, monoxide, substances, pollution 12, Hiterauue, novels, poetry essays, poets, Poems cone, weather 14, happiness, patience, rewards 15. stars, grains, sand 16. (no change) Exercise 19, p. 112. symphonies, music |. trucks trafic . computers, equipment problems, homework vocabulary, definitions this information . advice progress Exercise 20, p. 113. 1. Tom uses the because Ne and Anna are talking about the same specific cat. 2, ‘Tom uses a because Anna doesn't know the cat he's talking about. The speaker and listener are not thinking of the same specific cat. 3. ‘Tom and Anna are talking about any and all cats in general, Exercise 21, p. 115. 4. OTennis 15. @ Grammar A 16. A 5 An 17. @ Bnglish 7. OGold 18. O Air BA 19. @ Fruit 9. © Health 20. An 10. An 21. Olron ILA 22. An 12. OWaeor ak 13, O Knowledge 24. © Basketball 14. O Homework 478 ANSWER KEY Exercise 22, p. 116. 11 an ia Crs 12. some 18. some ha 13. an 19. Some 8. some 14. some 20. some 9. some 15a ai. an 10. some 16. some 22, some Exercise 23, p. 117. a) 4a 2 an 5 an 3.0 oa Exercise 25, p. 117. (Ob, look at the moon! e's beautiful toni 2, Toews catand a bra outside my window The ca was tying to catch the bird, but it didn't succeed. ‘The bird few away. 3. Birds havo wings. Many incoct have wings too. 4. We al look for happiness. 5. Thave a book. Exercise 26, p. 118. aw 4 the 5. B:the Exercise 27, p. 119. 40 9. the 3. 10. an 6. OHae...0 LL the. .the 7. The an. 2 0...0 Exercise 28, p. 120. the OfJewelry...0...0 © Beings... the e The The Chopter 7 Exercise 29, p. 120, 1 6. The Mea ha a 8. the 13. che 9. an 14. the 10. the 5a Exercise 31, p. 121. Deleted wwordsexpressons: ®. t00 much, 18, both 19. several 23, too meny 25. afew 17. acouple of 27. anumber of Exercise 32, p. 123. Deleced wordsexpressons 6. too many 17. 190 much 7. afew 20. alle 9, anumber of 22, a great deal of Exercise 33, p. 123. 3. much 10, much 4. many letters I is. much 5. is... much 12, much 6. much 13, many patients 7. many sides 14. mony eeth 8, much 15. isn’crmuch, 9. many Exercise 34, p, 124. . stamps, rice, stuf, things 3. Gracy equip 4. ©, loaves of bread, ©, jars othoney 5. novels, 0, poems, 6. orange juice ight bulbs, hardware, computer software 7, sleeps information, fact, help 8. syomens movies seenes; 9. shirts, 8, pens, O 10. patience, wealth, @, © 11. money, advice, time, © 12, ideas, theories, hypotheses, O Exercisa 36, p. 125. La 2b Chapter 7 Exercise 37, p, 126, 3. A litle 7. afew 4. (very little alte 5. afew 9, (very) little 6. (very) few Exercive 38, p. 127. (rer) few 2 few... a few afew (ery) few. (very) hile alle stile... ede 35 a 8. 6 7. 8. ise 39, p. 128. 3a Exercise 41, p. 128. 1. country 3. country... country 2. countries 4. countries Exercise 42, p. 129, 2. girls 7, student 3, children 8, students 4, child 9. student 5. member 10. students 6. memisers| Exercise 43, p. 129. . The teacher gave each student / each of the students a test paper. (io change) Spain ig one of the counteies T want to visit. Every piece of furniture / AM the furniture / A of the furniture in that room is made of wood. 7. One of the machines / One of the pieces of equipment / One piece of equipment / Some of the equipment in our office is broken. 8. Tgave « present to each woman / cach of the ‘women / all of the women in the room, ‘One of my favorite places in the world isan island in the Caribbean Sea, 10. (wo chamge) 11, It’s impossible for one human being to know every Jangwage in the world. 12, Tfound each of the errors / each error in this 9. Exercise 44, p. 130. 3.0 1. of 11, of 4 of 2a 12, of 5, of 9. of 13. of 6. of 10. of 14. of ANSWER KEY 479 Exercise 45, p. 131. | Exereise 4, p. 137. 