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Headof

Name Constitutionalform Basisofexecutivelegislativediplomacy


state
Afghanistan Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Albania Republic Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Presidencyindependentoflegislatureministry
Algeria Republic Executive
subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Andorra Constitutionalmonarchy Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Angola Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Antiguaand
Constitutionalmonarchy Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Barbuda
Argentina Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Presidencyindependentoflegislatureministry
Armenia Republic Executive
subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Australia Constitutionalmonarchy Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Austria Republic Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Presidencyindependentoflegislatureministry
Azerbaijan Republic Executive
subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Bahamas,The Constitutionalmonarchy Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Monarchpersonallyexercisespowerinconcert
Bahrain Constitutionalmonarchy Executive
withotherinstitutions
Bangladesh Republic Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Barbados Constitutionalmonarchy Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Belarus Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Belgium Constitutionalmonarchy Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Belize Constitutionalmonarchy Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Benin Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature

Bhutan Monarchpersonallyexercisespowerinconcert
Constitutionalmonarchy Executive
withotherinstitutions
Bolivia Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Bosniaand
Republic Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Herzegovina
Botswana Constitutionalmonarchy Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Brazil Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Brunei Absolutemonarchy Executive Allauthorityvestedinabsolutemonarch
Bulgaria Republic Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence

BurkinaFaso Presidencyindependentoflegislatureministry
Republic Executive
subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Burundi Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Cambodia Constitutionalmonarchy Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Headof
Name Constitutionalform Basisofexecutivelegislativediplomacy
state
Cameroon Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Canada Constitutionalmonarchy Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Presidencyindependentoflegislatureministry
CapeVerde Republic Executive
subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
CentralAfrican
Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Republic
Chad Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Chile Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
China,People's Powerconstitutionallylinkedtoasinglepolitical
Republic Executive
Republicof movement
Colombia Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Comoros Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Congo,Democratic Presidencyindependentoflegislatureministry
Republic Executive
Republicofthe subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Congo Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
CostaRica Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Cted'Ivoire Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Croatia Republic Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Powerconstitutionallylinkedtoasinglepolitical
Cuba Republic Executive
movement
Cyprus Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
CzechRepublic Republic Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Denmark Constitutionalmonarchy Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Djibouti Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Dominica Republic Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Dominican
Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Republic
Presidencyindependentoflegislatureministry
EastTimor Republic Executive
subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Ecuador Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature

Egypt Presidencyindependentoflegislatureministry
Republic Executive
subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
ElSalvador Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
EquatorialGuinea Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Powerconstitutionallylinkedtoasinglepolitical
Eritrea Republic Executive
movement
Estonia Republic Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Ethiopia Republic Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Fiji Republic Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Headof
Name Constitutionalform Basisofexecutivelegislativediplomacy
state
Finland Republic Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Presidencyindependentoflegislatureministry
France Republic Executive
subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Gabon Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Gambia,The Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature

Georgia Presidencyindependentoflegislatureministry
Republic Executive
subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Germany Republic Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Ghana Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Greece Republic Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Grenada Constitutionalmonarchy Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Guatemala Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Guinea Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Presidencyindependentoflegislatureministry
GuineaBissau Republic Executive
subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Guyana Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Presidencyindependentoflegislatureministry
Haiti Republic Executive
subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
HolySee Absolutemonarchy Executive Allauthorityvestedinabsolutemonarch
Honduras Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Hungary Republic Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Iceland Republic Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
India Republic Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Indonesia Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Iran Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Iraq Republic Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Ireland Republic Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Israel Republic Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Italy Republic Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Jamaica Constitutionalmonarchy Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Japan Constitutionalmonarchy Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Monarchpersonallyexercisespowerinconcert
Jordan Constitutionalmonarchy Executive
withotherinstitutions
Presidencyindependentoflegislatureministry
Kazakhstan Republic Executive
subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Kenya Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Presidencyiselectedbylegislatureministrymay
Kiribati Republic Executive
be,ornotbe,subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Headof
Name Constitutionalform Basisofexecutivelegislativediplomacy
state
Powerconstitutionallylinkedtoasinglepolitical
Korea,North Republic Executive
movement
Korea,South Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Monarchpersonallyexercisespowerinconcert
Kuwait Constitutionalmonarchy Executive
withotherinstitutions
Kyrgyzstan Republic Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence

