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Engineering Standard

Geotechnical

ESC 410

Engineering Standard
EARTHWORKS AND FORMATION

Version 2.0

Issued July 2010

Owner: Principal Engineer Geotechnical

Approved by: John Stapleton Authorised by: Jee Choudhury


A/Principal Engineer Principal Engineer
Technology & Standards

Disclaimer
This document was prepared for use on the RailCorp Network only.
RailCorp makes no warranties, express or implied, that compliance with the contents of this document shall be
sufficient to ensure safe systems or work or operation. It is the document users sole responsibility to ensure that the
copy of the document it is viewing is the current version of the document as in use by RailCorp.
RailCorp accepts no liability whatsoever in relation to the use of this document by any party, and RailCorp excludes
any liability which arises in any manner by the use of this document.
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The information in this document is protected by Copyright and no part of this document may be reproduced, altered,
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RailCorp Engineering Standard Geotechnical
Earthworks and Formation ESC 410

Document control
Revision Date of Approval Summary of change
2.0 July, 2010 Changes detailed in Summary table below
1.2 December, 2009 Change of format for front page, change history and table of
contents; Minor editing and formatting throughout
1.1 October, 2007 New section 11 on ground anchors to be consistent with ESC 350.
1.0 September, 2006 First issue as a RailCorp document. Replaces C 1100, TS 3421, TS
3422

Summary of changes from previous version


Section Summary of change
Document Version control updated
Control
3 Additional definitions included
4 Old section 4 Width of property deleted; new Section 4 with additional requirements for
design, assessment and documentation including design flood level and requirements for
multiple tracks
5 New Section on design flood level
6 Clarification of requirements for double vs multiple tracks
7 Minor changes to design requirements for cuttings
8 More detailed requirements for embankments including for sampling & testing; drainage
blanket; embankment profile and rock facing of embankments
9 Additional design requirements for earthworks near structures
10 New Section on tolerances for earthworks
11 Minor changes to design requirements for capping; update reference to TMC 304 to SPC 301
16 New Section on repair and overhaul of track formation
Appendix 1 Title changed for clarity; note added re minimum dimension from edge of cutting face to top
drain
Appendix 2 Title changed for clarity; note added re minimum dimension from edge of cutting face to top
drain

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RailCorp Engineering Standard Geotechnical
Earthworks and Formation ESC 410

Contents
1 Purpose, Scope and Application ............................................................................................................ 4
2 References ................................................................................................................................................ 4
2.1 Australian and International Standards ......................................................................................... 4
2.2 RailCorp Documents ..................................................................................................................... 4
2.3 Other References .......................................................................................................................... 4
3 Definitions ................................................................................................................................................. 4
4 Design Requirements .............................................................................................................................. 6
4.1 General .......................................................................................................................................... 6
4.2 Design investigation ...................................................................................................................... 6
4.3 Design flood level .......................................................................................................................... 6
4.4 Formation....................................................................................................................................... 7
4.5 Documentation .............................................................................................................................. 7
5 Cuttings ..................................................................................................................................................... 7
5.1 Excavation ..................................................................................................................................... 7
5.2 Batter Slopes ................................................................................................................................. 8
6 Embankments ........................................................................................................................................... 8
6.1 Embankment Material.................................................................................................................... 8
6.2 Compaction Standards .................................................................................................................. 9
6.3 Sampling and Testing.................................................................................................................... 9
6.4 Drainage Blanket ........................................................................................................................... 9
6.5 Embankment Profile ...................................................................................................................... 9
6.6 Rock Facing of Embankments....................................................................................................... 9
7 Capping Layer........................................................................................................................................... 9
8 Earthworks near Structures .................................................................................................................. 10
8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................ 10
8.2 Construction................................................................................................................................. 10
8.3 Excavation ................................................................................................................................... 11
9 Tolerances for Earthworks .................................................................................................................... 11
9.1 Vertical Tolerances...................................................................................................................... 11
9.2 Horizontal Tolerances.................................................................................................................. 12
10 Drainage .................................................................................................................................................. 12
11 Ground Anchors ..................................................................................................................................... 12
12 Train Examination Areas ....................................................................................................................... 12
13 Walkways ................................................................................................................................................ 13
14 Rehabilitation of Formation................................................................................................................... 13
Appendix 1 Single Track Cross Section ...................................................................................................... 14
Appendix 2 Double Track Cross Section..................................................................................................... 15
Appendix 3 Shoulder Distance ..................................................................................................................... 16

