You are on page 1of 217

# CHAPTER-5

CENTRE OF MASS
FILL IN THE BLANKS
1. A particle of mass 4m which is at rest explodes into three fragments. Two of the fragments each of mass m are
found to move with a speed v each in mutually perpendicular directions. The total energy released in the process
of explosion is ..... (1987; 2M)

2. The magnitude of the force (in newtons) acting on a body varies with time t (in microseconds) as shown in the
fig. AB, BC and CD are straight line segment. The magnitude of the total impulse of the force on the body from
t = 4 s to t = 16 s is ...... N-s (1994; 2M)

C
800
Force (N)

600

400

200 A B
E D
F
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Time (s)

## TRUE/FALSE 3. A shell is fired from a cannon with a velocity v (m/s)

at an angle with the horizontal direction. At the
1. Two particles of mass 1 kg and 3 kg move towards each highest point in its path it explodes into two pieces of
other under their mutual force of attraction. No other equal mass. One of the pieces retraces its path to the
force acts on them. When the relative velocity of cannon and the speed (m/s) of the other piece
approach of the two particles is 2 m/s, their centre of immediately after the explosion is : (1986; 2M)
mass has a velocity of 0.5 m/s. When the relative (a) 3 v cos (b) 2 v cos
velocity of approach becomes 3 m/s, the velociy of the
3 3
centre of mass is 0.75 m/s. (1989; 2M) (c) v cos (d) v cos
2 2
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
4. An isolated particle of mass m is moving in horizontal
Only One option is correct : plane (x-y), along the x-axis, at a certain height above
1. Two particles A and B initially at rest, move towards the ground. It suddenly explodes into two fragment of
each other mutual force of attraction. At the instant masses m/4 and 3m/4. An instant later, the smaller
when the speed of A is V and the speed of B is 2V, fragment is at y = + 15 cm. The larger fragment at this
the speed of the centre of mass of the system is : instant is at : (1997 C; 1M)
(1982; 2M) (a) y = 5 cm (b) y = + 20 cm
(a) 3V (b) V (c) y = + 20 cm (d) y = 20 cm
(c) 1.5 V (d) zero
5. Two particles of masses m1 and m2 in projectile motion
2. A ball hits the floor and rebounds after an inelastic r r
collision. In this case : (1986; 2M) have velocities v1 < v2 respectively at time t = 0. They
(a) the momentum of the ball just after the collision is r r
collide at time t0 . Their velocities become v 1 and v 2
the same as that just before the collision.
(b) the mechnical energy of the ball remains the same at time 2t0 while still moving in air. The value of :
r r r r
in the collision | ( m1v 1 + m2v 2 ) ( m1v1 + m2v2 ) | (2001; S)
(c) the total momentum of the ball and the earth is (a) zero (b) (m1 + m2 )gt0
conserved
(d) the total energy of the ball and the earth is 1
conserved (c) 2 (m1 + m2 )gt0 (d) (m + m2 )gt0
2 1
39
6. Two blocks of masses 10 kg and 4 kg are connected constant K. The blocks are initially resting on a smooth
by a spring of negligible mass and placed on a horizontal floor with the spring at its natural length, as
frictionless horizontal surface. An impulse gives a shown in fig. A third identical block C, also of mass m,
velocity of 14 m/s to the heavier blocks in the direction moves on the floor with a speed v along the line
of the lighter block. The velocity of the centre of mass joining A and B, and collides elastically with A.
is : (2002; S) Then : (1993; 2M)
(a) 30 m/s (b) 20 m/s v
(c) 10 m/s (d) 5 m/s L
C A B
7. A particle moves in the X-Y plane under the influence
of a force such that its linear momentum is
r (a) the kinetic energy of the A-B system, at maximum
p( t) = A[i cos(kt) j sin(kt)], where A and k are
compression of the spring, is zero
constants. The angle between the force and the (b) the kinetic energy of the A-B system, at maximum
momentum is: (2007; 3M) compression of the spring, is mv 2 /4
(a) 0 (b) 30 (c) the maximum compression of the spring is
(c) 45 (d) 90
v (m / K )
8. Two small particles of equal A
masses start moving in opposite v m
2v (d) the maximum compression of the spring is v
directions from a point A in a 2K
horizontal circular orbit. Their r r
tangential velocities are v and 2v, 2. Two balls, having linear moments p1 = pi and p 2 = pi ,
respectively, as shown in the figure. undergo a collision in free space. There is no external
r r
Between collisions, the particles move with constant force acting on the balls. Let p'1 and p'2 be their final
speeds. After making how many elastic collisions, momenta. The following option figure (s) is (are) NOT
other than that at A, these two particles will again ALLOWED for any non-zero value of p, a 1 , a 2 , b 1 , b 2 ,
reach the point A? (2009; M) c1 and c2 . (2008; 4M)
(a) 4 (b) 3 r r
(c) 2 (d) 1 (a) p'1 = a1 i+ b1 j+ c1 k p ' 2 = a 2 i + b 2 j
r r
y (b) p ' 1 = c 1 k p ' 2 = b 2 j
9. Look at the drawing given in the
figure which has been drawn with r r
(c) p'1 = a1 i+ b1 j+ c1 k p' 2 = a2 i+ b2 j c1 k
ink of uniform line thickness. The
r r
mass of ink used to draw each of
x (d) p ' 1 = a 1 i + b1 j p ' 2 = a 2 i + b1 j
the two inner circles, and each of
the two line segments is m.
SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
The mass of the ink used to draw the outer circle is
1. A circular plate of uniform thickness has a diameter of
6m. The coordinates of the centres of the different
56 cm. A circular portion of diameter 42 cm is removed
parts are: outer circle (0, 0) left inner circle (a, a),
from one edge of the plate as shown in figure. Find the
right inner circle (a, a), vertical line (0, 0) and horizontal
position of the centre of mass of the remaining
line (0, a). The y-coordinate of the centre of mass of
portion. (1980)
the ink in this drawing is (2009; M)
a a
(a) (b)
10 8
a a
(c) (d)
12 3

OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
More than one options are correct?
1. Two blocks A and B each of mass m, are connected by 42cm
a massless spring of natural length L and spring 56 cm

40
2. A body of mass 1 kg initially at rest, explodes and from the ground with a velocity of 49 m/s. At the same
breaks into three fragments of masses in the ratio time another identical ball is dropped from a height of
1 : 1 : 3. The two pieces of equal mass fly-off 98 m to fall freely along the same path as that followed
perpendicular to each other with a speed of 30 m/s by the first ball. After some time the two balls collide
each. What is the velocity of the heavier fragment? and stick together and finally fall to the ground. Find
(1981; 3M) the time of flight of the masses. (1985; 8M)
3. Three particles A, B and C A L
of equal mass move with 7. A simple pendulum is
equal speed V along the suspended from a peg on
medians of an equilateral a vertical wall. The
triangle as shown in pendulum is pulled away
fig.They collide at the G from the wall to a
centroid G of the triangle. B horizontal position See
C
figure and released. The
After the collision, A comes to rest, B retraces its
ball hits the wall, the coefficient of restitution being
path with the speed V. What is the velocity of C?
(1982; 2M) 2
. What is the minimum number of collisions after
5
4. A block of mass M with a semicircular track of radius
which the amplitude of oscillations becomes less than
R, rests on a horizontal frictionless surface. A uniform
60 degrees? (1987; 7M)
cylinder of radius r and mass m is released from rest
at the top point A (see Fig.). The cylinder slips on the 8. An object of mass 5 kg is projected with a velocity of
semicircular frictionless track. How far has the block 20 m/s at an angle of 60 to the horizontal. At the
moved when the cylinder reaches the bottom (point B) highest point of its path the projectile explodes and
of the track? How fast is the block moving when he breaks up into two fragments of masses 1 kg and 4 kg.
cylinder reaches the bottom of the track?(1983; 7M) The fragments separate horizontally after the explosion.
The explosion released internal energy such that the
r
kinetic energy of the system at the highest point is
m R doubled. Calculate the separation between the two
fragments when they reach the ground.
M
(1990; 8M)

## B 9. A block A of mass 2m is placed on another block B of

mass 4m which in turn is placed on a fixed table. The
two blocks have a same length 4d and they are placed
as shown in figure. The coefficient of friction (both
static and kinetic) between the block B and table is .
5. Two bodies A and B of masses m and 2m respectively There is no friction between the two blocks. A small
are placed on a smooth floor. They are connected by object of mass m moving horizontally along a line
a spring. A third body C of mass m moves with passing through the centre of mass (CM) of the block
velocity v0 along the line joining A and B and collides B and perpendicular to its face with a speed v collides
elastically with A as shown in Fig. At a certain instant elastically with the block B at a height d above the
of time t0 after collision, it is found that the table. (1991; 4+4M)
instantaneous velocities of A and B are the same.
Further at this instant the compression of the spring
is found to be x0 . Determine (i) the common velocity
2m
of A and B at time t0 and (ii) the spring contant. A
(1984; 6M)
B B
A 4m
C
2d

m v d

P
4d
6. A ball of mass 100 g is projected vertically upwards

41
(a) What is the minimum value of v (call it v0) required r
(a) Find the force F and also the normal force exerted
to make the block A topple?
by the table on the wedge during the time t.
(b) If v = 2 v0 find the distance (from the point P in
(b) Let h denote the perpendicular distance between
the figure) at which the mass m falls on the table
the centre of mass of the wedge and the line of
after collision (Ignore the role of friction during
action of F. Find the magnitude of the torque due
the collision). [1991; 4+4M] r
10. A uniform thin rod of mass M and length L is standing to the normal force N about the centre of the
vertically along the y-axis on a smooth horizontal wedge during the interval t.
surface, with its lower end at the origin (0, 0). A slight
13. A cylindricalsolidofmass1 2
0kg and cross sectional
disturbance at r = 0 causes the lower end to slip on
the smooth surface along the positive x-axis, and the area 104 m2 is moving parallel to its axis (the x-axis)
rod starts falling. (1993; 1+ 5M) with a uniform speed of 103 m/s in the positive direction.
(i) What is the path followed by the centre of mass At t = 0, its front face passes the plane x = 0. The
of the rod during its fall? region to the right of this plane is filled with stationary
(ii) Find the equation of the trajectory of a point on dust particle of uniform density 103 kg/m3 . When a
the rod located at a distance r from the lower end. dust particles collides with the face of the cylinder, it
What is the shape of the path of this point? sticks to its surface. Assuming that the dimensions of
the cylinder remains practically unchanged and that
11. A small sphere of radius R is held against the inner the dust sticks only to the front face of the x-
surface of a larger sphere of radius 6R. The masses of coordinates of the front of the cylinder find the x-
larger and small spheres are 4M and M respectively. coordinate of the front of the cylinder at t = 150 s.
This arrangement is placed on a horizontal table. There (1998; 5M)
is no friction between any surfaces of contact. The
small sphere is now released. Find the co-ordinates of 14. Two blocks of mass 2 kg and M are at rest on an
the centre of the larger sphere when the small sphere inclined plane and are separated by a distance of 6.0
reaches the other extreme position. (1996; 3M) m as shown. The coefficient of friction between each
block and the inclined plane is 0.25. The 2 kg block is
given a velocity of 10.0 m/s up the inclined plane. It
collides with M, comes back and has a velocity of 1.0
m/s when it reaches its initial position. The other block
M after the collision moves 0.5 m up and comes to rest.
Calculate the coefficient of restitution between the
blocks and the mass of the block M. (1999; 10M)
[Take sin tan = 0.05 and g = 10 m/s 2 ]

M
12. A wedge of mass m and triangular cross-section m
6.0
(AB = BC =CA =2R) is moving with a constant velocity
vi towards a sphere of radius R fixed on a smooth 2kg
horizontal table as shown in the figure. The wedge
makes an elastic collision with the fixed sphere and
returns along the same path without any rotation. 15. A car P is moving with a uniform speed of 5 3 m/s
Neglect all friction and suppose that the wedge remains towards a carriage of mass 9 kg at rest kept on the rails
in contact with the sphere for a very short time t at a point B as shown in figure. The height AC is 120
r
during which the sphere exerts a constant force F on m. Cannon balls of 1 kg are fired from the car with an
the wedge. (1998; 8M) initial velocity 100 m/s at an angle 30 with the
z horizontal. The first cannon balls hits the stationary
carriage after a time t0 and sticks to it. Determine t0 .
At t0 , the second cannon ball is fired. Assume that the
y A resistive force between the rails and the carriage is
constant and ignore the vertical motion of the carriage
R
v throughout. If the second ball also hits and sticks to
the carriage, what will be the horizontal velocity of the
x B C carriage just after the second impact? (2001; 10M)

42
It is given n = 100, M = 3 kg, m = 0.01kg;
b = 2m; a = 1m; g = 10 m/s 2 . (2006; 6M)
19. Two towers AB and CD are situated a distance d apart as
shown in figure. AB is 20 m high and CD is 30 m high from
C the ground. An object of mass m is thrown from the top
P
of AB horizontally with a velocity of 10m/s towards CD.
2m
C
A B 60

## 16. A particle of mass m, moving in a circular path of m

A
radius R with a constant speed v2 is located at point
(2R, 0) at time t = 0 and a man starts moving with a
velocity v1 along the positive y-axis from origin at time
t = 0. Calculate the linear momentum of the particle
w.r.t. man as a function of time. (2003; 2M)
d
y D
B
v2
v1
Simultaneously another object of mass 2m is thrown
from the top of CD at an angle of 60 to the horizontal
towards AB with the same magnitude of initial velocity
R
as that of the first object. The two objects move in the
(0,0) x same vertical plane, collide in mid air and stick to each
m
other. (1994; 6M)
(i) Calculate the distance d between the towers.
(ii) Find the position where the object hit the ground.
17. Two point masses m1 and m2 are connected by a 20. Three objects A, B and C are kept in a straight line on
spring of natural length l0 . The spring is compressed a frictionless horizontal surface. These have masses m,
such that the two point masses touch each other and 2m and m, respectively. The object A moves towards
then they are fastened by a string. Then the system is B with a speed 9 m/s and makes an elastic collision
moved with a velocity v0 along positive x-axis. When with it. Thereafter, B makes completely inelastic collision
the system reaches the origin the string breaks (t = 0). with C. All motions occur on the same straight line.
The position of the point mass m1 is given by x1 = v0 Find the final speed (in m/s) of the object C.
t A (1 cos t) where A and are constants. Find
the position of the second block as a function of time.
m 2m m
Also find the relation between A and l0 . (2003; 4M)
18. There is a rectangular plate of mass M kg of dimensions A B C
(a b). The plate is held in horizontal position by
striking n small balls each of mass m per unit area per
ASSERATION AND REASON
unit time. These are striking in the shaded all region of This question contains, statement I (assertion) and
the plate. The balls are colliding elastically with velocity statement II (reasons).
v. What is v? 1. Statement-I : In an elastic collision between two bodies
the relative speed of the bodies after collision is equal
b to the relative speed before the collison.
(2007; 3M)
Because :
Statement-II : In an elastic collision, the linear
momentum of the system is conserved.
a
(a) Statement-I is true, statement -II is true, statement-
II is a correct explanation for statement-I.
(b) statement-I is true, statement-II is true; statement-
II is NOT a correct explanaion for statement-I.
(c) statement-I is true, statement-II is false.
(d) statement-I is false, statement-II is true.
43
2. Statement-I : If there is no external torque on a body 1. The speed of the block at point B immediately after it
about its centre of mass, then the velocity of the centre strikes the second incline is
of mass remains constant. (2007; 3M) (2008; 4M)
Because :
(a) 60 m/s (b) 45 m/s
Statement-II : The linear momentum of an isolated
system remains constant. (c) 30 m/s (d) 15 m/s
(a) Statement-I is true, statement -II is true, statement-
II is a correct explanation for statement-I
2. The speed of the block at point C immediately before
(b) statement-I is true, statement-II is true; statement-
it leaves the second incline is
II is NOT a correct explanaion for statement-I
(2008; 4M)
(c) statement-I is true, statement-II is false.
(d) statement-I is false, statement-II is true. (a) 120 m/s (b) 105 m/s

