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Stefanie Corcoran

Annotated Bibliography
April 5, 2017

Black, P., and Wiliam, D. (2001). Inside the black box: Raising standards through
classroom assessment. Kings College London School of Education. Retrieved

When using formative assessment we are not only planning future instruction, we
are helping students become self-regulating, independent and self-correcting learners.
By doing that we need identify the gap, provide feedback, embed learning progressions,
involve students, and choose appropriate strategies to keep learning moving forward.
The goal for fostering a growth mindset is to train teachers on the five strategies of
formative assessment: clarifying, sharing and understanding learning intentions and
criteria for success; engineering effective classroom discussions, activities, and learning
tasks that elicit evidence of learning; providing feedback; activating learners as
instructional resources for one another; and activating learns as the owners of their own
learning. As an educational leader In an HPL environment, I would model these
effective strategies and collaborate with my colleagues of their effectiveness. I can also
support teachers in any efforts I can to help the process move forward. Together we
could bring formative assessment back into the classroom on a more regular basis so
students improve on their learning.

Boler, M. (2000). An epoch of difference: Hearing voices in the nineties. Educational

Theory, 50(3), 357-381.

The major debates through the 90s include those of consensus and dissensus in
which pragmatism and postmodernism was on opposite sides of the fence. The paper
examines the absolution of tragedy, focusing on differences and similarities in the
accounts of pragmatism and postmodernism in how conflict is recognized in educational
theory and practice (Boler 359). The educational theorists, during the time of the 90s,
hoped for a just society where solutions to a variety of perceived problems were
unanswered. This is in part due to a time of postmodernism that only added uncertainty
and ambiguity to the already difficult philosophical differences. Essays addressing race,
social class, pop culture, or cultural studies were out while essays including the
metaphysical, epistemological, moral, and aesthetic inquiries were in. Other topics
include critical thinking, caring, and community while little attention was given to critical
theory or pedagogy. The significant overlay between pragmatism and postmodernism
was between the pragmatic emphasis on the organisms desire to restore equilibrium
while post modernisms embraced contradiction and ambiguity. The absolutism of
tragedy was also discussed by defining the three aspects of tragedy. Overall, the
Educational Theory in the 1990s discusses themes of tragedy and pastiche as they
connect to listening and witnessing in educational theory.
Burbules, N. C. (2000). A half-century of Educational Theory: Perspectives on the past,
present, and future. Educational Theory, 50(3), 279-288.

In this article the editor of Educational Theory, reflects on the perspectives of

authors over the past 50 years for their anniversary celebration. The Educational
Theory journal was home to many characteristic authors who shared a broad
disciplinary approach to the philosophy of education even though their viewpoints were
varied. Each author shares a story about the era of their decade including the
structure of issues during those times that lead to changes in education. The first
authors that were discussed were Feinberg and Odeshoo who shared their insights of
the 1950s being an era of repression and paranoia when threatened with issues
regarding the social norms of society. They reflected about the meaning of normal
during this time along with discrimination, and often hostility that occurred when citizens
were viewed as different. The main issues regarding this era were those of race, sexual
orientation, and gender. During the 1960s Greene discusses educational philosophy
and the coming of its own as a vital discipline giving rise to analytical methods,
objectivity, clarity, rigor, and respect from other educational scholarship fields. The goal
of educational philosophy during this time was action versus implication with
existentialism being emphasized. The 1970s was a time of competing and
incommensurable paradigms that helped shape the next thirty years. A pivotal era
came about in the 1980s during times of feminism, neo-Marxism critical theory, and
postmodern thought where underlying disputes were over merits of optimistic versus
pessimistic visions of social change. In the end each decade represented a period of
creativity and experimentation in attempting to find new forms of theorizing education.