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RailCorp Engineering Standard Geotechnical
Earthworks and Formation ESC 410

1 Purpose, Scope and Application


This Standard establishes design requirements and acceptance standards for embankments,
cuttings and earthworks capping layer.

It is applicable to all RailCorp mainline and siding tracks.

2 References
2.1 Australian and International Standards
AS 1289 Methods of testing soils for engineering purposes

AS 4678 Earth retaining structures

2.2 RailCorp Documents


ESC 215 Transit Space

ESC 350 Retaining Walls and Platforms

ESC 420 Track Drainage

SPC 301 Structures Construction

SPC 411 Earthworks Materials

2.3 Other References


Nil

3 Definitions
Borrow Pit: Excavation made for the procurement of material
Capping Layer: Layer of compacted material that provides a sealing layer to the
earthworks.
CBR: Soaked California Bearing Ratio, determined on a compacted sample.
Cohesionless Soil: Material consisting mostly of sand and gravel mixture, generally with
less than 5% fines (i.e., particles finer than 75 m diameter).
Cohesive Soil: Material consisting mostly of silt and clay and has a well-defined
moisture-density relationship when tested in accordance with AS
1289.5.1.1 or AS 1289.5.2.1.
Collapsible Soil: Soil that may suffer a significant decrease in volume under load or
when it becomes nearly saturated, which may have existed in this
metastable state for a long time
Compaction: The process whereby the density of soil is increased by mechanical
means. This typically involves, rolling, impact or vibration, or a
combination of these processes.
Contaminated Material: Material that may contain toxic substances or soluble compounds
harmful to environment, water supply or agriculture.
Cutting: An earth or rock excavation within the works site that is made below an
existing surface to create the railway formation.
Dispersive soil: Soil that has the ability to pass rapidly into suspension in the presence
of water
Earthworks: The activities covered by this specification

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RailCorp Engineering Standard Geotechnical
Earthworks and Formation ESC 410

Earthworks Level: Level at the centre of the earthworks prior to placing of the capping
layer.
Embankment: An earth or rock fill structure above an existing and/or excavated
surface to create the rail track formation.
Expansive Soil: Soil that will suffer a high volume change when in contact with
water. Any increase or decrease in the moisture content of such soil,
would cause swelling or shrinkage, respectively. This type of soil is also
called Reactive Soil and Swelling Soil.
Formation: The earthworks structure including all Foundation, Structural Treatment
and Capping Layer, on which ballast is laid
Formation Level: Finished level at the centre of the formation preparatory to laying
ballast. It includes the required capping layer.
Formation Width: Width at formation level
Foundation Treatment: A special layer or treated zone at the base of a formation for the
purpose of reinforcing, strengthening or drainage.
General Fill: The zone below the structural zone of the embankment.
Geosynthetics: Prefabricated sheet made of polymeric materials which may be
permeable or non-permeable. This material may be used as filter-
drainage (if permeable) or foundation reinforcement. It includes
geotextile, geonet, geogrid and geocell.
Geotechnical Engineer: RailCorps Principal Geotechnical Engineer or a competent person with
delegated engineering authority for geotechnical design activities
relating to earthworks.
Rail Level: Theoretical level of the running surface of the rails. In the case of
superelevated track, it is the low rail.
Relative Compaction: For cohesive soils, the dry density ratio determined in accordance with
AS 1289.5.4.1, or the Hilf density ratio determined in accordance with
AS 1289.5.7.1.
For cohesionless soils, the density index determined in accordance
with AS 1289.5.6.1.
Relative Density: The field dry density expressed in terms of maximum/minimum
densities established by laboratory test (used for cohesionless soils).
The specific minimum value should be determined with the Earthworks
Specifications.
Right of Way: The strip of land over which railroads are built.
Rockfill: Fill compacted almost exclusively of fragments of broken rock. It
generally consists of a large portion of gravel, cobble, and larger sized
fragments, and may contain large open voids.
Shoulder Distance: Distance from the track centreline to the edge of the formation.
Soluble Soil: Soil containing perishable particles such as gypsum or rock salt.
Stockpile: Placement of material that has been selected, loaded, transported and
unloaded in a heap outside the confines of a borrow pit or of an
excavation that forms part of the works.
Structural Zone: The upper zone of the embankment. Its thickness varies from 500 mm
to 1000 mm, depending on the CBR of the general fill.
Tolerance: Range between the limits within which a dimension or position lies.
Top Soil: A natural surface soil that may contain organic matter.
Unsuitable Material: The material that occurs in the borrow site or below the foundation level
of embankment and is not considered as suitable due to its adverse

