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Structural design of a two-stroke

diesel engine

Henrik Andersson, MAN Diesel, Copenhagen, Denmark

Design of a large two-stroke ship diesel engine differs in one fundamental point from design of smaller engines: The
prototype engine is sold. This together with the fact that an engine failure can be life threatening at sea means that
smaller design change increments are usually taken. On the other hand, loading is very well defined as the engine
usually runs at maximum load, 100%. By comparing strain gauge measurements on existing engines with
simulations, the complete simulation chain is tested. This includes the meshed geometry, material data, structural
and thermal load application, post processing routines and experimental methods. Today, the difference between
the measured and calculated strain history over an engine revolution is so small that again larger design increments
can be allowed.
The new engine series, ME-B, includes a few large design increments. One of the most striking is the now welded
main bearing support. The paper at hand describes the simulation process, its objective, what tools are being used,
some of the design philosophy and some results. The design objective is to make the main bearing support as
cheap as possible while still maintaining a high degree of reliability. The results show that the most severely loaded
parts experience the same load as before, however it is now made of a rolled plate as compared to cast steel. As
for all welded designs, the loading on the welds need to be carefully simulated. Here, it is shown how the
HyperWorks suite fits into the environment where UG, in-house codes for loading, Abaqus and FE-safe are also
present. A second example that will be shown is the thrust bearing design that includes elasto-hydro-dynamic oil
film calculations and some HyperStudy optimisation.

[LDD1/HRA] MAN Diesel A/S 2007/08/31 1

Structural design of a two-stroke diesel engine

Presented by
Henrik Andersson, Ph.D.
New Design Department, Research & Development
MAN Diesel A/S
EHTC, October 2007, BERLIN

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MAN Diesel Group
Locations in Europe

Employees worldwide: 6,400

Great Britain Denmark
MAN Diesel Ltd. MAN Diesel A/S
Service Frederikshavn
Service, two- and
four-stroke engines,
Copenhagen propellers


France Czech Republic
Augsburg Velk Bte
MAN Diesel SA Saint-Nazaire PBS Turbo s.r.o.
Service, Turbocharger
four-stroke engines Jouet

MAN Diesel SE
Status: 12/05

Service, four-stroke engines,


3334870.2007.04.16 (GMC/PDP) [LDD1/HRA] MAN Diesel A/S 2007/08/31 3

Introduction: The Product

Large Two-Stroke Diesel Engines

 Turbo charged
6S35MC  Low speed, 61-167 RPM
 Bore from 35 cm to 108 cm
 Stroke up to 3.45 m
 Up to 14 cylinders
 Engines range from 5.900 to
132.000 BHP
 Up to 2800 tonnes

 Continuous demand for cost

 Reliability is crucial

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Market Shares Worldwide
Marine Diesel Engines

Low-speed diesel engines Medium-speed diesel engines

for ships ordered in 2006 (Jan.-Sept.) Orders June 2005 to May 2006
Engines 87% 34%


4% 66%

 MAN Diesel  MAN Diesel

 Wrtsila  Competitors (Wrtsila, Cat/MaK)
Source:: Lloyd`s Register Fairplay Ltd. Source: Diesel and Gas Turbine, Prop. and aux. engines > 0.5 MW

3334951.2007.06.13 [LDD1/HRA]
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Overview of the two-stroke crosshead cycle Main bearing design today



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Stress / strain amplitude as calculated

Main bearing #6. Standard gauges fore side (aft cyl 5)

1000 BEA501
800 BEA502
400 BMA501
strain x 1e6 (-)

200 BMA502
0 51 103 154 206 257 308 360 BMA504
BEA502 56112
-400 BEA503 328101
-600 BEA504 -94154
BMA501 101147
BMA502 81101
-1000 BMA503 104100
Angle wrt cyl 1 TDC (deg) BMA504 -87145

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Problem definition

Work flow
 Main dimensions of the engine is decided
This incudes cylinder distance, stroke, bore and Pmax
 A 3D sketch of the bed plate, including the main bearing is made
 The crankshaft is more or less designed
 Loading for the main bearings are calculated as a function of crankshaft angle
 Our work begins...

Objective: The new design should among other things:

 Be possible to manufacture both from a rolled plate and a casting
 Include as simple welding as possible
 Provide sufficient safety against fatigue failure

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Stress analysis of the main structure

Gas forces

Cam shaft loads

Random forces from vibration

Guide shoe forces

Axial vibration loads In this case the load is

applied as 36 load steps from
5 to 355 degrees after
Main bearing loads
cylinder 1 TDC by use of an
in-house program.
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Stress analysis of the main bearing

Shell elements

Solid elements

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Example of shapes

Width of the main bearing

Height of the
For the main bearing there are a
main bearing
few shapes that are possible to
alter, e.g. the width and height of
the thick plate.

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Weld analysis of the main bearing

The welds are analysed by several

different methods. In this case:
1.Finding the stress amplitude by
use of FE-safe
2.Finding the two dominating
crankshaft angles and then do a
simple subtraction => this equals
max principle and the stress
range. This gives an overview of
the stress direction. Parallell or
3.Doing a hot spot extrapolation
and using FAT 100 with a safety
factor 1.5.

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25 mm thick plate

170 mm thick plate

45 deg slope

R40 rounding

10 mm nose

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Thrust bearing

1. The structure is divided into two components

- the crankshaft with the thrust collar UG / HyperMesh
- the structure with the bearing segments
2. Shapes are generated HyperMesh
3. Optimisation criteria are set
Shapes are applied HyperStudy
4. The stiffness matrices are being extracted by use of
5. Elasto hydro dynamic calculation In-house code
of the oil film using the mean thrust
Oil film thickness, Oil film pressure
6. The solution is mapped back to the structure models In-house code
7. A structural calculation of the stress and displacement Abaqus
8. New shapes are found and point 4 is repeated. HyperStudy

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Thrust bearing parts

Aft thrust
attached to


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Example of thrust bearing shapes

Flange thickness

Groove slope

When varying collar radius

the segment radius and thus
MB support need to follow
the shapes.

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EHD calculated pressure on segments

The top two segments carry

> 40 % of the total load

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Thrust bearing- Structural stresses

EHD pressures mapped onto mesh


Thrust collar
(attached to the

These are the mean stresses,

Thrust bearing of the varying stress is function
cast design of the mean stress depending
upon ship speed, number of
cylinders, propeller, etc.

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Discussion and Conclusion

Structural design:
 The main bearing presented will be tested on the first 6S40ME-B engine
that will be running on the testbed in November 2007. The thrust bearing
will run on sea trial in early 2008.
 Strain gauge verification will be extensive on the test bed. Over 100
strain gauges have been specified. No strain gauge verification of the
thrust bearing is planned.

Software and program environment:

 The software environment is well functioning
 It is possible to write in-house codes for special purposes like load
application and EHD calculation

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Coffee break

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