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Commercial Geography
Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)

The per population density of the * Hot and humid

world in 2010 A.D. was: * Very hot
* 95 * Cool and dry
* 75
* 49 Trade is an example of:
* 25 * Tertiary activity
* Primary activity
This Indian region is famous for tea * Secondary activity
plantation: * Quadrennial activity
* Hyderabad Deccan
* Assam The largest palm oil producing country in the
* Bengal world is:
* Maharashtra. * Malaysia
* Indonesia
The world leader in iron-ore production is: * India
* Canada * Afghanistan
* Brazil
* U.S.A This region is leading the world in rice
* China. cultivation:
* North Africa
Commercial use of natural gas was first * Southern Europe
practiced in 1820 A.D. in: . * Monsoon Asia
* Russia * North America
* U.S.A.
* Germany It was discovered in 1492 A.D. through
* Iran Atlantic Ocean route:
* Antarctica
This country produces 99.5% of its power * Australia
requirements through hydro-electricity: * America
* Norway * North Pole
* Sweden
* Canada Rubber is planted here:
* Cuba * Polar region
* Equatorial region
Qadirabad Barrage is built on this river: * Mountainous region
* Jehlum * Temperate region
* Chenab
* Indus North West Pakistan & Afghanistan is the
* Ravi native land of:
* Rice
Southern Punjab and Sindh are the major * Sugar cane
areas of the cultivation of this crop: * Cotton
* Rice * Wheat
* Sugarcane
* Cotton Construction is an example of the following
* Tobacco commercial activities:
* Tertiary
This pass connects Chitral and Peshawar: * Primary
* Lowari Pass * Secondary
* Khyber Pass * Quaternary
* Tochi Pass
* Gomal pass Dogar bank is famous for:
* Maximum Interest Rate
It is the coldest place in Pakistan: * Fishing Activity
* Murree * Offering Commercial Loans
* Abbotabad * None of these
* Naran
* Skurdu About 80% of this power is produced in
Europe and North America:
The climate of Pakistan is: * Nuclear
* Hot and dry * Hydroelectric
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* Solar Rubber is planted in:
* Thermal * Mountainous region
* Polar region
In the world, about one third of total fish is * Temperate region
caught in: * Equatorial region
* North East Asia
* South Asia It is the biggest railway junction of Pakistan:
* Polar Regions * Khanewal
* Mediterranean Region * Khanpur
* Rohri
Cotton was cultivated for the first time in: * Kotri
* Middle Eastern Countries
* Indo-Pak sub continent The four main rivers of Punjab meet at:
* European Countries * Guddu
* Far Eastern Countries * Mithan Kot
* Panjnad
Linear plantation is a type of: * Warsak
* Irrigated Forest
* Bela Forest Commercial grain farming is practiced in the
* Coastal Forest grasslands of:
* Natural Forest * Frigid region
* Equatorial region
Climate of Srilanka is: * Temperate region
* Hot & dry * Tundra region
* Very hot
* Hot & humid Winter rain fall in Pakistan is caused by:
* Cool & dry * Tropical cyclones
* Monsoon
The Amazon basin is situated in this * Western depression
continent: * Easterlies
* Europe
* South America Demographically, the biggest city of the
* Africa world is:
* North America * Shanghai
* Mumbai
Tea plantation is found in the hills of the * Tokyo
following areas: * New York
* Hot & dry
* Hot The total land area of all the continents is
* Dry approximately this part of the world:
* Hot and Humid * 29%
* 25%
The biggest industry of Pakistan is: * 35%
* Iron & steel * 32%
* Cotton textile
* Sugar There are twelve crossing points on the
* Cement border of Pakistan and:
* Afghanistan
Coal stone (Minerals coal) was used for the * China
first time in: * Iran
* Germany * India
* China
* India This is not a grassland:
* U.S.A. * Canterbury
* Veldts
Truck farming is a type of: * Downs
* Shifting Cultivation * Greenland
* Market Gardening
* Mixed Farming They have developed the art of hunting to a
* Mechanized Farming high state of differentiation:
* Eskimos
Webers model is about the location of: * Inca
* Grasslands * European hunters
* Deserts * American Cowboys
* Industries
* Cities It is the largest country by industrial output:
* The USA
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* Japan These forest of Pakistan are located in the
* Germany Indus Delta:
* China * Alpine
* Coniferous
Monsoon forests are mainly found in: * Mangroves
* East Asia * Riverine
* Europe
* Australia This is not a dry port of Pakistan:
* India * Lahore
* Quetta
This country produces 99.5% of its power * Multan
requirements through hydro electricity: * Bahawalpur
* Canada
* Norway All the rivers of Punjab meet the river Indus
* Sweden at:
* Cuba * Mithankot
* Panjnad
This indian region is famous for tea * Thatta
plantation: * Guddu
* Bengal
* Maharashtra LPG stand for:
* Hyderabad Decan * Low price gas
* Assam * Liguified petroleum gas
* Least power gas
This type of climate is required for sugarcane * Low petroleum gas
* Cold dry The famous shandur pass connects:
* Cold Humid *Chitral and Gilgit
* Hot Equatorial * Peshawar and Chitral
* Humid Tropical * Abbotabad and Gilgit
* Kabul and Chitral
Humid Climate is suitable for this industry:
* Fertilizer The total population of this country is urban:
* sport goods * France
* Iron and Steel *Singapore
* Textile * Germany
* Japan
This is the biggest chemical fertilizer
producing country of the world: Demographically, the biggest city of the
* China world is:
* Russia * Shanghai
* India * Tokyo
*USA * Mumbai
* Washington
This is the second largest cash crop of
Pakistan: Of the world rice production, the share of
* Sugar cane Monsoon Asia is:
* Tobacco * 70%
* Maize * 85%
* Rice * 80%
* 90%
This Country is the inventor of Bio gas
technology: Cold desert vegetations are also called:
* USA * Savannah
* Canada * Tundra
* France * Taiga
* China * Temperate

This is the largest iron and steel producing This Doab is in between Jhelum and Chenab
area in lndia: Rivers:
* Durgapur * Chaj
* Bhelai *Rachna
* Jamshedpur * Bari
* Gujrat * Sind sagar

Siachin glacier lies in: * Russia

* China
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* Pakistan In Pakistan most of the tobacco crop is cultivated
* Afghanistan in:
* Sindh
Thermal power is produced by: * Khyber Pakhtoon Khwa
* Atom * Baluchistan
* Water * Punjab
* Coal
* Wind Rubber is planted here:
* Polar region
Most of the Sugar is obtained from: * Equatorial region
* Grape * Desert region
* Sugar cane * Temperate region
* Beatroot
* Sweet potato The largest mineral oil reserved in the world are
located in:
OPEC is the organization of countries * Iraq
producing: * Saudi Arabia
* Rubber * Kuwait
* Petroleum * Iran
* Rice
* Wheat This mountain lies between Sindh and
The country to the east of Pakistan is: * Himalaya
* Iran * Koh-e-Safed
* Afghanistan * Hindu Kush
* China * Kirthar
* India
Khewra salt mine is located here:
Items made by hand are called: * Sindh
* Handmade * Punjab
* Handicrafts * Khyber Pakhtoon Khwa.
* Industrial goods * Baluchistan
* Minerals
It is called the Manchester of Pakistan:
The economy of Pakistan mostly depends upon: * Karachi
* Banking * Hyderabad
* Agriculture * Faisalabad
* Mining * Lahore
* Industries
The needs of Pakistan Steel Mills are met
The main cause of winter rainfall in Pakistan is: through the port of:
* Monsoon winds * Karachi
* Westerlies * Gawadar
* Mediterranean winds * Bin Qasim
* Siberian winds * Pasni
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Geography of World
Q-1 Explain the terms Renewable Natural Resources & Non-renewable Natural Resource.
Ans Natural resources are either RENEWABLE or NON-RENEWABLE. Non-renewable natural resources
are listed as: fossil fuels, oil, coal, copper, diamonds, natural gas, iron ore, minerals, gold, silver, platinum,
rocks, and many more. Once non-renewable resources are removed it will take . a very, very long time, if ever,
to replace them. We certainly will not see it again in our lifetime or that of the next generation.