Couros, G. (2015). The innovator's mindset: Empower learning, unleash talent, and lead
a culture of creativity. San Diego, CA: Dave Burgess Consulting.
The innovators Mindset helps to move from a compliance traditional
school setting to one that provides new and better learning opportunities for our
students. Through empowering learning, students can create, problem solve, reflect,
use critical thinking, build relationships, collaborate, and control their own learning in a
21st century setting. George Couros helped me to challenge my teachers by asking
them the what if questions during observations to create a new vision in their
classrooms. A vision that is centered on the learners and not the teachers. I have
also been more attentive towards the struggles that students have and how to use the
power of communication for students to help improve lessons down the road by
expressing their own struggles with learning. This can be done through surveys at the
end of the lesson or activity. By including the students in the improvement process,
they will not only have time to reflect on their learning but also use their problem
finding and problem solving to good work. In creating this professional development
assignment, I have a much better idea of how to go about training my teachers and
how collaboration can be improved. George Couros (2015), shared the question of
What do you want leaders to do with technology to instill in teachers the hopes of
developing something new and better in the classroom through technology. Having an
idea is not enough but instead you need a plan with how it will be implemented and
applied. These ideas include using technology to build relationships, connect with
communities, flatten organizations, collaborate locally and globally, change cultures,
learn from anyone and everyone, openly reflect, tell powerful stories, develop personal
learning opportunities, drive change, and lead (The Innovators Mindset, pg. 24).
George Couros (2015), states, We forget that our responsibilities arent solely to
teach memorization or the mechanics of a task but to spark a curiosity that empowers
students to learn on their own, to wonder, to explore, and to become leaders (The
Innovators Mindset, pg. 4). We need to remember that if students leave school less
curious than when they came we failed them. We can no longer teach compliance
but instead foster innovation by incorporating technology as a supplement to teaching
versus just using it to use it. According to Couros (2015), Great educators can work
within the constraints of the system and still create innovative learning opportunities
for their students (The Innovators Mindset, pg. 47). In the book, The Innovators
Mindset (2015), Couros quoted Jamie Notter saying why are we okay that
management hasnt seen innovation in one hundred or fifty years, but we demand
innovation in every other aspect of our lives (The Innovators Mindset, pg. 81)? This
is the political reason behind why we need this push in technological innovation. By
learning, leading, and innovating I can start to play Devils advocate with my
experiences to lead to even better solutions. By placing ourselves in our students
shoes we can understand their discomfort and lack of enthusiasm in classes based on
our actions as teachers. This is the only way that we will see the change that is
needed and work up to making that experience for our students better by using
innovating ways of teaching.

Criterion-Referenced test definition. (2013, April 17). Retrieved May 04, 2016, from

This resource discussed the importance of criterion referenced tests as a way to

measure progress toward the goals and objectives described in an individualized
education plan for students with disabilities. CRT also help to identify gaps in student
learning and academic progress or inform instructional adjustments. The main reason to
use CRT is to diagnose learning needs so teachers may adjust learning pathways made
for students. CRT is also helpful by gaining information such as achievement gaps
among different student groups. CRT is needed in an HPL environment because it
establishes educational fairness based on No Child Left behind and compares students
to a set of standards instead of comparing students to one another. CRT also helps to
see if the learning strategies and educational policies are working as intended. In
summary CRT is better suited for measuring learning progress, is fairer to students, and
promotes better equity in education.

Davidson, C. N., & Goldberg, D. T. (2010). The future of thinking: Learning institutions in
a digital age (Rep.). Retrieved May 2, 2016, from

We live in a society where students are technologically savvy, are self-motivated

by interests, and learn best through digital resources. Why then are we still pushing the
outdated assembly line model of education? By offering project based learning, similar
to the New York City museums, we are able to produce a new mode of learning that is
challenging, molds itself to a diverse learning population, and allows students to share
their views with others. One way of doing this is by tying in the digital interactions that
our students are using today to our teaching style. Using the same peer to peer
interactions used in social media can help students collaborate together on a subject.
Using project based learning allows students to become involved in their learning along
with exploring their individual talents. By allowing collaboration with these projects,
students are able to guide each other with their diverse ideas. In our last module, we
even realized how much gaming can help students learn basic skills while still having

Educause Learning Initiative (ELI). (2014, February 11). 7 things you should know about
competency-based education. Retrieved April 09, 2016, from

In Competency Based Education, instructors are facilitators or guides to learning.

Students use new tools and supports to progress through material until they
demonstrate mastery. Students also regulate themselves through varied resources.
Through this type of assessment model, the teachers are not doing the work, the
students are. CBE requires educators to be competent in several skills along with
building learning relationships with students, integrating formative assessments, and
providing learner-centered instruction. The competencies, in which CBE is based on,
are structured by learning progressions of how concepts build upon each other. This
allows students to move at their own pace through flexible pathways. The competency
and the learning objectives allow for personalization and opportunities for deeper

Embedding assessment throughout the project (Keys to PBL Series Part 5). (2014, July
16). Retrieved October 18, 2016, from
Assessing PBL means including those that are most involved with the project.
This means having the students assessing themselves and their team mates. It also
means allowing students to showcase all the hard work that they did by not only
presenting this in front of their peers but their other teachers and school community as
well. Through PBL, students can involve both vertical learning, including subject matter
knowledge, and horizontal learning, such as project management, both of which will be
needed in any job that they have in the future. Through scaffolding, I can plan
accordingly to the point that students are truly supported in their endeavors while at the
same time owning their own learning.

Facilitating Learning in a student-driven environment (Keys to PBL Series Part 4).