## PASSAGE BASED PORBLEM (c) 90 m/s (d) 75 m/s

Passage
3. If collision between the block and the incline is
A small block of mass M moves on a frictionless completely elastic, then the vertical (upward) component
surface of an inclined plane, as shown in figure. The of the velocity of the block at point B, immediately
angle of the incline suddenly changes from 60 at point after it strikes the second incline is
B. the block is initially at rest at A. Assume that (2008; 4M)
collisions between the block and the incline are totally
inelastic (g = 10 m/s 2 ) (a) 30 m/s (b) 15 m/s
(c) zero (d) 75 m/s
A

v
60 B

30 C

3m 3 3m

FILL IN THE BLANKS
3 2
1. mv 2. 5 103 N-s
2
TRUE/FALSE
1. F
OBJECTIVE QUESTION (ONLY ONE OPTION)
1. (d) 2. (c) 3. (a) 4. (a) 5. (c) 6. (c) 7. (d)
8. (c) 9. (a)

## OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (MORE THAN ONE OPTION)

1. (b, d) 2. (a), (d)

44
SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS

## 1. 9 cm from centre of bigger circle (leftwards) 2. 10 2 m/s at 45

3. Velocity of C is V in a direction opposite to velocity of B.

m( R r ) 2 g (R r ) V0 2mV02
4. ,m 5. (i) (ii) 6. 6.53 s 7. 4 8. 44.25 m
M +m M ( M + m) 3 3x02

5 x2 y2
9. (a) 6gd (b) 6d 3 10. (i) Straight line (ii) + = 1 , ellipse
4 L r2
r
2

## 2mv 2mv 4mv

11. (L + 2R, 0) 12. (a) ( 3i k ), + mg k (b) h
3t 3 t 3t
13. 105 m 14. e = 0.84 M, = 15 kg 15. 12s, 15.75 m/s

v2 v m
16. mv2 sin t i + m v2 cos 2 t v1 j m1
17. x2 = v0t + A(1 cos ? t ), l0 = 1 + 1 A 18. 10 m/s
R R m2 2
m
ASSERATION AND REASON
1. (b) 2.(d)

## PASSAGE BASED PROBLEM

1. (b) 2. (b) 3. (c)

SOLUTIONS

2
FILL IN THE BLANKS v
= mv2 + m
1. From conservation of linear momentum magnitude of 2
r r
P3 should be 2mv in a direction opposite of P12 3 2
= mv
r r 2
(resultant of P1 and P2 ).

## Speed of particle of mass 2m ( v) =

P3
=
v
2.
Impulse = Fdt = area under F-t graph

## 2m 2 Total impulse from t = 4 s to t = 16 s

= Area EBCD
P12 = 2 mv
= Area of trapezium EBCF +Area of triangle FCD
P=mv
2

1 1
= (200 + 800)2 106 + 800 10 10 6
2 2
= 5 103 N-s

P1= mv
TRUE FALSE

## P3 1. Since, net force on the system is zero. Velocity of

centre of mass will remain constant.
Total energy released is,
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (ONLY ONE OPTION)
1 1 r
E = 2 mv 2 + ( 2m ) v'2 1. Net force on system is zero. So VCOM = 0 and
2 2

45
because initially centre of mass is at rest. Therefore, 2
centre of mass always remains at rest. = = 120
3
(d)
m1 A
2. In an inelastic collision only momentum of the system v m2
remain conserved. Some energy is always lost in the 2v
form of heat, sound etc.
(c)
O
3. Let v' be the velocity of second fragment. From B C
conservation of linear momentum,
2m (v cos ) = mv' m (v cos) After first collision at B, m2 will move back with
v'= 3 v cos speed v and make collision with m1 at C.
(a)
2
4. Before explosion, particle was moving along x-axis i.e., (again at = anticlockwise from OB)
3
it has no y-component of velocity. Therefore, the
Now, again m1 will move back with speed v and
centre of mass will not move in y-direction or we can
say yCM = 0. 2
meet m2 at A(at = anticlockwise from OC)
m 3m 3
15 + y2
m1 y1 + m2 y2 (c)
Now, yCM = 0= 4 4
m1 + m2 m 6m( 0) + m ( a) + m( a) + m (0) + m( a) a
9. ycm = =
or y2 = 5cm 6m + m + m + m + m 10
(a)
y
r r r r
5. | ( m1v 1 + m2v 2) (m1v1 + m2v2 ) |
= | m1 (v1 2gt0 ) + m2 ( v2 2 gt0 ) m1v1 m2 v2 |
( a, a ) (a , a )
= 2 (m1 + m2 ) gt 0
(c) x
(0, 0)
r r (0, a)
6. vCM = m1v1 + m2v2
m1 + m2
(a)
10 14 + 4 0 10 14
= = = 10 m/s OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (MORE THAN ONE OPTION)
10 + 14 14
1. After collisions between C and A, C stops while A
v1 =14m/s v2 = 0
moves with speed of C i.e. v [in-head on elastic
m 1 = 10kg B m2 = 4kg collision, two equal masses exchange their velocities].
At maximum compression, A and B will move with
same speed v/2 (from conservation of linear momentum).
r Let x be the maximum compression in this position.
r dP
7. F= = kAsin(kt)i kA cos(kt) j KE of A-B system at maximum compression
dt
r 2
1 v
P = A cos(kt) i A sin(kt) j = (2m )
r r 2 2
Since, F .P = 0
r r or, Kmax = mv 2 /4
Angle between F and P should be 90. From conservation fo mechanical energy in two
(c) positions shown in figure.
1 2 1 1
8. Let first collision be at an angle , or, mv = mv 2 + kx2
2 4 2
r (2 ) r
= 1 2 1
v 2v kx = mv 2
2 4
2 = 2

46
move along horizontal we should have
m
x =v Mx = m (R r x)
2k
m(R r)
(b, d) x=
M+m
r r (ii) Let V1 be the speed of m towards right and v2 the
2. Initial momentum of the system p1 + p2 = 0
speed of M towards left. From conservation fo linear
r r
Final momentum p'1 + p' 2 = 0 should also be zero. momentum.
mv 1 = Mv2 ...(1)
Option (b) is allowed because if we put c1 = c2 0
From conservation of mechanical energy
r r
p ' 1 + p ' 2 will be zero. Similary, we can check other
1 2 1
options. mg (R r) =
mv1 + Mv22 ...(2)
2 2
correct options are (a) and (d).
Solving these two equations, we get
SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
2 g( R r )
v2 = m
( 42)
2
r M ( M + m)
1. Rcom = 7 ( i)
[(56)2 (42) 2 ]
= 9 cm 5. (i) Collision between A and C is elastic and mass of
both the blocks is same. Therefore, they will exchange
uur their velocities i.e., C will come to rest and A will be
2. From conservation of linear momentum P3 should be
moving will velocity vo . Let V be the common velocity
uuur uur uur
equal and opposite to P12 (resultant of P1 and P2 ). of A and B, then from conservation of linear momentum,
we have
So, let v' be velocity of third fragment, then
(3m)v' = 2mv At rest
v0 v0
2 C A B C A B
v' = v
3 (a) (b)
V V
C A B
P12 = 2 mv
(c)

P2=mv
mA v0 = (mA + mB ) V
or mv 0 = (m + 2m) V
45
P1 = mv v0
45 or V=
3
(ii) Further, from conservation of energy we have,
P3
1 2 1 1
Here, v =30 m/s (given) m Av0 = (m A + mB )V 2 + kx02
2 2 2
2
v' = 30 2
3 1 2 1 V0 1 2
or mv0 = (3m) + kx0
2 2 3 2
= 10 2 m/s
This velocity is at 45 as shown in figure. 1 2 1
kx0 = mv 0
2
or
2 3
3. Before collision net momentum of the system was zero.
No external force is acting on the system. Hence
2mv 20
momentum after collision should also be zero. A has or k=
come to rest. Therefore B and C should have equal 3x 02
and opposite momentum or velocity of C should be V
6. For collision of both the balls,
in opposite direction of velocity of B.
1 1
4. (i) The centre of mass of M + m in this case will not 49 t 9. 8t 2 = 98 9. 8t 2
move in horizontal direction. For centre of mass not to 2 2

47
t = 2 sec., At this instant height from ground
l
1 ? < 60 h <
= 49 t 9. 8t = 78. 4 m
2 2
2 n n
and using conservation of linear momentum, we get, 4 l 4 1
or l < <
m1v1 m2v 2 = 2mv , 5 2 5 2
Solving this, we get v = 4 . 9 m/sec n > 3 (here n is an integer)

1 2
S = ut + at 8. Let v1 and v2 be the velocities after explosion in the
2 directions shown in figure. From conservation of linear
78. 4 = 4.9t 4.9t 2 momentum, we have
5 (20 cos 60) = 4v1 1 v2
t = 4.53 sec.
or 4v1 v2 = 50 ...(1)
Total time of flight = 4.53 + 2 = 6.53 sec. Further it is given that, kinetic energy after explosion
becomes two times. Therefore,
7. As shown in figure initially when the bob is at A, its
potential energy is mgl. When the bob is released it 1 1
4 v12 + 1 v22
strikes the wall at B. If v be the velocity with which the 2 2
bob strikes the wall, then
1 2
= 2 5 (20cos60)
O l A 2
n or 4v12 + v22 =1000 ...(2)
Solving Eqs. (1) and (2), we have
v1 = 15 m/s, v2 = 10 m/s
C or v1 = 5 m/s and v2 = 30 m/s
h
B In both the cases relative velocity of separation in
horizontal direction is 25 m/s.
x = 25t = distance between them when they
1 2 strike the ground
mgl = mv or v = 2 gl ...(1)
2 T u sin 20sin60
Speed of the bob after rebounding (first time) Here, t = = = = 1.77 s
2 g 9.8
Similarly, v1 = e 2 gl ..(2) x = 25 1.77 = 44.25 m
v2 = e2 (2 gl)
The speed after second rebound is 9. If v1 and v2 are the velocities of object of mass m and
In general after n rebounds, the speed of the bob is block of mass 4m, just after collision then by
conservation of momentum,
vn = en (2 gl) ..(3) mv = mv 1 + 4mv 2 , i.e. v = v1 + 4v2 ...(1)
Let the bob rises to a height h after n rebounds. Further, as collision is elastic
Applying the law of conservation of energy, we have
1 2 1 1
1 2 mv = mv12 + 4mv22 , i.e. v 2 = v12 + 4v22 ...(2)
mvn = mgh 2 2 2
2 Solving, these two equations we get either
vn2 e 2n .2 gl v2 = 0 or v2 =
2
h = 2g = 2g = e .l
2n v
or 5

2n n Therefore, v2 = 2 v
2 4
h= .l = l ...(4) 5
5 5
at ? = 60 , Substituing in Eq. (1) v1 = 3 v
5
l when v2 = 0, v1 = v, but it is physically unacceptable.
h = l(1 cos 60 ) =
2 (a) Now, after collision the block B will start moving
with velociy v2 to the right. Since, there is no friction

48
between blocks A and B the upper block A wil stay at Therefore, CM will fall vertically downwards towards
its positions and will topple if B moves a distance s negative y-axis i.e. the path of CM is a straight line.
such that (ii) Refer figure (b). We have to find the trajectory of
s > 2d ...(3) a point P (x, y) at a distance r from end B.
However, the motion of B is retarded by frictional force CB = L/2, OB = (L/2) cos , MB = r cos
f = (4m + 2m)g between table and its lower surface. x = OB MB = cos {(L/2 r)}
So, the distance moved by B till it stops x
or cos = ...(1)
6mg v22 {( L / R) r}
0 = 2
v22 s i.e., s =
4m 3g Similarly, y = r sin
Substituting this value of s in Eq. (3), we find that for y
or, sin = ...(2)
toppling of A r
2 Squaring and adding Eqs. (1) and (2), we get
v22 > 6gd v > 6gd v > 5 6gd
5 2 x2 y2
sin + 2 cos2 = +
5 {( L /2) 2 r 2 } r2
or v min = v 0 = 6gd
2
x2 y2
(b) if v = 2v0 = 5 6gd , the object will rebound with or, + =1 ...(3)
{( L / 2) r }2 r 2
speed.
This is an equation of an ellipse. Hence, path of point
3 P is an ellipse whose equation is given by (3).
v1 = v = 3 6 gd
5
and as time taken by it to fall down 11. Since, all the surfaces are smooth, no external force is
acting on the system in horizontal direction. Therefore,
2h 2d the centre of mass of the system in horizontal direction
t= = [as h = d] remains stationary.
g g
The horizontal distance moved by it to the left of P in y y
CC
1 2= 5R (in both cases)
this time
x = v1t = 6d 3
Note :
(a) Toppling will take place if line of action of weight does
not pass through the base area in contact. c1 c2 c2 c1
x x
(b) v1 and v2 can obtained by using the equations of head (L,0) (L + 5R,0) (x,0)
on elastic collision
r r r c 2 = (x 5R, 0)
v1 = 2v cm u1 Initial Final
r r r
v 2 = 2vcm u 2 x- coordinate of CM initially will be given by
m1 x1 + m2 x2
10. (i) Since, only two forces are acting on the rod, its x1 = m1 + m2
weight Mg (vertically downwards) and a normal
reaction N at point of contact B (vertically upwards). ( 4M )( L ) + M ( L + 5 R)
No horizontal force is acting on the rod (surface is = = (L + R ) ...(1)
4M + M
smooth).
Let (x, 0) be the coordinates of the centre of large
sphere in final position. Then, x-coordinate of CM
A A finally will be
( 4M )( x) + M ( x 5R)
(O, L/2 sin ) x1 = = ( x R) ...(2)
C C
P (x, y)
4M + M
Equating Eqs. (1) and (2), we have x = L + 2R
y
B O M B Therefore, coordinates of large sphere, when the
(a) x smaller sphere reaches the other extreme position, are
(b) (L + 2R, 0)