3.0...0 6 of 90 12 0f 1. me 4 her 4. of, 7.0 1. of 13. of 2, me 5. me 5. of Bof 10 jo him Exercise 50) p. 134. Exercise 5, p. 137. |. That book contains many different kinds of 2. She 8.1 stories and articles 3. her. .her 9 me 2. In my country, there are a lot of schools. 4. Her 10. me 43. She is always willing to help her friends in every 5. She. her... her 1h my possible way. 6. her 12, mine 4, In the past, horses were the principal means of 7. She. ..her rranepartation, 9. He succeeded In creating one ofthe best armies in Exercise 6, p. 198. the world, (2. mine «yours 6, There isa lot of equipment in the research 3. thelr... hers... his laboratory, but undergraduates are not allowed to | 4, Our... our... ours... theirs use it, | 7, Thave « five-your-old daughter and a three-year | Exxcreise 8, p» 138. ota son. 2. its 8, Most of the people in my apartment buildingare | 3. fts.,.tes...1ts friendly 9. Everyone secks happiness in lie. Exercise 9, p. 139. 10. Writing compositions is very bard for me. Te. lives spears. its 8. it. tosses 11, Almost all of the students / Almost all atudents/ | toiches ig Touallows i's. them ‘Most (of the) students in my class are from Asi 12, It’s difficult for me to understand English when. people use « lot of slang, Exercise 10, p. 139. Chapter 8: Pronouns Exercise 1, p. 135. 1. My fiends and I ordered Indian food st the restaurant, [vast very hungry, but Late most oft. 2, When we were in school my sister and T used to play tennis after schoo! every day. 4, Ifyou want to pass your exams, you hed bettor stu very hard for them. ‘hippopotamus spends mast of eine inthe ey 5. After work, Mr, Gray asked to speak to Mona end | 3+ (AUD students in Biology 101 have to spend three ‘me about the company’s new policies. He explained | hours per week in the laboratory where they do ‘diosa to'us ad waked for Oa opicoc various experiments by following the directions in 0. My friends asked to borrow my car because thetrs their Ieb menval ie Ba eeeage ac SI 4. Citizens have two primary responsibilities. They should vote in all elections and they should serve mine ... ite Ge has) 4. a willingly on juries. 2 they ther monks Exercise 13, p. 141. eres en oe Sr genes cea, $s, ilar oe 5 ee é ie wo 4 thm Geena eee She... She cat i. Yuri Exercise 14, p. 141. a 1 Paneseh il stages = a eee a 400 ANsweR KEY Chapter 8 Exercise 15, p. 142, Exercise 23, p. 147. 2. it..-consists 6 Tewas 3. people in general 8. people in general 3.1 7. Theyare...their...them 4, Alex 9. the orchestra they 8. is 5. people in general 10. ‘They = airline companys 5. They | 6. Sonya you = people in general 7. poople in general Exercise 17, p. 14d, 2. herself ©. yourself Exercise 25, p. 148. 3. himself 7 yourselves Picture B 4 themselves 8, hlmselMherselfoneself 2! Picture A 5. ourselves | relse 26, p. 149, seca 1 eee Fae pena vases | Another the other 6. Other 3. themselves 5 et 3. The other 7. The other 4. myself 9. yourself. himself i 5. themselves myself. ourselves Se een 6. yourself thomasives | Exercise 27, p. 149. Exercise 19, p. 145. (1. Helen 3. Susie's 2 enjoy hime 2 Mai 4. Thunday 3. proud of yourselves be yommelt | Exercise 28, p. 150. 5: killed himselt Ee tsar 6. entertained thomealvee gee ES 7. introduced myself aiser 8. feeling sorry for yourself Ee 9, talking to yourself a mes 10. laugh at ourselves Se caniee 11. promised herself amet. 2 Oe 12) angry at himaslt Seana 10. Another... Others .. other Exercise 20, p. 146. 11. the other 1. yourself 4. himself 12. the others 2 myself 5. themselves 13. another 3. ouresives 6. herselt 14, another Exercise 21, p. 146. Exercise 30, p. 151. . . reise 30, p. 151. 