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A. Solutions that resist changes in pH when an Acid or Base is added to them
B. Consist of a weak acid and its conjugate base in aqueous solution
1. When an acid is added, it is neutralized by the conjugate base
2. When a base is added, it is neutralized by the conjugate acid
C. Making A Buffer at a Certain pH
1. Choose an acid/base conjugate pair with an acid pKa that us +1/-1 unit
away from the desired pH
2. Add the acid and base at a proper ration to satisfy the Henderson-
Hasselbalch Equation
3. Buffers Work Best When the [A-]/[HA] Ratio is Between 10/1 and 1/10

II. Buffer Effectiveness

A. Two Factors to Consider
1. Relative Concentrations
2. Absolute Concentrations
B. Relative Concentrations Affect Buffer Range
1. Buffer Range: The pH range where a conjugate acid/base pair is effective
2. pKa +1 or -1
C. Absolute Concentrations Affect Buffering Capacity
1. How much added acid/base the buffer can withstand

III. Titration Curves

IV. The Solubility of Ionic Compounds
A. Ionic Compounds Are Either Soluble (NaCl) OR Insoluble (PbI2)
B. Solubility is all about degrees of solubility
1. The Compound AgI has a slight degree of solubility
The solution becomes saturated much more quickly
C. Solubility Equilibrium
1. In a saturated solution of an ionic compound
2. An equilibrium exists between the solid compound and its ions in solution
D. Molar Solubility
1. Tells us how many moles of the compound can dissolve in 1 Liter of water

V. The Common Ion Effect

A. An Ionic Compound is less soluble in water if one of its ions is already present in
the solution

VI. Solubility and pH

A. If an Ionic Compound contains a basic anion, its solubility will increase in acidic
B. The basic anion reacts with H3O+, removing products from the system and
shifting the reaction to the right
C. Compounds That Are More Soluble In Acidic Solution Than Pure Water
1. CaCO3
2. Fe(OH)2
4. CaF2
5. Zn3(PO4)2

VII. Complex Ion Formation Reaction

A. The reaction between an ion and ligands to form a complex ion
B. Formation Constant (Kf)
1. The Equilibrium Constant for the Formation Reaction

VIII. Thermochemistry
A. Energy has the capacity to do work
1. Thermal Energy Associated With Temperature
2. Kinetic Energy Due to Motion
3. Potential Energy Due to Position or Composition
4. Chemical Energy Associated with Positions of Electrons
B. The System
1. The material or process within which we are studying energy changes
C. The Surroundings
1. Everything else with which the system can change energy
D. Energy Exchange
1. Energy is exchanged between the system and surroundings through heat
and work.

E. Standard Conditions
1. Usually 25C
2. Exactly 1 atm
3. Substance in solution with 1M concentration
F. Standard Enthalpy Change (H)
1. The Enthalpy change when all reactants and product are in their standard
G. Standard Enthalpy of Formation (Hf)
1. The enthalpy changes for the reaction that forms 1 mole of a pure
compound from its elements
2. The elements must be in their standard states
3. The Hf for a pure element in its standard state = 0 kJ/mol

IX. First Law of Thermodynamics

A. Energy Cannot Be Created or Destroyed
1. The Total Energy of the Universe Cannot Change
2. Energy Can Be Transferred

X. Second Law of Thermodynamics (The Energy Tax)

A. For any spontaneous process the entropy of the universe increases
1. Every energy transition results in a loss of energy
2. An energy tax demanded by nature
3. Example: the conversion of energy to heat
lost from the system by heating up the surroundings
XI. Spontaneity of Processes
A. Spontaneous Process occur without outside influence or intervention
1. Spontaneous processes occur because they release energy from rhe system
B. Entropy (S)
1. A Measure of the Randomness, disorder, or chaos
2. When S is positive, there is an increase in entropy
3. When S is negative, there is a decrease in entropy
4. Units are J/K (Energy/Temperature)
C. When Hsys is Negative, it is Exothermic
D. When Hsys is Positive, it is Endothermic

XII. Methods of Determining Spontaneity

A. S univ = S system + S surroundings
1. If S univ is positive, the reaction is spontaneous
B. Using Gibbs Free Energy Change
1. If G system is negative, the reaction is spontaneous
2. G = H - TS

XIII. Thermodynamics & Free Energy

A. Free Energy Energy Available To Do Work
B. Calculating Srxn
1. The Superscript indicates that it is at standard conditions
2. Standard Conditions: 25C, 1 atm, 1M for dissolved substances, Elements
in their standard states.