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KTM SOLUTIONS, INC. Formal Report D06991A00000

KTM SOLUTIONS, INC.

Formal Report D06991A00000

User Documentation Issue Date:

May 15, 2007

Set up and using a RAM Pump

Summary:

KTM Solutions, Inc., on behalf of Hydromissions International, used technical oversight for the development of a low cost ram pump. A ram pump uses hydraulic ram pressure generated from suddenly closing an open valve in a piping system. Ram pump technology is not new. However, KTM Solutions assisted Hydromissions in the selection of materials and development of flow tables, valve settings, and results predictions associated with the assembly of a pump. The design goal - to design a pump that can be constructed from inexpensive modern materials easily purchased through common world wide outlets. Expected material cost of the pump is under $75.00. This report includes instructions for configuring the pump to function with a given stream flow and/or vertical drop from inlet to pump outlet. When properly configured, the pump will provide a minimum of 10 feet of lift for every 1 foot of inlet drop.

Prepared By:

Original Signature on File David Catron KTM SOLUTIONS, INC.

Prepared By:

Original Signature on File Paul Kumler KTM SOLUTIONS, INC.

Page 1 of 10

This Document contains Proprietary Information of KTM SOLUTIONS, INC. Disclosure to others, use or copying without express written authorization of KTM Solutions, Inc is strictly prohibited. ©2007 KTM SOLUTIONS, INC. Unpublished Copyright. All Rights Reserved. Uncontrolled when printed

KTM SOLUTIONS, INC. Formal Report D06991A00000

KTM SOLUTIONS, INC.

Formal Report D06991A00000

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

2

Abstract

3

Configurations

4

Assembling the Pump

5

Special notes

9

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This Document contains Proprietary Information of KTM SOLUTIONS, INC. Disclosure to others, use or copying without express written authorization of KTM Solutions, Inc is strictly prohibited. ©2007 KTM SOLUTIONS, INC. Unpublished Copyright. All Rights Reserved. Uncontrolled when printed

KTM SOLUTIONS, INC. Formal Report D06991A00000

KTM SOLUTIONS, INC.

Formal Report D06991A00000

Abstract

Clean water, a resource that many people take for granted in the US, is a rare commodity in many third world countries. Even water for irrigation purposes can be scarce. Without water, crops can not grow. In many cases, water is available but

not at the location where it can be used for raising crops and watering live stock. Hydromissions International requested that KTM assist in the development of a low

cost pump that can be built and configured in a third world country.

is an organization that develops and delivers low technology water equipment

specifically for use where electricity or other powered equipment is not available. A ram pump was chosen to fill this need.

Hydromissions

A ram pump uses hydraulic pressure developed when fluid flow is suddenly

interrupted. Ram pumps have been in existence for many years. However, with the development of PVC plastics and other modern materials, it is possible to construct a reliable pump using off the shelf hardware that can be obtained from any hardware store. The physics of a ram pump is very simple and the set up is forgiving. This document will provide the user with useful information for constructing and tuning

the pump. The set up instructions and tables are provided. The user will need to calculate the vertical drop between the pump inlet and the pump output nozzle.

For a user with the ability to calculate stream flow, calculations are provided to take advantage of the stream dynamics. However, a flowing stream is not required to run the pump provided the availability of a vertical drop between the pump inlet and outlet.

of a vertical drop between the pump inlet and outlet. Operational Ram Pump – Reedy River,

Operational Ram Pump – Reedy River, Greenville, South Carolina The photograph above depicts an operating ram pump. Although the inlet of the pump is located in a waterfall of a flowing stream, the stream flow is not required to

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This Document contains Proprietary Information of KTM SOLUTIONS, INC. Disclosure to others, use or copying without express written authorization of KTM Solutions, Inc is strictly prohibited. ©2007 KTM SOLUTIONS, INC. Unpublished Copyright. All Rights Reserved. Uncontrolled when printed

KTM SOLUTIONS, INC. Formal Report D06991A00000

KTM SOLUTIONS, INC.

Formal Report D06991A00000

run the pump. The actual inlet was positioned such that the water was taken from the pool that collected at the inlet. The pump was running only on the flow created by the vertical drop through the steel pipe.

Configurations

The ram pump is driven by the energy of the water passing through the pump. The following illustration provides a pump system schematic. Water enters the inlet of the pump at point 1. The water descends through the inlet pipe an elevation (z1) from point 1 to point 3. The pump (P), using ramp pressure will pump the water from point 3 to point 2 (an elevation of z2). If the pump is set up correctly, z2 will be at least 10 X z1. This means that a 4 foot vertical drop from point 1 to point 3 will result in a 40 foot rise from point 3 to point 2!