(2014). Retrieved October 18, 2016, from

When facilitating learning, it is not about giving students a worksheet that the
teacher has created, but introducing a topic that will build curiosity and provide
opportunities to inquire and ask questions around it. It is also about giving students
opportunities to collaborate in order to find their own answers. These questions will
then lead to more questions that are either posed or resulted in the drive towards an
answer. This video helps directly involve your students by having them plan and steer
projects since they are the ones that are invested in their learning and their future. The
video gives teachers ideas for empowering students to work independently. I am also
starting to look at my experience and transitioning from my classroom to the whole
school as an educational leader. Whatever I think is useful in the classroom, I need to
be sharing with my fellow teachers through professional development. Creating a
culture of collaboration, community, and innovation in my school is ideal in order to
share these threshold concepts and eight daily characteristics. This is especially true
when it comes to teachers that have the same students with the same weaknesses or
strengths in their classrooms. We together need to accommodate these weaknesses
and build on those strengths to move learning forward. By sharing and bouncing ideas
off each other, like we want our students to do, will only help us be better educators and
leaders ourselves.

Feinberg, W., & Odeshoo, J. (2000). Educational Theory in the fifties: The beginning of a
conversation. Educational Theory, 50(3), 289-306.

The dominant framework that structured education in the 1950s was a theory around
consensus, functionalism, and social norms. Even though there were different
standpoints made during this time, all agreed upon the maintenance of social and
cultural norms of the society. The main conflicts that were not permissible, according to
academia, dealt with gender, race, and sexual orientation. Race became more generally
recognized in light of the Brown v. Board of Education decision which many denounced
discrimination and segregation. Many also thought that education for men should be
different from that of women, even though all realms of learning were open to women.
Women staying at home, while men worked in society, became a norm. Both issues
lead to issues of inequality and class. Lastly, other norms such as homosexuality were
rarely challenged inside or outside the academic community. Victims of homosexuality
understood that their best chance of survival was to deny these sexual abnormalities,
conform to the social norms, or seek counseling to become cured of their disease.
Many of these situations that challenged traditional conceptions of normality highlighted
limitations to the theories that were defined during this time. Theory should have a role
in helping to see ourselves and others in a different light, even if it means breaking the
social norms. When it came to curriculum, educational theory went from one extreme to
the next. The life adjustment movement gained major ground in the early 50s with the
growth of urban America after the World War II which taught life skills rather than
academic ones. Reform was quickly needed however at the height of the Cold War and
Red Scare with the need to introduce math, science, and foreign language in an effort to
strengthen our industrial prosperity and military security.

Greene, M. (2000). The sixties: The calm against the storm, or, levels of concern.
Educational Theory, 50(3), 307-320.

The 1960s decade of educational philosophy was thematic around the Civil Rights
movement, civil disobedience, nonviolence, War on Poverty, and redemptive suffering.
During this time, President John F. Kennedy made his inaugural speech that sums up
the theme around the 1960s reform in education saying, "not what your country can
do for you, but what you can do for your country." This introduced an era of
conscientious objection, the meaning of equal opportunity, and alleviating conditions
associated with poverty. America was undergoing a devotion to compassion and
peace, where many were involved with protests to support social injustices. Schools
during this time were considered wastelands, lacking standards, discipline, and
academic rigor. This resulted in a reform to promote higher quality science and math in
schools, especially after the Russians defeated us in the scientific and technological
domain of the Sputnik launch. With this reform came about a movement of educational
practice and philosophy such as distinctions among methodologies or learning styles.
The biggest challenge was the issue of teaching methods that could promote good
habits of the mind. Attention was quickly moved to questions regarding how to
integrate aspects of human action. The goal of education was to situate educational
philosophy without belittling it. The goal was to produce citizens that understood the
meaning of freedom and its link to responsibility, especially in being responsible for
other human beings. This meant that we had to become aware of the worlds
shortcomings and taking action to fix them. This meant that teachers had the
responsibility to create a community that encouraged differences instead of
discriminating against them. What was deemed as fundamental in education during this
time was that action, to be meaningful and effective, must be guided by knowledge,
and knowledge is only gained through reflection and solitude- the very opposites of
action (315).
Kohli, W. (2000). Educational theory in the eighties: Diversity and divergence.
Educational Theory, 50(3), 339-356.

