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Poster D Implication for Earth Sciences 245

The Indonesian Gravity Field and the Geoid Model


Abstract and Surnatera are better than in the other islands. This is
due to the fact that the existing gravity data in Jawa and
The Indonesian geoid model (INDGED96) has been con-
structed from the Indonesian gravity database of 5' grid Surnatera are denser.
interval. The accuracy of the geoid height is considered poor In order to improve the geoid, it is required to fill the gaps
in some areas due to the lack of high resolution gravity data especially in Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Irian Jaya.
in the areas. In order to improve the geoid model, additional
gravity data must be performed. Since the data gaps occur At present, the data gaps are mostly occurred in mountain-
mostly in mountainous remote areas, performing terrestrial ous terrain areas which covers by dense forest and jungle.
observation will be very time consuming. In this case, imple- Therefore, filling the gaps by means ofterrestrial measure-
menting airborne gravimetry is an alternative to accelerate the
data acquisition. However, the accuracy ofthe airborne derived ments would be very expensive and time consuming. How-
gravity data used for geophysical exploration purposes might ever, the airborne technique can offer the opportunity to
not be suitable for the precise geoid determination. A case cover the remote and rugged areas in relatively shorter time.
study of the airborne gravity data aimed at hydrocarbon
allocation in Irian Jaya used to calculate the geoid height is 2. The Indonesian Gravity Field
undertaken. The preliminary result is presented.
The Indonesian gravity surveys was started back in 1930s
1. Introduction by Vening Meinesz which performed the pendulum survey
The Indonesian archipelagic country consists of 17 546 in the Indonesian waters. Since then many gravity surveys
islands cover the area of more than 7 200 000 square kilo- were made aiming at locating structures related to hydrocar-
meters. The determination ofthe geoid with high accuracy bon and mineral resources as well as for scientific purposes.
and resolution is required towards the unification of the An attempt to compile all the existing data is to produce
national height system. a regional Indonesian gravity database. An integration of
The Indonesian geoid model ever constructed was based marine and land was the first priority in order to produce
on the existing land and marine gravity data combined with a comprehensive database. The land data, however are very
the earth potential model of OSU91A. scattered and based on the various references.

The computation was performed by using the remove- In 1994 the primary Indonesian gravity database was
restore technique. The accuracy of the resulted geoid is constructed. Around 250 600 points of land surveys and
uneven across the area. By comparison to the geometric 150000 points of marine measurements are gridded in to
geoid computed in several control points available in J awa, 5' interval produced a data set of 136000 points.
Sumatera, Sulawesi and Irian Jaya, the agreements in Jawa



-5 .00

95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00

Fig.l : The Indonesian Gravity Data

A. Kasenda, A. M. Komara, S. Sutisna: National Coordination Agency for Surveys and mapping (BAKOSURT ANAL), n. Raya Bogor, KM-46 Cibinong,
Indonesia; Tel.: +62-21-8754654, Fax:+62-21-8752064,

R. Rummel et al. (eds.), Towards an Integrated Global Geodetic Observing System (IGGOS)
Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000
246 Implication for Earth Sciences PosterD

3. The Indonesian Geoid Model to the fact that the original gravity data distribution in Jawa
and Sumateraislands are better as compare to the data over
The Indonesian regional geoid model known as the Sulawesi island.
INDGED96 was constructed based on the gravity database
of 5' grid interval. The undulation was computed by using In orderto fulfill the need of better geoid across the Indone-
the earth coefficients potential model of OSU91A as a sian area, densification of the gravity data is urgent.
reference to compute the medium to long wavelength In line with the exploration program of aimed at inventing
component of the geoid, whereas the short wavelength the natural resources in Indonesia, the National Oil Com-
component was calculated from the residual gravity anoma- pany has applied airborne gravimetry to undertake a
lies. The result varies from 42.5 to 77.5 meters over the area systematic geophysical mapping in eastern part of Indone-
with various accuracy across the country. By comparison sia. Upon successfully completion of these works, it is
with the geometric geoid in several GPSlLeveling control planned to extend the measurementto the area ofless dense
points available in major islands such as Jawa, Sumatera of the data.
and Sulawesi it is showed that the relative comparison in
Jawa and Suamtera are better than in Sulawesi. This is due

, , , , , ,
95 .0 100.0 105 .0 110.0 115.0 120.0 125 .0 140.0


Fig.2 : The Indonesian Geoid Model

In conjunction with that, the in corning airborne gravity data References:

can be used to update the geoid model with better coverage
HEISKANENW.,MoRI1ZH., (1967): Physical Geodesy, W.H.
of gravity data. Prior to this plan, an initial test of using Freeman and CO., San Francisco, Text Book.
airborne gravity data was conducted to construct the local KASENDAA,KEARSLEY AH.W., (1993): The geoiddetermi-
geoid model of the Lengguru area in Irian Jaya. The mean nation of/rian Jaya, Unisurv. S-43, UNSW, Australia,
deviation from the INDGED96 model over the respective 1-88.
area is 0.45 meterwiththermsdeviationof2.2. The relative KAHAR J., (1991), Geoid dan pengaruhnya pada reduksi jarak,
accuracy is determined by comparing the airborne geoid Bakosurtanal, into report, Cibinong.
to the geometric geoid which is planned to re-measure the KEARSLEY AW.H, (1985), Towards the optimum evaluation
Doppler/APR points in this area by GPS observations. of the inner zone contribution to geoidal heights from
gravimetry, Reports No.20, university Uppsala
This initial test result is expected to allow the gravity
anomalies derived from airborne technique aimed at
geophysical exploration to be used for updating the geoid
model of Indonesia.