Laos Powerconstitutionallylinkedtoasinglepolitical
Republic Executive
movement
Latvia Republic Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Lebanon Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Lesotho Constitutionalmonarchy Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Liberia Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Libya n/a n/a Noconstitutionallydefinedbasistocurrentregime
Monarchpersonallyexercisespowerinconcert
Liechtenstein Constitutionalmonarchy Executive
withotherinstitutions
Presidencyindependentoflegislatureministry
Lithuania Republic Executive
subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Luxembourg Constitutionalmonarchy Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Macedonia Republic Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Presidencyindependentoflegislatureministry
Madagascar Republic Executive
subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Malawi Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Malaysia Constitutionalmonarchy Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Maldives Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Presidencyindependentoflegislatureministry
Mali Republic Executive
subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Malta Republic Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Presidencyiselectedbylegislatureministrymay
MarshallIslands Republic Executive
be,ornotbe,subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Presidencyindependentoflegislatureministry
Mauritania Republic Executive
subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Mauritius Republic Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Mexico Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
FederatedStatesof Presidencyiselectedbylegislatureministrymay
Republic Executive
Micronesia be,ornotbe,subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Moldova Republic Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence

Monaco Monarchpersonallyexercisespowerinconcert
Constitutionalmonarchy Executive
withotherinstitutions
Presidencyindependentoflegislatureministry
Mongolia Republic Executive
subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Montenegro Republic Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Headof
Name Constitutionalform Basisofexecutivelegislativediplomacy
state
Monarchpersonallyexercisespowerinconcert
Morocco Constitutionalmonarchy Executive
withotherinstitutions

Mozambique Presidencyindependentoflegislatureministry
Republic Executive
subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Presidencyiselectedbylegislatureministrymay
Myanmar Republic Executive
be,ornotbe,subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Presidencyindependentoflegislatureministry
Namibia Republic Executive
subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Presidencyiselectedbylegislatureministrymay
Nauru Republic Executive
be,ornotbe,subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Nepal Republic Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Netherlands Constitutionalmonarchy Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
NewZealand Constitutionalmonarchy Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Nicaragua Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature

Niger Presidencyindependentoflegislatureministry
Republic Executive
subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Nigeria Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Norway Constitutionalmonarchy Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Oman Absolutemonarchy Executive Allauthorityvestedinabsolutemonarch
Pakistan Republic Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Palau Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Presidencyindependentoflegislatureministry
Palestine Republic Executive
subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Panama Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
PapuaNewGuinea Constitutionalmonarchy Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Paraguay Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Peru Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Philippines Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Poland Republic Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Presidencyindependentoflegislatureministry
Portugal Republic Executive
subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Qatar Absolutemonarchy Executive Allauthorityvestedinabsolutemonarch