1. 1 Nereatures birds... they 1, another 4, the other 2 “wings... These... their 2. the other 5. Others 3 “sh. wings «flippers... | 3) the others ahaa 4 cater egge and $ water e8g Exercise 3p 151. 6. lays «eB returns ¥ 7 He covers... his... it hatches 2F a7 8 takes. weeks this. doesn’t 9. -20es ... himself... . offspring Exercise 32, p. 152. 0. + They «need 2. Another... other 53. each other 4. the other you = Mr. Cook 5. other. ther T= Mr. Cook...He = car | 6. other ie~ cor 7. others «others «others they = people in general... you = people in 8. each other ... each other... each other... other general... you~ people in general 9. other Mas: One = people in = peoplein | 10. other general 11, another ‘Chapter & ANSWER KEY 481 Exercise 34, p. 154. Le doa 2b ab 5b Exercise 35, p. 154. 2. My cousin ad her husband moved to another city because they don’t lke cold weather. 3. [like to travel because Hike to learn about other countries and customs. 4. Collecting samp is one of my hobbies. 3. Teame here three and a half months ago. 1 think 1 hhave made good progeece in English. ‘6. When Tost my passport had to apply for another 7. When I got to class all ofthe other students were already in thee seats, '8. English has borrowed quite afew words tom other langoages. 9. There are many students ftom different countries in this lacs. 10. Thousands of athletes take part in the Olympics, 11, Education is one of the most important aspects of life. Knowledge about many different things allows clive Falla Hives 12, Allofthe students’ names were on the Tist. 13, Tlive ina two-room apartment. Tes too smal for ny family. 14. Many people prefer olive in small owns. ‘Their attachment to their communities prevents them fcom moving from pace to place in carch of work, 15. Today's news is just as bad as yesterday’s news. 16. Almost all of the students in our class speak English well 17. "The teacher gave us several homework assignments / some homework to hand in next Tuesday 18, In today’s world, women work as doetors, pilots, archeologists, and many other things. Both my mother and father are teachers. 19. Every employee in our company respects Mr. Ward. 20. A child needs to learn how to get along with other people, haw to spend his or her time wisely, and how te dapend on himealf or hora, om Children need to learn how to get along with ‘other people, how to spend their time wisely, and how to depend on themselves. Chapter 9: Modats, Part 1 Exercise 1, p. 157. 2.4, She can see i. 5. Can you ass the rice, please? 6. Can you see it? 7. They ean’t go there. 8. They aren’t able to pay their rent. 482 ANSWER KEY Exercise 2, p. 158. 1. 1 4. you 6 you 2. you 5.1 7. you 31 Exercise 4, p. 160. 1B 2A Exercise 5, p.160. 2. a. Would you mind speaking with John? ', Would you mind ifT spoke with John? 3. a Would you mind if7 turned on the air conditioner? », Would you mind turning on the sit conditioner? Exercise 6, p. 161. 2. iT stayed 3. if T opened / opening 4. if asked 3. if Tsmoked ing ‘changed / changing. Exercise 7, p. 1b 4 2b 5. 3.0 Exercise 9, p. 162. Sample ansoers: 2. you give usa litle more time 3. Tgeta ride 4. ropcheduling /if I reschedule /ifwe rerchedule 5. you take a look 6. ifwe moved Exercise 12, p. 163. La 2» 3a Exercise 14, p. 165. Sentences 2 and 3. Exercise 15, p. 105. 2. must not 6. don't have to 3. don't have to 7. don't have to AL doesn’t have to 8. doesn't have to 5. must not Exercise 17, p. 166. 1. must 4. must 2. don't have to 5. don’t have to 3. must not 6. must not Exercise 18, p. 166. Advice possiblities: 1,2, 45. [ote: Item 6 is not advisable unless his cousin is dentist.) CHAPTER 9 Exercise 22, p. 168. 