Renewable. resources, on-the-other-hand, can be replaced in a relatively short period of time or used
through conservation efforts without depleting the resource. We consider renewable natural resources to be:
animals, insects, reptiles, plants, trees, water, grass, solar and wind energy. Yes, water is considered a renewable
resource! Even though the same amount of water is on the earth TODAY, as there was when the earth was
formed, only 3% is actually in a useable state. The rest is either too salty or frozen in polar packs. That 3% is
renewable through the.water cycle, but we still need to conserve our water use and be careful not to waste water
or any of our natural resources.

Q-2 Climate does not greatly influence industrial development. Comment.

Ans. Climate change impacts are expected to reduce projected global output by one to two per cent by 2050,
with main declines seen in developing regions. The impacts of climate change itself will have relatively modest
impacts on aggregate trade, since this is increasingly manufacturing and services-oriented. Business-as-usual
projections suggest that global trade will be reduced by some three to four per cent by 2050,mainly as a result of
reduced output. Of particular concern to Africa is the anticipated reduction in agricultural outputs due to climate
changes, which would reduce export crops and increase dependency on food imports. The currently expanding
tourism industry in Africa (five per cent of global) is expected to decline with higher fuel prices.

One of the clearest impacts of climate change will be on trade infrastructure and routes. Port facilities, as we
as buildings, roads, railways, airports and bridges are at risk of damage from rising sea levels and the increased
occurrence of instances of extreme weather, floods and storms. In addition, fuel prices are likely to change
significantly in the future, making some existing trade uneconomic but also opening up new possibilities.

Q-3 Explain the role of transport network in the development of mining in any area.
Ans. Transportation within the mines and to the places of demand was also a serious concern. Indeed,
since only human and horse transport was available raw ores underwent primary processing at the mines just
because of the restrictions of transportation. The opening of the railway solved this problem.

The possibility of development of transportation within mines from manual labours to horsepower and then
to tramcars depended on the physical nature of the mine, the height and width of its shafts, and the design of the
route. The full development of a mine with a unified transportation system connecting all the main shafts and its
branches would be possible only by implementing modern mining methods. Investments for geological surveys,
ranging from the traditional mountain diagnosis (the old method of looking over an area and choosing a site
according to feel) to modern boring and feasibility surveys, have to be done in advance, but these were all
beyond the scope and financial capacity of the subcontracted mine operators.

Q-4 What is meant by E-Commerce? How does it operate?

Ans. E Commerce stands for Electronic Commerce, which is in itself a broad term for selling on the
internet through a website, electronically. With the ability to process credit cards electronically on the internet,
just about anything can be sold on the web. More and more people are buying online and enjoying the benefits
of convenience and lower prices. Online stores are often able to reduce prices because they are able to eliminate
overhead such as having to pay employees to run a brick and mortar store. In a busy world like ours,
convenience is everything! Shipping times are so fast now that when an item is ordered online it can often be at
the buyers doorstep the next morning.

E Commerce websites are built differently, but they all use the same basic functions. The ability to accept
credit cards is very important. When a purchase is made the money will be transferred directly into your
businesses bank account. When an order is placed, the customers purchase and payment information will come
into your administration section. You will login with your desired username and password to view this
information. Through the admin section you will also be able to add new products, update products, and
maintain your whole website.

Q-5 The largest tea producers have no role in world tea trade. Comment.
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Ans. Ultimately the options for tea producers to improve their livelihoods are limited. Increasing
productivity and reducing the costs of inputs can help to some extent. But producers will still be vulnerable to
impacts of climate change as well as global reductions in tea price. The only way to create long term security
for tea producers is to increase their negotiating power so as to shift the value chain in their favor. Harriet Lamb,
Executive Director, Fair-trade Foundation says:

It is our ambition to re-balance the power in the supply chain so that tea workers and farmers become price-
makers rather than price-takers in the long run.

Currently, there are 93 Fair-trade certified tea producers but they are only able to sell a small proportion of their
tea on Fair-trade terms as there is not enough consumer demand for Fair-trade tea. Director of United Nilgiri
Tea Estates in India, Mr. Pinto said: We would love to sell all our tea as Fair-trade tea. That is not only good for
the company as it yields higher prices but especially for the workers. Look what has been accomplished with
the premium money and imagine what would happen if all our tea was sold as Fair-trade. Major changes could
be achieved. The future faced by tea growers and workers is not just in the hands of a few companies and the
changing climate. It is in our hands also. If we all demanded Fair-trade tea for our daily cupper, we could start
to tip the balance in favor of tea producers in Asia and Africa. Fair-trade is the only independent assurance that
workers have a voice within the value chain and that small farmers livelihoods are more secure.

Q-6 Explain the importance of Electronic media in the world.

Ans. There are many different ways in which people communicate such as, through the phone, through
personal encounters, and by attending work place, school, seminars etc. Though media is not the only
communication medium used to dispense the flow of information, its importance in developed countries is
worth mentioning as it has been the <maln source to inform people on political issues or current affairs as well
as being as the main source of entertainment. The flow of information from one geographical location
to another has increased in speed considerably with the advent in digitally enabled communication devices.
Different network channels over cable or satellite TV, newspapers and radio channels are emerging at a very
rapid pace providing the people with a medium to connect themselves with the outside world. Print media has
always been a dominant medium throughout the decades in the western civilization, but it is the emergence of
the television which has become the backbone of the global commercial development. Television contains
the ability to produce multimedia content and thus has the immense power tochange an individuals perception
of reality. It is of no wonder that in order to believe in something-, one has to have complete faith in the source
of information. This. source of information could be ranging from one person to any academic institution.
However in todays connected society it is the media, which has become the main source of information.

Q-7 Describe three main types of chemical fertilizer.

Ans. Chemical fertilizers promote plant growth and are produced by a chemical process. Chemical fertilizers
are less bulky than natural fertilizers such as manure or compost. There are many different types of chemical
fertilizers and they come in powder, granular, liquid and gas forms.

Sodium Nitrates:
Sodium nitrates contain 16 percent nitrogen and also are known as Chilates or Chilean nitrate. They are useful
in soil that is acidic.

Ammonium Sulphate:
Ammonium sulphate comes in a white crystal form, similar to salt. It contains about 20 percent
ammoniacal nitrogen and has an acidic effect on the soil.

Ammonium Nitrate:
Ammonium nitrate comes in a form similar to ammonium sulphate but it contains about 34 percent nitrogen. It
acts quickly on the soil but cant be stored for very long.

Q-8 Write the basic functions of a fertilizer.

Ans. Fertilizers are chemical compounds containing nitrogen, phosphorous, sulphur, sodium, which are
essential for the growth and development of crops.

Fertilizers are generally inorganic salts such as ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate, super phosphate, triple
phosphate and potassium nitrate etc. Urea is organic in nature. Fertilizers makeup deficiency of soil, keep it
slightly alkaline or neutral. It should be noted down that the soil having pH below 3 or above 10 is sterile.
Furnish adequate supply of the elements to the plants to become fertile again. Supply of necessary food.
Maintain pH of soil in between 7.00 to 8.00.

Q-9 Farming is not practiced in polar and desert regions. Comment.