In the 1980s which was a time of social, political, intellectual, and economic shifts. It
was also a time influenced by feminism, critical social theory, and political economy.
The 80s was governed by Reagan who espoused a conservative social and economic
agenda that had great effects on education. There was also the Christian Right's that
seemed to undermine the the separation of church and state with their attempts to get
prayer back in school. Educational opportunity and equity was also at risk during the
end of the Great Society days of Lyndon Johnson. For the most part public education,
especially the teachers, was under attack for the failing U.S. economy. These shifts
produced phrases such as theory-practice, teacher effectiveness, epistemology, and
postmodern conditions. The 1980s was also a time of extreme materialism yet
conservative social values. These shifts caused the reconceptualization of philosophy
and education by finding a connection between theory and practice. This was a time
that authors of the Educational Theory answered questions such as what is
philosophy? And What is philosophy of education? To help answer these questions,
the Educational Theory ushered in a variety of authors including Soltis who suggested
that educational philosophers should be trained as philosophers that helped solve
educational problems. Soltis argued for a more linguistic analysis of philosophy and
education while Broudy argued for metaphysical speculation. Even though both
disagreed on their stances they both agreed on implementing effective philosophical
training in order to be good at philosophical education. Another author, Siegel argued
that philosophers of education have a primary goal to develop and deepen our
understanding as a whole host of philosophical issues raised by the practice of
education. Soltis also offered a similar view arguing that educators need to think with
clarity and effectively philosophize about what they are doing by using the best
philosophical help available in order to connect philosophy and education.

Kop, R., & Hill, A. (2008, October). Connectivism: Learning theory of the future of
vestige of the past? Retrieved April 18, 2016, from

This resource discusses distributed knowledge and connectivism as a learning

theory for the digital age. Connectivism is challenged as being a learning theory that
meets the needs of todays and future students. When discussing this new learning
theory, they discuss three epistemological frameworks including objectivism,
pragmatism, and interpretivism. Through this framework, objectivism is the building of
knowledge by experiencing things externally. Pragmatism is the building of knowledge
by conferring between reflection and experiences, along with actions and inquiries.
Lastly interpretivism is using socialization and cultural cues to internally construct
knowledge. By adding Connectivism to this framework we are introducing distributed
knowledge which views knowledge as a network and learning as a process of pattern
recognition in a learning community. This means that connectivism stresses that
learning occurs through the ability to seek our current information, and the ability to
filter out secondary and extraneous information. This theory can help explain how
students can be engaged in creating their own learning by evaluating what information
is deemed useful and which is in need of elimination.

Lash, A., & Trumbull, E. (2013). Understanding formative assessment: Insights from
learning theory and measurement theory. Retrieved April 28, 2016, from

This resource discusses the need for education assessment that is not only
balanced but supportive of gaining information from our students learning. This
information can then shape teachers instructional pathways. Another need was
assessments that aligned with learning goals in order to understand what constitutes
learning and what knowledge would be produced. In order for these assessments to
provide some formative purpose, they need to be able to give results on the student's
progress towards a learning goal. Lastly, they discussed assessment designs that are
useful to teachers to gain information from their students such as the assessment
triangle. This resource ties into HPL due to the fact that formative assessment is
contingent on the instructional strategies used and the student. Formative assessment
needs to be tailored to each student and their relevant learning targets.

Lee, D. (2015). Introduction to project based learning (PBL) Process. Retrieved October
18, 2016, from

There are four phases of PBL including launching the project, building
knowledge, developing and revising products and answers, and presenting the
products. When the teacher launches the project they need to catch the attention of
students and provide a clear open ended question that intrigues students with what the
project is about. This question will drive the inquiry part of the project through flexible
learning that includes student driven research and resources given by the teacher
including mini lessons and tasks that supplement the requirements of the project. When
students develop and revise their answers to the driving question, they get to decide
how they work, how they use their time, and what they create such as a web page,
brochure, public service announcement, or presentation. The teacher is then able to
give feedback that helps support further revisions and inquiry while also assessing the
21st century skills that are being developed such as innovation, creativity, and
collaboration. As an educational leader learning about HPL, I find myself being more
and more attuned to the individual qualities of my students. These two modules have
helped me realize that students stressed enough, and putting the added pressure of the
future is not helping that stress level. By letting kids be kids in a world of knowledge, I
have learned that students need to be excited about learning instead of being forced
through it. We need to develop the metacognition of our students in a way that benefits
them for the road ahead and the road they are on now. Forcing high stakes tests down
their throats will not help them for the future, only for their grades in the present time.
This is something we are trying to change with this paradigm shift. I am also learning
how to become more of a facilitator through passion based learning and project based
learning, where my students are more responsible for their learning through resources
and mini lessons that may be used as supplements. These supplements may be given
through myself or with other resources. I still feel that I will have a hard time with not
controlling the situation and not knowing how to handle students not taking the project
wholeheartedly, but I feel like I am getting there. I am a planner and a perfectionist, so
when Im seeing a project not go the way that I was planning, or seeing it not work out
well for students, I may get anxiety seeing that.

