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# Topic 2

## Design Temperature / Design Pressure

Flange Rating & Pipe Sizing

Contents: 11 pages

## Jan 2017 / TKH 1

Section 6 : Process Vessel (Drum) Example

D-6006
Re-contacting Drum

Jan 2017/TKH 2
Section 11 : Process Flow Diagram Example (1/2)

Bottom Circuit of
Distillation Tower
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3
A. Design Temperature(DT)
A. Design Temperature(DT)
1. Every piece of process equipment or piping is designated a design temperature.
2. For conditions up to + 400 C ,
DT = maximum operating temperature + 30 C
3. Value normally rounded up to next higher number in 5 C increment.
4. Tighter safety margins may be used above this given temperature range.
5. DT is used to determine the allowable stress value (S) for use in equation to
calculate minimum thickness for a vessel/piping:
Pi Di
t= >> eqn. 14.13 Towler 's Chem. Eng . Design
2 SE 1.2 Pi
6. Often there is need to consider critical exposure temperature (CET) for equipment
and piping.
7. CET is temperature that equipment will be subjected to at internal pressure greater
than 25 % design pressure or the lowest one-day mean temperature , whichever is less.
8. Important for cryogenic processes and cold climates ; to ensure equipment material has
sufficient toughness to prevent brittle fracture.
Jan 2017 / TKH 4
B. Design Pressure (DP)

B. Design Pressure(DP)
1. DP value is used in equation for calculating minimum thickness of piping and equipment (=Pi).
2. For most process equipment:
DP = 110% maximum operating pressure , or
= max. operating pressure + 170 kPa (1.7bar), whichever is greater.
3. Value normally rounded up to higher number in 50 kPa increment.
4. Safety Valve(SV) protecting equipment is normally set to relieve at DP value.
5. Delta(~ 10%) takes care of normal fluctuations in operating pressure as well as preventing SV leakage.
6. For equipment operating in vacuum( partial of full):
DP = 110 kPag (16 psig) & Full Vacuum ( 0 kPaa)
This allows vessel to be designed in accordance with ASME code.
7. For centrifugal pump (casing) and also downstream equipment:
DP = max. suction pressure + 120% ( rated pump differential pressure)
120% allowance caters for pressure rise in a centrifugal pump at shutoff condition.

## Jan 2017 / TKH 5

C. Flange Rating
1. All process equipment , piping and pipe fittings (valves, etc.) have flanges or flange joints .
2. Flanges are classified under following classes : 150/300/400/600//900/etc.
3. Each flange class has its own set of pressure - temperature ratings.
4. Pressure - temperature ratings are maximum allowable gauge pressures in bar units at temperatures shown
in the tables.
5. ASME B16.5 2013 for flange /piping sizes NPS 24 (inch) & smaller relating to various materials are given.
6. For specified material, flange rating class is determined by the DT and DP of the equipment .
Example 1
Given : max. process temperature = 320 deg. C ; max. process pressure = 2970 kPa g ;
material : carbon steel
Determine : DT / DP / Flange Rating class.
Solution : a. DT = 320 + 30 = 350 deg. C
b. DP = 2970 x 1.1 = 3267 kPa g = 33 bar g (rounded up)
c. Referring to Table 2.1-1 overleaf for CS flanges ,
Class 150 at temp of 350 deg. C, max pressure allowable = 8.4 bar g
Class 300 at temp. of 350 deg. C, max pressure allowable = 37.6 bar g
Jan 2017 / TKH Since DP is 33 bar g , select Flange Class 300 . 6
C. ASME B16.5-2013 Ratings for Carbon Steel Flanges thru NPS 24 ( DN 600)

Jan 2017 / TKH For flanges larger than NPS 24 (DN 600), refer to ASME
7
B16.47 Series B
C. ASME 16.5 2013 Ratings for Stainless Steel Flanges thru NPS 24 ( DN 600)

## Jan 2017 / TKH 8

D: Guidelines for Pipe Sizing
1. Average/typical pressure drops for line sizing in petroleum and petrochemical industry :
Service -----------------------kPa/m-------------------------
Average Maximum
Pump suction and gravity flow 0.06 0.09
Pump discharge 0.34* 0.45
Pump discharge > 1000 kPa g 0.68 - 0.90
compressor suction 0.02 0.07
compressor discharge 0.04 0.11
vapor/gas 0.05 0.11
steam 0.01 0.02
water 0.06 0.11
* in the region of 1 to 3 m/s flow velocity.
(also refer to Table 6.2 of Coupers Chemical Process Equipment: Selection & Design)
2. Offsite /tankage lines: equivalent lengths of fittings amount to 20 to 80% of actual length; hence when
actual physical configuration is not available, a multiplier of 1.2 to 1.8 can be applied to the estimated
straight length piping.
3. Onsite/ process units lines : equivalent length of fittings amount to 200 to 500% of actual length; hence
when actual configuration is not available, a multiplier of 3 to 6 may be applied to straight length piping
Jan 2017 / TKHmeasured from plot plan taking into account vessel heights . 9
E. Specifying Piping in Process Flow Diagrams

## 1. Piping in Process Flow Diagrams are specified as follows ( 2 examples) :

DN 600 150 CS 2
DN 300 300 304SS 1
nominal diameter (mm) flange rating class material type corrosion allowance
2. Nominal diameter (mm) : 15/20/25/40/50/80/100/150/200/250/ etc.
3. Flange rating class : 150/300/400/600/900/1500/2500
4. Material type : a. CS carbon steel b. KCSkilled carbon steel c. 1 Cr Mo;
d. 2 Cr 1Mo; e. 5Cr Mo; f. 9Cr 1 Mo;
g. 410SS 12 Cr; h. 304SS 18%Cr8%Ni; i. 316 SS18%Cr12% Ni 3%Mo
Materials with increasing resistance to oxidation , sulphur and hydrogen attack.
5. Corrosion allowance : 1 = 1.6 mm 2 = 3.2 mm
3 = 4.8 mm 4 = 6.4 mm
5 = 8.0 mm 6 = 9.6 mm
6. Line specification with DT & DP data would allow the mechanical design engineer to calculate the minimum
material thickness for the service and then select the requisite pipe schedule.

References

## 1. ASME B 31.3-2014 , ASME Code for Process Piping.

2. ASME B16.5-2013,ASME Code for Pipe Flanges and Fittings.
3. ASME BPVC 2015 Edition.
4. Chemical Process Equipment : Selection and Design, by Couper et al , 2010 Edition, Butterworth-
Heinemann.
5. Ludwigs Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants , by Coker, 2007 edition, Gulf
Publishing.