Ans. Farming is not practiced in the Polar Regions because of the harsh weather conditions like extremely
low temperatures, and the snow. You could try it in the warmer seasons, but fishing and hunting would be much
easier. Many plants especially ones that are harvested dont like it there because of low temperatures, and the
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snow and cant grow there. There would be very little nutrients if a plant was there. However, algae and moss
grow there, but they are not edible.

Farming isnt practiced in the desert regions because of its temperatures an its deadly contrast in climate
changes. Desert soil is very dry and it doesnt hold the appropriate nutrient value for ordinary crops to be
grown. Also the scorching heat is not a favorable condition for crops to be grown.

Q-10 Which region of the world is the, front runner in rubber production nowadays? Write three points
in support of your answer.
Ans. The Top 5 Rubber Producing Countries, with production in 2010 in metric tons.

1. Thailand 3,166,910m/t
2. Indonesia 2,921,872m/t
3. Malaysia 1,072,400m/t
4. India 819,000m/t
5. Viet-Nam 659,600m/t

Blessed with natural and man-made advantages, Thailand has developed into the worlds largest producer
and exporter of natural rubber. The country turns out more than a million metric tons of natural rubber annually,
and progress in the industry remains vigorous. Perfectly positioned to lead, Thailand rose to prominence
because of its abundant resources of natural rubber, cost- effective workforce, and strategic location in
the Asia-Pacific region. According to the Thai Rubber Association, the Asia- Pacific currently accounts for 57%
of global rubber demand and will remain the worlds strongest growth area through at least 2013. This
represents continued lucrative opportunities for Thai rubber businesses.

Q-11 The sugar industry is located close to the sugarcane plantation because of several factors. List any
four factors for this.
Ans. Due to the high temperatures in the areas where cane is produced, workers need to consume large
quantities of liquid.

Fumes and gases such as carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide and hydrochloric acid may be
given off at various stages of the refining process. The high temperatures of processing can also result in fumes
and steam that are not only irritating or hot, but sometimes can be , toxic as well.
In some areas of the mill, there are excessive noise levels.

Bagassosis is an occupational lung disease of the extrinsic allergic alveoli is type, caused by breathing
dusts containing spores of thermopile actinomycetes which grow in stored, mouldy bagasse. Hypersensitivity
pneumonitis can also result from this exposure.

Q-12 State four points for the importance of the study of Commercial Geography for the commerce
Ans. The study of commercial geography is extremely beneficial for acommerce student.

(i) Commerce students aim at achieving a respectable position in the business society. The study of
commercial geography broadest his mind and help him to select the tight track.

(ii) As a trader or industrialist he should know in which venture to invest, how much to invest so as to get
maximum return.

(iii) Students should know about the main trade routes of the world, the best means of transport and
communication to be used,

(iv) He should know where the raw materials for a particular industry are available.

Q-13 Why are temperature leader in wheat exports?

Ans. Wheat farming is carried out in the temperate grasslands of South America because the warm
temperate continental climate is_suitable for growing wheat. Also, beef cattle rearing are practiced there
because the open grasslands provide good natural pastures for beef cattle.
Wheat-sheep farming is practiced in the temperate grasslands of Australia because wheat and sheep can
get benefits from each other sheep feeds on the stalks of wheat and it provides manure for the wheat fields.
However, farmers in the past had to face the problem of drought which was solved by the Snowy Mountains
Scheme that diverts water from the Snowy River to the Murray-Darling Basin through tunnels later.

Q-14 USA and Canada are both importers and exporters of Iron Ore. Comment.
Ans. In 2004, almost all of the usable ore, having an estimated value of $1.6 billion, was shipped from mines
in Michigan and Minnesota. Ten iron ore production complexes with 10 mines, 8 concentration plants, and 8
palletizing plants were in operation during the year. The mines included 10 open pits and no underground
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operations. Virtually all ore was concentrated before shipment. Eight mines operated by three companies
accounted for 99% of production. The United States produced 4% of the worlds iron ore output and consumed
about 5%.
Imports of iron ore-products in the Canada-U.S. market are split 70% for agglomerates (i.e., pellets) and 30%
for agglomerates (i.e., concentrates). American, Canadian, and Venezuelan producers are the main competitors
in this pellet market, while Brazilian, Canadian, Venezuelan, and Australian producers battle for the concentrate

Q-15 Explain the importance of Commercial Geography for an industrialist.

Ans. Commercial geography is geography with a particular concern for the locations of goods and the
methods and paths by which they are transported. This kind of geography would be important for industrialists
to be aware of because it directly concerns their business. They would need to know where the raw materials are
that help them manufacture their goods, the best paths to get them to factories, and the best routes to get
finished products out to the markets.

Q-16 Define growth rate of population. How is it calculated?

Ans. Population growth is the change in a population over time, and can be quantified as the change in the
number of individuals of any species in a population using per unit time for measurement.
How is it calculated:
A particular city has a population of 800,000 in 1990 and a population of 1,500,000 in 2008. To find the growth
rate of the population in this city, do the following:
Growth Rate = [(1,500,000 800,000)/800,000] * 100
Growth Rate = 87.5 percent
Average Annual Growth Rate = 87.5 percent/18 years
Average Annual Growth Rate = 4.86 percent.

Q-17 How does Intensive Commercial Agriculture differ from Extensive Grain production?
Ans. Intensive agriculture or intensive farming is an approach to farming in which the goal is to get a yield
which is as high as possible using techniques which are geared towards maximizing the amount of crops which
can be.grown on land, the number of growing cycles per year, and so forth. Extensive farming or extensive
agriculture is an agricultural production system that uses small inputs of labour, fertilizers, and capital, relative
to the land area being farmed. Extensive farming most commonly refers to sheep and . cattle farming in areas
with low agricultural productivity, but can also refer to large-scale growing of wheat, barley and other grain
crops in areas like the Murray-Darling Basin.

Q-18 The Eskimo hunter are distinguished for special aptitudes and methods. Comment.
Ans. The hypothesis that the ecological and cultural characteristics of Eskimo society lead to village
Eskimo children having greater ability in visual memory than urban Caucasian children has been studied. A test
of visual memory was given to 501 urban Caucasian and 125 village Eskimo children. Village Eskimo children
demonstrated significantly higher levels of visual. memory. Visual memory was also found to increase
significantly with age. A follow-up questionnaire study indicated that about 65 per cent of teac Canal system
on the right (west) bank of the Indus. hers in Eskimo villages noted the unusually high ability of Eskimo
students in recalling visual detail or mentioned their high performance in tasks depending partly upon this

Q-19 Great Britain is the pioneer in textile manufacturing. Comment.

Ans. Textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution in Britain was centered on Greater Manchester,
in southern Lancashire and the small towns both sides of the Pennies. The Prior to the 18th century, the
manufacture of goods was performed on a limited scale by individual workers, in the premises where they lived
and goods were transported around the country by horse, or by river. Rivers navigation and some contour
following canals had been constructed in the early 18th century. In the mid-18th century, artisans were inventing
ways to become more productive. Silk, Wool, Fustian, the traditional fibers, were being eclipsed by cotton
which was became the most important textile. This set the foundations for the changes. right though
textile industry.

Innovations in carding & spinning enabled by advances in cast iron ever larger spinning mules and water frames
were constructed. They were housed in water driven mills on numerous streams. The need for more power
stimulated the production of steam driven beam engines, and then relative mill engines. The line shaft
transmitted this power to each floor of the mill. Surplus power capacity encouraged the construction of ever
more sophisticated power looms working in weaving sheds. The scale of production in the mill towns round
Manchester created a need for a commercial structure; for a cotton exchange and warehousing. These earned
Manchester the sobriquet Cotton polls.