Making learning personal for all: The Growing Diversity in Todays Classroom. (n.d.).
Retrieved October 18, 2016, from
We live in a society that is more diverse today than it ever has been in the past
with diversity in race, religion, language, socioeconomics, and culture. With this
diversity comes different needs and abilities. We now, more than ever, need a change
in our educational system where we are personalizing learning for our students in an
HPL environment. We live in an era that tries to make everything fair without
understanding that fair isnt always what is equal. Fair is giving these underprivileged
students the supports they need in order to be at a similar level with their other peers.
They only way we know what supports they need is to understanding their cognitive
realities and tailor a learning path that is right for them, not the average student. By
providing personalized learning to our students we are able to connect each student
with learning that is dependent on their individual development, background, interests,
and experiences. This will empower students and allow learning to move forward.

McManus, Sarah, and NC Department of Public Instruction. "Attributes of

Norm-Referenced test definition. (2013, July 15). Retrieved May 04, 2016, from

This resource discussed Norm referenced tests and how they may be used to
properly place students into remedial, gifted, or special education programs. They may
also be used to identify students with learning disabilities. Form a teacher standpoint
they can help select students for different ability level instructional groups such as
mathematics or reading. In an HPL environment we dont use a lot of norm referenced
tests because they focus on low level, or basic skills. This means that these tests do
not facilitate a growth mindset and deeper learning that an HPL environment tries to
offer. These tests are also known to be more high stakes where teachers have been
known to try and teach to the test so their students perform well. Lastly, these tests give
little information about the cognitive reality of students or what they are able to do. The
NRT compares students to one another, instead of offering information on what they
know or can do. Because of this we are not able to use this information in creating a
customized learning path for our students. Instead of norm-referenced tests comparing
students to learning goals, they are comparing them to other students creating a bell
curve. By using these tests we are teaching students to compete with other students,
instead of teaching students to learn.
Moss, Connie M., and Susan M. Brookhart. Advancing formative assessment in every
classroom: A guide for instructional leaders. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 2009. 24-43.

Today students are not part of the learning process enough. Teachers often feel
that this is more their responsibility versus the students. Students need to be proactive
rather than reactive when improving their work through feedback. First students can
become part of the process by putting objectives that they are to master in their own
words so they are no longer in the language of the teachers. Once students understand
these goals they can set these goals and monitor their process towards them. Next, the
more students are able to identify quality level of work, the more they will be able to self-
regulate their work in order to produce the desired level of work themselves. This self-
regulation only occurs though clear, descriptive feedback from the teachers that help
focus the students to see the connection between their effort and their achievement.
Then, the teacher needs to allow room for the student to correct their work through
specific feedback but not too specific that the work is done for the student. This helps
the student become the decision maker in their learning along with being autonomous
and actively involved in their improvements. As far as an HPL environment is
concerned, placing formative assessment in the hands of students is empowering them
to develop the self-regulation skills needed. This will help to prepare them to learn both
inside and outside of the classroom.

Nicol, David J., and Debra MacfarlaneDick. "Formative assessment and selfregulated
learning: A model and seven principles of good feedback practice." Studies in
Higher Education 31.2 (2006): 199-218.Taylor and Francis Online. Web. 16 Mar.

The main goal of formative assessment is closing the gap between current and
desired performance. It also provides information to teachers that can help them
reshape their teaching. By adopting formative assessment, teachers are able to clarify
what good performance is, facilitate the development of self-assessment, deliver high
quality information to students about their learning, encourage teacher and peer
dialogue about learning, encourage positive motivation and self-esteem, provide
opportunities to close the gap between current and desired performance, and provide
information to teachers that can be used to shape their teaching. Through formative
assessment, feedback helps teachers, and students through self-assessment, observe
what criteria was met and what wasnt. For the criteria that wasnt met, teachers and
students are able to observe the reasons which the criteria wasnt met and reshape
their teaching to improve on these skills. This feedback, if used as a process, can be
used to support cognition because it helps students realize what skills they are strong
and which are weak. Through this process students will develop meta-cognition and
self-awareness by looking at their work through the eyes of their teacher and the criteria
that determines their skills as successful.
Norm-Referenced test definition. (2013, July 15). Retrieved May 04, 2016, from

This resource discussed Norm referenced tests and how they may be used to
properly place students into remedial, gifted, or special education programs. They may
also be used to identify students with learning disabilities. Form a teacher standpoint
they can help select students for different ability level instructional groups such as
mathematics or reading. In an HPL environment we dont use a lot of norm referenced
tests because they focus on low level, or basic skills. This means that these tests do
not facilitate a growth mindset and deeper learning that an HPL environment tries to
offer. These tests are also known to be more high stakes where teachers have been
known to try and teach to the test so their students perform well. Lastly, these tests give
little information about the cognitive reality of students or what they are able to do. The
NRT compares students to one another, instead of offering information on what they
know or can do. Because of this we are not able to use this information in creating a
customized learning path for our students. Instead of norm-referenced tests comparing
students to learning goals, they are comparing them to other students creating a bell
curve. By using these tests we are teaching students to compete with other students,
instead of teaching students to learn.

