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**A DESIGN METHOD FOR MODIFIED PID CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR
**

MULTIPLE-INPUTIMULTIPLE-OUTPUT PLANTS TO ATTENUATE

UNKNOWN DISTURBANCES

**TAKAAKI HAGIWARA, Kou YAMADA, YOSHINORI ANDO,
**

IWANORI MURAKAMI, SATOSHI AOYAMA AND SHUN MATSUURA

Department ofMechanical System Engineering

Gunma University

1-5-1 Tenjincho, Kiryu, Japan

**ABSTRACT-The Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller structure is the most widely
**

used one in industrial applications. However, PID controller cannot stabilize any plant. In order to

overcome this problem, Yamada and Hagiwara proposed a design method for modified PID

controllers such that the modified PID controller makes the control system for unstable plants stable

and the admissible sets of P-parameter, I-parameter and D-parameter are independent from each

other. When modified PID control systems are applied to real plants, the influence of disturbance in

the plant must be considered. In many cases, the disturbance in the plant is unknown. It is

comparatively easy to attenuate known disturbances, but it is difficult to attenuate unknown

disturbances. From a practical viewpoint, it is desirable to design a modified PID control system to

attenuate unknown disturbances. Recently, a design method for modified PID control systems for to

attenuate unknown disturbances was proposed. However, no paper examines a design method for

modified PID control systems for multiple-inputlmultiple-output plants to attenuate unknown

disturbances. In this paper, we propose a design method for modified PID control systems for

muItiple-inputimultiple-output plants to attenuate unknown disturbances.

Key Words: PID control system, Unknown disturbance, MuItiple-inputimultiple-output plant

1. INTRODUCTION

**The Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller structure is the most widely used one in
**

industrial applications. Its structural simplicity and sufficient ability of solving many practical control

problems have contributed to this wide acceptance [1-3].

Several papers on tuning methods for PID parameters have been published [4-14], but these methods

do not guarantee the stability of a control system. Using these methods in [4-14], the PID control system is

not necessarily stable. If the admissible sets of PID parameters that would guarantee the stability of a

control system can be determined, we can easily design stabilizing PID controllers to meet control

specifications.

The problem to obtain the admissible sets of PID parameters to guarantee the stability of the control

system is known as a parameterization problem [3,15,16]. If there exists a stabilizing PID controller, the

parameterization of all stabilizing PID controller is considered in [3,15,16]. However, these methods in

[3,15,16] remain a difficulty. The admissible sets of P-parameter, I-parameter and D-parameter in [3,15,16]

are related each other. That is, if the P-parameter changes, then the admissible sets of I-parameter and D

parameter also change. From a practical point of view, it is desirable that the admissible sets ofP-parameter,

I-parameter and D-parameter are independent from each other. Yamada and Moki initially approached this

problem and proposed a design method for modified PI controllers for any minimum phase system such

that the admissible sets of P-parameter and I-parameter are independent from each other [17]. Yamada

expanded the results in [17] and proposed a design method for modified PID controllers for minimum

phase plants [18]. In addition, Yamada and Hagiwara gave a design method for modified PID controllers

for unstable plants [19]. In this way, the modified PID controller that can stabilize the control system has

been established. However, the modified PID controller in [17-19] remains two difficulties. One is that the

modified PID control system in [17-19] cannot specify the input-output characteristic and the disturbance

attenuation characteristic separately. The other is that the modified PID control system in [17-19] cannot

attenuate unknown disturbances. From a practical viewpoint, it is desirable to specify the input-output

characteristic and the disturbance attenuation characteristic separately and to attenuate unknown