Romania Presidencyindependentoflegislatureministry
Republic Executive
subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Presidencyindependentoflegislatureministry
Russia Republic Executive
subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Rwanda Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
SaintKittsand
Constitutionalmonarchy Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Nevis
SaintLucia Constitutionalmonarchy Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Headof
Name Constitutionalform Basisofexecutivelegislativediplomacy
state
SaintVincentand
Constitutionalmonarchy Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
theGrenadines
Samoa Republic Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Presidencyiselectedbylegislatureministrymay
SanMarino Republic Executive
be,ornotbe,subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
SoTomand Presidencyindependentoflegislatureministry
Republic Executive
Prncipe subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
SaudiArabia Absolutemonarchy Executive Allauthorityvestedinabsolutemonarch
Presidencyindependentoflegislatureministry
Senegal Republic Executive
subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Serbia Republic Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Seychelles Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
SierraLeone Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Singapore Republic Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Slovakia Republic Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Slovenia Republic Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
SolomonIslands Constitutionalmonarchy Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Presidencyiselectedbylegislatureministrymay
Somalia Republic Executive
be,ornotbe,subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Presidencyiselectedbylegislatureministrymay
SouthAfrica Republic Executive
be,ornotbe,subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
SouthSudan Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Spain Constitutionalmonarchy Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Presidencyindependentoflegislatureministry
SriLanka Republic Executive
subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Sudan Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Presidencyiselectedbylegislatureministrymay
Suriname Republic Executive
be,ornotbe,subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Swaziland Absolutemonarchy Executive Allauthorityvestedinabsolutemonarch
Sweden Constitutionalmonarchy Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Presidencyiselectedbylegislatureministrymay
Switzerland Republic Executive
be,ornotbe,subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Presidencyindependentoflegislatureministry
Syria Republic Executive
subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Tajikistan Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Tanzania Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Thailand n/a n/a Noconstitutionallydefinedbasistocurrentregime
Togo Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Monarchpersonallyexercisespowerinconcert
Tonga Constitutionalmonarchy Executive
withotherinstitutions
Headof
Name Constitutionalform Basisofexecutivelegislativediplomacy
state
Trinidadand
Republic Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Tobago
Presidencyindependentoflegislatureministry
Tunisia Republic Executive
subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Turkey Republic Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Turkmenistan Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Tuvalu Constitutionalmonarchy Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Uganda Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Presidencyindependentoflegislatureministry
Ukraine Republic Executive
subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
UnitedArab
Absolutemonarchy Executive Allauthorityvestedinabsolutemonarch
Emirates
UnitedKingdom Constitutionalmonarchy Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
UnitedStates Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Uruguay Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Uzbekistan Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Vanuatu Republic Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Venezuela Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature

Vietnam Powerconstitutionallylinkedtoasinglepolitical
Republic Executive
movement
Presidencyindependentoflegislatureministry
Yemen Republic Executive
subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Zambia Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Zimbabwe Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature

NotethatAfghanistan,Iran,Pakistan,theGambiaandMauritaniaareIslamicRepublics.

Otherstates

ThefollowingstatescontroltheirterritoryandarerecognizedbyatleastoneUNmemberstate.
Headof
Name Constitutionalform Basisofexecutivelegitimacy
state
Presidencyindependentoflegislatureministry
Abkhazia Republic Executive
subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Presidencyindependentoflegislatureministry
Taiwan Republic Executive
subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
CookIslands Constitutionalmonarchy Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Kosovo Republic Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Niue Constitutionalmonarchy Ceremonial Ministryissubjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
Presidencyindependentoflegislatureministry
NorthernCyprus Republic Executive
subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence
SahrawiArab Powerconstitutionallylinkedtoasingle
Republic Executive
DemocraticRepublic politicalmovement
Presidencyindependentoflegislatureministry
SouthOssetia Republic Executive
subjecttoparliamentaryconfidence

Thefollowingstates/governmentscontroltheirterritory,butarenotrecognisedbyanyUNmemberstates.

Constitutional Headof
Name Basisofexecutivelegitimacy
form state
Nagorno Presidencyindependentoflegislatureministrysubjectto
Republic Executive
Karabakh parliamentaryconfidence
Somaliland Republic Executive Presidencyisindependentoflegislature
Presidencyindependentoflegislatureministrysubjectto
Transnistria Republic Executive
parliamentaryconfidence