Phillips, D. (2000). Interpreting the seventies, or, Rashomon meets educational theory.
Educational Theory, 50(3), 321-338.

During the 1970s the Educational Theory journal raised issues about subjectivity and
the impossibility of objectivity. The theme of philosophy of education seemed to dwindle
down as moral education, rights, and values took their place. Other themes of the 70s
included teacher education, curriculum, structure of knowledge, and educational
research and evaluation. Authors felt that the future of educational philosophy was the
clarification of the social and moral strifes of their days, and the actions for dealing with
these controversies. This was due to the social and political events occurring during
this era such as landing on the moon, the Vietnam War, student unrest at universities,
the My Lai massacre, trials of Lt. William Calley, the Watergate break in, the fall of
Richard Nixon, and Nixon in China. This was also time of great movements such as the
Womens movement, the Gay Liberation Movement, and the American Indian
Movement. With this subjectivity came new problems such as the reintroduction of the
death penalty; increased rates of divorce, crime, and drugs; nuclear extermination
threats; and high rates of inflation. It is to no surprise that Americas problems were
complex which made people feel helpless and hopeless about living in a period of
unprecedented collective violence, entangled in one war after another (323).
Because of this feeling education found it necessary to adopt Maslows theory of a
humanistic, individual-oriented conception of education. The ultimate goal of
education at this time was to provide a full and equal opportunity for all persons to lead
self-actualizing lives (324). This meant that the 70s was focused on a time of doing
instead of a time of planning since they could not afford to ignore the conflicts that were
occurring anymore. This is to say that the solutions they were warranting really were
solutions. What we needed in education was an integration of the empirical, the
normative, and the contextual within the analytic method where reflection can illuminate
important educational issues. This was to help get students doing instead of reading
about the actions needed to fix these conflicts. The topics mentioned in the Educational
Theory caused notable contributions with philosophy with contemporary discussions of
critical thinking, the rights of parents and children, autonomy, equality of opportunity,
liberalism and communitarianism, applied ethics, and educational research

Popham, W. J. (2008). Transformative assessment. Alexandria, VA: Association for

supervision and curriculum development. Retrieved April 28, 2016, from

This chapter discusses the importance of formative assessment and its process
in providing evidence in students learning status. It discusses how teachers can use
formative assessment to adjust their ongoing instruction or by students to adjust their
current learning styles. Formative assessment is said to raise student performance on
accountability tests which is why it has been supported by many schools and
educational theorists. Paul Black and Dylan Wiliam are two theorists that support
formative assessment, not only based on its instructional logic, but its implemented
meta-analysis as well. Formative assessment instills the traits of a HPL learning
environment because it takes into mind the students current cognitive realities with
respect to certain skills or knowledge that they must possess. Once these cognitive
realities are determined, teachers are able to create individualized learning paths for
those students, even giving students choices on assignments that will demonstrate
mastery of the skill.

Reger, A., Ferda, L., Girmay, W., Green, A., & Rank-Lev, K. (n.d.). Remake learning
playbook. Retrieved October 18, 2016, from

This resource shows the significant impact that education can make when we are
using technology, media, and outside resources to our best interest and that of the
students. By using learning networks in an HPL environment, teachers are able to
connect with their students in a way that traditional school doesnt allow them. The
Remake Learning Network is helping educators in and out of the classroom connect
with their students in the digital age through these learning networks. Learning
networks create a shift from the traditional focus on one learning institution, the school,
to focus on the learner and all the places where there are opportunities to learn, like
museums, libraries, after-school programs, and the home. Learning networks depend
on each region and their unique characteristics, for example, in Pittsburgh there are
learning opportunities in robotics, gaming, early learning, and youth voice. The reason
these learning networks are so powerful is because they teach the students 21st
century skills like maker learning, digital learning, and STEAM learning. Maker learning,
according to the Sprout Fund, is the collaboration between students through hands-on
activities that include building and hacking by combining the physical world with the
digital world, technology and media, and crafting with art. Digital learning is about
students using digital tools for learning and collaborating while STEAM learning is
incorporating activities of science, technology, engineering, arts, and math in order to
solve real-world problems using creativity and curiosity. Learning networks will not only
help to create these 21st century skills for our students, but also help personalize their
learning in a fun and comfortable way for these digital natives.