49
12. (a) (i) Since, the collision is elastic and sphere is fixed, Magnitude of torque of N about CM = magnitude of
the wedge will return with velocity of vi torque of F about CM
z = F.h
y v i +v i
r 4mv
| t N |= h

x 3 t
13. Given : m0 = 102 kg, A = 104 m2, v0 = 103 m/s

v
Fixed F A vo
m0 m
F sin 30
Now, linear impulse in x-direction x=0 x
= change in momentum in x-direction.
(F cos 30)t=mv ( mv) = 2mv At t = 0 At t = t

## 2mv 4mv and dust = = 10 3 kg/m3

F= =
t cos30 3t m = m0 + mass of dust collected so far
4mv = m0 + Ax dust
F=
3t or m = m0 + Ax
r The linear momentum at t = 0 is
F = F cos 30i ( F sin 30 ) k P0 = m0v0
and momentum at t = t is
r 2mv 2mv
F = i k Pt = mv = (m0 + Ax )v
or
t 3t From law of conservation of momentum
P0 = Pt
(ii) Taking the equilibrium of wedge in vertical
dx
N m0v0 = (m0 + Ax ) v (but v = )
dt
dx
C m0v0 = (m0 + Ax =)
dt
mg or (m0 + A x)dx = m0v0 dt
2 150

F sin 30
or (m0 + A x)dx = m0v0dt
0 0
z- direction during collision.
N = mg + F sin 30 x
x2
m0 x + A? = [m0v0t ]0
150
2mv
N = mg + 2
3t
0

or in vector form x2
Hence, m0 x + A = 150 m0v0
r 2
2mv
N = mg + k
Solving this quadratic equation and substituting the
3 t values of m0, A, and v0, we get, x = 105m.
(b) For rotational equilibrium of wedge [about (CM)]
14. Let v1 = velocity of block 2 kg just before collision.
N v2 = velocity of block 2 kg just after collision.
and v3 = velocity of block M just after collision.
Applying work energy theorem,
C (change in kinetic energy = work done by all the forces
h
at different stages as shown in figure.
mg

F 50
v1
V1

m
M M
0.5

6
m/s
10 V3
2 0.5 sin
h1= 6 sin h=
2kg 2kg

Figure I. (i) Coefficient of restitution (e)
For 2 kg block between starting point and the moment
just before collision Relativevelocityof separation
= Relativevelocityof approach
KE = Wfriction + Wgravity
1
m{v12 (10)2} = 6mg cos 6mg sin v2 + v3
2 = v1
Given, = 0.25, sin ? tan ? = 0. 05,
5 + 1.73
cos ? 1 = = 0.84
8
v12 100 = 2[ 6 0. 25 10 1 + 6 10 0.05] or e = 0.84
(ii) Applying conservation of linear momentum before
v12 = 100 36 = 64 and after collision
v1 = 8 m/s 2v1 = Mv3 2v2
2(v1 + v2 ) 2(8 + 5) 26
Figure 2. M= = =
For 2 kg block, just after collision and at the initial v3 1.73 1.73
point M 15 kg
KE = Wfriction + Wgravity
15. (i) Velocity of the ball relative to ground = 100 m/s
uy y (vertical)
u = 100m/s

1m/s v2
30
ux y (horizontal)
ax = 0 and
2
a y= g = 10 m/s

C
1 v = 5 3m/s
m[(1) 2 v22 )] = 6mg cos ? + 6mg sin ? 120m
2
A
or 1 v22 = 24 Horizontal component of its velocity.
v 22 = 25, or v2 = 5 m/s u x =u cos 30 = 50 3 m/s
and vertical component of its velocity,
Figure. 3. u y = u sin 30 = 50 m/s
For block M, Just after collision and at the point of Vertical displacement of the ball when it strikes the
stop, carriage is 120 m or
KE = Wfriction + Wgravity
1 1
S y = u y t + a y t 120 = (50 t) + (10) t
2 2
1
M [ 0 v32 ] = (0.5)()( M ) g cos ? 0.5Mg sin ? 2 2
2
t2 10t 24 = 0
v32 = ( 0. 5 0. 25 10 1) + 0.5 10 0. 05 t = 12 s or 2 s
Ignoring the negative time, we have
v32 = 2 1.5 = 3 t0 = 12 s
v3 = 1. 75 m/s
(ii) When it strikes the carriage, its horizontal component
of velocity is still 50 3 m/s. It stickes to the carriage.

51
Let V2 be the velocity of (carriage + ball) system after
r v v
collision. Then, applying conservation of linear or v p = v2 sin 2 ti + v2 cos 2 tj
momentum in horizontal direction : R R
r
1 50 3 = (1 + 9)V2 and v m = v1 j
Linear momentum of particle w.r.t man as a
V2 = 5 3 m/s
function of time is
The second ball is fired when the first ball strikes the r r r
carriage i.e. after 12 s. In these 12 s the car will move p pm = m( v p vm )
forward a distance of 12V1 or 60 3 m. v v
The second ball also takes 12 s to travel a vertical = m v 2 sin 2 t i + v 2 cos 2 t v1 j
displacement of 120 m. This ball will strike the R R
carriage only when the carriage also covers the same
distance of 60 3 m in these 12s. This is possible only 17. (i) x1 = v0 t A (1 cos t)
when resistive forces are zero because velocity of car m1 x1 + m2 x 2
xCM = = v0 t
(V1) = Velocity of carriage after first collision (V2) = m1 + m2
5 3 m/s. (As there is no external force, so COM will move
Hence, at the time of second collision : with constant velocity v0)
Let V be the by velocity of carriage after second
m
collision. Conservation of linear momentum in horizontal x2 = v0t + 1 A(1cos t )
direction gives m2

1kg d 2 x1
5 3m/s (ii) a1 = = 2 A cos t
2
dt
x = 50 3 m/s
The separation x2 x1 between the two blocks will be
Before collision equal to l0 and a 1 = 0 or cos t = 0
m1
11 V = (1) (50 3 ) + (10) (5 3 ) = 100 3 x2 x1 = m A (1 cos t) + A (1 cos t)
2
100 3
V = m/s or V = 15.75 m/s
11 m1
or, l0 = + 1 A (1 - cos t), (cos t = 0)
m2
16. Angular speed of particle about centre of the circle Thus, the relation between l0 and A is,
v v
= 2 , = t = 2 t m
R R l 0 = 1 + 1 A
y m2
v2 v2
p b
v1 18. F = = n a (2mv)
t 2
Equating the torque about hinge side, we have,

(0, 0) b 3b b
t=0
x n a (2mv) = Mg
2 4 2
R
Substituting the given values we get,
v = 10 m/s
r
v p = ( v2 sin ?i + v 2 cos ?j) 19. Acceleration of A and C both is 9.8 m/s 2 downwards

52
C d 2 = (d d 1)
60 = (17.32 11.55)m = 5.77 m

Therefore, position from B is d 1 i.e., 11.55 m and from
V
A

X D is d 2 or 5.77 m.
=V
C

10m

V CA VC 20. Let after collision velocity of block A and B be vA and
Y vB respectively.
r r r
v B = (1 + e)vCOM euB
A vA
E 30m
d 9m
= (1 + 1) 0 = 6 m/sec
3m
r r r
20m vC = (1+ e) vCOM euC

2m 6
= (1) 0 = 4 m/sec
3m
B D

## Let A be the origin, so ASSERATION AND REASON

1 1 1. In case of elastic collision, coefficient of restitution e = 1.
y1 = gt 2 & y2 10 = 5 3t gt 2 or relative speed of approach
2 2
= relative speed of separation.
For collision y1 = y2 (b)
10 = 5 3t 2. If a force is applied at centre of
F
2 mass of a rigid body, its torque
3 butaccelerationwillbenon-zero. C

## 30 Hence, velocity will change.

d = 10t + 5t = = 17 .32 m
3 (d)
Horizontal (or x) component of initial linear momentum
PASSAGE BASED PROBLEM
of projectile m and 2m,
PAx + PCx = mv A 2m ( vC cos 60 ) = 0 1. Between A and B, height fallen by block
i.e., x-component of momentum of combined mass after h1 = 3 tan 60 = 3 m
collision will also be zero i.e., the combined mass will
have momentum or velocity in vertical or y-direction v1 = 2 gh1 = 2 10 3 = 60 ms 1
only.
vcx= vcos60
c
C
V0 60

A vax= vA

P 2
t= s
3
In perfectly inelastic collision, component of v 1
perpendicular to BC will become zero, while component
B F D
of v1 parallel to BC will remain unchanged.
d1 d2 speed of block B immediately after it strikes the
second incline is,
Hence, the combined mass will fall at point F just v2 = component of v1 along BC
below the point of collision P.
3
1
= v1 cos 30 = ( 60 ) 2 = ( 45 ) ms
2
Here, d 1 = VAxt = (10) = 11.55 m
3

53
correct option is (b).
2. Height fallen by the block from B to C
h2 = 3 3 tan30 = 3m
Let v3 be the speed of block, at point C, just before it
leaves the second incline, then :
h3 = v 22 + 2 gh 2

## = 45+ 23 = 105 ms1

correct option is (b).
3. In elastic collistion, component of v1 parallel to BC will
remain unchanged, while component perpendicular to
BC will remain unchanged in magnitude but its direction
will be reversed.

3
45 ms 1
v11 = v1 cos 30 = ( 60 ) 2 =

1 1
v = v1 sin 30 = ( 60 ) = 15 ms

2
Now vertical component of velocity of block :
v = v cos 30 v11 cos 60 = 0
(c)

54
CHAPTER-7
GRAVITATION
FILL IN THE BLANKS
1. The numerical value of the angular velocity of rotation of the earth shold be .... rad/s in order to make the effective
acceleration due to gravity at equator equal to zero. (1984, 2M)
2. According to Kepler's second law, the radius vector to a planet from the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal
intervals of time. This law is a consequence of the conservation of ..... (1985, 2M)
3. A geostationary satellite is orbiting the earth at a height of 6 R above the surface of the earth where R is the radius
of earth. The time period of another satellite at a height of 2.5 R from the surface of the earth is .... hours.
(1987, 2M)
4. The masses and radii of the Earth and the Moon are M1, R1 and M2, R2 respectively. Their centres are at distance
d apart. The minimum speed with which a particle of mass m should be projected from a point midway between the
two centres so as to escape to infinity is .... (1988, 2M)
5. The ratio of earth's orbital angular momentum (about the sun) to its mass is 4.4 1015 m2/s. The area enclosed by
earth's orbit is approximately ....... m2. (1997C, 1M)
6. A particle is projected vertically upwards from the surface of earth (radius R) with a kinetic energy equal to half
of the minimum value needed for it to escape. The height to which it rises above the surface of earth is ....
(1997, 2M)
TRUE/FALSE
1. It is possible to put an artificial satellite into orbit in such a way that it will always remain directly over New Delhi.
(1984; 2M)
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (a) 64.5 (b) 129
Only One option is correct : (c) 182.5 (d) 730
1. If the radius of the earth were to shrink by one per
5. A statellite S is moving in an elliptical orbit around the
cent, its mass remaining the same, the acceleration due
earth. The mass of the satellite is very small compared
to gravity on the earth's surface would :(1981; 2M)
to the mass of the earth : (1998; 2M)
(a) decrease (b) remain unchanged
(a) the acceleration of S always directed towards the
(c) increase (d) be zero
centre of the earth
2. If g is the acceleration due to gravity on the earth's (b) the angular momentum of S about the centre of the
surface, the gain in the potential energy of an object earth changes in direction, but its magnitude re-
of mass m raised from the surface of the earth to a main constant
height equal to the radius R of the earth, is : (c) the total mechanical energy of S varies periodi-
(1983; 1M) cally with time
1 (d) the linear momentum of S remains constant in
(a) mgR (b) 2 mgR magnitude
2
6. A simple pendulum has a time period T1 when on the
1
(c) mgR (d) mgR earth's surface and T2 when taken to a height R above
4 the earth' surface, where R is the radius of the earth.
3. Imagine a light planet revolving around a very massive
The value of T2 /T1 is : (2001)
star in a circular orbit of radius R with a period of
revolution T. If the gravitational force of attraction be- (a) 1 (b) 2
tween the planet and the star is proporional to R5/2, (c) 4 (d) 2
then : (1989; 2M)
(a) T2 is proportional to R2 7. A geostationary satellite orbits around the earth in a
(b) T2 is proportional to R7/2 circular orbit of radius 36,000 km. Then, the time period
(c) T2 is proportional to R3/2 of a spy satellite orbiting a few hundred km above the
(d) T2 is proportional to R3.75 earth's surface (Re = 6400 km) will approximately be :
4. If the distance between the earth and the sun were half (2002)
its present value, the number of days in a year would (a) 1/2h (b) 1 h
have been : (1996; 2M) (c) 2 h (d) 4 h

81
8. A double star system consists of two stars A and B (c) the gravitational potential is the same at all points
which have time period TA and TB . Radius RA and RB of circle y2 + z2 = 36
and mass MA and MB . Choose the correct option. (d) the gravitational potential is the same at all points
(2006; 3M) on the circle y2 + z2 = 4
(a) If TA > TB then RA > RB
(b) If TA > TB then MA > MB 2. The magnitude of the gravitational field at distance r1
and r2 from the centre of a uniform sphere of radius R
2 3
TA RA and mass M and F1 and F2 respectively. Then :
(c) = (d) TA = TB (1994; 2M)
TB RB F1 r1
(a) = if r1 < R and r2 < R
9. A spherically symmetric gravitational system of par- F2 r2

## 0 for r R F1 r22 if r > R and r > R

(b) =
ticles has a mass density = where 0 is F2 r12
1 2
0 for r > R
a constant. A test mass can undergo circular motion F1 r13 if r < R and r < R
under the influence of the gravitational field of par-
(c) = 1 2
F2 r23
ticles. Its speed v as a function of distance r from the
centre of the system is represented by (2008; 3M) F1 r12
(d) = if r1 < R and r2 < R
F2 r22

SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
1. Two satellite S 1 and S 2 revolve round a planet in
coplanar circular orbits in the same sense. Their peri-
ods of revolution are 1 h and 8 h respectively. The
radius of the orbit of S 1 is 104 km. When S 2 is closest
to S 1 . Find : (1986; 6M)
(i) the speed of S 2 relative to S 1.
(ii) the angular speed of S 2 as actually observed by an
astronaut in S 1.
2. Three particles, each of mass m, are situated at the
vertices of an equilateral triangle of side length a. The
only forces acting on the particles are their mutual
gravitational forces. It is desired that each particle
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
moves in a circle while maintaining the original mutual
More than one options are correct? separation a. Find the initial velocity that should be
1. A solid sphere of uniform density and radius 4 units given to each particle and also the time period of the
is located with its centre at the origin O of coordinates. circular motion. (1988; 5M)
Two spheres of equal radii 1 unit, with their centres at
A ( 2, 0, 0) and B (2, 0, 0) respectively, are taken out 3. An artificial satellite is moving in a circular orbit
of the solid leaving behind spherical cavities as shown around the earth with a speed equal to half the mag-
in figure. Then : (1993; 2M) nitude of escape velocity from the earth (1990; 8M)
y (i) Determine the height of the satellite above the
earth's surface.
(ii) If the satellit is stopped suddenly in its orbit and
allowed to fall freely onto the earth, find the speed
with which it hits the surface of the earth.
A m
B x
O 4. Distance between the centre of two stars is 10a. The
masses of these stars are M and 16 M and their radii
a and 2a respectively. A body of mass m is fired
straight from the surface of the larger star towards the
z surface of the smaller star. What should be its mini-
(a) the gravitational field due to this object at the mum initial speed to reach the surface of the smaller
origin is zero. star? Obtain the expression in terms of G, M and a.
(b) the gravitational field at the point B (2, 0, 0) is zero (1996; 5M)

82
R Because :
5. There is a crater of depth on the surface of the Statement-II : An object moving around the earth
100
moon (radius R). A projectile is fired vertically upward under the influence of earth's gravitational force is in
from the crater with velocity, which is equal to the a state of 'free-fall'.
escape velocity v from the surface of the moon. Find (a) Statement-I is true, statement -II is true, statement-
the maximum height attained by the projectile. II is a correct explanation for statement-I.
(b) statement-I is true, statement-II is true; statement-
ASSERATION AND REASON
II is NOT a correct explanaion for statement-I.
This question contains, statement I (assertion) and (c) statement-I is true, statement-II is false.
statement II (reasons). (d) statement-I is false, statement-II is true.
1. Statement-I : An astronaut in an orbiting space station (2003; 4M)
above the earth experiences weightlessness.
(2008; 3M)

FILL IN THE BLANKS

G
1. 1.24 103 2. angular momentum 3. 8.48 4. v = 2 (M 1 + M 2 )
d
5. 6.94 1022 6. h = R

TRUE/FALSE
1. F 2

## OBJECTIVE QUESTION (ONLY ONE OPTION)

1. (c) 2. (a) 3. (b) 4. (b) 5. (a) 6. (d) 7. (c)
8. (d) 9. (c)

## OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (MORE THAN ONE OPTION)

1. (a, c, d) 2. (a, b)

SUBJECTIV QUESTIONS

Gm a3
1. (i) 104 km/h (ii) 3 104 rad/s 2. v = , T = 2
a 3Gm
3. (i) 6400 km (ii) 7.9 km/s

3 5 Gm
4. 5. 99.5R
2 a

## ASSERTION AND REASON

1. (a)

83
SOLUTIONS
FILL IN THE BLANKS dA L
=
dt 2m
1. g' = g R2 cos 2 where L = Angular momentum of planet (earth) about
At equator = 0 sun and m = mass of planet (earth).
g' = g Rw2
L
0 = g Rw2 Given : = 4.4 1015 m2/s
m
g 9.8 Area enclosed by earth in time T (365 = days) will
= =
R 6400 103 be
= 1.24 10 3 rad/s dA L
Area = .T = .T
dt 2m
dA L 1
2. = = constant because angular momentum of = 4.4 1013 365 24 3600m2
dt 2M 2
planet (L) about the centre of sun is constant. Area = 6.94 1022 m2.
Thus, this law comes from law of conservation of
1 2GM
angular momentum. 6. V=
2 R
3. T r3/2 From conservation of energy
1 2GM GMm GMm
T2 r2
3/2 m =
2 4R R ( R + h)
T1 = r1
GMm GMm GMm
=
3/2 4R R ( R + h)
r2
3/2
3.5R
or T2 = T1 = (24)h 1 1 1
r1 7R =
4R R R+h
= 8.48h
1 4 1
=
M1 4R R+h
M2
3( R + h) = 4 R

m R
h=
3
d/2 d/2
TRUE FALSE
4. Total mechanical energy of mass m at a point midway
1. New Delhi is not on the equatorial plane.
between two centres is :
GM 1m GM 2 m 2Gm OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (ONLY ONE OPTION)
E= = ( M1 + M 2 )
d /2 d/2 d GM
1. g=
2Gm R2
Binding energy = ( M1 + M 2 )
d 1
Kinetic energy required to escape the mass to infinity or g
R2
is,
g will increase if R decreases.
1 2 2Gm
mve = ( M1 + M 2 ) mgh
2 d 2. U =
h
1+
G( M 1 + M 2 ) R
ve = 2
d Given, h = R
5. Areal velocity of a planet round the sun is constant mgR 1
and is given by U = = mgR
R 2
1+
R
84
mv 2 8. In case of binary star system angular velocity and
3. R5/2 hence the time period of both the stars are equal.
R
v R3/4
9. For r R
2R
Now, T= 4 3
v r
GmM mv 2 M 3 r3
2 = = = 3
R r2 r M 4 3
R R
or T2
v 3

R
2
GM GMr 3 GMr 2 Mr 3
or T2 3/4 v2 = = = M =
R r rR 3 R3 R3
or T2 R7/2
GM
v= .r
4. From Kepler's third law R3
T2 r3 or T (r)3/2 vr
3/2 For r > R
T2 r2
= GMm mv 2
T1 r1 =
r2 r
3/2
r2 1
3/2
or T2 = T1 = (365) GM
or, =v
r1 2 r
T2 = 129 days
1
v
5. Force on satellite is always towards earth, therefore, r
acceleration of satellite S is always directed towards So, (c) is correct.
centre of the earth. Net torque of this gravitational
force F about centre of earth is zero.Therefore, angular OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (ONLY ONE OPTION)
momentum (both in magnitude and direction) of S 1. (a) The gravitational field is zero at the centre of a solid
about centre of earh is constant throughout. Since, the sphere. The small spheres can be considered as nega-
force F is conservative in nature, therefore mechanical tive mass m located at A and B. The gravitational force
energy of satellite remains constant. Speed of S is due to these masses on a mass at O is equal and
maximum when it is nearest to earth and minimum opposite. Hence, the resultant force on mass at O is
when it is forthest.
zero.
T2 g1 (c and d) are correct because plane of these circles
6. T
1
i.e. = is y-z, i.e., perpendicular to x-axis i.e., potential at any
g T1 g2
point on these two circles will be equal due to the
where g 1 = acceleration due to gravity at a height h = positive mass M and negative masses m and m.
R from earth's surface = g/4
GM
2. For r < R, F = .r or F r
R3

Using g (h) = g T2 = g
=2 F1 r1 and r < R and r < R
2T g/4 = 1 2
h F2 r2
1 +
1
R

GM
and for r > R, F = or F 1
2
r r2
7. Time period of a satellite very close to earth's surface
is 84.6 min. Time period increases as the distance of r22 for r > R and r > R
the satellite from the surface of earth increase. So, time i.e., F1 = 1 2
period of spy satellite orbiting a few 100 km above the
F2 r12
earth's surface should be slightly greater than 84.6 min.
Therefore, the most appropriate option is (c) or 2 h.

85
SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS Further net force on any particle towards centre
1. T r3/2 Fnet = 2F cos 30
or r T2/3 Gm2 3
= 2 2
T2
2/3 a 2
r2
r1 = T1
3Gm 2
=
( )
2/ 3
T 8
2/ 3
a2
r2 = 2 r1 = 10 4 = 4 10 4 km
T1 1 mv 2
This net force should be equal to
v2 r

3Gm 2 mv 2
v1 T1 =
T2 a2 a/ 3

Gm
v=
a
r1 Time period of circular motion
r2
2r 2 (a / 3)
T= =
v Gm / a
2r1 (2 )(104 )
Now, v1 = = = 2 104 km/h a3
T1 1 = 2
3Gm
v2 = 2r1 = (2)(4 10 ) = ( 104 ) km/h
4
4
=
T2 8 mv 2 GMm 2
3. (i) =
(i) Seped of S 2 relative to S 1 = v2 v2 = 104 km/h ( R + h) ( R + h) 2
(ii) Angular speed of S 2 as observed by S 1
GMm
or, mv =
2
5 R+h
104 m/s
| v1 v2 | 18
= = GMm GM
| r2 r1 | (3 107 m) R +h = 2
= 4
mv ve2
GM R 2 4gR 2
= 3.0 104 rad/s = . .4 = =8
R 2 ve2 ve 2
2. Centre should be atO and radius r.
4 gR 2
We can calculate r by figure (b). h= R
V e2

4 gR 2
= R = R
a a
2 gR
O r F
r Fnet
30 30 (ii) From conservation of energy
30 30 30
GMm GMm 1 2
a a/2 F = + mv
2R R 2
(a) (b) (c)
mv 2 GMm GMm GMm
or, = =
a/2 3 2 R 2R 2R
= cos30 =
r 2 mv 2 GMm
=
a 2 2R
r=
3

86
5. Speed of particle at A, vA
GM
V = = gR = escape velocity on the surface of moon
R
2GM
=
9.8 R
= 6400 10 3 = 98 64 10 4
10 At highest B, vB = 0
Applying conservation of mechanical energy, decrease
= 7 .9 km/s
in kinetic energy
4. Le there are two stars 1 and 2 as shown below : = increase in gravitational potential energy
M 16M B VB= 0
h
C1 r1 P r2 C2
a
2a R
A 100
1 2 VA
Let P is a point between C1 and C2 , where gravita-
tional field strength is zero. Or at P field strength due
to star 1 is equal and opposite to the field strength due
to star 2. Hence,
GM G(16M )
2 = 1 2
r1 r22 or mvA = UB UA = m (VB VA )
2
r2
or =4 also r1 + r2 = 10 a
r1 v 2A
or = VB VA
4 2
r2 = (10a) = 8a
=R 4 +1 GM GM 2 2
and r1 = 2a
GM
= 3R R R
R + h 2R 3 100
Now, the body of mass m is projected from the surface R

of larger star towards the smaller one. Between C2 and 2
1 1 3 1 99 1
P it will be attracted towards. Therefore, the body should = +
R + h 2R 2 100 R
or .
be prjected to just cross point P because beyond that the R
particle is attracted towards the smaller star itself. Solving this equation, we get
1 2 h = 99.5R
From conservation of mechanical energy mv min
2
= Potential energy of the body at P ASSERTION AND REASON
Potential energy at the surface of large star 1. Force acting on astronaut is utilised in providing
GMm 16GMm necessary centripetal force, thus he feels weightless-
1 2
mv min = ness, as he is in a state of free fall.
2 r1 r2 correct option is (a)
GMm 16GMm

10a 2a 2a

## GMm 16GMm GMm 8GMm

=
2a 8a 8a a

1 2 45 GMm
or mVmin =
2 8 a

3 5 GM

2 a
Vmin =

87
CHAPTER-4
WORK, POWER AND ENERGY
TRUE/FALSE
1. A simple pendulum with a bob of mass m swings with an angular amplitude of 40. When its angular displacement
is 20, the tension in the string is greater than mg cos 20. (1984; 2M)

OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS positive x-axis to the point (a, 0) and then parallel to
Only One option is correct : the y-axis to the point (a, a). The toal work done by
1. Two masses of 1 g and 4 g are moving with equal the force F on the particle is : (1998; 2M)
kinetic energies. The ratio of the magnitudes of their (a) 2Ka 2 (b) 2 Ka 2
momenta is : (1980; 2M) (c) Ka 2 (d) Ka 2
(a) 4 : 1 (b) 2:1 7. A spring of force-sonstant k is cut into two pieces
(c) 1 : 2 (d) 1 : 16 such that one piece is double of the other. Then the
long piece will have a force-constant of :(1999; 2M)
2. A body is moved along a straight line by a machine (a) (2/3)k (b) (3/2)k
delivering constant power. The distance moved by the (c) 3 k (d) 6 k
body in time t is proportional to : (1984; 2M)
8. A wind-powered generator converts wind energy into
(a) t1/2 (b) t3/4
electric energy. Assume that the generator converts a
(c) t3/2 (d) t2
fixed fraction of the wind energy intercepted by its
3. A uniform chain of length L and mass M is lying on blades into electrical energy. For wind speed v, the
a smooth table and one-third of its length is hanging electrical power output will be proportional to:
vertically down over the edge of the table. If g is (2000; 2M)
acceleration due to gravity, the work required to pull (a) v (b) v2
the hanging part on to the table is : (1985; 2M) (c) v3 (d) v4
(a) MgL (b) MgL/3
(c) MgL/9 (d) MgL/18 9. A particle, which is constrained to move along x-axis,
is subjected to a force in the same direction which
4. A particle of mass m is moving in a circular path of varies with the distance x of the particle from the origin
constant radius r such that its centripetal acceleration as F (x) = kx + ax3 . Here k and a are posiive
a c is varying with time t as a c = k 2 rt2 , where k is a constant. For x 0, the functional form of the potential
constant. The power delivered to the particle by the energy U (x) of the particle is : (2002; 2M)
force acting on it is : (1994; 1M)
(a) 2 mk 2 r2 (b) mk 2 r2 t U (X) U (X)

( mk 4 r2 t5 )
(c) (d) zero
3
X X
5. A stone tied to a string of length L is whirled in a
vertical circle with the other end of the string at the
centre. At a certain instant of time, the stone is at its
lowest position, and has a speed u. The magnitude of
the change in its velocity as it reaches a position (a) (b)
where the string is horizontal is : (1998; 2M)
U (X) U (X)
(a) u 2 2gL (b) 2gL