Map
Legend
BluePresidentialrepublicswithafullpresidentialsystem
YellowPresidentialrepublicswithasemipresidentialsystem
GreenParliamentaryrepublicswithanexecutivepresidencyresponsibletothelegislature
OrangeParliamentaryrepublicswithaceremonial/executivepresident,whereaseparateheadof
governmentleadstheexecutive
RedConstitutionalmonarchywithaceremonialmonarch,whereaseparateheadofgovernmentleadsthe
executive
MagentaConstitutionalmonarchywhichhavewithaseparateheadofgovernment,butwhereroyaltystill
holdsignificantexecutiveand/orlegislativepower
PurpleAbsolutemonarchy
BrownCountrieswherethedominantroleofpoliticalpartyiscodifiedintheconstitution
DarkgreenCountriesinwhichconstitutionalprovisionsforgovernmenthavebeensuspended(e.g.military
dictatorship)
GreyCountrieswhichdonotfitanyoftheabovesystems(e.g.transitionalgovernmentorunclearpolitical
situations)
LightgreyNogovernment

Note:thischartrepresentdejuresystemsofgovernment,notthedefactodegreeofdemocracy.Severalstates
constitutionallyrepublics,broadlyappearasauthoritarianstates.

Systemsofgovernance
Italicsindicatestateswithlimitedrecognition.

Presidentialrepublics

Thesearesystemsinwhichapresidentistheactiveheadoftheexecutivebranchofgovernmentandiselectedand
remainsinofficeindependentlyofthelegislature.Thefollowinglistincludesdemocraticandnondemocraticstates:
Fullpresidentialsystems

Infullpresidentialsystems,thepresidentisbothheadofstateandheadofgovernment.Thereisgenerallynoprime
minister,althoughifoneexistsheorsheservespurelyatthediscretionofthepresident.

Presidentialsystems

Afghanistan Malawi
Angola Maldives
Argentina Mexico
Bolivia Nicaragua
Brazil Nigeria
Burundi Palau
Chile Panama
Colombia Paraguay
Comoros Philippines
CostaRica Seychelles
Cyprus SierraLeone
DominicanRepublic Somaliland
Ecuador SouthSudan
ElSalvador Turkmenistan
Gambia,The UnitedStates
Ghana Uruguay
Guatemala Venezuela
Honduras Zambia
Indonesia Zimbabwe
Kenya
Liberia
Malawi
Presidentialsystemswithanonexecutiveprimeminister

Belarus IvoryCoast
Benin Korea,South
Cameroon Peru[1]
CentralAfricanRepublic Rwanda
Chad Sudan
Congo Tajikistan
Djibouti Tanzania
Gabon Togo
Guinea Uganda
EquatorialGuinea Uzbekistan
Guyana
IvoryCoast
Semi(separated)presidentialsystems

Insemipresidentialsystems,thereisalwaysbothapresidentandaprimeminister.Insuchsystems,thepresident
hasgenuineexecutiveauthority,unlikeinaparliamentaryrepublic,buttheroleofaheadofgovernmentmaybe
exercisedbytheprimeminister.

Abkhazia Azerbaijan
Algeria BurkinaFaso
Armenia CapeVerde[2]
China,People'sRepublicof Niger
Taiwan(RepublicofChina) NorthernCyprus
Congo,DemocraticRepublicofthe Palestine
EastTimor[2] Portugal
France Romania
Georgia Russia
GuineaBissau[2] SoTomandPrncipe[2]
Haiti Senegal
Kazakhstan[3] SouthOssetia
Lithuania Syria
Madagascar Transnistria
Mali Tunisia
Mauritania SriLanka
Mongolia Ukraine
Mozambique[2] Yemen[4][5]
NagornoKarabakh
Namibia

Parliamentaryrepublics

Aparliamentaryrepublicisasysteminwhichaprimeministeristheactiveheadoftheexecutivebranchof
governmentandalsoleaderofthelegislature.Thepresident'sdegreeofexecutivepowermayrangefrombeing
reasonablysignificanttolittle(e.g.India,Pakistan)ornoneatall(e.g.Ireland).Wherethepresidentholdslittle
executivepower,hisorherfunctionisprimarilythatofasymbolicfigurehead.
Italy
Albania Kosovo
Austria Kyrgyzstan
Bangladesh [6] Latvia
BosniaandHerzegovina [7] Lebanon
Bulgaria Macedonia
Croatia Malta
CzechRepublic Mauritius
Dominica Moldova
Estonia Montenegro
Ethiopia Nepal
Fiji Pakistan
Finland[8] Poland
Germany Samoa
Greece Serbia
Hungary Singapore
Iceland Slovakia
India Slovenia
Iraq TrinidadandTobago
Ireland Turkey
Israel Vanuatu
Italy