1b Boa 5b 2b 4a oa Exercise 23, p. 169. .-musthave 10 2 fv elute ti pefereed beau the situation is not urgent or formal) thould should (ato posible: have t/must) should om musthave to (it's @ requirement ofthe schoo!) 8. mates to 9. shouta must Exercise 24, p, 169. 3. yb ab Exercise 25, p. 170. sim Exercise 26, p. 170. 3a 4 ab Exercise 27, p. 171. Sample answer ‘He shouldn't have let the door (to is house) open. 3: You should have gone (tothe meeting). 3. She should have seen a doctor. 44. He should have ead the contract (more) thoroughly Exercise 28, p. 171. Possible anneors: 1, T should have worn @ coat. 2. should have returned his call. 3, [shouldn't have opened the window. 4 should have gone to the grocery store. 5. Ishouldn't have bought her candy. 6. He should have married her. 7. He shouldn't have married her. 8, Ishould have gone out. 9. Tshouldn’t have lent her my cer. 10. should have set my alarm clock, Exercise 29, p. 172. Sample anneors: 1, Kazu should have talked with Julie frst. He shouldn't have accepted the job immediately. He should have thought about the offer before accepting. He should have known Julie would be upset. 2, Donna shouldn't have lent Hugo nearly all of her savings. Hugo shouldn't have spent her money s0 carelessly. Donna shouldn't have trusted Hugo. Chapter 9 . We're not supposed ro open that door. 5. Ihave a meeting at seven tonight. 1am supposed to be there a litle carly to ditcust the agends, Tm supposed to beat the meeting. Tsuppose Tu beter go. 9. Where have you been? You were supposed to be here an hour ago! Exercise 30, p. 172. 2. 3 Exercise 31, p. 173. Sample answers: 1, You're supposed to contact the police / fill our an. accident report / call your insurance company. 2, You're supposed to put on your seat belt. 3. They are supposed to exercise. ‘They are not supposed to eat unhealthy foods. 4, You're supposed to pull over (onto the shoulder). 5-8. (Anaeers weit vary.) Exercise 32, p. 174, a 3.8 5b Qa 4b Ga Exercise 35, p. 175. 1 yes 2. yes (plan not completed) 3. no 4. yea (plan not completed) 5. no 6, yes (plan not completed) Exercise 36, p. 176. 1. Thad planned to stay home . ‘as intending to stay home » 2. Thhad planned to surprise you .-.- Iwas intending to surprise you. 3. Thhad planned to reply .. Twas Intending to reply « Exercise 37, p. 176. Sample answers: 1, Toverslept 2. I got lost Thad to work Leouldn’e get time off 5. we decided they wouldn’t know anyone 6. Thad the wrong date sve missed i Exercise 40, p. 178. Roberto’s ANSWER KEY 483 enapter 10: modats, Part 2 Exercise 1, p. 180, 1b Ze 3a Exercise 2, p. 182. Possible ansees: ‘must have the wrong number. ‘may/might/could be at meeting. ‘may/mightleould fit Jimmy. ‘must miss them very much. Exercise 5, p. 182. 1. 50% sure 3, 99% sure 2, 95% wure 4, 100% eure Exercise 6, p. 183. 1. Rob 2. Linda and Hamid 3. Lucy Exercise 7, p. 183. Sample ansoers: 2. de home 4, Tike nuts 3. be thirsty 5. have many friends Exercise 9, p. 184. |. may be 7. enny bo 2 cane be 8. couldn't be 3. don’t run 9. could be 4. could be 10. might be 5. must be M1. PUlgo 6. might be 12's Exercise 11, p. 185, 1. might have left 2. couldn't have left 3, must have left Bxorcise 12, p. 186. 2. couldn't have been 3, must have been 4 must not have gotten 5. mayimight/could have gorten Exercise 15, p. 187. Sample anscers: 2, It may have been David because he met with his girlfiend’s parents two nights ogo. 3. Ir must have been Dylan because he took a diamond ring with him. 4, Ie-couldn’t have been Dick because he is going to wait to got married until he has a better job. 5. It must not have been Doug because he isn’t sure if he's ready for marrage. 