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RailCorp Engineering Standard Geotechnical
Earthworks and Formation ESC 410

characteristics as specified in Clause 8.

4 Design Requirements
4.1 General
Earthworks and formation design includes:

cuttings
embankments
capping layer.
New lines shall be constructed on a corridor wide enough to accommodate earthworks and
formation designed and constructed in accordance with the requirements in this document. The
corridor shall also accommodate associated drainage and access roads as detailed in relevant
RailCorp engineering standards.

4.2 Design investigation


Before any earthwork activity is undertaken, necessary assessment and investigation shall be
carried out to determine the nature, elements and extent of the work.

In the preliminary assessment, planning and design of earthworks, the following items shall be
considered:

Site investigation
Adjoining property
Preservation items
Rehabilitation
Drainage
Erosion and siltation
Sloping ground
Slope stability
Cuttings and trenches
Retaining walls
Problematic soils requiring special consideration including reactive (expansive) soils,
dispersive soils, collapsible soils, soluble soils, soft-compressible soils, and potential acid or
sulfate soils.
Compaction moisture content
Surcharging of slopes
Calculation of quantities
Geosynthetics (Geotextile, Geogrid, etc.)
Construction vibrations
Non-potable water to be used for soil compaction
Contamination

4.3 Design flood level


Where track is on a flood plain, the formation level shall be designed so that it is not overtopped in
a 1 in 100 year flood, subject to environmental impact assessment in accord with legislation and
assessment of the impact of potential flooding on earthworks and other structures.

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RailCorp Engineering Standard Geotechnical
Earthworks and Formation ESC 410

4.4 Formation
Formation is the earthworks structure including all foundation, structural treatment and capping
layer on which ballast is laid.

The formation for single track mainlines and single track sidings shall comply with the appropriate
dimensions shown in Appendix 1.

The formation for double track mainlines and double track sidings shall comply with the appropriate
dimensions shown in Appendix 2.

The formation for multiple track mainlines and multiple track sidings shall comply with the
appropriate dimensions shown in Appendix 2, subject to the requirement that the water from one
track shall not cross another track to get away. For example, if there are three tracks, there shall be
at least one subsurface centre drain.

Shoulder distances shall comply with Appendix 3.

Track centres shall be in accordance with ESC 215 Transit Space.

Where reduced shoulder distances exist due to physical constraints, an assessment is to be made
of the need for safety refuges, handhold devices and limited clearance signs. The requirements are
specified in ESC 350 Retaining Walls and Platforms.

4.5 Documentation
All activities of earthworks shall be documented. Appropriate documents should be prepared in the
following stages:

Investigation and planning;


Design and specification;
Construction.

5 Cuttings
Design of cuttings shall provide for excavation of material within the limits of the batters including
benching and terracing of cut batters; cleaning of batter surfaces; treatment of cutting floors; and
foundation treatment below the embankment. Cuttings in both soil and rock should provide a
stable, safe foundation for the structure.