Mixedrepublicansystems
Acombinedheadofstateandgovernmentiselectedbythelegislature,howevertheyarenotsubjectto
parliamentaryconfidenceduringtheirterm(althoughtheircabinetmaybe)theexceptionsareinSouthAfrica,
wherethePresidentmaybeforcedtoresignbytheParliament'swill,[9]andalsoinKiribati,whereasuccessful
parliamentarymotionofnoconfidenceautomaticallytriggersanewpresidentialelection.

Botswana[10] SanMarino[12]
MarshallIslands[10] Somalia
FederatedStatesofMicronesia[11] SouthAfrica
Kiribati Suriname[11]
Myanmar[11] Switzerland[11][13]
Nauru[10]

Directorialsystems

Inthedirectorialsystemacounciljointlyexercisesbothstatefunctionsandgovernmentalpowers(thecouncilisthe
collectiveheadofstateandgovernment).Thecounciliselectedbytheparliament,butitisnotsubjecttopolitical
confidenceduringitstermwhichhasafixedduration.
Switzerland
Switzerland [11][13]

Constitutionalmonarchies

Thesearesystemsinwhichtheheadofstateisaconstitutionalmonarchtheexistenceoftheirofficeandtheirability
toexercisetheirauthorityisestablishedandrestrainedorheldbackbyconstitutionallaw.

Constitutionalmonarchieswithceremonialmonarchs

Systemsinwhichaprimeministeristheactiveheadoftheexecutivebranchofgovernment.Insomecasestheprime
ministerisalsoleaderofthelegislature,inothercasestheexecutivebranchisclearlyseparatedfromlegislature
althoughtheentirecabinetorindividualministersmuststepdowninthecaseofavoteofnoconfidence.[14][15]The
headofstateisaconstitutionalmonarchwhonormallyonlyexerciseshisorherpowerswiththeconsentofthe
government,thepeopleortheirrepresentatives.
Luxembourg
Andorra [16] Malaysia
AntiguaandBarbuda[17] Netherlands
Australia[17] NewZealand[17]
Bahamas[17] Niue[17][18]
Norway
Barbados[17]
Belgium PapuaNewGuinea[17]
Belize[17] SaintKittsandNevis[17]
Cambodia SaintLucia[17]
Canada[17] SaintVincentandtheGrenadines[17]
CookIslands[17][18] SolomonIslands[17]
Denmark Spain
Grenada[17] Sweden
Thailand(militaryjunta)
Jamaica[17]
Japan Tuvalu[17]
Lesotho UnitedKingdom[17]
Luxembourg
Constitutionalmonarchieswithactivemonarchs

Theprimeministeristhenation'sactiveexecutive,butthemonarchstillhasconsiderablepoliticalpowersthatcan
beusedattheirowndiscretion.
Liechtenstein
Bahrain Monaco
Bhutan Morocco
Jordan Tonga
Kuwait
Liechtenstein

Absolutemonarchies

Specifically,monarchiesinwhichthemonarch'sexerciseofpowerisunconstrainedbyanysubstantiveconstitutional
law.

Brunei UnitedArabEmirates[19]
Oman VaticanCity[20]
Qatar
SaudiArabia
Swaziland
UnitedArabEmirates[19]
Theocracies

Statesbasedonastatereligionwheretheheadofstateisselectedbysomeformofreligioushierarchy.