1

and the admissible sets of P-parameter Ap. Using the conventional PID controller C(s) in (2). which can stabilize any multiple-inputlmultiple-output plant. I-parameter AI and D-parameter AD are settled at random. In addition. According to [22]. It is assumed that des) is unknown. r(s) E RP(s) is the reference input. In order to overcome these problems. is written by: C(s) (Y(s). Hagiwara et al. the stability of the control system in (1) is not guaranteed. yes) E RP(s) is the output and des) E RP(s) is the disturbance. the transfer function from the reference input res) to the output yes) in (1) is written by: It is obvious that when P-parameter Ap.2 World Automation Congress disturbances effectively. AI E RPxp is the I-parameter and AD E RPxp is the D-parameter. which cannot be stabilized using conventional PID controller C(s) in (2). In order to overcome these problems. In this paper. When the controller C(s) has the form written by: (2) then the controller C(s) is called the PID controller [1-16]. 2. = + (4) .Q(s)N(s)t (X(s) Q(s)D(s)) = + (X(s) D(s)Q(s))(Y(s). Hagiwara and Yamada proposed a design method for modified PID controllers such that the modified PID controller can stabilize any multiple-inputlmultiple-output plant. AI and AD are settled so that the control system in (1) has desirable control characteristics such as the steady state characteristic and the transient characteristic. Almost all practical plants are multiple-inputlmultiple-output plants. there exists the plant G(s) that cannot be stabilized using the conventional PID controller C(s) in (2). Ap. we expand the result in [24] and propose a design method for modified PID control systems for multiple-inputlmultiple-output plants to attenuate unknown disturbances. the modified PID controller. However. where Ap E RPxp is the P-parameter. MODIFIED PID CONTROLLER AND PROBLEM FORMULATION Consider the control system written by: {yes) G(s)u(s) des) = + u(s) C(s)(r(s). For easy explanation. I-parameter AI and D-parameter AD are independent from each other [22].N(s)Q(s)t.yes))' = (1) where G(s) E RPXP(s) is the plant. this method in [24] cannot apply for multiple-inputlmultiple-output plants. the problem of obtaining a design method for modified PID control systems for multiple-inputlmultiple-output plants to attenuate unknown disturbances is important. we call the controller C(s) in (2) the conventional PID controller. C(s) E RPxp (s) is the controller. u(s) E RP(s) is the control input. proposed a design method for modified PID control systems for single-inputlsingle-output plants to specify the input-output characteristic and the disturbance attenuation characteristic separately and to attenuate unknown disturbances effectively [24].

Xes) E RH!XP and Yes) E RH!XP are functions satisfying: [-YeNs()s) -:D((s)S)][ND((Ss)) -Ye3s()S)] [I 10] = ° [ND((Ss)) -Ye3s()S)][-YN�s()s) -:D((sS))]. but cannot attenuate unknown disturbances. The problem considered in this paper is to propose a design method for modified PID control systems for any multiple-inputlmultiple-output plants to specify the input-output characteristic and the disturbance attenuation characteristic separately and to attenuate unknown disturbances effectively.Q3sN(S)} Q2 sl�oo � (Y(s) .Q3'0 + [( {Y{s )�s=o . Yes) E RH!XP .1.2) and 7:D E R > 0. MODIFIED PID CONTROL SYSTEMS TO ATTENUATE UNKNOWN DISTURBANCES In this section. D(s) E RH !XP . . = (6) (7) Y(O)N�-I(0)'0' Qo = (8) QI Qo. using the modified PID controller C(s) in (4). (10) Q3 ���r(S)AD(i5(S)+SN(S)ADt}.sN(s)tQ.Qo N(0)](N(0)A1 t � '0 = im[{(Y(s) . = (11) 7:. ! {i5(S)}} i5-I(S)T'] .Q3sN(S))Ap . In addition..Qo s {N(s )}ls=o J A1 d d s 'O � = d d '0 '0 (9) -X(O) . However. the input-output characteristic and the disturbance attenuation characteristic cannot be specified separately.i5(s)+s'Q. the modified PID controller C(s) in (4) of the control system in (1) can attenuate the step disturbance.2 . 3. E R > O(i = 0.Q. (5) Xes) E RH!XP.A design method/or modified PID control systems/or multiple-inputlmultiple-output plants to attenuate unknown disturbances 3 where N(s) E RH!XP. we propose a modified PID control system to specify the input-output characteristic and the disturbance attenuation characteristic separately and to attenuate unknown disturbances effectively.Xes).S2 ds {yes). N(s) E RH!XP and D(s) E RH !XP are coprime factors of G(s) on RH satisfying: 00 G(s) N(s)D-l (s) = = B-1 (s)N(s).