Benching in cuttings will be provided in both soil and rock as necessary.

5.1 Excavation
Excavation shall be carried out to the lines, levels, dimensions and slopes shown on the Drawings.

The excavated faces shall be neatly trimmed and the top edges of the cuttings neatly rounded.

Under cutting of the slopes shall not be permitted under any circumstances.

Excavation shall be carried out in such a manner as to prevent erosion or slip; working faces shall
be limited to safe height and slopes, and surfaces shall be drained to avoid ponding and erosion.

Batters will generally require fattening at the ends of cuttings owing to the presence of less stable
material. In all cuttings, undulations in the general plane of the batter shall not be permitted.

Overhanging and loose or unstable materials likely to slip shall be cut back, removed or stabilised.

Rock cuttings and exposed surfaces shall be excavated so as to obtain smooth, uniformly trimmed
surface.

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RailCorp Engineering Standard Geotechnical
Earthworks and Formation ESC 410

Excavation at the base of cutting shall be finished at a level to suit the capping thickness, with
cross falls and cess drains provided.

Prior to placing formation materials and carrying any designed foundation treatment, the cutting
floor shall be tested and inspected by the Geotechnical Engineer.

5.2 Batter Slopes


Batter slopes in soil and rock cuttings in excess of 3 m high and closer than 6 m from the track
centreline, shall be determined on the advice of the Geotechnical Engineer.
Unless shown otherwise on the Drawings or as advised above, cutting slopes should be in
accordance with the following guidelines:
Material Slope
Horizontal Vertical
1 Sand 2 2.5 1.0
2 Clay, loose gravel 2.0 1.0
3 Sandy clay, boulder clay, compacted
1.75 1.0
gravely soil, talus
4 Highly jointed, weathered rock 1.5 1.0
5* Sound shale dipping sharply towards
1.0 1.0
railway formation, tight cemented gravel
6* Ordinary rock 1.0 1.0
7* Solid well bedded rock 0.25 1.0
* Maximum height without bench 7 m.

* Batter slopes in rocks shall be confirmed by the Geotechnical Engineer.

Slopes shown on the Drawings represent the estimated requirements for the expected types of
material and will be subject to re-determination on the basis of site inspection and investigation
during excavation. Where necessary, advice shall be obtained from the Geotechnical Engineer.

6 Embankments
6.1 Embankment Material
Embankment materials shall comply with Engineering Specification SPC 411 Earthworks Materials.

Embankments are earthfill or rockfill structures above an existing and/or excavated surface to
create the rail track formation.

The embankment shall consist of two zones of embankment material:


General Fill

Structural Zone.
General fill is the embankment below the structural zone.

The structural zone is the fill at the top of the embankment.

The thickness of the structural zone (H) is determined by the following relationship with the general
fill in the embankment:
for general fill with CBR* of 3 to 8%, H = 500 mm
for general fill with CBR* of 1 to 3%, H = 1000 mm.
* (Soaked California Bearing Ratio, Standard Compaction).

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RailCorp Engineering Standard Geotechnical
Earthworks and Formation ESC 410

Material for use in the structural zone shall comply with SPC 411.

6.2 Compaction Standards


To achieve a stable and durable embankment, the material shall be prepared and compacted as
specified below.

The Compaction standards shall be as follows:


Compaction A: - Cohesive soils - Not less than 100% maximum dry density as
determined by AS.1289 Tests 5.1.1 and 5.3.1 (Standard Compaction)
- Rock fill or cohesionless soils - No visible deflection of surface under 10
tonne vibratory rollers after 6 to 8 passes.
Compaction B: Not less than 95% maximum dry density as determined by AS.1289
Tests 5.1.1 and 5.3.1 (Standard Compaction).
Embankments shall be compacted to:

General Fill: Compaction B


Structural Zone: Compaction A

6.3 Sampling and Testing


After compaction of each layer, sampling locations will be selected for moisture content and relative
density tests.