Iran[21]
VaticanCity[20]

Onepartystates

Statesinwhichpoliticalpowerisbylawconcentratedwithinonepoliticalpartywhoseoperationsarelargelyfused
withthegovernmenthierarchy(asopposedtostateswherethelawestablishesamultipartysystembutthisfusionis
notachievedanywaythroughelectoralfraudorsimpleinertia).However,somedohaveelectedgovernments.

China,People'sRepublicof(CommunistParty Korea,North(Workers'PartyleadstheDemocratic
leadstheUnitedFront)(list) Front)(list)
Cuba(CommunistParty)(list) Laos(People'sRevolutionaryPartyleadstheFront
Eritrea(People'sFrontforDemocracyandJustice) forNationalConstruction)(list)
(list) SahrawiArabDemocraticRepublic(Polisario
Front)(PoliticsoftheSahrawiArabDemocraticRepublic)

Korea,North(Workers'PartyleadstheDemocratic
Vietnam(CommunistPartyleadstheFatherlandFront)(list)

Militaryjuntastates

Thenation'smilitarycontroltheorgansofgovernmentandallhighrankingpoliticalexecutivesarealsomembersof
themilitaryhierarchy.
Thailand(constitutionalmonarchy)
Thailand(constitutionalmonarchy)
Transitional

Stateswhichhaveasystemofgovernmentwhichisintransitionorturmoilandareclassifiedwiththecurrent
directionofchange.

BurkinaFaso(semipresidentialsystem) Libya(provisionalgovernment)
Egypt(semipresidentialsystem) Yemen(semipresidentialsystem)
Eritrea(presidentialsystem)
Libya(provisionalgovernment)
Systemsofinternalgovernance
Federal

Statesinwhichthefederalgovernmentsharespowerwithsemiindependentregionalgovernments.Thecentral
governmentmayormaynotbe(intheory)acreationoftheregionalgovernmentsprimeexamplesareIndiaandthe
UnitedStates.

Argentina(23provincesandoneautonomouscity: Nepal(14zones)
BuenosAires) Nigeria(36statesandonefederalterritory:Federal
Australia(sixstatesandtwoterritories) CapitalTerritory)
Austria(ninestates) Pakistan(4provinces,2autonomousareasand2
Belgium(threeregionsandthreelinguistic territories)
communities) Russia(46oblasts,22republics,ninekrais,four
BosniaandHerzegovina(twoentitiesandone autonomousokrugs,threefederalcities,oneautonomous
district) oblast)
Brazil(26statesandtheFederalDistrict) SaintKittsandNevis(SaintKitts,Nevis)
Canada(tenprovincesandthreeterritories) SouthSudan(tenstates)
Comoros(Anjouan,GrandeComore,Mohli) Sudan(17states)
Ethiopia(nineregionsandtwocharteredcities) Switzerland(26cantons)
Germany(16states) UnitedArabEmirates(sevenemirates)
India(29statesandsevenunionterritories) UnitedStates(50states,oneincorporatedterritory,
Iraq(18governoratesandoneregion:Kurdistan) andonefederaldistrict:DistrictofColumbia)
Malaysia(13statesandthreefederalterritories) Venezuela(23states,onecapitaldistrictandone
Mexico(31statesandonefederaldistrict:Mexico federaldependency)
City)
FederatedStatesofMicronesia(Chuuk,Kosrae,
PohnpeiandYap)

Unitarystates

Regionalizedunitary

Statesinwhichthecentralgovernmenthasdelegatedsomeofitspowerstoregionalauthorities.

Bolivia(9regions,ofwhich9areautonomous) KingdomoftheNetherlands(4constituent
China(22provinces,5autonomousregions,4 countries)
provincelevelmunicipalities,and2specialadministrative Philippines(1autonomousregionsubdividedinto5
regions) provincesand113otherprovincesandindependentcities
France(18regions,ofwhich6areautonomous) groupedinto17othernonautonomousregions)
Indonesia(34provinces,ofwhich5provinceshave Portugal(2autonomousregions)
specialstatus)
Italy(20regions,ofwhich5areautonomous)