Q-20 The total crop duration of spring wheat is lesser than winter wheat. Write two major reasons in
support of this statement.
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Ans. Winter wheat acreage has always been much smaller than that of spring wheat in Minnesota. From 1999
to 2004, the winter wheat acreage in Minnesota varied from 15,000 to 60,000 acres. The primary constraint to
winter wheat production in Minnesota is winter kill. Newer varieties and production practices have reduced this
risk, making winter wheat a more viable option in the cropping systems of the state. The benefits of winter
wheat include:

1. A higher yield potential than spring wheat

2. Greater profitability as it often requires less inputs than spring wheat
3. More efficient use of labor & machinery as it is planted & harvested during periods with few competing field
4. Establishment of a cover to reduce wind & water erosion
5. Establishment of a cover for wildlife in fall & early spring

Q-21 Write a note on Solar energy technology and its types.

Ans. Solar energy, quite simply, is energy that comes from the sun. But there are now many types of solar
energy technology focused on making use of that energy and turning it into usable electricity or heat (or both).
Solar energy technologies use the suns energy and light to provide heat, light, hot water, electricity, and
even cooling, for homes, businesses, and industry.
There are a variety of technologies that have been developed to take advantage of solar energy.

Solar Energy Technologies:

Photovoltaic Systems
Producing electricity directly from sunlight.
Solar Hot Water
Heating water with solar energy.
Solar Electricity
Using the suns heat to produce electricity.
Passive Solar Heating and Day lighting
Using solar energy to heat and light buildings.
Solar Process Space Heating and Cooling
Industrial and commercial uses of the suns heat.

Q-22 List the major Fishing grounds of the world and describe anyone fishing ground of the U.S.A.
Ans. MAJOR FISHING GROUNDS OF THE WORLD The major commercial fishing grounds are located
in the cool waters of the northern hemisphere in comparatively high. latitudes. Commercial fishing is little
developed in the tropics or in the southern hemisphere.

The North-East Atlantic Region

The North-West Atlantic Region
The north-west Atlantic
The North-West Pacific Region
Salmon, ID

This towns name should be your first clue as to why attracts sportsmen the way a spawning run draws bears.
Located right on the Salmon River-and bordering millions of acres of public hunting ground, including
the largest wilderness area in the Lowe 48 (the Frank Church River of No Return Wilderness)-Salmon has, well,
everything. The Salmon and its tributaries offer world-class fishing for trout, steel head, and other species year-
round. On the crags and benches above the Salmon and other nearby rivers, wing shooters chase chukar and
Huns, while at higher elevations blue and spruce grouse predominate.

The big-g~me scene has changed in Salmon with the resurgence of wolves. But trophy elk, mule deer, and
whitetails are still accessible, and the hunting for bears and mountain lions is second to none.

Q-23 Write any two definitions of Commercial Geography.

Ans. A form of Geography concerned with Production and supply of Raw material including agricultural output
and finished goods.

Commercial geography that deals with commodities according to their places of origin and their paths
of transportation.

Q-24 Tea cannot be cultivated in plain areas. Comment.

Ans. Climate required for tea plantation is tropical and sub-tropical climate. The soil required should be
well drained soil which should be rich in organic matter as well as humus. The tender leaves of tree grow well
in regular showers which should be distributed evenly all year round.

Q-25 What is HDI? Write the range of it.

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Ans. The Human Development Index (commonly abbreviated HDI) is a summary of human development
around the world and implies whether a country is developed, still developing, or underdeveloped based on
factors such as life expectancy, education, literacy, gross domestic product per capita. The results of the HDI are
published in the Human Development Report, which is commissioned by the United Nations Development
Program (UNDP) and is written by scholars, those who study world development and members of the Human
Development Report Office of the UNDP. According to the UNDP, human development is about creating an
environment in which people can develop their full potential and lead productive, creative lives in accord with .
their needs and interests. People are the real wealth of nations. Development is thus about expanding the
choices people have to lead lives that-they value.

Q-26 If the birth rate of a country is 3% and its death rate is 1%, calculate the doubling time for that
Ans. The formula for doubling time (Td) in a population with an NIR (Net increase in rare) of r% is based
on logarithms:

Q-27 What is a fertilizer? List the functions of three major fertilizer elements.
Ans. Chemical fertilizers promote plant growth and are produced by a chemical process. Chemical fertilizers
are less bulky than natural fertilizers such as manure or compost. There are many different types of chemical
fertilizers and they come in powder, granular, liquid and gas forms.

Sodium Nitrates:
Sodium nitrates contain 16 percent nitrogen and also are known as Chilates or Chilean nitrate. They are useful
in soil that is acidic.

Ammonium Sulphate:
Ammonium sulphate comes in a white crystal form, similar to salt. It contains about 20 percent
ammoniacal nitrogen and has an acidic effect on the soil.

Ammonium Nitrate:
Ammonium nitrate comes in a form similar to ammonium sulphate but it contains about 34 percent nitrogen. It
acts quickly on the soil but cant be stored for very long.

Q-28 South East Asia is famous for rice cultivation. Comment.

Ans. More than 90% of the worlds rice is produced by Asian farmers, Vietnam and Thailand being amongst
the highest exporters of rice in the world. Just looking around us we can see how the growth of rice has shaped
the landscape in many areas. Cultivated, neat rice terraces clinging to steep hillsides, shining a dazzling bright
green are striking images of South East Asia that can be seen in Sapa, Vietnam, Bali, Indonesia among other
places. One of the most famous rice plantations in Asia can be found in Luzon in the Philippines, with the
Banaue and Ifuago Rice Terraces claiming status as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Q-29 What is Truck farming?

Ans. Truck farming, horticultural practice of growing one or more vegetable crops on a large scale for shipment
to distant markets. It is usually less intensive and diversified than market gardening At first this type of farming
depended entirely on local or regional markets. As the use of railroads and large-capacity trucks expanded and
refrigerated carriers were introduced, truck farms spread to the cheaper lands of the West and South, shipping
seasonal crops to relatively distant markets where their cultivation is limited by climate. The major truck-
farming areas are in California, Texas, Florida, along the Atlantic Coastal Plain, and in the Great Lakes
area. Centers for specific crops vary with the season. Among the most important truck crops are tomatoes,
lettuce, melons, beets, broccoli, celery, radishes, onions, cabbage, and strawberries.

Q-30 Write a note on Industrial Park.

Ans. A successful industrial park business, even if only as a part- time operation or just starting as a home
based business needs to map out its course, goals, and objectives. A clearly written business plan is the industry
standard and the first step in starting an industrial park business. Its not just important for business owners but
it is something potential lenders such as banks, investors, and other partners want to see. What your business
plan contains must help those reading it understands what your idea is all about and how it will make money.

Q-31 List the main iron ore reserves of North America.

Ans. Iron ore is the raw material found in rocks and minerals from which. metallic iron is extracted. China is
the worlds largest producer of iron-ore producing 900 million metric tonnes of iron ore every year. It is also by
far the largest consumer and importer of the same. Australia ranks second in the production of iron-ore followed
by Brazil, India, Russia, Ukraine, South Africa, United States, Canada, Iran, Sweden, Kazakhstan, Venezuela,
Mexico, and Mauritania.

Q-32 Why is Dairy Farming considered highly capital intensive?

Ans. Dairy. Farming is considered highly capital intensive because
i. An activity of the temperate latitude based on the utilization of permanent pastures.
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ii. A most advanced efficient and capital-intensive type of farming.
iii. The business of keeping animals is labour intensive and offers great scope for intensive employment of
labour than any other agricultural systems.
iv. The productivity is very high in dairy farming regions.
v. High degree of commercialization is the rule in all regions of dairy farming. A scientifically run dairy farm
yields high returns. A greater emphasis is placed on the improvement of herds.
vi. Dairy farms produce milk and milk related products. Some dairy farms specialize in products other than
vii. Dairy farmers usually do not sell their products directly to consumers. Instead, they generally sell milk to
wholesalers, who distribute it in turn to retailers. Retailers then sell milk to consumers in shops or at home.

