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NEPALESE CIVIL AIRWORTHINESS REQUIREMENTS

SECTION C
MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS
CHAPTER C.12 ISSUE 1
FEBRUARY 1983

CALIBRATION OF COMPASSES
1. GENERAL

1.1 This chapter prescribes the occasions, procedures and standards for the
calibration of direct reading and remote reading magnetic compasses.

1.2 Each Nepalese aircraft, unless approved otherwise by the Director General, shall
be provided with a magnetic compass. This compass must be accurate within the
tolerances prescribed in this chapter. If a single compass in not readily visible to
each member of the flight crew, additional compasses shall be installed to provide
such visibility.

Note: The Director General may exempt certain simple types of sport aircraft from the
requirement to carry a compass.

2. DEFINITIONS

In this Chapter C.12 the following definitions hall apply:

Compass Base : A site reserved for compass swinging where only aircraft field
components and the earth's magnetic field can affect the compass.

Compass Swinging : The technique of deviation compensation.

Calibration : The measurement of the deviation of a compass installed in an aircraft, any


necessary compensation of this deviation and the recording of the residual deviation.

Deviation : The angular difference between magnetic heading and compass heading.

Residual Deviation : The deviation remaining after compensation.

Index Error : Also known as Coefficient "A" error index error results from
malalignment of a direct reading compass or of the flux detector unit of a remote reading
compass. It had the same magnitude on all headings.

One-cycle Errors : These are deviations resulting from permanent or hard-iron


magnetism in the aircraft structure. They vary with the aircraft heading, the maximum
deviations being known as Coefficient "B" and Coefficient "C" respectively.

3. INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS
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NCAR, Chapter C.12 Issue 1, February 1983
Amendment 1, March 2002
I
Issue 1, September, 1982
Unless otherwise approved by the Director General, the following requirements apply:

3.1 Each direct-reading and remote-reading compass indicator shall be installed so


that it can be read easily by the appropriate crew member under all normal
conditions of flight.

3.2 Parallax error shall not be such as to prejudice the accurate reading of the
compass.

3.3 Each direct reading compass, and each detector unit of a remote reading
compass, together with any correctors which are not an integral part of the
compass, shall be installed so that their attitude is correct for all likely flight
conditions.

3.4 The distance between the compass and any item of equipment or electrical
circuitry shall be such that interference from magnetic material or a live circuit
does not cause a change in deviation exceeding 1 degree or the combined effect of
all equipments and circuits does not exceed 2 degree.

3.5 The change in deviation caused by control movements or landing gear actuation
during normal flight shall not exceed 1 degree.

4. OCCATIONS FOR CALIBRATION

4.1 Each compass shall be calibrated prior to the initial issue of a Nepalese Certificate
of Airworthiness or a Permit to Fly.

4.2 Each compass shall be calibrated periodically at the periods approved in the
aircraft Maintenance Schedule and these periods will normally be:

1 year for compasses in aircraft intended for IFR flight or air transport operations.

2 years for aircraft intended only for VFR flight and not to be flown at night or
for instrument flight training.

4.3 Compass shall also be calibrated:

a) After installation or replacement.


b) After an engine has been changed, if it affect the compass.
c) Whenever a magnetic sensing element has been changed or re-located.
d) After any modification of the electrical system or avionics of the aircraft
which could possibly affect the compass.
e) After a lightning strike, unless two heading checks made in flight after the
strike show that no change of deviation has occurred.
f) After any maintenance involving the addition, removal or relocation of
magnetic materials likely to influence compass deviation.

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NCAR, Chapter C.12 Issue 1, February 1983
Amendment 1, March 2002
I
Issue 1, September, 1982
g) After any occurrence, such as heavy turbulence or a heavy landing, likely to
affect compass deviation.
h) After long term storage of the aircraft.
i) Whenever there is reason to suspect that change of deviation may have
occurred.

5. COMPASS CALIBRATION PROCEDURE

5.1 An aircraft compass shall be calibrated only on a compass base which is level and
free from any magnetic influence other than the earth's magnetic field. The
instructions for compass Base Surveying given in leaflet AL/10-4 of Civil Aircraft
Inspection Procedures Published by the Civil Aviation Authority of the United
Kingdom shall be applied in Nepal.