Q (s)N(s) (13) and Q(s) E RH!XP is any function.N(s)C(s)(I + Q(s))}i5(s)d(s).1. it is obvious that the control system in Fig. Fig. 1 is to specify the disturbance attenuation characteristic.4 World Automation Congress In order to specify the input-output characteristic and the disturbance attenuation characteristic separately and to attenuate unknown disturbances effectively. C(s) E RPXP(s) is the controller to attenuate unknown disturbances. This implies that when the controller C(s) is designed to satisfy (16). Next. the input output characteristic of the control system in Fig. the role of the modified PID controller C(s) in (4) of the control system in Fig. the disturbance des) is attenuated effectively if: (16) where OJ is the frequency component of the disturbance des) . 1 can attenuate unknown disturbances des) effectively. 1. the role of the controller C(s) is different from that of C(s) and Q(s). From (14) and (15). Finally. the control system in Fig. (s) D(s) Q (s)D(s). 1. Next. 1 is to specify the input-output characteristic. (14) From (14). the role of the controller C(s) and Q(s) of the control system in Fig. Therefore. we propose the modified PID control system shown in Fig. 1 is shown. 1 is stable if and only if following expressions hold.N(s). C(s) E RPXP(s) is the modified PID controller in (4). the condition that the control system in Fig. 1 is shown.. Modified PIO control system to specify the input-output characteristic and the disturbance attenuation characteristic separately and to attenuate unknown disturbances Here. � � = + (12) F2(S) = . F. 1 is stable is clarified. The transfer function from the disturbance des) to the output yes) is written by: yes) = (1 + G(s)C(s)t jj-1 (s){ 1 . even if the disturbance is unknown. The transfer function from the reference input res) to the output yes) is written by: yes) = (1 + G(s)C(s)t G(s)C(s) r(s). First. . the disturbance attenuation characteristic of the control system in Fig. The role of the controller C(s) and Q(s) is to specify the disturbance attenuation characteristic. From (14) and (15). (15) From (15). we clarify control characteristics of the modified PID control system in Fig. The role of the modified PID controller C(s) is to specify the input-output characteristic.(s)E RPXP(s) and F2(S) E RPXP(s) are written by: F.

p) are arbitrary positive integers to make N (s) proper.. A design method is summarized as follows: Q(s) E RH oo in (12) and (13) is settled to satisfy 1+ Q(s) E u. we proposed a design method for modified PID control systems for multiple input/multiple-output plants to specify the input-output characteristic and the disturbance attenuation characteristic separately and to attenuate unknown disturbances effectively. Modified PID control system for multiple-input/multiple-output plants to specify the input output characteristic and the disturbance attenuation characteristic separately and to attenuate unknown disturbances effectively was proposed as Fig. The modified PID controller C(s) makes the control system in (1) stable.. 2. l"i E R(i 00 = 1. 1 is shown. No (s) E RH is an outer function. then the disturbance des) in the frequency range OJ satisfying: (20) is attenuated effectively. 1. C(s) E RH oo · 4. we describe a design method for the controller C(s) to specify the disturbance attenuation characteristic of the control system in Fig. . 6. 1 were clarified.A design method/or modified PID control systems/or multiple-inputlmultiple-output plants to attenuate unknown disturbances 5 1. Control characteristics of the modified PID control system in Fig. We find that proposed modified PID control system in Fig. 5. if the controller C(s) is selected as: r r (19) even if the disturbance des) is unknown. Using N (s) . 1 can specify the input-output characteristic and the disturbance attenuation characteristic separately. CONTROLLER DESIGN In this section. The role of the modified PID controller C(s) is to specify the input-output characteristic.. Results in this paper are summarized as follows: 1. Using the method in [21]. . NUMERICAL EXAMPLE Numerical examples will be presented in the conference on account of space consideration. CONCLUSIONS In this paper.. . there exists N (s) E RH satisfying: r oo (17) where Ni(s) E RH is an inner function of N(s) satisfying: oo (18) and Ni (0) = I. The role of the controller C(s) is to specify the disturbance attenuation characteristic. 2. p). ai (i = 1.