Field (in-situ) density and laboratory tests shall be carried out in accordance with Australian
Standards. The test results must be representative of the tested layer at its full depth, width and
length.

Proof rolling shall be carried out on all layers to detect any possible soft or unstable pocket.

6.4 Drainage Blanket


Where specified or directed by the Geotechnical Engineer, a free draining filter layer consisting of
hard durable crushed rock, river gravel or slag which is called drainage blanket, shall be provided
under the embankment.

6.5 Embankment Profile


Embankment batter slopes up to a height of 3 meters, shall be 2:1 (horizontal: vertical). For higher
embankments, the batter slopes shall be determined by stability analysis taking into account of
materials properties, height, foundation conditions, static and dynamic loading, and potential
seepage forces. Advice shall be sought from the Geotechnical Engineer if there is any doubt
concerning the embankment stability.

The completed batter must be free of rills running down the face of batter. Any loose material on
the batter shall be promptly removed as the work progresses.

6.6 Rock Facing of Embankments


Where shown on the Drawings, embankment batters (including embankments at bridge structures)
shall be provided with a facing of clean, hard, durable rocks (Rip-rap) separated from the earth fill
embankment with a graded filter or geotextile sheet in accordance with specifications given by SPC
411. Rock facing shall be placed outside of the general embankment dimensions.

7 Capping Layer
Capping is a compacted layer from selected materials that provides seal to the earthwork
underneath. The capping layer shall be constructed in a single layer having a compacted thickness
of minimum 150 millimetres.

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Earthworks and Formation ESC 410

The material shall be spread in uniform horizontal layer so as to achieve the specified compacted
thickness for the full width of the capping layer. Capping is to be laid on subgrade with a minimum
CBR of 8%.

Capping material shall comply with Engineering Specification SPC 411 Earthworks Materials.

Compaction shall achieve a minimum dry density of 95 per cent Maximum Dry Density as
determined by AS 1289, Test 5.2.1.

The capping material shall be well mixed throughout the layer so that all voids are filled. The top of
the final layer shall be graded and trimmed, and material shall be added as necessary to produce
an even sealing layer.

8 Earthworks near Structures


8.1 General
For the purpose of this Clause, structures include bridge piers and abutments, wing walls, box
culverts, pipe culverts, headwalls, tunnels, retaining walls, platform walls, overhead wiring
structures, signal gantries and towers.

8.2 Construction
Care shall be exercised in constructing earthworks within 5m of structures to avoid damage to the
structures.

Non-vibratory compaction equipment shall be used within this distance and adjacent to the
structure as defined in the following table:

Structure Compaction Method


Bridge abutment and wing Hand held compaction equipment for full structure height for a
walls distance of 2/3 H from wall (H = overall height of structure)
Pipe Culverts Hand held compaction equipment for distance D from pipe to top
of pipe (D= diameter of pipe)
Box culverts & culvert wing Hand held compaction equipment for full structure height for a
walls & retaining wall distance 2/3 H from wall (H = overall height)
Compaction of earthworks near structures

Selected backfill shall be placed adjacent to structures in accordance to the following table. The
selected backfill shall consist of a granular material having a maximum dimension not exceeding 50
mm and a plasticity index, determined in accordance with AS 1289.3.3.1, neither less than 2 nor
more than 12. In the table, H = overall height of the structure.

Selected Backfill
Structure Type
Width Height
Bridge Abutments 2m H
Box Culverts, Precast Culverts H/3 H + 300 mm
Corrugated Steel Pipes and Arches 0.5 m H + 500 mm
Retaining Walls H/3 H
Select fill adjacent to structures

The fill shall be placed in horizontal layers with a compacted thickness between 100 mm and 150
mm.

Layers shall be placed simultaneously on both sides of box culverts to avoid differential loading.

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Earthworks and Formation ESC 410

Compaction shall start at the wall and proceed away from it.

The existing slope behind the structures shall be cut in the form of successive horizontal terraces,
each terrace being at least 1 meter in width and 600 mm in height.