484° ANSWER KEY Exercise 14, p. 187. Sample answars: 1. She (Laika) must have felt scared. He (Yuri) may have fel excited 2, Temust have been eause by the Sreworks. 4. Temight have been a moute. Keeouldn’t have beon a burglar. Exercise 16, p. 188. ‘must not tke suet have been rust have been ‘must noe speak must be must have hurt ‘must mean -must have been Exercise 17, p. 188. 1. 50% 4. 90% 2, 100% 5, 50% 3. 50% Exercise 18, p. 189. 1, Ned 2, Marco 3, Linda Exercise 19, p. 189. 4 Shoutoughe ot 5. should/ought 10 6. will 7. must 8. should/ought torwill 9. should/ought coil, 10. must be 11, should have/ought to have 12, must have Exercise 20, p. 190. 4. Beth 1. Mask 5. Ron 12, my neighbor 6 Stacy 13, Carol 7. Barb 14, Janet 8. erat 15. Stephanie 9. acat 16. Bob 10, mouse 17. Andre Exercise 21, p. 192. |. should ask shoulda’e ask ‘may have upset should wy shouldn't have stayed “4 beter have could have told ‘must have known ‘Chapter 10 Exercise 23, p. 193. rachuamaa art 2. no 4. yes Exercise 24, p. 193. 3. must be burning 4. may/mighveoutd be taking .. be talking 5. must be playing 6, mayfmighvcould be staying ... may/might/eould be staying 71. should be smidying/ought t be studying 8, must be joking 9. may/might/could have been joking 10, must have been joking mayfmignuicouta Exercise 26, p. 195. 2. muse be waiting 3. shouldn't nave left 4. might have borrowed ‘5, must have been watching ... must have forgotten 6. may have been attending (alo possible: may have attended) 7. muse have left 8. might be traveling 9, must not have been expecting 10. must have been daydreaming ... should have been. paying . .. shouldn't have been staring Exercise 29, p. 197. 2D 6a 10.» Ba Tb Ib ae ac mb Bb oa Exercise 30, p. 198. aa Exercise 31, p. 199. 1. con 5. Can't 2. can't Tan 3. can 8. can’t 4. can 9. can't 5. can’t 10. can Exercise 33, p. 200, 1. a group of four-year-olds 2, a college class of (ewenty-five) students in their late teens and carly ewenties 3. How many of you can dance? How many of you can sing? How many of you can draw? 4. all 5. Fewer hands were raised in the second group (about 113 forthe first question; fewer for the next ‘question; two for the last question). Chapter 10 6. When children ere young, they generally huve the feeling that they can do anything. As they grow older; they become more cautious because they don’t want to look foolish, especially around their peers, Exercise 34, p. 200. ‘The sentences have the same meaning. Exercise 35, p. 200. 2. would give 3, sed to be 4. used to be ... would start 5. would take 6. used to live... would go... would wake ... would hike... would see 7. used to be... would get... would spend . .. would find ... would gather (Note: The directions ask you to use would for repeated actions in the past; bt in general wsed 10 is also correct for repeated actions in the past.] Exercise 39, p. 202 Correct sentences: 3,4, 5, 6 Exercise 40, p. 203. 1. will you be able to get 2. are going to have to take 3, am not going to be able to attend Exercise 41, p. 203. hhave to be able to ‘must not have been able sould mther not have eo should not have t0 Exercise 43, p. 207. 2, could / would you hand (can / will you hand) 3. don’t /won't have to go 4. ean already say / i already able to say 5, must/ have to attend 6. hhad 10 wait 7. could / might go 8, must nor have seen 9. ean’t/ couldn't / must not be belong (must belong) cean'c// must not / may nor go shouldn't have laughed could / might/ may be may / might / could Exercise 44, p. 208. La 2b 3 ab sae ANSWER KEY 485 Exercise 45, p. 208. Ifyou have a cat, you can travel around the United ‘Sates. 