Rust, C (ed)(2005) Improving student learning diversity and inclusivity: Threshold

concepts and troublesome knowledge (3)*: implications for course design and
evaluation . Oxford: Oxford Centre for Staff and Learning Development.
This resource describes threshold concepts and how the learning encounters
that we experience may be seen as difficult or troublesome but that we may prevail by
considering matters differently and transforming our thinking. This can be an
empowering feeling but, just as often, can become uncomfortable since it strays away
from the traditional teaching of memorized facts Threshold knowledge is used to
describe core concepts that once understood, can transform the perception of a given
subject or unit along with transforming the student themselves. Threshold concepts is
not only helpful in facilitating students understanding of the subject matter, but also
helps teacher in developing a curriculum that can seem overloaded in a traditional
sense. ). This means that students need to locate troublesome aspects of the subject
matter, cope with these disjunctions by tackling problems in varied ways until a
connection is made, and knowing that they will be stronger and the information will get
clearer over time. The more that students learn to cope with this uncertainty, the more
metacognitive skills that these students will gain.

Shuell, T. (2013, July 19). Theories of learning. Retrieved May 04, 2016, from

This resource discussed the various theories of learning and how they are
conceived based on the different factors or variables that make it up. It also discussed
how the theories evolved throughout the years because on these changing factors and
variables. One of the first theories mentioned included that of behavioral theories such
as stimulus-response, reinforcement, feedback, and practice. The theories from this
time conceptualized learning as something that occurred from the outside in. Next came
social-learning theory, rooted from behavioral theory, which dealt with social learning
and personality development. This theory quickly transitioned into social-cognitive
theory in order to differentiate it from the behavioral theories. The cognitive theories
focus on mental activities and understanding of complex material. Soon, cognitive
theories were challenged by those of social interactions creating a sociocultural context
of learning. In the current day, technology is added to the mix to give a social and
material dimension such as how resources are affecting learning. Because several
types of learning are taking place in the classroom, the validity and usefulness of these
different theories is helpful to consider what each student is learning and what evidence
exists to prove that learning has occurred. In an HPL environment, these theories help
us as educators understand how knowledge is created and distributed by students and
the rest of the community.

The quality Improvement agency (QIA) for lifelong learning (2008). Assessment for
learning.Guidance for assessment and learning, Retrieved from

This resource understands that assessment demonstrates learning and that

every learner can improve their learning to reach their full potential. By using diagnostic
learning, teachers are able to understand the misconceptions of their students before
designing their learning pathways for success. It also helps to assess each learners
cognitive realities, creates an opportunity for feedback, and at the same time
establishes feedback on the instructional strategies. By giving students feedback,
student performance can go up to 33%. If teachers simply give a letter grade, that can
lead to negative impacts. Feedback, however, is only helpful if you are applying it
towards adjusting learning targets and providing opportunities for students to improve
on their learning. Lastly, diagnostic assessment helps student reflect as to what they
are learning and why it is important. This ties to HPL as a way to start each lesson on
the right track with using an assessment that measures the cognitive realities of
students. It also ties in by creating learning pathways based on these cognitive realities.
Because each student will test differently, each student will get their own individualized
learning pathway.

Thomas, D., & Brown, J. S. (2011). A new culture of learning: Cultivating the
imagination for a world of constant change. Lexington, KY: CreateSpace.

What constitutes a new culture of learning are the assumptions about how
learning occurs. Our world is constantly changing and so are the skills that are taught in
schools. We as educators need to strive for ways to keep learning up to date. We also
need to recognize that the more students experience and play with their learning, the
more they will be able to build that knowledge. Next, our world is connected to the fact
that students have unlimited resources, and communities at their fingertips. This gives
students more access to experts on various subjects including other peers. This can
result in building learning relationships that make the learner responsible for their own
learning rather than depending on the teacher for all the information. Because of this
ever changing world that we live in today, education is caught up in the complexities of
matching our speed of learning to these changing times. This means that the basic
skills learned in the assembly lines of traditional schools wont cut the meta-skills
needed today. We need to create a balance of freedom and control in our classrooms
in order to produce a new culture of learning that cultivates imagination and innovation.