In case of spill-through abutments, rocks shall not be dumped against the columns or retaining
walls but shall be built up evenly by hand placing around or against such structures.

In the case of framed structures, embankments at both ends of the structure shall be brought up
simultaneously and the difference between the levels of the embankments at the respective
abutments shall not exceed 500 mm unless otherwise specified in the Drawings or within the
specifications.

Adjacent to weep holes, free draining filter material encapsulated in a suitable geotextile fabric
should be placed, horizontally for at least 300 mm from, and vertically for 450 mm above the weep
- hole. Free draining material must be provided by broken stone or river gravel consisting of clean,
hard, durable particles graded from 50 mm to 10 mm such that:

the maximum particle dimension does not exceed 50 mm; and


no more than 5% by mass passes the 9.5 mm AS sieve.

8.3 Excavation
Care should also be exercised when excavating within 5m of structures (for example near
overhead wiring structures when benching into slopes for embankment widening or when
excavating for track reconditioning).

When excavating adjacent to structures, there is a risk that the footings may be undermined or the
structure destabilized, resulting in structural failure and potential collapse.

Excavations in the vicinity of structure footings are therefore not permitted unless documented
engineering advice and approval are obtained.

No excavation should be made within this 5m distance without prior analysis of structure stability
with respect to the effects of the excavation.

No excavation shall be made below the base of the footings of any structure (for example bridges,
retaining walls and station platform walls) without prior analysis of structure stability with respect to
the effects of the excavation.

The approval will be in the form of a certification by a competent geotechnical/structural engineer


with relevant engineering authority, based on the results of an appropriate geotechnical and/or
structural investigation.

9 Tolerances for Earthworks


Tolerances for different sections of earthworks shall comply with the following provisions:

9.1 Vertical Tolerances


9.1.1 In embankments
Top of the structural zone + 0 mm to 50 mm
Top of the general fill zone + 40 mm to 40 mm

9.1.2 In cuttings
Floor of cut (top of common earthworks): other than rock + 40 mm to 40 mm
Floor of cut (top of common earthworks): rock + 0 mm to 80 mm
Top of Structural Zone: other than rock + 0 mm to 50 mm

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Earthworks and Formation ESC 410

9.1.3 At transitions between cut and fill


Floor of cut to fill transition +0 to 50mm

9.1.4 Top of benches and berms


Top of benches and berms +50 to 50mm

9.1.5 Capping layer


The finished surface of the capping shall be within 25mm of the level shown on the drawings
and:
The algebraic difference of the deviations from the correct level for any two points
20 metres apart on the centreline shall not exceed 15mm.
The deviation from a three (3) metre straight edge laid on the surface parallel to the
centreline shall not exceed 10mm.

9.2 Horizontal Tolerances


Base at top of cuts and fills, widths of benches and berms shall not to be less than specified
dimensions. Maximum positive tolerance is 300 mm, unless approved by the Geotechnical
Engineer.

The width of the capping layer from the design centreline to the finished top of embankment slopes
or toe of batters in cuttings shall be not less than the dimensions required by Appendix 3.

When the capping layer is tested with a three (3) metre straight edge laid perpendicular to the
centre line the deviation from design profile shall not exceed 10mm concavity.

10 Drainage
Cess drains; sub-surface drains, top drains and interceptor drains shall be provided for cuttings and
are to comply with the requirements in ESC 420 Track Drainage.

11 Ground Anchors
Ground anchors shall have a design life of 100 years.

Ground anchors shall comply with the requirements of AS 4678 Earth-retaining structures and
Technical Specification S38 Permanent Rock Anchors in RailCorp Engineering Specification SPC
301 Structures Construction.

The design of ground anchors shall include mitigation against the effects of stray currents.

The designer shall specify requirements for testing. Test procedures shall comply with Technical
Specification S38.

The designer shall specify requirements for long term monitoring, if any.