(c) u 2 gL (d) (
2 u2 gL ) X X
r
6. A force F = K( yi + xj) (where K is a positive
constant) acts on a particle moving in the x-y plane.
Starting from the origin, the particle is taken along the
(c) (d)
28
U (x) U (x)
10. An ideal spring with spring-constnat k is hung from
the ceiling and a block of mass M is attached to its
lower end. The mass is released with the spring
initially unstretched. Then the maximum extension in
x x
the spring is : (2002; 2M)
4 Mg 2 Mg
(a) (b)
k k
Mg Mg (c) (d)
(c) (d)
k 2k
14. A small block is shot into each of the four tracks as
11. A simple pendulum is oscillating without damping. When shown below. Each of the tracks rises to the same
the displacement of the bob is less than maximum, its height. The speed with which the block enters the track
r
acceleration vector a is correctly shown in (2002; 2M) is the same in all cases. At the highest point of the track,
the normal reaction is maximum in : (2001; 2M)

a V V
(a) (b)
(a) (b)

V V

a (c) (d)
a
(c) (d)
15. A bob of mass M is suspended by a massless string
12. If W1 , W2 and W3 represent the work done in moving of length L. The horizontal velocity v at position A is
a particle from A to B along different paths, 1, 2 and just sufficient to make it reach the point B. The angle
3 respectively (as shown) in the gravitational field of at which the speed of the bob is half of that at A,
a point mass m. Find the correct relation between W1 , statisfies. (2008; 3M)
W2 and W3 . (2003; 2M) B
B

1 2
3

A L
(a) W1 > W2 > W3 (b) W1 = W2 = W3
(c) W1 < W2 < W3 (d) W2 > W1 > W3
A v
13. A particle is placed at the origin and a force F = kx is
acting on it (where k is a positive constant). If (a) = (b) <<
4 4 2
U (0) = 0, the graph of U (x) versus x will be (where
U is the potential energy function : (2004; 2M) 3 3
(c) << (d) <<
U (x) U (x) 2 4 4

## 16. A block (B) is attached to two unstretched springs S1

and S2 with spring constants k and 4k, respectively.
x x The other ends are attached to two supports M1 and
M2 not attached to the walls. The springs and supports
have negligible mass. There is no friction anywhere.
The block B is displaced towards wall 1 by a small
(a) (b)
29
distance x and released. The block returns and moves A D
a maximum distance y towards wall 2. Displacements x
and y are measured with respect to the equilibrium G

y
position of the block B. The ratio is (2008; 3M)
x
2 1
M2 S1 M1
S2
B B C E F
(a) (b)
2. A body of mass 2 kg is being dragged with a uniform
2 1
M2 x M1 velocity of 2 m/s on a rough horizontal plane. The
S2 S1
coefficient of friction between the body and the surface
B
is 0.20, J = 4.2 J/cal and g = 9.8 m/s 2 . Calculate the
amount of heat generated in 5 s. (1990; 5M)
(a) 4 (b) 2
3. A lead bullet just melts when stopped by an obstacle.
1 1
(c) (d) Assuming that 25 percent of the heat is absorbed by
2 4 the obstacle, find the velocity of the bullet if its initial
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS temperature is 27C
More than one options are correct? 0.03 cal/g-C, latent heat of fusion of lead = 6 cal/gC,
1. A particle is acted upon by a force of constant J = 4.2 J/cal). (1981; 3M)
magnitude which is always perpendicular to the velocity
of the particle. the motion of the particle takes place in 4. Two blocks A and B are connected to each other by
a plane. It follows that : (1987; 2M) a string and a spring; the string passes over a
(a) its velocity is constant frictionless pulley as shown in the figure. Block B
(b) its acceleration is constant slides over the horizontal top surface of a stationary
(c) its kinetic energy is constant block C and the block A slides along the vertical side
(d) it moves in a circular path of C, both with the same uniform speed. The coefficient
of friction between the surfaces of blocks is 0.2. Force
2. A simple pendulum of length L and mass (bob) M is constant of the spring is 1960 N/m. If mass of block A
oscillating in a plane about a vertical line between is 2 kg. Calculate the mass of block B and the energy
angular limits and + . For an angular displacement stored in the spring. (1982; 5M)
(|| < ), the tension in the string and the velocity of
the bob are T and V respectively. The following relations
hold good under the above conditions : B
(1986; 2M)
(a) T cos = Mg
MV 2
(b) T Mg cos =
L A
C
(c) The magnitude of the tangential acceleration of
the bob |a T| = g sin
(d) T = Mg cos

SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS 5. A 0.5 kg block slides from the point A (see Fig.) on a
horizontal track with an initial speed of 3 m/s towards
1. In the figure (a) and (b) AC, DG and GF are fixed
a weightless horizontal spring of length 1 m and force
inclined planes, BC = EF = x and AB = DE = y. A small
constant 2 N/m. The part AB of the track is frictionless
block of mass M is released from the point A. It slides
and the part BC has the coefficients of static and
down AC and reaches C with a speed VC. The same
kinetic friction as 0.22 and 0.2 respectively. If the
block is released from rest from the point D. It slides
distances AB and BD are 2 m and 2.14 m respectively,
down DGF and reaches the point F with speed VF .
find the total distance through which the block moves
The coefficients of kinetic frictions between the block
before it comes to rest completely. (Take g = 10 m/s 2 )
and both the surface AC and DGF are . Calculate VC
(1983; 7M)
and VF . (1980; 6M)

30
9. A spherical ball of mass m is kept at the highest point
in the space between two fixed, concentric spheres A
3 m/s and B (see figure). The smaller sphere a has a radius
R and the space between the two spheres has a width
d. The ball has a diameter very slightly less then d. All
C surfaces are frictionless. The ball is given a gentle
A B D push (towards the right in the figure). The angle made
6. A string, with one end fixed on a rigid wall, passing by the radius vector of the ball with the upward
over a fixed fricionless pulley at a distance of 2 m from vertical is denoted by . (2002; 5M)
the wall, has a point mass M = 2 kg attached to it at
a distance of 1 m from the wall. A mass m = 0.5 kg
attached at the free end is held at rest so that the Sphere B
string is horizontal between the wall and the pulley

and vertical beyond the pulley. What will be the speed
d
with which the mass M will hit the wall when the mass O
R
m is released? (1985; 6M)
M Sphere A

## (a) Express the total normal reaction force exerted by

the spheres on the ball as a function of angle .
(b) Let NA and NB denote the magnitudes of the
normal reaction forces on the ball exerted by the
spheres A and B, respectively. Sketch the variations
m of NA and NB as function of cos in the range 0
by drawing two separate graphs in your
7. A bullet of mass M is fired with a velocity 50 m/s at answer book, taking cos on the horizontal axis.
an angle with the horizontal. At the highest point of
its trajectory, it collides head on with a bob of mass 10. A cart is moving along x-direction with a velocity of
3M suspended by a massless string of length 10/3 4 m/s. A person on the cart throws a stone with a
metres and gets embedded in the bob. After the velocity of 6 m/s relative to himself. In the frame of
collision the string moves through an angle of 120. reference of the cart the stone is thrown in y-z plane
Find : making an angle of 30 with vertical z-axis. At the
(i) the angle , highest point of its trajectory the stone hits an object
(ii) the vertical and horizontal coordinates of the initial of equal mass hung vertically from branch of a tree by
position of the bob with respect to the point of means of a sring of length L. A completely inelastic
firing of the bullet. (Take g = 10 m/s 2 ) collision occurs in which the stone gets embedded in
(1988; 6M) the object. Determine : (1997; 5M)
(i) the speed of the combined mass immediately after
8. A particle is suspended vertically O the collision with respect to an observer on the
A
from a point O by an inextensible L/8 ground.
massles string of length L. A (ii) the length L of the string such that tension in the
vertical line AB is at a distance L/ string becomes zero when the string becomes
8 from O as shown in figure. The horizontal during the subsequent motion of the
object is given a horizontal velocity combined mass.
L
u.
11. A light inextensible string that goes
At some point, its motion ceases over a smooth fixed pulley as shown
to be circular and eventually the in the figure connects two blocks of
object passes through the line AB. masses 0.36 kg and 0.72 kg. Taking g
At the instant of crossing AB, its B = 10 m/s 2, find the work done (in
u
velocity is horizontal. Find u. Joules) by the string on the block of
(1999; 10M) mass 0.36 kg during the first second
after the system is released from rest.

31
ASSERATION AND REASON Because :
Statement-II : The coefficient of friction between the
This question contains, statement I (assertion) and
block and the surface decreases with the increase in
statement II (reason).
the angle of inclination
1. Statement-I : A block of mass m starts moving on a
(a) Statement-I is true, statement -II is true, statement-
rough horizontal surface with a velocity v. It stops due
II is a correct explanation for statmeent-I
to friction between the block and the surface after
(b) statemen-I is true, statement-II is true; statement-
moving through a certain distance. The surface is now
II is NOT a correct explanaion for statmeent-I
tilted to an angle of 30 with the horizontal and the
(c) statement-I is true, statement-II is false
same block is made to go up on the surface with the
(d) statement-I is false, statement-II is true
same initial velocity v. The decrease in the meachnical
energy in the second situation is smaller than that in
the first situation. (2007; 3M)

TRUE/FALSE
1. T
OBJECTIVE QUESTION (ONLY ONE OPTION)
1. (c) 2. (c) 3. (d) 4. (b) 5. (d) 6. (c) 7. (b)
8. (c) 9. (d) 10. (b) 11. (c) 12. (b) 13.(a) 14. (a)15. (d)
16. (c)

## OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (MORE THAN ONE OPTION)

1. (c, d)
2. (b, c)

SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
1. VC = VF = 2( gy gx) 2. 9.33 cal 3. 409.8 m/s 4. 10 kg, 0.098 J
5. 4.24 m 6. 3.3 m/s

3 3

7. (i) = 30 (ii) The desired coordinates are (108.25m, 31.25m) 8. u = gL 2 + 2

2 2
9. (a) N = mg (3 cos 2) (b) For cos 1 , NB 0, NA = mg (3cos 2) and for cos 1
3 3 ; NA = 0,
NB = mg (2 3 cos )

## ASSERATION AND REASON

1. (c)

32
SOLUTIONS
TRUE/FALSE
mv 2 dv
1. T - mg cos 20 = 20 Therefore, tangential acceleration, a t = = kr
R T dt
m Tangential force, Ft = ma t = mkr
mv 2
or T = mg cos 20 + 20 mgcos20 Only tangential force does work.
R
mgsin20 mg Power =Ft v = (mkr) (krt)
T > mg cos 20 (Q v 0) or Power = mk 2 r2 t
(b)
(T)
5. From energy conservation
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (ONLY ONE OPTION) v2 = u 2 2gL
Now, since the two velocity vectors shown in figure
1. P= 2Km are mutually perpendicular, hence the magnitude of the
change of velocity will be given by
P1 m1 1
or, = = v
P2 m2 2
O
B
(c)

dv
2. Fv = m v = constant
dt
vdv dt
1 3 A
ds u
t 2 s t2 r
dt | v |= u 2 + v 2 = u 2 + ( u 2 2gL ) = 2( u 2 gL )
(c) (d)

## 3. Considering reference for zero potential at the table r

surface,
6. F = K ( yi + xj)

M L
( a , a) (a , a )
U i = g and U f = 0
3 6
W =
K ( ydx + xdy) = K
( a, 0) ( a, 0)
d ( xy )

MgL
W = U f Ui = = K [ xy] ( a, 0) = Ka 2
( a, a )
18
(d) (c)

2L/3
7. l1 = 2l2 and l1 + l2 = l
2
U=0 I1 = l
L 3
3
Before 1
Force constant, k length of spring (l )

3
k1 = k
2
After (b)
ur r
8. Power = F .v = Fv

v2 dm
= v (? Av) = ? Av
2
4. ac = k 2 rt 2 = k 2 rt 2 v = krt F = v
r dt

33
where, is density of wind A is area of cross-section
dU
of blades 13. From F =
dx
P = Av3 P v3
(c) U (x )
x x
dU = Fdx = ( kx) dx
0 0
9. dU = F. dx 0

x kx 2

( kx + ax
3 U (x)=
U (x) = ) dx
2
0
as U (0) = 0
kx 2 ax 4 (a)
U (x) =
2 4 14. Since, the block rises to the same heights in all the four
cases, from conservation of energy, speed of the block
2k at highest point will be same in all four cases. Say it
U (x) = 0 at x = 0 and x =
a is V0 .

2k V0
U (x) = negative for x >
a

dU k
= 0 x = 0 and x = , therefore slope
dx a N+mg

mV02
(d) Now,N + mg =
R

## 10. Let x be the maximum mV02

or N= mg
extension of the spring. From R
conservation of mechanical R (the radius of curvature) in first case is minimum.
energy : decrease in Therefore, normal reaction N will be maximum in first
gravitational potential energy case.
K
= increase in elastic potential (a)
energy Note : In the questions it should be mentioned that all

## 1 2 the four tracks are frictionless. Otherwise Vo will be

Mg x = kx different in different tracks.
2 v=0 M
2 Mg x 15. v = 5 gL ...(i)
or, x =
k v=0 M 2
(b) v
= v 2 2gh ...(ii)
2
11. When the bob is between
mean and extream position it h = L(1 cos ) ...(iii)
r Solving equations (i), (ii) and (iii), we get
has both centripetal ( ac ) and
r
7 1 7
tangential ( at ) accelerations. ac cos = or = cos = 151
r 8 8
The net acceleration (a) is
a O
r r (d)
vector sum of ac and at .
at 16. From energy conservation,
(c)
1 2 1
12. Gravitational field is a conservative force field. In a kx = ( 4k ) y 2
conservative force field work done is path independent. 2 2
W1 = W2 = W3 y 1
=
(b) x 2
(c)
34
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (MORE THAN ONE OPTION) For equilibrium of A :
m Ag (2)(9.8)
1. The given case is of uniform circular motion, in which mA g = kx x = = = 0.01 m
speed or kinetic energy is constant. Direction of k 1960
velocity and acceleraion keep on changing although For equilibrium of B :
its magnitude remains constant. mB g = T = kx = mA g
O and (d).
Correct options are (c)
mA 2
mB = = = 10 kg
2. From the FBD of bob, 0.2
L
Energy stored in spring
mV 2
T mg cos = T 1 2 1
L V U = kx = (1960) (0.01)2 = 0.098 J
and Mg sin = MaT M
2 2
or a T = g sin 5. From A to B, there will be no loss of energy. Now let