Q-33 Climate influence is more marked on agriculture than industry. Comment.

Ans. Climate largely influence on agriculture. Agriculture requires proper climatic conditions for the growth on
verities of crops. Rainfall and temperature must be moderate and suitable for the cultivation of particular
crops. Industrial development is less affected by climate.

Q-34 The best Fishing grounds are developed at the meeting places of warm and cold ocean currents.
Ans. Cold and warm climates are best fishing grounds in the world. Mixed sea water enriches in fish
species and plankton that are the basic food Of fishes. Warm Gulf stream and cold Labrador current meet near
gaud Bank which is one of the best fishing grounds in the world.

Q-35 Write the types of Forests.

Ans. Main kinds of forests are given as under: -

(i) Alpine Forests:

(a) Alpine Forest of Northern Highlands:

These are at the height of above 4000 meters and occur in the mountain slopes of Chartial, Dir, Swat and
Kohistan, Alpine forests occur over a small area. The trees include silver, fir, Juniper and birch.

(b) Evergreen eonlterous forest of Northern mountains:

They are found at the height 1000 m to 4000 m. They remain green throughout the year and have cone shape
and the leaves are pointed. Swat, Dir, Malakand, Kohistan, Mansehra, Abbotabad and Murree hills are the main
areas covered with these forests. The famous species of deodar, Keil, Chir poplar, Mapple, Willow and birch are
found in these forests. They provide timber for making furniture and boxes Wood is also used as fuel.

(c) Deciduou forests of Western Mountains:

The valleys of Gilgit, Hunza, and Swat are rich in these forests. Mulberries, Apricots, Apples and Pomegranates
and Walnuts are fruits of these trees.

(ii) Sub-tropical Dry deciduous forest:

The hilly tracts, platean of Potwar and Baluchistanupto a height of 1000 meters are covered with these dry
evergreen forests with some dry deciduous patches. Chilgoza and pencil pine are important trees in Baluchistan
area Phulahi, Kahu an jund occur in the plateau pine.

(iii) Tropical Scrub Forests (Rakh):

These forests are in the plain areas of all provinces. They have hardwood trees and can grow in adverse
conditions also. They provide timber, firewood and fodder. Trees of Acacia-and babool are common here.

(iv) Bela Forests:( Riverine Forests):

They are located in the flood plains of Sindh and Punjab. They are a .good source of fuel, wood for Jurniture, &
charcoal. The trees of Babool (Kekar) grow in small rainfall areas.

Q-36 Write about Truck farming.

Ans. Truck farming, horticultural practice of growing one or more vegetable crops on a large scale
for shipment to distant markets. It .ls usually less intensive and diversified than market gardening At first this
type of farming depended entirely on local or regional markets. As the use of railroads and large-capacity trucks
expanded and refrigerated carriers were introduced, truck farms spread to the cheaper lands of the West and
South, shipping seasonal crops to relatively distant markets where their cultivation is limited by climate. The
major truck-farming areas are in California, Texas, Florida, along the Atlantic Coastal Plain, and in the
Great Lakes area. Centers for specific crops vary with the season. Among the most important truck crops are
tomatoes, lettuce, melons, beets, broccoli; celery, radishes, onions, cabbage, and strawberries.

Q-37 Write note on Textile industry development in China OR India.

Ans. Textile Industry in China:
The art of cloth making from cotton originated from India. This industry has been flourished in various
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countries of the world. China is the largest producer of cotton textile. China has a better marketing facilities
and self sufficient in requirements. Shanghai is the chief center of the texitile industry. Other include Tunstin,
Tsingtao, Hankow and comtion.

Textile Industry in India:

The art of cloth making from cotton originated from India. All the process involved in the formation cloth
from cotton were done by hands. Now textile industry has been flourished in India. Bombay is the most ideal
place for textile industry. The first mill was established in Bombay. Calcutta is the second largest centre. Other
important centers include Ahmedabad, Poona, Kanpur, Oehli and Madras not only self sufficient in their
requirements and have to import large quantity annually.

Q-38 Write about the Natural gas producing countries of the world.
Ans. Natural gas has remained in human use since prehistoric times. It is an important need of today. It is used
for industrial as well as domestic use.

Natural Gas Producing Countries:

RUSSIA: The largest producer of natural gas is central Asia is Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan.

U.S.A.: U.S.A. produces about 80% of worlds natural gas. The use of natural gas in U.S.A. began in 1820.
Today 3000,000 miles of pipe lines distributed gas to 27 states.

CANADA: The third largest gas producing country of North America. Gas found in Quebec and Ontario.

MEXICO: The gas producing areas lies in tar Pico Oil region.

INDONESIA: Indonesia rank, top as gas producing countries in the Asia. Gas found in Smarta and Borreo.

PAKISTAN: Pakistan also produced some amount of gas.

Q-39 Why are Prairies grasslands called the bread basket of the world?
Ans. Wheat is the most important of all grains of temperate climate. Canada is the major producer of wheat. It
is grown in almost every state. It is mostly grown in the cool temperature region. The Canadian wheat growing
region is also known as the Bread Basket of the world. It export large amount of wheat.

Q-40 Classify Economic activities.

The activities which are related to the consumption and exchanged of things are called economic activities.


Economic activities can be classified into production, exchange and consumption.

(i) PRODUCTION: Hunting of animals, harvesting commodities from nature, subsistence agriculture,
forestry, fishing, mining.

(ii) EXCHANGE: Increasing the value of commodities by changing their location.

(iii) CONSUMPTION: Use of commodities and services by human beings to satisfy their needs and wants.
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Geography of Pakistan: -

Q-1 Describe the means of Irrigation in Pak.

Ans. Over the years, the canal irrigation system of Pakistan has witnessed many paradigm shifts in the
context of advancement and effectiveness. From the olden practices of the conventional well system to the
modern approaches of perennial canals and tube wells, the canal irrigation system of Pakistan has beheld some
very significant changes.

In the initial years of the adoption oj the canal irrigation system, there were various ways to irrigate the fields
such as shaduf, charsa, Persian wheel and karez. In Shaduf, it is a balancing act where a bucket is attached to
one side while on the other side the weight of the bucket is balanced by a tantamount weight. Shaduf is used to
irrigate a small piece of land. Coming to Charsa, it is characterized by animal power, which is incorporated to
draw the water from the well. Then comes the Persian wheel which is used to irrigate vast expanses of land and
is a system of perpetual water supply. Coming towards the next one, its the karez, which is a horizontal canal,
which is built underground in the foothills. This approach is primarily used to prevent the evaporation rate as it
is built underground.

Q-2 In which season does Pakistan receive most of its rairifall? Give reason.
Ans. The average rainfall in Pakistan is less than 20 inches annually. Pakistan situated in the Monsoon
region. The monsoon lauds receive most of their rainfall during the summer months ..Heaviest rainfall is on the
coasts and stapes of mountains the annual rainfall is usually more than 80 inches in some places. Areas far from
the sea receive about 40 inches of rain.

Q-3 Give reasons for the uneven distribution of Population in Pakistan.

Ans. Main reasons of uneven population distribution of Pakistan are given as under: -

(i) The more densely populated centers of Pakistan are situated in the urban areas, which are the busiest centers
of trade and commerce. Besides, so many industries have also deyeloped around these areas. The surrounding
areas, around Lahore, Faisalabad and Gujranwala, are very fertile. The irrigation facilities are available, so the
necessities of life can be had easily. The employment facilities in different industrial and commercial units are
also available. That is why the population of rural area is migrating towards these urban centers and
their population is increasing very rapidly.