Anchor heads shall be protected so as not to be an obstruction. They shall be recessed or


protected by a continuous smooth surface of shotcrete, concrete etc.

Ground anchors shall not extend under private property without the approval of the Chief Engineer
Civil.

12 Train Examination Areas


Where nominated, train examination areas are to be provided. The minimum requirement is to
cover these areas with a 50mm layer of 10mm single sized aggregate as shown in Appendices 1
and 2.

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Earthworks and Formation ESC 410

The train examination area is not to be assumed as available for road access purposes.

13 Walkways
Where nominated, walkways are to be provided for staff to walk along the track cess. The
minimum requirement is to cover walkways with a 50mm layer of 10mm single sized aggregate as
in Appendices 1 and 2.

14 Rehabilitation of Formation
In rehabilitating the formation, the following shall be taken into account when preparing the work
plan and design:

Investigation and assessment of ground condition;


Rectification of drainage deficiencies;
Removal and disposal of failed ballast to the formation level;
Removal and disposal of failed formation material;
Provision of Capping Material on the original formation;
Provision of trench (ballast filled) drains;
Repair/rectification of degraded, ineffective, blocked or sagging culverts.

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Earthworks and Formation ESC 410

Appendix 1 Single Track Cross Section

CL
Shoulder Distance Shoulder Distance

Rail Level
1.5 :1 1.5 :1
1000 min. Ballast Formation Level
1 in 30 1 in 30 Earthworks Level

1 in 10
Capping Layer
Batter Slope
Natural
Surface

EMBANKMENT
Where space permits,
increase this distance to
allow for mechanized
maintenance equipment.

1000 min
CL
Batter Slope

Shoulder Distance Shoulder Distance

Batter Slope

Top drain
1.5 :1 1.5 :1
1 in 30 Ballast 1 in 30

Capping Layer
Cess drain
ROCK Additional area to be used
EARTH
for drainage where grade in
cutting is less than 1 in 200
CUTTING or where additional drainage
is required.
CL

Shoulder Distance Shoulder Distance

1250
50 min.
Rail Level
1.5 :1 1 in 30
1.5 :1
1 in 30 Formation Level
Earthwork Level
1 in 30 1 in 30

Capping Layer

Typical section where shunters and Typical section where examinations


guards walkways are required. areas are specified.

SPECIAL WIDTH REQUIREMENTS

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Earthworks and Formation ESC 410

Appendix 2 Double Track Cross Section

Shoulder Distance Track Centres Shoulder Distance

1000 min. Rail Level


1.5 :1 1.5 :1
Ballast Formation
1 in
1 in 10 Earthworks Level

Natural Surface Capping Batter Slope

EMBANKMENT Where space permits,


increase this distance to
allow for mechanized
maintenance equipment.
1000 min.
Batter Slope

Shoulder Distance Track Centres Shoulder Distance

Batter Slope
1.5 1.5 :1
:1 Ballast 1 in 30 Top Drain

EARTH
ROCK Capping Layer
Cess Drain Additional area to be used
for drainage where grade in
CUTTING cutting is less than 1 in 200
or where additional drainage
is required.

Shoulder Distance

3 :1 3 :1
1.5 :1 1.5 :1

1 in 1 in 30 1 in 30
1 in 30
Capping Subsurface Drain
Surface Drain

CENTRE DRAIN

Shoulder

50 min.
1.5 :1
1 in 30
1 in 30

Capping

Typical section where shunters and


guards walkways are required.

SPECIAL WIDTH REQUIREMENTS

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Earthworks and Formation ESC 410

Appendix 3 Shoulder Distance

Shoulder distance
Plain track mm
Main line (Electrified or non-electrified) 4250
Siding (Electrified) 4250
Siding (non-electrified) 3000
Main line or siding with parallel access road (Electrified) 6200
Main line or siding with parallel access road (Non-electrified) 5500
Special Requirements
Shunters and guards parallel walkways 4250
Train Examination areas 5500
Train Examination areas with parallel access road 7750
Clear width of road from back of any structure 3000

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