(b) and (c) Mg sin block compresses the spring by an amount x and
Mg Mg cos comes momentarily to rest. By work-energy theorem,
SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS x kx
1. In both the cases work done by friction will be Mgx.
f
1 A B C
2 1 D v=0
MVC = MVF = Mgy Mgx
2
2 2 Wmg + WN + W f + W s = K f K i
VC = VF = 2gy 2gx
1 2 1
0 + 0 mg ( BD + x ) kx = mv 2
2. S = vt = 2 5 = 10 m 2 2
Q = work done against friction Substituting the values
= mgs = 0.2 2 9.8 10 1 1
= 9.33 cal (0.2) (0.5) (10) (2.14 + x) = (0.5)(3) 2 (2)( x )2
2 2
3. Heat energy required to just melt the bullet. Solving this equation, we get, x = 0.1 m
Q = Q1 + Q2 Now, spring exerts a force kx = 0.2N on the block. But
Here, Q1 = ms to stop the block from moving limiting static friction is
= (m 103 ) (0.03 4.2) (327 27) s mg = (0.22) (0.5) (10) = 1.1 N. Since, 1.1 N > 0.2 N,
= (3.78 104 m) J block will not move further and it will permanenly stop
Q2 = mL = (m 103 ) (6 4.2) = (2.52 104 m) there.
Q = (6.3 104 )m Therefore, total distance covered before it comes to
Only 75% of kinetic energy is utilized to melt the bullet rest permanently is
d = AB + BD + x = 2 + 2.14 + 0.1 = 4.24 m
1 2
0.75 mv = Q 6. Let M strikes with v. Then, velocity of m at this instant
2
1 2
0.75 m v = 6.3 104 m v = 409.8 m/s
2 will be v cos or v. Further M will fall a distance
2 5
4. Normal reaction between blocks A and C will be zero.
Therefore, there will be no friction between them. Both
of 1 m while m will rise by ( 51 ) m. From
A and B are moving with uniform speed. Therefore, net conservation of energy principle decrease in potenial
force on them shold be zero. energy of M = increase in potenial energy of m +
increase in kineic energy of both the blocks.
T=kx
1m
2m

B B
T=kx
f = mB g 1m v cos
5 m 1
v
( 51) m
m Ag 2
m
35
(2) (9.8) (1)
2 v
2v
( ) 1 1 90
= (0.5) (9.8) 5 1 + 2 v 2 + 0.5
2 2 5 D Q

= 3.3 m/s mg

## 7. (a) At the highest point, velocity of bullet is 50 cos .

L+L sin
So, by conservation of linear momentum
M (50 cos ) = 4M VA L
8
50 L
VA = cos ...(1)
4
At point, B, T = 0 but v 0
u
VB P

L cos
O

## We have following conditions,

50 cos mv2
V= (a) TQ = 0 Therefore, mg sin = ...(1)
4 L
2 (2) v2 = u 2 2gh = u 2 2gL (1 + sin ) ...(2)
(4M )V B g 50
Hence, 4 Mg cos 60 = V B2 = l = 1
l 2 3 (3) QD = (Range)
2
10
(as l = m and g = 10 m/s 2 ) L v 2 sin2(90 ) v2 sin2
L cos ? = =
3
By conservation of energy between A and B 8 2g 2g

3 1 v2
V B2 = V A2 2 gh V B2 = V A2 2 g l cos ? = sin cos
2 8 ...(3)
gL
3
or, v2 = V2 2g l v2
2 Substituting value of gL = sin from Eq. (1) we get
2

50 50
or, V B2 = V A2 100 = cos ? 100
3 4 1
cos ? = sin 2 . cos = (1 cos2 ) cos
cos = 0.86 or = 30 8

1
or, cos ? = cos ? cos3 ?
Range = 1 u sin2 50 50 3
2 8
(b) x= 2
g = 2 10 2
2 1
cos ? =
3

= 108.25 m 8

u 2 sin 2 ? 50 50 1 1
y= H = = = 31.25 m or,cos =
2g 2 10 4 2
or, = 60
Hence, the desired coordinates are (108.25 m, 31.25 m)
From Eq. (1) v2 = gL sin = gL sin 60
8. Let the string slacks at point Q as shown in figure. P 3
to Q path is circular and beyond Q path is parabolic. or v2 = gL
2
At point C, velocity of particle becomes horizontal, Substituting this value of v2 in Eq. (2)
therefore, QD = half the range of the projectile. u 2 =v2 + 2gL (1 + sin )

36
3 3 NA
gL + 2 gL 1 + NB
= 2
2
mg 5mg
3 3 3 3
gL + 2 gL = gL 2 +
= 2
2
2mg
3 3 cos cos
gL 2 + 2/3 1 2/3
u= 2
+1 +1

r
10. (i) Given Vcart = 4i m/s
d
9. (a) h = R + (1cos ) r
2 V stone, cart = (6 sin30) \$j + (6 cos 30) \$k
Velocity of ball at angle
h = (3 \$j + 3 3 \$k ) m/s
r r r
V stone = Vstone, cart + Vcart = ( 4i + 3 j + 3 3k) m/s
v
At highest point of its trajectory, the vertical component
mg (z) of its velocity will be zero, whereas the x and y-
components will remain unchanged. Therefore, velocity
of stone at highest point will be,
r \$ \$
V = (4 i + 3 j )m/s
or speed at highest point,
r
d V = |V | = ( (4) 2 + (3)2 m/s = 5m/s
v2 = 2gh = 2 R + (1cos ) g
2 Now, applying law of conservation of linear momentum,
Let N be the total normal reaction (away from centre) let V0 be the velocity of combined mass after collision.
at angle . Then, Then, mV = (2m)V0
V 5
mv2 V0 = = m/s = 2.5 m/s
mg cos N = 2 2
d
R +
2 (ii) Tension in the string becomes zero at horizontal
Substituting value of v2 from Eq. (1) we get position. It implies that velocity of combined mass also
mg cos N = 2 mg (1 cos ) becomes zero in horizontal position. Applying
N = mg (3 cos 2) conservation of energy, we have
(b) The ball will lose contact with the inner sphere
when N = 0 T=0
V=0
2
or, 3 cos 2 = 0 or = cos1
3
After this it makes contact with outer sphere and normal L
reaction starts acting towards the centre. Thus for
2
cos 1
3
V0 = 2.5m/s
NB = 0 and NA = mg (3 cos 2)
2
and for cos 1 0 = V02 2gL
3
NA = 0 and NB = mg (2 3 cos ) V02 = (2.5)
2

## The corresponding graphs are as follows L= = 0.32m

2g 2(9.8)
Length of the string is 0.32 m.

37
11. Let the two blocks move with acceleration a and
tension in the string be T.
0. 72 0.36 10
a= 10 = m/s 2;
0.72 + 0. 36 3
2 0.72 0. 36
T= 10 = 4.8 N;
0. 72 + 0. 36
1 5
S= 3. 33 12 = m
2 3
WT = 8 J

## ASSERATION AND REASON

1. In statement-I : Decrease in mechanical energ in case
I will be
1 2
U 1 = mv
2
But decrease in mechanical energy in case II will be
1 2
U 2 = mv mgh
2
U 2 < U 1
or statement-I is correct.
In statement-II : Coefficient of fricition will not change
or this statement is wrong.
Option (c) is correct

38
CHAPTER-6
ROTATION
FILL IN THE BLANKS
1. A uniform cube of side a and mass m rests on a rough horizontal table. A horizontal force F is applied normal to
one of the faces at a point that is directly above the centre of the face, at a height 3a/4 above the base. The minimum
value of F for which the cube begins to tip about the edge is ..... (Assume that the cube does not slide).
(1984; 2M)
2. A smooth uniform rod of length L and mass M has two idenical beads of negligible size, each of mass m, which
can slide freely along the rod. Initially the two beads are at the centre of the rod and the system is rotating with
an angular velocity 0 about an axis perpendicular to the rod and passing through the mid-point of the rod (see
fig.). There are no external forces. When the beads reach the ends of the rod, the angular velocity of the system
is ...... (1988; 2M)

L/2 L/2

3. A cylinder of mass M and radius R is resting on a horizontal platform (which is parallel to the x-y plane) with its
axis fixed along the y-axis and free to rotate about its axis.The platform is given a motion in the x-direction given
by x = A cos (t). There is no slipping between the cylinder and platform. The maximum torque acting on the cylinder
during its motion is ..... (1988; 2M)
4. A stone of mass m, tied to the end of a string, is whirled around in a horizontal circle. (Neglect the force due to
gravity). The length of the string is reduced gradually keeping the angular momentum of the stone about the centre
of the circle constant. Then, the tension in the string is given by T = Arn where A is a constant, r is the instantaneous
radius of the circle and n = ...... (1988; 2M)
5. A uniform disc of mass m and radius R is rolling up a rough inclined plane which makes an angle of 30 with the
horizontal. If the coefficient of static and kinetic friction are each equal of and the only forces acting are
gravitational and frictional, then the magnitude of the frictional force acting on the disc is .... and its direction is
.... (write up or down) the inclined plane. (1997C; 1M)
6. A rod of weight w is supported by two parallel knife edge A and B and is in equilibrium in a horizontal position.
The knives are at a distance d from each other. The centre of mass of the rod is at distance x from A. The normal
reaction on A is ..... and on B is .... (1997; 2M)
7. A symmetric lamina of Mass M consists of a square shape with a semicircular section A B
over the edge of the square as shown in figure. the side of the square is 2a. The moment
of inertia of the lamina about an axis thorugh is centre of mass and perpendicular to the 2a
plane is 1.6 Ma2. The moment of inertia of the lamina about the tangent AB in the plane
of the lamina is .... (1997; 2M) O

TRUE FALSE
1. A triangular plate of uniform thickness and density is made to rotate about an
axis perpendicular to the plane of the paper and (a) passing through A, (b)
passing through B, by the application of the same force F at C (mid-point of
AB) as shown in the figure. The angular acceleration in both the cases will be
A B
the same. (1985; 3M) C
F
2. A thin uniform circular disc of mass M and radius R is rotating in a horizontal plane about an axis passing through
its centre and perpendicular to its plane with an angular velocity . Another disc of the same dimensions but of
mass M/4 is placed gently on the first disc coaxially. The angular velocity of the system now is 2 / 5 .
(1986; 3M)

55
3. A ring of mass 0.3 kg and radius 0.1 m and a solid cylinder of mass 0.4 kg and of the same radius are given the
same kinetic energy and released simultaneously on a flat horizontal surface such that they begin to roll as soon
as released towards a wall which is at the same distance from the ring and the cylinder. The rolling friction in both
cases is negligible. The cylinder will reach the wall first. (1989; 2M)

## OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS 6. Let I be the moment of inertia of a uniform square plate

Only One option is correct : about an axis AB that passes through its centre and is
1. A thin circular ring of mass M and radius r is rotating parallel to two of its sides. CD is a line in the plane of
about its axis with a constant angular velocity . Two the plate that passes through the centre of the plate
objects, each of mass m, are attached gently to the and makes an angle with AB. The moment of inertia
opposite ends of a diameter of the ring the wheel now of the plate about the axis CD is then equal to :
rotates with angular velocity : (1983; 1M) (1998; 2M)
(a) M/ (M + m) (b) (M 2m) / (M + 2m) (a) I (b) I sin 2
(c) M / (M + 2m) (d) (M + 2m)/ M (c) I cos 2 (d) I cos 2 (/2)

## 7. A cubical block of side a moving with velocity v on a

2. A particle of mass m is projected with a velocity v
horizontal smooth plane as shown. It hits a ridge at
making an angle of 45 with the horizontal. The
point O. The angular speed of the block after it hits O
magnitude of the angular momentum of the projectile
is : (1999; 2M)
about the point of projection when the particle is at its
maximum height h is : (1990; 2M) a
(a) zero 3
(b) mv /(4 2 g )
M v
3
(c) mv /( 2 g ) (d) m 2 gh 3

O
3. A tube of length L is filled completely with an
incompressible liquid of mass M and closed at both (a) 3v/4a (b) 3v/2a
the ends. The tube is then rotated in a horizontal plane
about one of its ends with a uniform angular velocity (c) 3 / 2a (d) zero
. The force exerted by the liquid at the other end
is : (1992; 2M) 8. A smooth sphere A is moving on a frictionless
horizontal plane with angular velocity and centre of
M 2 L
(a) (b) M 2 L mass with velocity v. It collides elastically and head on
2 with an identical sphere B at rest. Neglect friction
M 2 L2 everywhere. After the collision their angular speeds
(c) M L
2
(d) are A and B respectively. Then : (1999; 2M)
4 2
(a) A < B (b) A = B
(c) A = (d) B =
4. Two point masses of 0.3 and 0.7 kg are fixed at the
ends of a rod of length 1.4 m and of negligible mass. 9. A disc of mass M and radius R is rolling with angular
the rod is set rotating about an axis perpendicular to speed on a horizontal plane as shown. The
its length with a uniform angular speed. The point on magnitude of angular momentum of the disc about the
the rod through which the axis should pass in order origin O is : (1999; 2M)
that the work required for rotation of the rod is minimum,
y
is located at a distance of : (1995; S)
(a) 0.42 m from mass of 0.3 kg
(b) 0.70 m from mas sof 0.7 kg
(c) 0.98 m from mass of 0.3 kg
(d) 0.98 m from mass of 0.7 kg M

x
5. A mass m is moving with a constant velocity along a O
line parallel to the x-axis, away from the origin. Its
1
(a) MR
angular momentum with respect to the origin: 2
(b) MR2
(1997C; 1M)
2
(a) is zero (b) remains constant
3
(c) MR
(c) goes on increasing (d) goes on decreasing 2
(d) 2MR2

2

56
10. An equilateral triangle ABC formed from a uniform wire 13. One quarter section is cut from a
has two small identical beads initially located at A. The uniform circular disc of radius R.
triangle is set rotating about the vertical axis AO. Then This section has a mass M. It is
the beads are released from rest simultaneously and
perpendicular to its plane and
allowed to slide down, one along AB and other along passing through the centre of the
AC as shown. Neglecting frictional effects, the original disc. Its moment of inertia
quantities that are conserved as beads slides down about the axis of rotation is :
are :` (2000) (2001)
1 1
(a) MR 2 (b) MR 2
A 2 4
g 1
(c) MR 2 (d) 2MR 2
8

## 14. A cylinder rolls up an inclined plane, reaches some

B O C height and then rolls down (without slipping throughout
these motions). The directions of the frictional force
(a) angular velocity and total energy (kinetic and acting on the cylinder are : (2002)
potential) (a) up the incline while ascending and down the
(b) total angular momentum and total energy incline while descending
(c) angular velocity and moment of inertia about the (b) up the incline while ascending as well as
axis of rotation descending
(d) total angular momentum and moment of inertia (c) down the incline while ascending and up the
about the axis of rotation. incline while descending
(d) down the incline while ascending as well as
11. A cubical block of side L rests on a rough horizontal descending
surface with coefficient of friction . A horizontal force
F is applied on the block as shown. If the coefficient 15. A circular platform is free to rotate in a horizontal plane
of friction is sufficiently high, so that the block does about a vertical axis passing through its centre. A
not slide before toppling, the minimum force required tortoise is sitting at the edge of the platform. Now the
to topple the blocks is : (2000) platform is given an angular velocity 0 . When the
F tortoise move along a chord of the platform with a
constant velocity (with respect to the platform). The
L angular velocity of the platform (t) will vary with
time t as : (2002)