P 2 2 V 1 1 P 1 z 2 z 1 P L 3
P 2
2
V 1
1
P 1
z 2
z 1
P
L 3
Ram System Schematic

V 2

The following pictures depict the make up of a single ram pump configuration. The components of the pump are organized into four sub assemblies (shown in the picture on the left, below). Component 1 is the inlet check valve also called the clacker valve. Component 2 is the inflow manifold. Component 3 is the outflow check valve which prevents back flow from the water outlet as the water is raised to the output height. Component 4 is ballast (air chamber) which provides back pressure to assist in lifting the water to the desire output height. As the water enters the output tube and rises in altitude, the pressure due to the water column will increase. The right picture below shows a completed parts list (less the inlet and output tubes). Although not pictured, the inlet tube is a significant component. The inlet tube is crucial to developing the ram pressure.

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This Document contains Proprietary Information of KTM SOLUTIONS, INC. Disclosure to others, use or copying without express written authorization of KTM Solutions, Inc is strictly prohibited. ©2007 KTM SOLUTIONS, INC. Unpublished Copyright. All Rights Reserved. Uncontrolled when printed

KTM SOLUTIONS, INC. Formal Report D06991A00000

KTM SOLUTIONS, INC.

Formal Report D06991A00000

KTM SOLUTIONS, INC. Formal Report D06991A00000 Pump Configuration With the instructions shown in the picture above,

Pump Configuration

With the instructions shown in the picture above, the user can assemble the ram pump. The pump shown above uses has a one inch inlet. The output is a ¾ inch hose.

Assembling the Pump

1) Procure all materials as shown in the master parts list. You will also need to purchase 1 inch diameter steel schedule 40 pipe sufficient to obtain a total length (L – See Schematic) 4.5 X z1. In other words, if you are designing the pipe for a drop of 5 feet, you should purchase a minimum of 22.5 feet of pipe. It is acceptable to splice the pipe. 2) Assemble the sub assemblies for the ram pump using the pictures above. Note that part 24 is mounted inside the Inflow check. Also all PVC to PVC connections that are not threaded in the subassemblies must be primed and cemented together properly. To apply primer and cement first dry fit the PVC parts together and take mental note of how far down they slide together. Then apply the primer and glue to approximately the same spot. Allow for ample time to dry and cure. Leaks will degrade performance. 3) Calculate the spring tension in accordance with the chart (Pg.6) and sketch (Pg.8). Note the yellow blocks indicate a change in the type of spring that must occur in order for the Ram pump to work properly. Without it the system will not close correctly. Set the spring accordingly. 4) Take the four subassemblies and screw them together. DO NOT prime and cement these connections. This will allow for maintenance and adjustments.

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This Document contains Proprietary Information of KTM SOLUTIONS, INC. Disclosure to others, use or copying without express written authorization of KTM Solutions, Inc is strictly prohibited. ©2007 KTM SOLUTIONS, INC. Unpublished Copyright. All Rights Reserved. Uncontrolled when printed

KTM SOLUTIONS, INC. Formal Report D06991A00000     No Flow at inlet   If inlet

KTM SOLUTIONS, INC.

Formal Report D06991A00000

   

No Flow at inlet

 

If inlet flow can be measured - total spring compression and stroke (inches)

Vertical

                   

Drop

 

Pipe

Spring

#

STD Spring

14 GPM

16 GPM

18 GPM

20 GPM

22 GPM

24 GPM

           
 

Force

Parallel

Compression

Up to 12 gal/min, Use standard compression/stroke. (yellow cells, add one spring)

Length (L)

(lbs)

Springs

(min)