2. During class the students must sit quietly. 3. When you send for the brochure, you should include a self-addressed, stamped envelope. 4. A film director must have control over every aspect of a movie. ‘5. When I was a child, I could climb to the roof of my hhouse and see all the other houses and streets. ©, Weneed to reschedule, I won’t be able to see you at the time we scheduled for tomorrow . broke may leg in a soccer game three months ago. Would / Could / Will you pleats lp me with this? . Many students would rather study on their own than go to classes. 10. We are supposed to bring our books to class every day. 11, ‘You can have a very good time asa tourist in my country. My country hae many different climate 90 you had better plan ahead before you come. 12, When you vista big city in my country, you must pay attention to your wallet when you are in a crovided place because a thief may / might / could try to steal it Chapter 11: The Passive Exercise 1, p. 211. 1A 4B 2A 3A 3B & Gerammaticaly incorrect) Exercise 2, p. 212. 3A aA be 5p oA oP 10.8 Exercise 3, p. 212. 2, is being opened 3. has been opened 4. was opened 5. was being opened 6. had been opened 7 8 9. sill be opened . is going to be opened . sll have been opened 10, Was... . opened AL, Will be opened 12. Has... been opened Exercise 4, p. 213. 2, Customers are served by waitresses and waiters. 3. ‘The leseon in going to be explained by the teacher. 4. The farmer’s wagon was being pulled by two horses. 5. Yoko wil be invited tothe party by Toshi 66. ‘That report is being prepared by Ales. 406 ANSWER KEY ‘The book had been retumed to the library by Kathy, . Several public buildings have been designed by Miriam, ). Twwor't be fooled by his tricks, That note wasn’t written by me, Was it written by Jim? 11, Ts that course taught by Prof. Shapiro? No, It Isn't taught by him. 12, Those papers haven’t been signed by Mrs. Andrews yet. Have they been signed by Mr. Andrews yer? 13, Anwar gave the speech. 14. The teaching assistant is going to correct our assignments, 15, Did Thomas Rison invent the electric light bull? 16. Most drivers don’t obey the speed limit on Highway 5, 17, Hias the building manager informed you of the rent increase? Exercise 5, p. 213. 3. (wo change) 4. ‘Thar theory was developed by Dr. Ikeda, 5. The small fishing village was destroyed by a hurricane (Gv0 change) (10 change) After clas, the board is always erased by one of the students, 9. (vo change) 10. Gro change) 11 vo change) 12, ‘The dispute fs going to be setted by a special 13, Was the thief caught by the police? 14. Gro change) Exercise 8, p. 215. RearlylWriving Marorials ‘The chief writing material of ancient times was papyrus. It wasused in Egypt, Greece, and other ‘Mediterranean lands. Parchment, enother writing ‘materiel that was widely used in ancient times, sas made from the skine of animals auch as sheep and gont ‘the halr had been removed, the skins were stretched and rubbed smooth to make a writing surface. Paper, the ‘main writing material today, yas invented by the Chinese. Ink has been used for writing and drawing throughout | history. No one knows when the first ink wns developed. | The ancient Egyptians and Chinese made ink from various natural substances, such as berries, soot, and tree bark, Through the centuries, thousands of different formulas have been developed for ink. Most ink today is made from synthetic chemicals. 1, Papyrus and parchment were used for writing 2. Parchment wae made from the skine of anna 8s sheep and goats. 3. ‘The hnir was removed, and the skins were stretched and rubbed smooth, uch Chapter 11