## (a) infinitesimal (b) mg/4 (t ) (t )

(c) mg/2 (d) mg (1 )

## 12. A thin wire of length L and uniform linear mass density 0 0

is bent into a circular loop with centre at O as
shown. The moment of inertia of the loop about the
axis XX' is : (2000) t t
X X' (a) (b)
90

O
(t ) (t )

0 0
L3 L3
(a) (b)
82 16 2
5L3 3L3 t t
(c) (d) (c)
16 2
8 2 (d)

57
16. Consider a body, shown in figure, consisting of two (d) The direction of angular momentum remains
identical balls, each of mass M connected by a light constant
rigid rod. If an impulse J = Mv is imparted to the body
at one of its end, what would be its angular velocity? 21. From a circular disc of radius R and mass 9M, a small
(2003) disc of radius R/3 is removed from the disc. The
L moment of inertia of the remaining disc about an axis
M M perpendicular to the plane of the disc and passing
through O is : (2005)

R/3
J = Mv
(a) v/L (b) 2v/L
(c) v/3L (d) v/4L 2R/3
17. A particle undergoes uniform circular motion. About
which point on the plane of the circle, will the angular O
momentum of the particle remain conserved? (2003) R
(a) Centre of circle
(b) On the circumference of the circle
(c) Inside the circle (d) Outside the circle

## 18. A disc is rolling (with slipping) on a horizontal surface

40
C is its centre and Q and P are two points equidistant (a) 4MR2 (b) MR 2
from C. Let vP , vQ and vC be the magnitude of velocities 9
of points P, Q and C respectively, then :
37
(2003) (c) 10MR2 (d) MR2
9
Q
C 22. A solid sphere of radius R has moment of inertia I
P about its geometrical axis. If it is melted into a disc of
the tangential axis (which is perpendicular to plane of
(a) vQ > vC > vP (b) vQ < vC < vP the disc), is also equal to I, then the value of r is equal
to : (2006; 3M)
(c) vQ = vP , vC = 1 vP
l
2
(d) vQ < vC < vP

## 19. A child is standing with folded hands at the centre of

a platform rotating about its central axis. The kinetic
r
energy of the system is K. the child now stretches his
arms so that the moment of inertia of the system
doubles. The kinetic energy of the system now is :
(2004)
K
(a) 2K (b) 2 2
2 (a) R (b) R
15 5
K
(c) (d) 4K 3 3
4 R R
(c) (d)
15 15
20. A particle moves in a circular path with decreasing
speed. Choose the correct statement : (2005)
23. A ball moves over a fixed track as shown in the figure.
(a) Angular momentum remains constant From A to B the ball rolls without slipping. If surface
r
()
(b) Acceleration a is towards the centre BC is frictionless and KA , KB and KC are kinetic
energies of the ball at A, B and C respectively, then :
(c) Particle moves in a spiral path with decreasing (2006; 5M)

58
A C (a) f = mg [where f is the frictional force]
(b) F = N [where N is the normal force]
(c) F will not produce torque
hA hc (d) N will not produce torque

## B 27. A blockofbase10cm 10 cm and height 15 cm is kept

(a) hA > hC ; KB > KC on an inclined plane. The coefficient of friction between
(b) hA > hC ; KC > KA them is 3 . The inclination of this inclined plane
(c) hA = hC ; KB = KC
(d) hA < hC ; KB > KC from the horizontal plane is gradually increased from
0. Then (2009; M)
24. A small object of uniform density rolls up a curved (a) at = 30, the block will start sliding down the
surface with an initial velocity v. It reaches up to a plane
(b) the block will remain at rest on the plane up to
3v 2
maximum height of with respect to the initial certain and then it will topple
4g (c) at = 60, the block will start sliding down the
position. The object is : (2007; 3M) plane and continue to do so at higher angles
(d) at = 60, the block will start sliding down the
plane and on further increasing , it will topple at
certain

v OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
More than one options are correct?
1. A uniform bar of length 6 a and mass 8 m lies on a
(a) ring (b) solid sphere smooth horizontal table. Two point masses m and 2m
(c) hollow sphere (d) disc moving in the same horizontal plane with speed 2v and
v respectively, strike the bar [as shown in the Fig] and
25. A long horizontal rod has a bead which can slide along stick to the bar after collision. Denoting angular velocity
its length and is initially placed at a distance L from (about the centre of mass), total energy and centre of
one end A of the rod. The rod is set in angular motion mass velocity by , E and VC respectively, we have
about A with a constant angular acceleration . If the after collision : (1991; 2M)
coefficient of friction between the rod and bead is ,
and gravity is neglected, then the time after which the 2m
bead starts slipping is : (2000; 2M)
v
(a) (b)
a c
1 2v
(c) (d) infinitesimal

m
26. A block of mass m is at rest under the action of force
a 2a
F against a wall as shown in figure. Which of the
following statement is incorrect? (2005)
3v
(a) VC = 0 (b) =
5a
a
v mv2
(c) = (d) E = 3
5a 5
F 2. The moment of inertia of a thin square plate ABCD, of
uniform thickness about an axis passing through the
centre O and perpendicular to the plane of the plate is
(1992; 2M)

59
6. A sphere is rolling without slipping on a fixed horizontal
4 plane surface. In the figure, A is the point of contact,
A 1
B B is the centre of the sphere and C is its topmost
point. Then, (2009; M)

3 C
O

D C B
2

(a) I1 + I2 (b) I3 + I4
A
(c) I1 + I3 (d) I1 + I2 + I3 + I4
r r r r
where I1 , I2 , I3 and I4 are respectively moments of (a) VC V A = 2(VB VC )
inertia about axes 1, 2, 3 and 4 which are in the plane r r r r
of the plate. (b) VC V B = VB V A
r r r r r
3. The torque on a body about a given point is found (c) | VC V A | = 2 | VB VC |
ur ur ur r r r
to be equal to A L where A is a constant vector (d) | VC V A | = 4 | V B |
ur
and L is the angular momentum of the body about
that point. From this it follows that : (1998; 2M) SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
uuur 1. A particle is projected at time t = 0 from a point P on
dL ur
(a) is perpendicular to L at all instants of time the ground with a speed v0 , at an angle of 45 to the
dt
horizontal. Find the magnitude and direction of the
ur ur
(b) the component of L in the direction of A does angular momentum of the particle about P at time
not change with time t = v0 /g. (1984; 6M)
ur
(c) the magnitude of L does not change with time 2. A small sphere rolls down without slipping from the
ur top of a track in a vertical plane. The track has an
(d) L does not change with time elevated section and a horizontal part. The horizontal
4. A solid sphere is in pure rolling motion on an inclined part is 1.0 m above the ground level and the top of the
surface having inclination . (2006; 5M) track is 2.6 m above the ground. Find the distance on
the ground with respect to the point B (which is
vertically below the end of the track as shown in fig.)
where the sphere lands. During its flight as a projectile,
does the sphere continue to rotate about its centre of
mass? Explain. (1987; 7M)

## (a) frictional force acting on sphere is f = mg cos

(b) f is dissipative force
(c) friction will increase its angular velocity and 2.6m A
decreases its linear velocity 1.0m
(d) If decreases, friction will decrease
B
5. If the resultant of all the external forces acting on a 3. A thin uniform bar lies on a frictionless horizontal
system of particles is zero, then from an inertial frame, surface and is free to move in any way on the surface.
one can surely say that (2009; M) Its mass is 0.16 kg and length is
3 m. Two particles,
(a) linear momentum of the system does not change
each of mass 0.08 kg are moving on the same
in time 10m/s
surface and towards the
(b) kinetic energy of the system does not change in A
bar in a direction
time
perpendicular to the bar
(c) angular momentum of the system does not change
one with a velocity of 10
in time
m/s, and the other with 6
(d) potential energy of the system does not change in
m/s, as shown in Fig. B
time
6m/s

60
The first particle strikes the bar at point A and the angular velocity of Y is 10 rad s1. Calculate the
other at point B. Points A and B are at a distance of distance travelled by X from that instant of time
0.5 m from the the centre of the bar. The particles strike until it comes to rest. P
the bar at the same instant of time and stick to the bar 7. Two uniform rods A and B of length 0.6 m
on collision. Calculate the loss of kinetic energy of the each and of masses 0.01 kg and 0.02 kg
system in the above collision process. (1989; 8M) respectively are rigidly joined end to end.
A
4. A carpet of mass M made of inextensible material is The combination is pivoted at the lighter
rolled along its length in the form of a cylinder of end P as shown in figure. Such that it can
radius R and is kept on a rough floor. The carpet starts freely rotate about point P in a vertical
unrolling without sliding on the floor when a negligibly plane. A small object of mass 0.05 kg, moving
small push is given to it. Calculate the horizontal horizontally, hits the lower end of the
velocity of the axis of the cylindrical part of the carpet combination and sticks to it. What should
B
when its radius reduces to R/2. (1990; 8M) be the velocity of the object, so that the
system could just be raised to the horizontal
5. A homogeneous rod AB of length L = 1.8 m and mass
position. (1994; 6M)
M is pivoted at the centre O in such a way that it can
rotate freely in the vertical plane (Fig.). The rod is initially
8. A rectangular rigid fixed block has a long horizontal
in the horizontal position. An insect S of the same mass
edge. A solid homogeneous cylinder of radius R is
M falls vertically with speed v on the point C, midway
placed horizontally at rest with its length parallel to the
between the points O and B. Immediately after falling,
edge such that the axis of the cylinder and the edge
the insect move towards the end B such that the rod
of the block are in the same vertical plane as shown
rotates with a constant angular velocity .(1992; 8M)
in figure. There is sufficient friction preseent at the
S edge, so that a very small displacement causes the
cylinder to roll of the edge without slipping Determine:
v (1995; 10M)

A O C B
L/2 L/4 L/4 R

## (a) Determine the angular velocity in terms of v and L.

(b) If the insect reaches the end B when the rod has
turned through an angle of 90, determine v.
6. A block X of mass 0.5 kg is held by a long massless
string on a frictionless inclined plane of inclination 30 (a) the angle , through which the cylinder rotates
to the horizontal. The string is wound on a uniform before it leaves contact with the edge,
solid cylindrical drum Y of mass 2 kg and of radius (b) the speed of the centre of mass of the cylinder
0.2 m as shown in figure. The drum is given an initial before leaving contact with the edge and
angular velocity such that the block X starts moving (c) the ratio of the translational to rotational kinetic
up the plane. (1994; 6M) energies of the cylinder when its centre of mass is
Y
in horizontal line with the edge.
9. Two thin circular discs of mass 2 kg and radius 10 cm
each are joined by a rigid massless rod of length 20 cm.
X
The axis of the rod is
along the
perpendicular to the
O
planes of the disc
through their centres.
30 20cm

## This object is kept on a truck in such a way that the

(i) Find the tension in the string during the motion. axis of the object is horizontal and perpendicular to the
(ii) At a certain instant of time the magnitude of the direction of motion of the truck. Its friction with the

61
floor of the truck is large enough, so that the object (a) the accelerations of the plank and the centre of
can roll on the truck without slipping. Take x-axis as mass of the cylidner and
the direction of motion of the truck and z-axis as the (b) the magnitudes and directions of frictional forces
vertically upwards direction. If the truck has an at contact points.
acceleration 9 m/s 2 . calculate : (1997; 5M) 13. A rod AB of mass M and length L is lying on a
(i) the force of friction on each disc and horizontal frictionless surface. A particle of mass m
(ii) the magnitude and direction of the frictional torque travelling along the surface hits the end A of the rod
acting on each disc about the centre of mass O of with a velocity v0 in a direction perpendicular to AB.
the object. Express the torque in the vector form The collision is elastic. After the collision the particle
in terms of unit vectors, \$i , \$j and k\$ in x, y and comes to rest. (2000)
(a) Find the ratio m/M.
z-direction.
(b) A point P on the rod is at rest immediately after
10. A uniform disc of mass m and radius R is projected collision. Find the distance AP.
horizontally with velocity v0 on a rough horizontal (c) Find the linear speed of the point P after a time
floor, so that it starts off with a purely sliding motion L/3V0 after the collision.
at t = 0. After t0 seconds, it acquires a purely rolling
motion as shown in figure. (1997 C; 5M) 14. Two heavy metallic plates are joined together at 90 to
each other. A laminar sheet of mass 30 kg is hinged at
v0 the line AB joining the two heavy metallic plates. The
hinges are frictionless. The moment of inertia of the
laminar sheet about an axis parallel to AB and passing
t=0 t = t0 throughitscentreofmassis1.2kg-2m. Two rubber
(i) Calculate the velocity of the centre of mass of the obstacles P and Q are fixed, one on each metallic plate
disc at t0. at a distance 0.5 m from the line AB. This distance is
(ii) Assuming the coefficient of friction to be , chosen, so that the reaction due to the hinges on the
calculate t0. Also calculate the work done by the laminar sheet is zero during the impact. Initially the
frictional force as a function of time and the total laminar sheet hits one of the obstacles with an angular
work done by it over a time t much longer than t0. velocity 1 rad/s and turns back. If the impulse on the
sheet due to each obstacles is 6N-s. (2001; 10M)
11. A uniform circular A
disc has radius R and A
mass m. A particle, R
Q
also of mass m, is
C R/4
fixed at a point A on P Q
B
the edge of the disc P
as shown in the figure. The disc can rotate freely
about a horizontal chord PQ that is at a distance R/4
from the centre C of the disc. The line AC is
(a) Find the location of the centre of mass of the
perpendicular to PQ. Initially the disc is held vertically
laminar sheet from AB.
with the point A at its highest position. It is then
(b) At what angular velocity does the laminar sheet
allowed to fall, so that it starts rotation about PQ. Find
come back after the first impact?
the linear speed of the particle as it reaches its lowest
(c) After how many impacts, does the laminar sheet
position. (1998; 8M)
come to rest?
12. A man pushes a cylinder of mass m1 with the help of
a plank of mass m2 as shown. There is no slipping at 15. Three particles A, B and C, each of mass m, are
any contact.The horizontal component of the force connected to each other by three massless rigid rods
applied by the man is F. Find : (1999; 10M) to form a rigid, equilateral triangular body of side l.
This body is placed on a horizontal frictionless table
F m2
(x-y plane) and is hinged to it at the point A, so that
it can move without friction about the vertical axis
m1 through A (see figure). The body is set into rotational
motion on the table about A with a constant angular
velocity . (2002; 5M)