3

ft

13.5

1.02

1

0.82

0.91

0.94

0.97

1.01

1.05

1.10

3.5

ft

15.75

1.19

1

0.91

1.01

1.04

1.07

1.11

1.15

1.19

4

ft

18

1.36

1

1.00

1.10

1.13

1.16

0.72

0.75

0.77

4.5

ft

20.25

1.53

1

1.10

1.19

0.74

0.75

0.77

0.79

0.82

5

ft

22.5

1.70

1

1.19

0.77

0.78

0.80

0.82

0.84

0.86

5.5

ft

24.75

1.87

2

0.77

0.82

0.83

0.85

0.87

0.89

0.91

6

ft

27

2.04

2

0.82

0.86

0.88

0.89

0.91

0.93

0.96

6.5

ft

29.25

2.21

2

0.86

0.91

0.93

0.94

0.96

0.98

1.00

7

ft

31.5

2.38

2

0.91

0.96

0.97

0.99

1.01

1.03

1.05

7.5

ft

33.75

2.55

2

0.96

1.01

1.02

1.04

1.05

1.08

1.10

8

ft

36

2.72

2

1.00

1.05

1.07

1.08

1.10

1.12

1.15

8.5

ft

38.25

2.89

2

1.05

1.10

1.11

1.13

1.15

1.17

1.19

9

ft

40.5

3.06

2

1.10

1.15

1.16

1.18

1.20

0.89

0.91

9.5

ft

42.75

3.23

2

1.15

1.19

0.89

0.90

0.91

0.93

0.94

10

ft

45

3.40

3

0.88

0.91

0.92

0.93

0.94

0.96

0.97

10.5

ft

47.25

3.57

3

0.91

0.94

0.95

0.96

0.98

0.99

1.00

11

ft

49.5

3.74

3

0.94

0.97

0.98

0.99

1.01

1.02

1.04

11.5

ft

51.75

3.91

3

0.97

1.00

1.01

1.03

1.04

1.05

1.07

12

ft

54

4.08

3

1.00

1.04

1.05

1.06

1.07

1.08

1.10

12.5

ft

56.25

4.25

3

1.04

1.07

1.08

1.09

1.10

1.11

1.13

13

ft

58.5

4.42

3

1.07

1.10

1.11

1.12

1.13

1.15

1.16

13.5

ft

60.75

4.59

3

1.10

1.13

1.14

1.15

1.16

1.18

1.19

14

ft

63

4.76

3

1.13

1.16

1.17

1.18

0.96

0.97

0.98

14.5

ft

65.25

4.93

3

1.16

1.19

0.96

0.97

0.98

0.99

1.00

15

ft

67.5

5.10

3

1.19

0.98

0.99

1.00

1.01

1.02

1.03

Page 6 of 10

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KTM SOLUTIONS, INC. Formal Report D06991A00000

KTM SOLUTIONS, INC.

Formal Report D06991A00000

5) After assembling everything shown in the picture above, place the pump in the water attach the input piping and fill it with water. 6) Attach the output hose to 11. 7) Set the input end of the input pipe at the top of the drop and the Ram pump at the bottom. The pump should immediately start cycling. If it doesn’t manually cycle the inlet valve and decrease stroke by readjusting the two nuts making the stroke shorter. This will decrease the flow but build pressure. Also ensure that all air is out of the inlet. If the spring can not overcome the water pressure and close the system tighten the spring. 8) After it begins to cycle increase the stroke until full pressure and flow is developed.

Input pipe 5 ft above the Ram pump.

flow is developed. Input pipe 5 ft above the Ram pump. Page 7 of 10 This

Page 7 of 10

This Document contains Proprietary Information of KTM SOLUTIONS, INC. Disclosure to others, use or copying without express written authorization of KTM Solutions, Inc is strictly prohibited. ©2007 KTM SOLUTIONS, INC. Unpublished Copyright. All Rights Reserved. Uncontrolled when printed

KTM SOLUTIONS, INC. Formal Report D06991A00000

KTM SOLUTIONS, INC.

Formal Report D06991A00000

Nuts Stopper
Nuts
Stopper
Washers
Washers
INC. Formal Report D06991A00000 Nuts Stopper Washers Spring, when stroke is fully set, should be snug.

Spring, when stroke is fully set, should be snug.

Centering

Slider

Stroke = Spring Compression

Nuts
Nuts

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This Document contains Proprietary Information of KTM SOLUTIONS, INC. Disclosure to others, use or copying without express written authorization of KTM Solutions, Inc is strictly prohibited. ©2007 KTM SOLUTIONS, INC. Unpublished Copyright. All Rights Reserved. Uncontrolled when printed

KTM SOLUTIONS, INC. Formal Report D06991A00000

KTM SOLUTIONS, INC.

Formal Report D06991A00000

Special notes

Although the inflow (Assembly Number 2) is shown manufactured from PVC pipe, the preferred configuration uses steel components. The alternate material list is as follows (all galvanized steel parts):

ma terial list is as follows (all galvanized steel parts): Material List includes stock numbers from

Material List includes stock numbers from Lowes Home and Garden

Another modification from the basic material list to improve efficiency is to change the inlet valve setup. The inlet check valve performance is greatly improved if a centering device is installed just above the stopper (see schematic on previous page). The centering device can be made from any material that provided it allows water to pass and maintains a slip fit with the inside of the tubing.

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This Document contains Proprietary Information of KTM SOLUTIONS, INC. Disclosure to others, use or copying without express written authorization of KTM Solutions, Inc is strictly prohibited. ©2007 KTM SOLUTIONS, INC. Unpublished Copyright. All Rights Reserved. Uncontrolled when printed

KTM SOLUTIONS, INC. Formal Report D06991A00000

KTM SOLUTIONS, INC.

Formal Report D06991A00000

The user should also note that ram pump efficiency is dependent on the elevation difference between point 2 and 3 compared to the drop from point 1 to 3 (see

schematic drawing). By nature of the design, ram pumps are not efficient. Water flowing through the pump is what drives the pump. The harder the pump work, the “by pass” water consumption increases. Therefore, a larger water source is required to make the ram pump work. Either a reservoir or stream is ideal. The pump will need a continual flow to operate. The user should not expect high volumes of water

flow from the ram pump. efficiency expectation.

The following chart is attached as a reference for

The following chart is attached as a reference for Reading the chart: If z1 = 6

Reading the chart:

If z1 = 6 feet and z2 = 60 feet, expect and output 4.4 gallons of water for every 100 gallons of water that flows through the pump, when set up at peak efficiency. Actual results will most likely be less than shown in the table.

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This Document contains Proprietary Information of KTM SOLUTIONS, INC. Disclosure to others, use or copying without express written authorization of KTM Solutions, Inc is strictly prohibited. ©2007 KTM SOLUTIONS, INC. Unpublished Copyright. All Rights Reserved. Uncontrolled when printed