5.2 Prior to calibration the compass shall be checked for general serviceability and, if
the aircraft has come from the southern hemisphere, it must be verified that the
angle of dip correction for the northern hemisphere has been made.

5.3 During compass calibration the aircraft shall be positioned not more than
5 degree from the required headings and the compass be calibrated to determine
the required headings and the compass be calibrated to determine the residual
deviation on at least eight equally spaced headings which must include the
cardinal headings. The magnetic heading of the aircraft shall be established by
magnetic heading of the aircraft shall be established by means of a landing
compass or similar instrument of or by alignment with a marked compass site or
by an approved alternative method.

5.4 During calibration all engines shall be running, all normal operational equipment
shall be correctly stowed, the flight controls (as far as is practicable) shall be in
the cruise setting and the avionic systems shall be operating in the normal cruise
configuration. As the calibration proceeds the flight controls and the avionic
systems shall be operated, the latter being switched on and off, to verify that there
are no adverse effects on compass deviation.

5.5 The technique used for compass swinging shall be either that prescribed by the
aircraft manufacturer in the Maintenance Manual or, if no special technique is
prescribed by the aircraft manufacturer, the techniques given in Leaflet AL/10-5
for Direct Reading Compasses and Leaflet AL/10-6 for Remote Reading
Compasses in Civil Aircraft Inspection Procedures.

5.6 When compensating during calibration, the residual deviation shall not exceed:

a) 20 for a remote reading gyro compass.


b) 30 for a remote reading non-gyro compass, e.g. a flux detector unit coupled to
an inertial navigation system.
c) 50 for a direct reading compass used as the primary heading reference.
d) 80 for any other compass.

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NCAR, Chapter C.12 Issue 1, February 1983
Amendment 1, March 2002
I
Issue 1, September, 1982
6. RECORDING AND CERTIFICATION

6.1 The residual deviation shall be recorded and displayed on a card adjacent to the
compass indicator on the aircraft so that the card is visible to the appropriate
flight crew. The correction card shall show its expiry date as determined by
paragraph 4.2 of this chapter.

6.2 The correction card shall be in the Form C.12.1 as shown in Appendix-1. This
card is part of a combined form which includes the correction card, an aircraft
logbook certificate and a record sheet for retention by the operator.

6.3 After a compass has been calibrated, the aircraft logbook certificate from the
Form C.12.1 as shown in Appendix-1, duly completed, shall be inserted in the
aircraft logbook, or, alternatively full details of the correction card shall be
entered and certified in the logbook.

6.4 A Certificate of Compliance for calibration of an aircraft compass may be issued


only by:

a) A person holding Licence in Category 'X' (Instruments) with a rating for the
aircraft concerned or a person holding approval issued by the Director
General to do so.
b) A pilot authorized to be Pilot-in-Command of the particular aircraft type.

Civil Aviation Authority of Nepal.

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NCAR, Chapter C.12 Issue 1, February 1983
Amendment 1, March 2002
I
Issue 1, September, 1982
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NCAR, Chapter C.12 Issue 1, February 1983
Amendment 1, March 2002
I
Issue 1, September, 1982
I
Amendment 1, March 2002
Issue 1, February 1983

Issue 1, September, 1982


A/C REGISTRATION 9N-.
A/C TYPE: REASON:.
Appendix-1

COMPASS SER. NO:.. DATE:...

SIGNATURE : . LIC. NO. ..


SER. NO. .
BASE:. LIC NO.:

AIRCRAFT LOG BOOK CERTIFICATE



SIGNATURE:

COMPASS SWING
N S
( ) - ( )

A/C REGISTRATION 9N-


APP. MAG COMP DEV.
C= = =
HDG HDG HDG 2 2
N 1

DATE: ..//.
EXPIRY : /../ ..
BASE .
COMPASS
TYPE

REASON ..
MCR
E E W
( ) - ( )
S B= = =
2 2
W 1

1
MCR
RES.
DEV FOLD HERE
FOR STEER
NW FOR STEER
N
000 000
NE
045 045
S
090 090

STEER
SW
135 135
W
180 180

NCAR, Chapter C.12


Form C.12.1

225 225
A=
8 = 270 270

FOR
315

000
045
090
135
180
225
270
315
NOTE - 1. MCR = MAKE COMPASS READ 315
2. REASON = E.G. ENGINE CHANGE, PERIODIC ETC.
EXPIRY: ..