(ii) The areas situated in the plains are more densely populated than the mountain, regions, because the
mountains having pugged topography are not suitable for agricultural activities. Besides, in winter, due to
intense cold, snowfall is common and the mean of transportation become ineffective the establishment of
industries not possible in these areas due to scarcity of resources. That these areas are thinly populated.

(iii) In the plains, the density if population also differs in various regions. The areas of Punjab and Sindh there
irrigation facilities and other resources are available; density of population is more than the dry Barani areas.
Lahore, Faisalabad, Gujranwala, Multan districts are more dense than Attock, Jhelum and Dera Ghazi Khan
Districts. Similarly in Sindh, Hyderabad, Larkana, Nawabshah districts are more densely populated than
Tharparkar, Thatta, Dadu and Sanghar Districts.

(iv) Those areas which are situated far away and where climate is intense, irrigation facilities are not available
,rain is meager and there is scarcity of resources, even the water for drinking purpose has to be brought from
long distances, there density of Population

Q-4 Why is rice not grown in Baluchistan on a large scale?

Ans. Rice Is a crop of tropical and sub tropical areas. It requires an average temperature of about 90%. In areas
with less than 40F are not favorable for cultivation of Rice. Rice is a water plant and it requires a large amount
of moisture. Most of the land of Balochistan is rocky and mountainous insufficient rainfall and dry weather is
the measure cause. Rice is not grown on large scale in Balochistan because extreme condition of temperature
and scanty rainfall it seems impossible.

Q-5 Karachi is the main trade centre of Pakistan. Comment.

Ans. Karachi is the main trade center of Pakistan because it is the only largest seaport of Pakistan. All
the imports and exports of our country are performed through Karachi port. The ocean routes on which Pakistan
shipping corporation operates include Karachi to U.S.A.,Karachi to U.K. and their west European countries. It
also operates services from the far Easter countries, china and Japan. Karachi international Airport, has gained
the reputation of an international Airport. It has became a stop over for many flights coming from the West. PIA
is providing the facilities of sift transportation of perishable goods to other countries which has increased the
volume of exports and export receipts.

Q-6 Write note on (a) Makran Coast (b) Lower Indus Plain
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Ans. (a) Makran Coast:.
The coastal area of Balochistan is about 850 miles lOng the people living around Pasni, Gwader, Ormara are
engaged fishing. The chief verities of fish caught here. About 80% of the fish caught in this area is dried,
canned, salted and exported to various Middle East and South Asian Countries. Three fishing harbors have been
developed. Ice factories and refrigeration plants have been set up by the Government.

(b) Lower Indus Plain:

South of Mithankot, the Indus and its tributaries join to make a greater river. In the lower Indus plain three
barrages have been built across the Indus to divert its waters in to canals for irrigation. They have brought
prosperity to central Sindh.

Q-7 Differentiate Barrage and Dam.

Ans. Both the .dam and barrage are barriers constructed across a rivet or natural water course for
diverting water into a canal mainly for purposes of irrigation, water supply etc. or into a channel or a tunnel for
generation of power.

In case of a barrage, its entire length across the river i.e. between the banks is provided with gates having their
bottom sill near the river bed level. Thus the storage behind the barrage is solely created by the height of the
gates. The dam on the other hand has spillway gates almost near its top level and the storage behind the-darn is
mainly due to the height of concrete structure and partially due to the gate height.

In both the cases, however, the number and size of gates is adequate to pass the design flood during monsoons.

Q-8 Why are the deltaic plains not suitable for agriculture?
Ans. A deltaic plain consists of active or abandoned deltas, which are either overlapping or contiguous to
one another. A delta is a relatively flat area at the mouth of a river or a river system in which sediment load is
deposited and distributed. That portion of a drainage basin within which the sediment load is traded or carried in
transit is referred to as an alluvial valley. The alluvial valley merges downstream with the deltaic plain, often
where the main stream channel branches, or has branched in the past, into multiple distributaries. The deltaic
plain does not necessarily begin downstream from its most upstream distributarys or its most upstream
abandoned distributarys.

Q-9 Cotton is the. most important cash crop of Pakistan. Comment.

Ans. Cotton is the most important cash crop of Pakistan. It is considered very important for the
economic progress of Pakistan. Textile Industry is very important industry of Pakistan which wholly depends on
the growth of cotton. It is also known as silver fiber. Two kinds of cotton are cultivated in Pakistan; one is called
local cotton, its fiber is small; the other cotton has a longer fiber, it is called American Cotton. American
cotton is considered to be a superior kind because of its longer fiber. This kind of cotton is used
for manufacturing of cotton yarn and superior quality of cloth. Nearly 33% of foreign exchange is obtained by
exporting cotton. Major part of cotton is cultivated in the Province of Punjab and Sindh. Pakistan is ranked at
number 4th position in largest cotton producing countries. Pakistan is producing about 11 million bales (each
170 kg) in a year.

Q-10 Are there any negative aspects of dams?.Justify your answer.

Ans. Negative Impact of Dams:

1. In flat basins large dams cause flooding of large tracts of land, destroying local animals and habitats.
2. People have to be displaced causing change in life style and customs, even causing emotional scarring. About
40 to 80 million people have been displaced physically by dams worldwide.
3. Large amounts of plant life are submerged and decay anaerobically (in the absence of oxygen)
generating greenhouse gases like methane. It is- estimated that a hydroelectric power plant produces 3.5 times
the amount of greenhouse gases as a thermal power plant burning fossil fuels.
4. The migratory pattern of river animals like salmon and trout are affected.
5. Dams restrict sediments that are responsible for the fertile lands downstream. Farmers use chemical fertilizers
and pesticides to compensate for the loss in productivity.
6. Salt water intrusion into the deltas means that the saline water cannot be used for irrigation.
7. Large dams are breeding grounds for mosquitoes and cause the spread of disease.
8. Farmers downstream who used to wait for the flooding of the fields to plant their seeds are affected.
9. Dams serve as a heat sink, and the water is hotter than the normal river water. This warm water when released
into the river downstream can affect animal life.
10. Peak power operations can change the water level thirty to forty feet in one day and can kill the animals
staying at the shorelines.
11. Around 400,000 km2 of land worldwide has been submerged due to the construction of dams.

Q-11 Discuss the measures employed for improving occupational structure in Pakistan.
Ans. Occupational choice plays an important role in determining earnings and success in the labour market. In
the social structure of Pakistan, an occupation reflects the socioeconomic status of the individual. In this
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backdrop, the paper looks at the occupational structure and analyses how different characteristics help
individuals to access jobs of their choice. The main issue discussed in the paper is how men and women have a
different occupation distribution. Estimates are based on a multinomial log model of occupation choices for
men and women, using the Pakistan Integrated Household Survey (PIHS) 2001-02 data. The empirical results
show that individuals with high educational achievements choose highranking jobs. It is also noted that gender
has a role in the labour market and males are sorted out in high-paying occupation. Occupational choice is
influenced more by the human capital variables than by the individual characteristics. Among human capital
variables, education has the strongest impact in the selection of an occupation of choice.

Q-12 Mention any four agricultural problems of Pakistan.

Ans. Firstly, No mechanism has been adopted to eradicate the soil erosion and even after harvesting nothing
is done to improve or restore the soil energy.

Secondly, water wastage is very high in our country. The archaic method of flood irrigation is still in practice
in whole of the country which wastes almost 50 to 60 percent of water.

Thirdly, owing did methods of cultivation and harvesting, Pakistan has low yield per acre that means
the average crop in Pakistan is just 1/4th of that of advance states. Whereas Nepal, India and Bangladesh
are using modern scientific methods to increase their yield per acre. For this purpose, these states are using
modern machines to improve their yield.