W.L. K.1994. Kinoshita. 21. Ando and S. I. and T.2002. pp. A. Matsuura. 1967. pp. J. Ho and S. Moki. A.33lB-l. "Structure and Synthesis of PID Controllers." Trans. "The Optimal Adjustment of Regulators.13.L. Control and Information Engineers. 46-53. 20. K. Y.H. P. 2005. ASME. Kitamori.L. "PID control. ASME. T. 2006. 1985. Smith and P. K. "A linear programming characterization of all stabilizing PID controllers.A. Hagiwara. Computer. Kobayashi. "Theoretical Considerations on the Optimal Adjustment of Regurators. Bhattacharyya. T. North Carolina. Hagiwara. J." Proceedings of The 2005 Electrical EngineeringlElectronics. Yamada. W. P. 22. 52-62. Nicholes. 571-576." lEE Proceedings. C.P.2. P. Vo1. Yang.L. pp. T. 72-75. 74. Yamada and W. "A method of control system design based upon partial knowledge about controlled process. 7. 17. 11. 3. Miller. Bhattacharyya. pp. "Tuning Controllers with Error-Integral Criteria. Yamada. Murakami. Y. Ho. "New state space design method of stable filtered inverse systems and their application. K. M. 3922-3928. K. pp. Wolf. 2008. 1951. van der Warden. ASME. 2003.2. 10.1950. 6." ICIC Express Letters. pp. K. T." Springer Velag. Ando.T. Yamada and T. Murrill. Imai and M. pp. 19." Trans." Trans." Intelligent Engineering Systems Through Artificial Neural Networks. "Design method for PID control systems.W. 549-555 (in Japanese). 857-834. 2003. "A design method of modified PID controller for unstable plants." Intelligent Engineering System Through Artificial Neural Networks. 61-76. Hazebroek and B." Asakura Shoten. 759-768. Vo1." Journal of the Franklin Institute. 15. 12. and S. 85-93. Kitamori.A. 64. pp." Trans." Proceedings of the American Control Conference 1997. pp. A.A.6 World Automation Congress 3. Hagiwara. Volume II of II.1950. 1953. Suda. Y. Hrones and lB. "The parameterization of all disturbance observers. Vo1. Hagiwara and K. 175-185. van der Warden. M. 382-391 (in Japanese). "Control System Synthesis-A factorization approach-. 1980. N. . 18. 14.Z. Lopez. 19-4. An International Journal of Research and Surveys. 14.P. ASME.G. lA. K." Transactions of the Institute of Systems. Reswick. 23.4. 5825-5830. No. 24. Murakami. Cominos and N. pp. Munro. Smith and P. pp. Lopez. 457-460. No." Instrument Society of America. lA. "PID controllers: Theory design. 1967. ASME. 2000. T.M. 317-332." Instrumentation Technology. "On the Automatic Control of Generalized Passive Systems. Telecommunication. Murrill. 75. Yamada. Zieglae and N.L. Yamada. pp. "PID Controllers: Recent Tuning Methods and Design to Specification. "Theoretical Consideration of Retaeded Control. K. C. 13. Vidyasagar. pp. A. Coon. 421-426. 5. and T. pp. Miller." Trans. 1995." MIT Press.1952. Datta. Datta. 16. 2008. 1942. M. and Information Technology (ECTI) International Conference. 149. 14. Chien. pp. pp. Yamada.M. 1979." submitted. Hagglund. 1997. G." Transactions of the Society of Instrument and Control Engineers. We present a design method for the controller C(s) to attenuate unknown disturbances effectively. 413-418. "Parameter Plane Control Design for a Two-tank Chemical Reactor Systems. 72. pp. Cohen and G. 753-758. "A design method for PI control for minimum phase systems. Vo1. I.B. 9. ASME. "A Comparison of Controller Tuning Techniques. 2.16. London. 73." Controll Engineering." Proceedings of the 17th World Congress of the International Federation of Automatic Control. and tuning. "Optimum settings for automatic controllers. pp." Trans. 72. REFERENCES 1. 8. "A design method of modified PID controllers for multiple input/multiple-output plants. Hazebroek and B. J. "Controller Setting for Optimum Control." Journal of the Society of the Instrument and Congtrol Engineers. Astrom. pp.16. "Modified PID controllers for minimum phase systems and their practical application. 1992 (in Japanese). "A design method for modified PID control systems to attenuate unknown disturbances. 4. 309-315. 15-4.

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