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M.Sc. – I.T. (L.E.)


M.Sc. IT IInd Year (LE.)

Paper-I : Advanced Java

Paper-II : Microprocessors and Assembly Language

Paper-III : Numerical Methods and Statistical Analysis

Paper-IV : Artificial Intelligence

Paper-V : Computer Graphics

Paper-VI : Simulation and Modelling

Paper-VII : Software Engineering

Paper - I
Advance Java

UNIT-I Fundamentals of Object-oriented Programming. : Introduction, Object-

OrientedProgramming. Basic concepts of object-oriented programming,
Benefits of OOP, Applications of OOP. JAVA Evolution: Java History. Java
Features, How Java Differs from C and C++, JavaInternet, Java and World
Wide Web, Web Browsers, Hardware and Software Requirements, Java
Support Systems. Java Environment .Overview of Java Language:
Introduction, Simple Java Program, More of Java, Application with .Two
Classes, Java Program Structure, Java Tokens, Java Statements,
Implementing a Java Program, Java Virtual Machine, Command Line
Arguments, Programming Style.' Constants, Variables and Data Types:
Introduction, Contents, Variables, Data Types, Declaration of Variables,
Giving Values of Variables, Scope to Variables, Symbolic Constants, Type
Casting, Getting Values of Variables, Standard Default Values. Operators
and Expressions Decision Making and Branching: Introduction, Decision
Making with if-Statement, Simple if Statement, The it.... else Statement,
Nesting of it—, else Statements, The else if Ladder, The Switch
Statement. The?: Operator.
UNIT-II Decision Making and Looping: Introduction, The while Statement, The do
Statement, The for Statement. Jumps in Loops, Labelled Loops. Classes,
Objects and' Methods: Static Members, Nesting of Methods, Inheritance:
Extending a Class, Overriding Methods, Final Variables and Methods,
Final Classes, Finalizes Methods. Abstract Methods' and Classes, Visibility
UNIT-III Arrays, Strings And. Vectors: Arrays, One-Dimensional Arrays, Creating
An Array,Tow-Dimensional Arrays Strings, Vectors, Wrapper Classes.
Interfaces: Multiple Inheritance: Introduction, Defining Interfaces,
Extending Interfaces, Implementing Interfaces, Accessing Interface
UNIT-IV Packages: Putting Classes Together: Introduction, Java API Packages,
Using SystemPackages, Naming Conventions, Creating Packages,
Accessing a Package, Using aPackage, Adding a Class to a Package,
Hiding Classes. Multithreaded
Programming: Introduction, Creating Threads, Extending the Thread
Class, Slopping and Blocking a Thread, Life Cycle of a Thread. Using
Thread Methods, Thread [Exceptions, Thread Priority, Synchronization,
Implementing the 'Run able' Interface.
UNIT-V Managing Input/Output Files in Java: Introduction, Concept of Streams,
Stream Classes, Bye Stream Classes, Character Stream Classes, Using
Streams, Other Useful 1Classes, Using the File Class. Input / Output
Exceptions, Creation of Files, Reading / Writing Characters. Reading /
Writing Bytes, Handling Primitive Data Types, Concatenating and Buffering
File;-., Random Access Files, Interactive Input and Output, Other Stream
Paper - II
Microprocessor and Assembly Language