Fourthly, the small farmers are increasing in our country as the lands are dividing generation by generation. So,
there are large number of farmers who own only 4 acres of land. These small farmers do not get credit facilities
to purchase seeds, pesticides, fertilizers etc.

Q-13 Mention the rail and road links of Pakistan to the neighboring countries.
Ans. Railway links with adjacent countries:
Afghanistan Azerbaijan Armenia Iraq one long Iink from Arak via Kermanshah to Baghdad,
Khorramshahr to Basra Bam to Zahedan completed 2009.Turkey via Lake Van train ferry,
Turkmenistan break-of-gauge

Road links with adjacent countries:

The Pakistan Government is developing a National Trade Corridor (NTC) to create transport links
with neighboring countries in order to boost trade and people-to people contacts in the region.

The NTC will connect Pakistan with China, Iran, Central Asian Republics, Turkey, Middle East and India.
Federal Minister Chaudhary Nisar Ali Khan said that the corridor would be completed by 2010.

Khan also said that the newly constructed Makran Coastal Highway had immense-importance not only for
transit trade for the Central Asian Republics but also for other neighboring countries.

Q-14 Compare the MSeries and NSeries highways in Pakistan.

Ans. The National Highways of Pakistan are a network of highways in Pakistan that are distinct from its
motorways. The main difference between the two is that, unlike motorways, national highways are not
controlled access or limited access. As in the case of motorways, Pakistans National Highway Authority owns,
maintains and operates all national highways. Pakistans National Highways include famous highways such as
the Grand Trunk Road, the Indus Highway, the Karakoram Highway and the Makran Coastal Highway.All
National Highways in Pakistan are pre-fixed with the letter N (for National) followed by the unique
numerical designation of the specific highway (with a hyphen in the middle), e.g. N-S. Each numerical
designation is separated by five numerals, i.e. N-S,N-10, N-15,etc. National Highways are also distinct from
Pakistans Strategic Highways, which begin with the prefix S and are owned, controlled and operated by
Pak.s Ministry of Defense.

Q-15 Discuss the role of KPT in the management of Water transport in Pakistan.
Ans. Karachi Port Trust:
(KPT) is a Pakistan Federal government agency that oversees the operations of Karachi .Port at Karachi,
Sindh, Pakistan. Sea Port plays a vital role in International Maritime Trade. Efficient Port attracts .
more business which in turns generates revenue and strengthens economy of the country. Port is more a service
industry not only for the nationbut for international community as well. The effects of its working are not
limited and are realized beyond the country.

Transportation cost contributes a valuable part in determining the prlce of goods either in domestic or in
international market. Transportation through sea is mainly dominated by ports. The economists of the ocean
carriers say that ships earn in sea and loose in the port. It is the port which makes the carrier cost efficient with
its courteous reception and timely dispatch. Longer is the waiting time lesser is the efficiency of the port.
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The productivity of the port is measured with per ton cost of cargo handling. This cost is ultimately added to
the price of goods and finally borne by the common consumer. Karachi Port being a natural harbor is a gift
of God. Its value can be better assessed if compared with landlocked countries which do not have access to the
sea. The investors always try to set up their productions units nearer to the port.

Q-16 Describe Canal system on the right (west) bank of the Indus.
Ans. The Indus River is a major river in Asia which flows through Pakistan. It also has courses through
western Tibet & northern India. Originating in the Tibetan Plateau in the vicinity of Lake Mansarovar, the river
runs a course through the Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir, towards Gilgit and Baltistan and then flows in
a southerly direction along the entire length of Pakistan to merge into the Arabian Sea near the port city of
Karachi in Sindh. The total length of the riyer is 3,180 km (1,980 mi). It is Pakistans longest river.

The river has a total drainage area exceeding 1,165,000 km2 (450,000 sq mi). Its estimated annual flow stands
at around 207 km3 (50 cu mi), making it the twenty-first largest river in the world in terms of annual flow. The
Zanskar is its left bank tributary inLadakh. In the plains, its left bank tributary is the Chenab which itself has
four major tributaries, namely, the Jhelum, the Ravi, the Beas and the Sutlej. Its principal right bank tributaries
are the Shyok, the Gilgit, the Kabul, the Gomal and the Kurram. Beginning in a mountain spring and fed with
glaciers and rivers in the Himalayas, the river supports ecosystems of temperate forests, plain sand arid

Q-17 Why is Pakistan important in respect of its marine location.

Ans. Pakistan is located between 23 degrees.30 north to 37 degrees North Latitude and 61 degrees east to
77 degrees East Longitude. China lies in the north of Pakistan while Afghanistan and Iran are in the West of it.
India lies in the East and in the South is Arabian Sea.

The Importance of Location:

The location of Pakistan is not only unique in the world but of special importance in South Asia. Pakistan links
the east with the west. Some important neighboring countries of Pakistan are as under. China, Afghanistan,
central Asian Islamic countries, Iran, India.

Q-18 Although contributing a lesser share in GDP, the primary sector plays art important role in
Pakistans economy. Comment.
Ans. Primary commercial activities like hunting, fishing, mining, animal keeping, agricultural and
lumbering have great and appreciable share in the Gross Domestic Product (G.D.P) of Pakistan. Basically
Pakistan is an agricultural country so GDP consist of greater part of primary commercial activities, which are
produce in Pakistan and all the above primary activities are greatly done on rendered in Pakistan, therefore these
primary activities have played a vital role in G.D.P of Pakistan

Q-19 Write note on the functions of NHA and Makran Coastal Highway
Ans. Functions of NHA
The National Highway Authority is responsible for building & maintaining highways and motorways in
Pakistan. The objective of the NHA is to plan, promote and organize programmes for
construction, development, operation, repairs & maintenance of National Highways, Motorways & strategic

Makran Coastaal Highway

Makran Coastal Highway is a 653 km-Iong coastal highway along Pakistans Arabian Sea coastline. It is a part
of Pakistans National Highways network. It runs primarily through Baluchistan province between Karachi and
Gwadar, passing near the port towns of Ormara and Pasni. The official and technical designation of the
Makran Coastal Highway is N10, which is the abbreviation for National Highway 1

Q-20 Give any four Government oriented solutions for agricultural problems in Pakistan.
Ans. Solutions for Agricultural Problems In Pakistan:

(i) Feudalism should be abolished and lands should be allotted to poor farmers. This will enhance the
productivity and per acre yield of all the crops in Pakistan. Taxes should be levied on Agricultural income but
not without devising limit of land holding. Otherwise it would directly affect poor farmers.

(ii) Federal Seed Certification and Federal Seed Registration is approved but it should take responsible steps in
approving seeds as it has already approved 36 new kinds of seeds. Specially, those seeds should be banned
which can create pest problem in near future. These seeds are of cotton mainly. International seed makers are
providing those seeds which are not successful in our country as these seeds are not tested on our soil.

(iii) A new Agricultural policy must be framed in which following steps should be focused on.

(iv) Small farmer must be focused. The major problems of small farmers should be solved first.
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Q-21 What is a pass? List any two passes and their connective area.
Ans. A mountain pass is a route through a mountain range or over a ridge. If following the lowest possible
route, a pass is locally the highest point on that route. Since many of .the worlds mountain ranges have
presented formidable barriers to travel, passes have been important since before recorded history, and have
played a key role in trade, war, and migration.
Chillinji Pass 17,503 ft
Chilinji Glacier, Karamber
Daintar Pass 16,390 ft
Daintar Nala, Lower Nagar

Q-22 Bongar soil is the best soil for agriculture in the country. Comment.
Ans. Bongar Soils Bongar soils cover a vast area of Indus plain. The area includes most of the part of
Punjab, Peshawar, Mardan, Bannu and Kachhi plain. A major part of the province of sindh is also comprised of
these soils. Some of these soils are rich and irrigated give very good production. Usually these soils ate far from
the present rivers beds.