Vaculov, I., & Kubiatko, M. (2010, April 10). Project-based learning: Characteristic and
the experiences with application in the science subjects. Energy Education
Science and Technology Part B: Social and Educational Studies,3(1), 65-74.
Retrieved October 18, 2016, from
PBL is an approach that fosters this social interaction, where students find
solutions to a driving question that is based on a real world problems. This type of
project is consistent with HPL providing authentic learning centered on the learner,
where they get a voice and a choice of the outcome that they develop without leaving
standards behind. Not only is Project Based Learning (PBL), a great tool to integrate
different subject areas, but it allows diversity within the classroom where students have
the autonomy to learn in their own way creating flexible learning environments. In order
for PBL to work, teachers need to be able to facilitate learning versus controlling it. In
this resource, biology students had the opportunity to try the PBL method where they
formed groups. The groups presented three projects where imperfections were noted
and discussed. According to Kubiatko and Vaculov (2010), It makes a difference if
teachers possess a tolerance for ambiguity, some skill in helping learners negotiate
conflicts, and enough self-confidence to not give up when a project peters out or refuses
to come together (Project-based learning: Characteristic and the experiences with
application in the science subjects, pg. 69). This is where I hope to be at the end of
this HPL journey, but Im getting there! Watching the videos in Module 6, I am also
realizing that I can be the planner that I am while using PBL. Being a facilitator in the
classroom means knowing student interests and abilities while grouping students and
providing scaffolding during the project to keep the students on track. Providing a
checklist, rubric, or checklist before the project begins will also give students enough
instruction to clearly identify their mission for the project. Im just at the point now of
trying to incorporate these projects more often in my class as the meat of my lesson
instead of just a supplement to it.

Walsh, K. (2015, April 20). Awesome free ed tech resources eBook! Retrieved October
18, 2016, from

The SAMR model developed by Dr. Ruben Puentedua in order to integrate

technology into teaching. Using this model, teachers and students can realize how
lessons and assessments can be transformed while considering the benefits of evolving
through the stages of Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, and Redefinition. So far
along my journey I have learned what learner centrality is and the foundations of an
HPL environment, what it means to understand the cognitive realities of our students
and why that is important, what theories helped pave the way for HPL and how HPL is
different, how assessment needs to change and what it looks like in an HPL
environment, and what research entails along with how to study research analytically. I
have come a long way with knowing what HPL is and understanding why the shift in
education is necessary. At this stage of the game however, I feel saddened by what a
disservice we have created for the students in education for the past five years or more.
It has become apparent how many students have fallen through the cracks because we
are failing to do more for them and supporting them in the ways that they need. I feel
that myself as an HPL leader is being more open to changes in my classroom in order
to make this change happen. I am more spontaneous with letting my traditional way of
things go so my students can experiment more in the lab or have time for more
discussions and questions. I also feel that my assessments are changing from a
recitation of facts to more problem solving and critical thinking problems. Im
challenging my students more in order to see the gears in their minds work. I am also
looking at their work in a different way trying to understand how their mind is working
when doing the problems. In a nutshell I am deconstructing teaching by trying to
expose the internal assumptions and contradictions that each student has. This way I
have a better idea the realities of my students and ways to improve their learning. I
must admit it is a challenge and not the easiest way of teaching, but it is the most

WISE. (2016). Retrieved October 18, 2016, from

WISE (web inquiry science environment) is an online platform that is used to

design, develop, and implement science inquiry activities. WISE offers a user friendly
program, cognitive checkpoints, reflection notes, assessments, online discussions, and
software tools such as drawings, concept maps, diagramming, and graphing. WISE
also incorporates interactive simulations and models that students are able to build in a
variety of modern web technologies. WISE is used in order to promote student self-
monitoring through collaboration, reflection activities, and teacher feedback. WISE
offers the POER pattern which stands for predict, observe, explain, and reflect in order
to guide students interpretation of concepts. During the process, students are able to
write narratives required to understand key events and help organize their thoughts
revolving around their challenge question. The program offers idea managers such as
graphic organizers and idea baskets to save student work and multimedia information.
Lastly, WISE allows students to investigate challenges meaningful driving questions by
taking on the role of a scientist.

Zogby, J., CEO, & Zogby, J., Sr. Analyst. (2014). 2014 global survey of students (pp. 1-
8, Rep.). Zogby Analytics.

Learning theory in the digital world needs to reflect the education needed for the
millennial generation which consists of students that are tech savvy, have a global
outlook, and high expectations for their futures. According to data taken from a survey
relating to advancing higher education, many students discussed the need for a
transformation by technology, a value driven education, an emphasis on cooperation,
and a global mindset. First, education should be accessible with free content given
online, students using social media for learning and peer tutoring, and free online
libraries to access course materials and books. Second, education should be flexible,
structured on a non-fixed schedule with course being offered at all times of the day and
night. Next, education needs to be innovative where courses provide collaboration
between students and teachers via group projects, personalized instruction, and online
tutoring. Lastly, education should be valuable, focused on future jobs including those
needed for industry and society. This includes teaching students career-oriented skills
on top of their subject matter. The goal for HPL is to meet the needs of students. This
transformation allows the students to step away from discrete subjects to focus on real
world problems. Through flexible schedules, learning can occur anywhere at anytime.
Next, it allows student choice since its based on a diverse curriculum giving students
freedom to track their learning based on their own interests.