UNIT-I Computer Number Systems, Codes, and Digital Devices : Computer

Number System and Codes, Arithmetic Operations on Binary, Hex, and
BCD Numbers, Basic Digital Devices.
Computers, Microcomputers, and Microprocessors - An Introduction
: Types of Computers, How Computers and Microcomputers are used,
Overview of Microcomputer Structure and Operation, Execution of a
Three-Instruction Program, Microprocessor Evolution and Types, The
8086 Microprocessor Family-Overview, 8086 Internal Architecture,
Introduction to Programming the 8086.
UNIT-II 8086 Family Assembly Language Programming - Introduction :
Program Development Steps, Constructing the Machine Codes for 8086
Instructions, Writing Programs for Use with an Assembler, Assembly
Language Program Development Tools.
Implementing Standard Program Structures in 8086 Assembly
Language : Simple Sequence Programs, Jumps. Flags, and Conditional
Jumps, If-Then, If-Then-Else, and Multiple If-Then-Else Programs, While-
Do-Programs, Repeat-Until Programs, Instruction Timing and Delay
Strings, Procedures, and Macros : The 8086 String Instructions, Writing
and Using Procedures, Writing and Using Assembler Macros.
UNIT-III 8086 Instruction Descriptions and Assembler Directives: Instruction
Descriptions, Assembler Directives.
8086 System Connection Finding, and Troubleshooting : A Basic 8086
Microcomputer System, Using a Logic Analyzer to observe Microprocessor
Bus Signals, An Example Minimum node System, the SDK-86,
Troubleshooting a simple 8086 Based Micro Computer.
8086 Interrupts and Interrupt Applications: 8086 Interrupts and
Interrupt Responses, Hardware Interrupt Applications, 8254 Software-
Programmable Timer/Counter, 8259A Priority Interrupt Controller,
Software Interrupt Applications.
UNIT-IV Digital Interfacing : Programmable Parallel Ports and Handshake
Input/Output Interfacing a Microprocessor to Keyboards, Interfacing to
Alphanumeric Display, Interfacing Microcomputer Ports to High-Power
Devices, Optical Motor Shaft Encoders.
High-Level Language for System Programming : Introduction-A Simple
C Program Example, Program Development Tools for C, Programming in
UNIT-V The 80286, 80386 and 80486 Microprocessors : Multiuser/ Multitasking
Operating System Concepts, The Intel 80286 Microprocessor, The Intel
80386 32-Bit Microprocessor, The Intel 80486 Microprocessor, New
Paper - III
Numerical Methods and Statistical Analysis

UNIT-I Introduction to Numerical Computing: Introduction, Numeric Data,

Analog Computing, Digital Computing, Process of Numerical Computing,
Characteristics of Numerical Computing, Computational Environment, New
Trends in Numerical Computing, Mathematical Background.
Introduction to Computers and Computing Concepts: Introduction,
Evolution of Numerical Computing and Computers, Types of Computers,
Types of Computers, Computing Concepts, Computer Organisation,
Driving the Computer: The Software, Programming Languages, Interactive
Computing, Flow Charting, Structuring the Logic Using the Computer.
UNIT-II Computer Codes and Arithmetic : Introduction, Decimal System, Binary
System, Hexadecimal System, Octal System, Conversion of Numbers,
Representation of Numbers, Computer Arithmetic, Laws of Arithmetic.
Approximations and Errors in Computing: Introduction, Significant
Digits, Inherent Errors, Numerical Errors, Modelling Errors, Blunders,
Absolute and Relative Errors, Machine Epsilon, Error Propagation,
Conditioning and Stability, Convergence of Iterative Processes, Error
Estimation, Minimizing the Total Error, Pitfalls and Precautions.
Fortran Overview : Need and Scope, A Sample Program, FORTRAN
Constants, FORTRAN Variables, Subscripted Variables, Input/Output
Statements, Computations, Control of Execution, Subprograms, Intrinsic
Functions, Debugging, Testing and Documentation.
UNIT-III Roots of Nonlinear Equations : Introduction Methods of Solution,
Interative Methods, Starting and Stopping an Iterative Process, Evaluation
of Polynomials, Bisection Method, False Position Method, Newton-
Raphson Method, Secant Method, Fixed-Point Method, Determining all
Possible Roots, Systems of Nonlinear Equations, Roots of Polynomials,
Multiple Roots by Newton's Method, Complex Roots by Bairstow Method,
Muller's Method.
Direct Solution of Linear Equations : Need and Scope, Existence of
Solution, Solution by Elimination, Basic Gauss Elimination Method, Gauss
Elimination with Pivoting, Gauss-Jordan Method, Triangular Factorization
Methods, Round-off Errors and Refinement, III-Conditioned Systems,
Matrix Inversion Method.
Interative Solution of Linear Equations : Need and Scope, Jacobi
Iteration Method, Guass-Seidel Method, Method of Relaxation,
Convergence of Iteration Methods.
UNIT-IV Curve Fitting : Interpolation : Introduction, Polynomial Forms, Linear
Interpolation, Lagrange Interpolation Polynomial, Newton Interpolation
Polynomial Divided Difference Table, Interpolation with Equidistant Points,
Spline Interpolation, Chebyshev Interpolation Polynomial.
Curve Fitting : Regression : Introduction, Fitting Linear Equations, Fitting
Transcendental Equations, Fitting a Polynomial Function, Multiple Linear
Regression, III-Conditioning in Least-Squares Methods.
Numerical Differentiation : Need and Scope, Differentiating Continuous
Functions, Differentiating Tabulated Functions, Difference Tables,
Richardson Extrapolation.
Numerical Integration : Need and Scope, Newton-Cotes Methods,
Trapezoidal Rule, Simpson's 1/3 Rule, Simpson's 3/8 Rule, Higher Order
Rules, Romberg Integration, Gaussian Integration.
UNIT-V Numerical Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations : Need and
Scope, Taylor Series Method, Euler's Method, Heun's Method, Polygon
Method, Runge-Kutta, Methods, Accuracy of One-Step Methods, Multistep
Methods, Accuracy of Multistep Methods, Systems of Differential
Equations, Higher-Order Equations.
Boundary-value and Eigenvalue Problems : Need and Scope, Shooting
Method, Finite Difference Method, Solving Eigenvalue Problems,
Polynomial Method, Power Method.
Solution of Partial Differential Equations : Need and Scope, Deriving
Difference Equations, Elliptic Equations, Parabolic Equations, Hyperbolic
Paper - IV
Artificial Intelligence

