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B vitamin deficiency

Several named vitamin deficiency diseases may result from the lack of sufficient B-vitamins. Deficiencies of other B
vitamins result in symptoms that are not part of a named deficiency disease.
Vitamin Name Deficiency effects'
Deficiency causes beriberi. Symptoms of this disease of the nervous system include weight loss,
emotional disturbances, Wernicke's encephalopathy (impaired sensory perception), weakness and
Vitamin pain in the limbs, periods of irregular heartbeat, and edema (swelling of bodily tissues). Heart
thiamine
B1 failure and death may occur in advanced cases. Chronic thiamine deficiency can also
cause Korsakoff's syndrome, an irreversible psychosis characterized
by amnesia and confabulation.
Deficiency causes ariboflavinosis. Symptoms may include cheilosis (cracks in the lips), high
Vitamin sensitivity to sunlight, angular cheilitis, glossitis (inflammation of the tongue),seborrheic
riboflavin
B2 dermatitis or pseudo-syphilis (particularly affecting the scrotum or labia majora and
the mouth), pharyngitis (sore throat), hyperemia, and edema of thepharyngeal and oral mucosa.
Deficiency, along with a deficiency of tryptophan causes pellagra. Symptoms include
Vitamin
niacin aggression, dermatitis, insomnia, weakness, mental confusion, and diarrhea. In advanced cases,
B3
pellagra may lead to dementia and death (the 3(+1) Ds: dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, and death).
Vitamin pantothenic
Deficiency can result in acne and paresthesia, although it is uncommon.
B5 acid
Deficiency may lead to microcytic anemia (because pyridoxyl phosphate is the cofactor for heme
Vitamin
pyridoxine synthesis), depression, dermatitis, high blood pressure (hypertension), water retention, and
B6
elevated levels of homocysteine.
Deficiency does not typically cause symptoms in adults but may lead to impaired growth and
Vitamin
biotin neurological disorders in infants. Multiple carboxylase deficiency, an inborn error of metabolism,
B7
can lead to biotin deficiency even when dietary biotin intake is normal.
Deficiency results in a macrocytic anemia, and elevated levels of homocysteine. Deficiency in
Vitamin pregnant women can lead to birth defects. Supplementation is often recommended during
folic acid
B9 pregnancy. Researchers have shown that folic acid might also slow the insidious effects of age on
the brain.
Deficiency results in a macrocytic anemia, elevated homocysteine, peripheral neuropathy, memory
loss and other cognitive deficits. It is most likely to occur among elderly people, as absorption
Vitamin
cobalamin through the gut declines with age; the autoimmune disease pernicious anemia is another common
B12
cause. It can also cause symptoms ofmania and psychosis. In rare extreme cases, paralysis can
result.

The discovery dates of the vitamins and their sources

Year of discovery Vitamin Food source

1913 Vitamin A (Retinol) Cod liver oil

1910 Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) Rice bran

1920 Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) Citrus, most fresh foods

1920 Vitamin D (Calciferol) Cod liver oil

1920 Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) Meat, eggs

1922 Vitamin E (Tocopherol) Wheat germ oil, unrefined vegetable oils

1926 Vitamin B12 (Cobalamins) liver, eggs, animal products

1929 Vitamin K1 (Phylloquinone) Leafy green vegetables

1931 Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid) Meat, whole grains,


in many foods

1931 Vitamin B7 (Biotin) Meat, dairy products, eggs

1934 Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Meat, dairy products

1936 Vitamin B3 (Niacin) Meat, eggs, grains

1941 Vitamin B9 (Folic acid) Leafy green vegetables