Q-23 What are the physical regions of Pakistan.

Ans. Physical regions of Pakistan and their sketch can be described as following:

(1) Mountainous Regions: (4) The Deserts:

(i) The Northern and North Eastern Mountains. (i) Thai Desert.
(ii) The North Western and Western Mountains. (ii) Nara and Tharparker Desert
(iii) Cholistan Desert
(2) Plateaus: (iv) kharam Changai Desert.
(i) The Potwar Plateau Salt Range.
(ii) The Baluchistan Plateau (5) The Rivers :
(i) Indus River
(3) The Plains: (ii) Chenab
(i) Upper Indus Plain (iii) Ravi
(ii) Lower Indus Rlain (iv) Beas
(iii) Indus Delta Plain (v) Jhelum River

Q-24 Run of water and dams are the two ways to produce hydroelectricity. Explain the statement.
Ans. Hydro power depends on two factors:
The amount of electricity a hydro plant produces depends on two factors:
quantity of water moving through a turbine (volume of water flow)
height from which the water falls (the greater the height, the greater the potential energy source). This is
called the head
Generally, the greater the flow and head, the more electricity can be produced.

Hydro provides flexibility:

Hydro plants are unique among energy sources for their operational flexibility. If there is an increased
electricity demand, plant operators release more water from the dam. On the other hand, when demand is slow,
they store water for future needs.
The flow of rivers varies from season to season. Usually, rivers have the highest flows in spring or
early summer. For that reason, hydro plants often store surplus water during high flow periods for use during
low flow periods. This allows generator!! to control their electrical output over the year.

Q-25 Why is Quetta not suitable for cotton textile industry? (Give any four reasons)
Ans. It can be explained as; -
1. Cotton requires damp climate Quetta cant provide that.
2. Temperature of about 80 F to 100 F and Quetta does not have.
3. It requires 30 to 40 inches annual rain fall and Quetta is less then 20 inches of rainfall.
4. Alluvial soil having a mixture of clay and sand is suitable for cotton and the soil of Quetta does not this type
of soil.

Q-26 Write a note on sugar cane growing regions of Pakistan.

Ans. Sugarcane is an important industrial and cash crop in Pakistan and in many countries of the world. It
is grown in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world in a range of climates from hot dry environment near
sea level to cool and moist environment at higher elevations. Sugarcane growing areas in Pakistan fall between
24 N latitude in Sindh to 34 N latitude in N.W.F.P. These areas can be broadly divided in to
(i) Sub-tropical, irrigated with -moderate temperature frost free zone between 26 N latitude to 30 N latitude,
(ii) Irrigated arid sub-tropical zone between 24N latitude to 26 N latitude, iii) and temperate zone of northern
Punjab and N.W.F.P. between 32N latitude to 34N latitude.
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Sugarcane production trends:

Sugarcane is grown on an area of more or less one million hectares in Pakistan. The Punjab shares 62 %, Sindh
26 % and N.W.F.P. shares 16 % of the total area. The national average cane yield (- 47 t ha-1) is far below the
existing potential (Table 2). In respect of cane yield Sindh with 53 t ha is the leading province followed by
N.W.F.P. (45 t ha) and Punjab (40 t ha ).

Q-27 Write the names of four Barrages built on the left bank tributaries of River Indus.
Ans. In the plains, its left bank tributary is Chenab which itself has four major tributaries, namely, Jhelum,
Ravi, Beas and Satluj. Its principal right bank tributaries are Shyok, Gilgit, Kabul, Gomal and Kurram.

Q-28 Karachi records lower temperature in summer, and higher in winter as compared to Lahore.
Ans. Karachi has two main seasons; Summer & Winter, while spring and autumn are very short.
Summer season persists for longest period during the year. The level of precipitation is low for most of the year.
Less precipitation during summer is due to inversion layer. Karachi also receives the monsoon rains from July
to September. (From the end of April till the end of August) are approximately 30C (86 OF)to 36 C (97
OF),the winter months (From November till the end of March) are the best time to visit Karachi.

Lahore features a hot semi-arid climate with rainy, long and extremely hot summers, dry and warm winters,
a monsoon and dust storms. The weather of Lahore is extreme during the months of May, June and July, when
the temperatures soar to 40-48 C (104-118 F).

Q-29 Into how many climatic, regions may Pakistan be divided

Ans. Pakistan is situated in the north of tropic of cancer. Pakistan is a sub-tropical country. It is situated in
the western part of the monsoon region. Some of the areas in the north of Pakistan is warm and mist, whereas
the mountainous area have highland type climate.
Pakistan is divided into following regions on the basis of its climate.

1. Sub-Tropical Continental highland

2. Sub-Tropical Continental plateau
3. Sub-Tropical Continental
4. Sub-Tropical Coast land

Q-30 What is the importance of Monsoon rainfall for Pakistan

Ans. The relative importance of data on winter snow accumulation and summer (monsoon) rainfall for
estimating annual runoff in the Jhelum River basin, Punjab Himalaya, Pakistan, has been investigated. Strong
correlations were found between point measurements of the annual maximum of snow pack water equivalent
and of total winter precipitation in the Kunhar sub basin, and total annual discharge. In addition, total winter
snowfall showed a generally significant correlation with annual discharge. Elevation did not appear to play
a strong role in determining the usefulness of these measurements, whereas location within the basin relative
to large scale precipitation patterns did, in some cases. Monsoon rainfall appeared to be a very poor indicator of
annual discharge. The results also suggest that the operation of a continental scale negative feedback
mechanism between Eurasian snow cover and the Indian monsoon might be felt in this region of the Himalaya.

Q-31 Balochistan constitutes 43.6% of the total area of Pakistan. Explain the reasons of its low
Ans. Balochistan is situated on the southwest of Pakistan and covers an area of 134,051 mi2 or (347,190
km2), thus constituting 4% of Pakistans total land mass and making it Pakistans largest province by area.
The population density is very low due to the mountainous terrain and scarcity of water. As of the 1998 census,
Balochistan had a population of 8 million inhabitants, representing approximately 5% of the Pakistani
population. Official estimates of Balochistans population grew from approximately 7.45 million in 2003 to 7.8
million in 2005.

Q-32 Write a note on the Nuclear power plants of Pakistan.

Ans. As of 2009, nuclear power in Pakistan is provided by 3 licensed-commercial nuclear power
plants. Pakistan is the first Muslim country in the world to construct and operate civil nuclear power plants. The
Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), the scientific and nuclear governmental agency, is solely
responsible for operating these power plants. As of 2009, the electricity generated by commercial nuclear power
plants constitutes roughly 2% of electricity generated in Pakistan, compared to 65% from fossil fuel and 33%
from hydroelectric power. Pakistan is one of the four nuclear armed states (along with India, Israel, and
North Korea) that is not a party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty but is a member in good standing of the
International Atomic Energy Agency.

Q-33 What is food Autarky? What is the present position of Pakistan in food autarky?
Ans. Autarky is the quality of being self-sufficient. Autarky exists whenever an entity can survive or continue
its activities without external assistance or international trade. Wide fluctuations in world prices of food-
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grains, especially rice and wheat, in the seventies and the early eighties forced many developing countries to
strive for self sufficiency in food-grain production. Pakistan is among the countries where near self-sufficiency
was achieved in wheat in the early eighties. It also maintained its status as a leading rice-exporting country.
However, a continuously high rate of population growth, a changing pattern of income distribution, and a
greater level of urbanization have greatly influenced the demand for food-grains.