UNIT-I Overview of Artificial Intelligence : What is AI?, The Importance of AI,

Early Work in AI, AI and Related Fields.
Knowledge General Concepts : Introduction, Definition and Importance
of Knowledge, Knowledge-Based Systems, Representation of Knowledge,
Knowledge Organization, Knowledge Manipulation, Acquisition of
Lisp and Other AI Programming Language : Introduction to LISP :
Syntax and Numeric Functions, Basic List Manipulation Functions in LISP,
Functions, Predicates, and Conditionals, Input, Output, and Local
Variables, Iteration and Recursion, Property Lists and Arrays,
Miscellaneous Topics, PROLOG and Other AI Programming Languages.
Formalized Symbolic Logics : Introduction, Syntax and Semantics for
Propositional Logic, Syntax and Semantics for FOPL, Properties of Wffs,
Conversion to Clausal Form, Inference Rules, The Resolution Principle,
No deductive Inference Methods, Representation using Rules.
UNIT-II Dealing with Inconsistencies and Uncertainties: Introduction, Truth
Maintenance Systems, Default Reasoning and the Closed World
Assumption, Predicate Completion and Circumscription, Modal and
Temporal Logics, Fuzzy Logic and Natural Language Computations.
Probabilistic Reasoning: Introduction, Bayesian Probabilistic Inference,
Possible World Representations, Dempster-Shafer Theory, Ad-Hoc
Methods, Heuristic Reasoning Methods.
Structured Knowledge: Graphs, Frames, and Related Structured :
Introduction, Associative Network, Frame Structure, Conceptual
Dependencies and Scripts.
UNIT-III Object-Oriented Representations: Introduction, Overview of Object-
Oriented Systems, Objects, Classes, Messages, and Methods, Simulation
Example Using an OOS Program, Object Oriented Languages and
Search and Control Strategies: Introduction, Preliminary Concepts,
Examples of Search Problems, Uniformed or Blind Search, Informed
Search, Searching And-Or Graphs.
Matching Techniques : Introduction, Structures Used in Matching,
Measures for Matching, Matching Like Patterns, Partial Matching Fuzzy
Matching Algorithms, The RETE Matching Algorithm.
UNIT-IV Knowledge Organization and Management: Introduction, Indexing and
Retrieval Techniques, Integrating Knowledge in Memory, Memory
Organization Systems.
Natural Language Processing: Introduction, Overview of Linguistics,
Grammars and Languages, Basic Parsing Techniques, Sematic Analysis
and Representation structures, Natural Language Generation, Natural
Language Systems.
Pattern Recognition : Introduction, The Recognition and Classification
Process, Learning Classification Patterns, Recognizing and Understanding
Visual Image Understanding: Introduction, Image Transformation and
Low-Level Processing, Intermediate-Level Image Processing, Describing
and Labeling Objects, High-Level Processing, Vision System
Expert Systems Architecture: Introduction, Rule-Based System
Architectures, Nonproduction System Architectures, Dealing with
Uncertainty, Knowledge Acquisition and Validation Knowledge System
Building Tools.
UNIT-V General Concepts in Knowledge Acquisition : Introduction, Types of
Learning, Knowledge Acquisition is Difficult, General Learning Model,
Performance Measures.
Early work in Machine Learning : Introduction, Perceptrons, Checker
Playing Example, Learning Automata, Genetic Algorithms, Intelligent
Learning by Induction : Introduction, Basic Concepts, Some Definitions,
Generalization and Specialization, Inductive Bias, Example of an Inductive
Examples of other Inductive Learners : Introduction, The ID3 System,
The LEX System, The INDUCE System, Learning Structure Concepts.
Analogical and Explanation-Based Learning : Introduction, Analogical
Reasoning and Learning, Examples of Analogical Learning Systems,
Explanation-Based Learning.
Paper - V
Computer Graphics

UNIT-I Introduction: Computer graphics, definition, classification & applications,

development of hardware & software for computer graphics.
Graphics System:Refresh Cathode ray tubes, Random and raster scan
devices, DVST, plasma panel displays, LED and LCD monitors, laser
devices, printers, plotters, display processors, raster and random scan
UNIT-II Output primitives : DDA along with, Bresenhan's line drawing algorithm,
antialiasing, circle generation: Midpoint algorithms, ellipse, other curves,
character generation, area filling scan line algorithm, boundary fill flood fill
algorithm, attributes of output primitives line attributes, area fill attributes,
character attributes.
Two-dimensional Transformations : Translation, scaling rotation
reflection sheer, matrix representation and homogeneous coordinates,
composite transformations, transformation commands.
UNIT-III Windowing and Clipping : Viewing coordinates window, view port,
clipping, and window to view transformation line clipping Cohen
Sutherland algorithm polygon clipping: sutherland-hodgeman algorithm.
UNIT-IV Three-dimensional concepts: Three dimensional viewing, three
dimensional object representation: polygons, cured line & surfaces
quadrate (sphere, ellipsoid), surfaces, design of curves & surfaces,
bezier's methods, Bspling methods; three dimensional transformations:
translating, scaling composite transformation, rotation about arbitrary axis,
projection: parallel, perspective.
UNIT-V Visible surface detection: Classification of visible-surface, detection
algorithms, back face detection, depth buffer method, A-buffer method,
scans line method, depth-sorting method.
Interactive input Device: Logical classification, Keyboards, touch panels,
light pens, joysticks, mouse, trackball digitizers, tablets.
Illumination and shading: Light sources, diffuse reflection, secular
reflection, reflected light, texture, shadows, light intensity, intensity levels,
surface shading, constant intensity, gouraud shading, phong shading.
Paper - VI
Simulation and Modeling

UNIT-I System Models : The Concepts of a System, System Environment,

Stochastic Activities, Continuous and Discrete Systems, System Modeling,
Static Physical Models, Dynamic Physical Models, Static Mathematical
Models, Dynamic Mathematical Models, Principles Used in Modeling,
System Studies : Subsystems, A Corporate Model, Environment
Segment, Production Segment, Management Segment. The Full
Corporate Model, Types of System Study, System Analysis, System
Design, System Postulation
System Simulation : The Technique of Simulation, The Monte Carlo
Method, Comparison of Simulation and Analytical Methods Experimental
Nature of Simulation, Types of System Simulation, Numerical Computation
Technique for Continuous Models, Numerical Computation Technique for
Discrete Models, Distributed Lag Models, Cobweb Models, Progress of a
Simulation Study
UNIT-II Continuous System Simulation : Continuous System Models,
Differential Equations, Analog Computers, Analog Methods, Hybrid
Computers Digital-Analog Simulators, Continuous System Simulation
Languages (CSSLs), CSMP III, Hybrid. Simulation, Feedback Systems,
Simulation of an Autopilot, Interactive Systems Real-Time Simulation
System Dynamics : Historical Background, Exponential Growth Models,
Exponential Decay Models, Modified Exponential Growth Models , Logistic
Curves, Generalization of Growth Models, System Dynamics Diagrams,
Simple System Dynamics Diagrams, Multi-Segment Models,
Representation of Time Delays, Feedback in Socio-Economic Systems, A
Biological Example, World Models, The DYNAMO Language
UNIT-III Probability Concepts In Simulation : Stochastic Variables, Discrete
Probability Functions, Continuous Probability Functions, Measures of
Probability of continuous Probability Functions, Continuous Uniformly
Distributed Random Numbers, Computer Generation of Random
Numbers, A Uniform Random Number Generator, Generating Discrete
Distributions, Non-Uniform Continuously Distributed Random Numbers.
The Rejection Method
Arrival Patterns And Service Times : Congestion in Systems, Arrival
Patterns, Poisson Arrival Patterns, The Exponential Distribution, The
Coefficient of Variation, The Erlang Distribution, The Hyper-Exponential
Distribution, Service Times, The Normal Distribution, Queuing Disciplines,
Measures of Queues, Methematical Solutions of Queuing Problems,
Utilization as a Design Factor, Grade of Service,
Discrete System Simulation : Discrete Events, Representation of Time,
Generation of Arrival Patterns, Simulation of a Telephone System,
Delayed Calls, Simulation Programming Tasks, Gathering Statistics,
Counters and Summary Statistics, Measuring Utilization and Occupancy,
Recording Distributions and Transit Times, Discrete Simulation
UNIT-IV Introduction to GPSS : GPSS Programs, General Description, Action
Times, Succession of Events, Choice of Paths, Simulation of a
Manufacturing Shop, Facilities and Storages, Gathering Statistics,
Conditional Transfers, Program Control Statements,
GPSS Examples : Priorities and Parameters, Standard Numerical
Attributes, Functions, Simulation of a Supermarket, Transfer Modes, Logic
Switches, Testing Conditions, GPSS Model of a Simple Telephone
System, Set Operations
UNIT-V Introduction to Simscript : Simscript Programs, Simscript System
Concepts, Organization of a Simscript Program, Names and Labels,
Simscript Statements, Defining the System, Defining the Telephone
System Model, Referencing Variables, The MAIN Routine, The Arrival
Event, The Timing Routine, The Disconnect Event, The Closing Event,
Management of Sets in Simscript : Definition of Sets in Simscript, Set
Organization, Set Controls, Telephone System Model, Gathering Statistics
in Simscript, Searching Arrays, Searching Sets.
Simulation Programming Techniques: Entity Types, List Processing,
Data Structures in SimScript, Data Structures in GPSS, Implementation of
Activities, Simultanous Events, Conditional Events, Event Scanning,
Execution of Simulation Algorithm in Simscript, Execution of Simulation
Algorithm in GPSS.
Analysis of Simulation Output : Nature of the Problem, Estimation
Methods, Simulation Run Statistics, Replication of Runs, Elimination of
Initial Bise, Batch Means, Regenerative Techniques, Time Series Analysis,
Spectral Analysis, Autoregressive Processes.
Paper - VII
Software Engineering

UNIT-I Introduction: The software problem, software engineering problem, the

software engineering approach, definitions of S.E. Goals of S.E.
Software Processes: Processes, projects and products, component
software processes, characteristics of a software process, software
Development Process, project management process, software
configuration management process, and process management process.
UNIT - II Software requirement Analysis and Specification: Software
requirement, need for SRS, requirement process, problem analysis,
analysis issues. Informal approach, structured analysis, object oriented
modeling, other modeling approaches, prototyping, requirement
specification, characteristics of an SRS, component of an SRS,
specification languages, structure of a requirement document, validation,
requirement reviews, other method metrics, size measures, quality
UNIT - III Planning a software project: Cost estimation, uncertainties in cost
estimation, building cost estimation models, on size estimation, COCOMO
model, project scheduling, average duration estimation, project scheduling
and milestones, staffing and personnel planning, ray Leigh curve,
personnel plan, team structure, software configuration management plans,
quality assurance plans, verification and validation, project monitoring
plans, risk management.
UNIT - IV Function Oriented Design: Design principles, coupling, cohesion, design
notation and specification, structured design methodology, verification,
network metrics, stability metrics, information flow metrics Software
Methods: Software testing fundamentals, test case design, white box
testing, control structure-testing, black box testing, testing for specialized
UNIT - V Software Testing Strategies: A Strategic Approach to software testing,
strategic issues, unit testing, integration testing, validation testing, system
testing, the art of debugging.