62
y 2. When disc B is brought in contact with disc A, they
x acquire a common angular velocity in time t. The
A
average frictional torque on one disc by the other
during this period is : (2007; 4M)
2 I 9I
(a) (b)
3t 2t
9I 3I
F B C (c) (d)
4t 2t
l
3. The loss of kinetic energy during the above process
(a) Find the magnitude of the horizontal force exerted is : (2007; 4M)
by the hinge on the body.
(b) At time T, when the side BC is parallel to the x- I I 2
(a) (b)
axis, a force F is applied on B along BC (as 2 3
shown). Obtain the x-component and the y-
component of the force exerted by the hinge on I 2 I 2
(c) (d)
the body, immediately after time T. 4 6
Passage
16. A rod of length L and mass M is hinged at point O.
A uniform thin cylindrical disk of mass M and radius
A small bullet of mass m hits the rod as shown in the
R is attached to two identical massless springs of
figure. The bullet gets embedded in the rod. Find
spring constant k which are fixed to the wall as shown
angular velocity of the system just after impact.
in the figure. The springs are attached to the axle of
(2005; 2M)
O
the disk diammetrically on either side at a distance d
from its centre. The axle is massless and both the
springs and the axle are in a horizontal plane. The
unstretched length of each spring is L. The disk is
initially at its equilibrium position with its centre of
L, M
mass (CM) at a distance L from the wall. The disk rolls
r r
without slipping with velocity v = v 0i . The coefficient
of friction is .
mv

## 17. A solid cylinder rolls without slipping on an inclined plane

inclined at an angle . Find the linear acceleration of the
cylinder. Mass of the cylinder is M. (2005; 4M)

COMPREHENSION
Passage
Two discs A and B are mounted coaxially on a vertical
axle. The discs have moment of inertia I a n d 2I 4. The net external force acting on the disk when its
respectively about the common axis. Disc A is imparted centre of mass is at displacement x with respect to its
an initial angular velocity 2 using the entire potential equilibrium position is (2008; 4M)
energy of a spring compressed by a distance x1 . Disc (a) kx (b) 2kx
B is imparted an angular velocity by a spring having
2kx 4kx
the same spring constant and compressed by a distance (c) (d)
x2 . Both the discs rotate in the clockwise direction. 3 3

## x1 5. The centre of mass of the disk undergoes simple

1. The ratio x is : (2007; 4M) harmonic motion with angular frequency equal to
2
(2008; 4M)
1 k 2k
(a) 2 (b) (a) (b)
2 M M
1 2k 4k
(c) 2 (d) (c) (d)
2 3M 3M

63
6. The maximum value of v0 for which the disk will roll dimensions are simultaneously allowed to roll without
without slipping is (2008; 4M) slipping down an inclined plane from the same height,
The hollow cylinder will reach the bottom of the
k M
(a) g (b) g 2 k inclined plane first. (2008; 3M)
M Because :
3M 5M Statement-II : By the principle of conservation of
(c) g (d) g 2 k energy, the total kinetic energies of both the cylinders
k
are identical when they reach the bottom of the incline.
ASSERATION AND REASON (a) Statement-I is true, Statement -II is true, Statement-
II is a correct explanation for Statmeent-I
This question contains, statement-I (assertion) and
(b) Statement-I is true, Statement-II is true; Statement-
statement II (reason).
II is NOT a correct explanaion for Statmeent-I
1. Statement-I : Two cylinders, one hollow (metal) and
(c) Statement-I is true, Statement-II is false
the other solid (wood) with the same mass and identical
(d) Statement-I is false, Statement-II is true

FILL IN THE BLANKS
2 M 0 1
1. mg 2. 3. MR 42 4. 3 5. mg , up
3 M + 6m 3 6
d x xw
6. w, 7. 4.8 ma 2
d d

TRUE/FALSE
1. F 2. F 3. F
OBJECTIVE QUESTION (ONLY ONE OPTION)
1. (c) 2. (b) 3. (a) 4. (c) 5. (b) 6. (a) 7. (a)
8. (c) 9. (c) 10. (b) 11. (c) 12. (d) 13. (a) 14. (b)
15. (c) 16. (a) 17. (a) 18. (a) 19. (b) 20. (d) 21. (a)
22. (a) 23. (a) 24. (d) 25. (a) 26. (d) 27. (b)

## OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (MORE THAN ONE OPTION)

1. (a, c, d) 2. (a, b, c) 3. (a, b, c) 4. (c, d) 5. (a) 6. (b, c)

SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS

mv30
1. in a direction perpendicular to paper inwards 2. 2.13m, yes 3. 2.72 J
2 2g

14 Rg 12V
4. v = 5. (a) (b) 3.5 ms 1 6. (i) 1.63 N (ii) 1.22 ln 7. 6.3 m/s
3 7L

4 4gR
8. (a) = cos1 (b) (c) 6
7 7

2 V0 mgt mV02
9. (i) 6 \$i (ii) 0.6 (k\$ \$j ), 0.6 ( \$j k\$ ), 0.85 N-m 10. (i) V0 (ii)
3 3g
,
2
[ 3gt 2V0 ] ,
6

4F 8F 3Fm1 Fm1
11. 5gR 12. a CM = 3m + 8m , a plank = 3m + 8m = 2a CM (b) 3m + 8 m , 3 m + 8 m
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

64
1 2 v0
13. (a) (b) L (c) 14. (a) 0.1 m (b) 1 rad/s (c) sheet will never come to rest
4 3 2 2
F
3ml 2 (b) ( Fnet ) x = 4 , ( Fnet ) y = 3ml
2
15. (a)

3mv 2
16. L (3 m + M ) 17. g sin
3

COMPREHENSION
1. (c) 2.(a) 3. (b)
4. (d) 5.(d) 6. (c)

1. (d)
SOLUTIONS

## FILL IN THE BLANKS the acceleration of platform is maximum i.e. a max = 2 A

1. Taking moment about point O :

F p = m A
2
N

F
f

3a f amax = 2A
4 Platform

f O
Now, m 2 A f = ma
mg
a fR = I
2
a = R
Moment of N (normal reaction) and f (force of friction) Solving above three equation we get,
are zero. As block just starts tipping about O, N 1
f = m 2 A
reaction will pass through O. To tip about the edge, 3
moment of F should be greater than moment of mg. Or,
max = fR
3a a 2
F > (mg) F> mg 1
4 2 3 = m 2 AR
3
2
Fmin =
mg k
3 4. mvr = k (constant) v =
2. By principle of conservation of angular momentum mr
I11 = I22
k2
mv 2 =
I ( ML2 /12) T= = Ar
3 where, A
m
2 = 1 .1 0 r
I2 [( ML2 /12) + 2 m( L /2) 2 ] n = 3
M 5. Under the given conditions only possibility is that
or 2 = 0
M + 6m friction is upwards and it accelerates downwards as
shown below :
3. Considering the motion of cylinder from the frame of
platform. The torque on cylinder will be maximum when

65
Iz
fi Ix == 0. 8 Ma 2
N 2
a Now, from the parallel axis theorem,
mg cos y
A B
mg sin
2a
= 30 2a
O
x
The equations of motion are :
mg sin 30 f = ma ...(1)

mR 2
fR = ...(2)
2 IAB = Ix + M (2a)2
For rolling (no slipping) = 0.8 Ma2 + 4Ma2 = 4.8 ma 2
a = R ...(3)
Solving (1), (2) and (3), we get
TRUE FALSE

Ia Ig sin
f = = 1. =
R 2
I I
R 2 1+
mR 2 = r F : Torque is same in both the cases but
moment of inertia depends on distribution of mass
3 from the axis. Distribution of mass in both the cases
Q f max = mg cos = mg
2 is different. Therefore, moment of inertia will be different
or the angular acceleration will be different.
Q f < f max (upwards)

mg 2. I1 1 = I1 2
f =
6 I
2 = 1 .1
I2
6. Net torque of all the forces about CM should be zero.

NA NB MR 2
4
2 =
= MR 2
M R
2 5
+ .
x d-x 2 4 2
A CM B
3. Total energy of the ring
W
1 2 1 2
= I + mv
About CM, N A x = N B ( d x) ...(1) 2 2
For vertical equilibrium of rod 1 1
NA + NB = W ...(2) = mr 22 + mr 2 2
2 2
Solving (1) and (2), we get
= mr 22 ...(1)
x
NB = W Total K.E. of the cylinder
d
1 1
d x = I 2 + MV 2
or, NA = W 2 2
d
11 2 2 1 3
= Mr + Mr = Mr
2 2 2 2
...(2)
7. Assuming the lamina to be in x-y plane. 22 2 4
Ix + Iy = Iz Equating (i) and (ii),
Q Ix = Iy (by symmetry)
3
and Iz = 1.6 Ma2 mr 2 2 = Mr 2 2
4

66
2 4m 4 0.3 M
= = =1 dF = mx2 = x2 dx
2 3M 3 0.4 L
= L L
M 2 L

M 2
or both will reach simultaneously.
F = dF =
L
xdx = 2
0 0
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (ONLY ONE OPTION)
Thiis is the force exerted by the liquid at the other end.
1. I1 1 = I1 2
1 2
I 4. Work done W = I
2 = 1 . 2
I2
If x is the distance of mass 0.3 kg from the centre of
mass, we will have,
Mr 2
= I = (0.3)x2 + (0.7) (1.4 x)2
Mr 2 + 2mr 2
For work to be minimum, the moment of inertia (I)
should be minimum, or
M
= dI
M + 2m =0
dx
v or, 2 (0.3x) 2(0.7) (1.4 x) = 0
2. L=m r
2 or, (0.3)x = (0.7) (1.4 x)
(0.7)(1.4)
y x= = 0.98m
0.3 + 0.7

v ur r
v cos 45 = 5. | V | = V = constant and | r | = r (say)
2
h Angular momentum of the particle about origin O will
x be given by
ur r r r ur
L = r p = m(r V)
v2 sin 2 45
Here r = h = y
2g
m
v v
2
V
L = m 4 g
2 r
3 h
mv
=
4 2g x
O
M ur
3. Mass of the element dx is m = dx
L or | L | = L = mrV sin = mV (r sin ) = mVh
This element needs centripetal force for rotation. Now, m, V and h all are constants.
Therefore, angular momentum of particle about origin
r ur
will remain constant. The direction of r V also remains
the same (negative z).

## F F+dF 6. A'B' AB and C'D' CD

x=L Frm symmetry IAB = IA'B'
dx
and ICD = IC'D'
From theorem of perpendicular axes,
x=0
IZZ = IA'B' + IAB = ICD + IC'D' = 2IAB = 2ICD
IAB = ICD

67
A r r r
C D = LCOM + MRCOM , O VCOM , O

1 3
= MR 2 + MRV = MR 2 (Q V = R)
2 2
A B
10. Net external torque on the system is zero. Therefore,
angular momentum is conserved. Force acting on the
system are only conservative. Therefore, total
D
mechanical energy of the system is also conserved.
C

11. At the critical condition, normal reaction N will pass
a a2 through point P. In this condition
7. r= 2 or r 2 =
2 2 the block will topple when net torque about G is clock
wise, so
M M N + mg + F + f < 0
C

Nl Fl fl
+0 < 0
Net torque about O is zero. 2 2 2
Therefore, angular moment (L) about O will be N<F+f
conserved, mg < F + F
(Q f = F , for translational
or, Li = Lf
equilibrium)
a
Mv = I 0 mg
2 F minimum =
2
= (ICM + Mr2 ) N

Ma2 a2 2
= +M = Ma2
6 2 3 F

3v G L
=
4a
L
8. Since, it is head on elastic collision between two 2
identical balls, they will exchange their linear velocities f
i.e., A comes to rest and B starts moving with linear
velocity v. As there is no friction anywhere, torque on mg
both the spheres about their centre of mass is zero and 12. Mass of the ring M = L
their angular velocities remain unchanged.Therefore,
Let R be the radius of the ring, then
L
L = 2 R or =
2
Moment of inertia about an axis passing through O
and parallel to XX' will be
A = and B = 0.
1
I0 = MR 2
9. Angular momentum about O 2
y
Therefore, moment of inertia about XX' (from parallel
axis theorm) will be given by
1 3
I XX = MR 2 + MR 2 = MR 2
M V= R 2 2
Substituting values of M and R
O x
(a)

68
3 L2 3L3 J. L = I
I XX = ( L ) 2 = C
2 4 8 2 2

L ML2
( Mv) = (2)
13. (i) = dI = dmr 2 2 4

M
= dAr 2 v
A =
L
r
4M
=
R 2 2
rdrr 2 17. In uniform circular motion the only force acting on the
particle is cenripetal (towards centre). Torque of this
R force about the centre is zero. Hence, angular
MR 2

2M
= r 3dr = momentum about centre remain conserved.
R2 0
2
Q V
R
14. As cylinder rolls up, due to mg sin its acceleration R C V
is downward, 18. V
P
For a = R , friction should be upward
& Same way when cylinder rolls down, to maintain
same condition a = R , friction should act in vQ > vC > v P
upward direction only.
19. Using I 11 = I 2 2 I1 = 2I 2
15. Since, there is no external torque, angular momentum
will remain conserved. The moment of inertia will first 1 I
= 2, 2 = 2
decrease till the tortoise moves from A to C and then 2 I1
increase as it moves from C to D. Therefore, will
initially increase and then decrease. K1 1 I 112 2 1
= = 4 = 2
K 2 2 I 2 22 2

K1
O K2 =
2
r
A B C D 20. As Torque of tangential force will not be zero. So
vt angular momentum will not be conserved about centre
of circle.
Let R be the radius of platform, m the mass of disc and r r r
M is the mass of platform. Here a = aC + aT
Moment of inertia when the tortoise is at A. r r
But as direction of R V remain same.
MR 2 So direction of anuglar momentum remains constant.
I1 = mR2 +
2
and moment of intertia when the tortoise is at B. 21. Iremaining = Iwhole Iremoved
1 R 2 2R
2
MR 2 =
1
+ ..(1)

2
I1 = mr2 + or I (9 M )( R ) m m
2 3 3

2 2

Here, r2 = a 2 + [ R 2 a2 vt ]2 2
9M R
From conservation of angular momentum Here, m = = M
R 2 3
0 I 1 = (t) I2
Substituting in Eq. (1) we have
16. Let be the angular velocity of the rod. Applying I = 4MR2
angular impulse = change in angular momentum about (a)
centre of mass of the system

69
2 1 N
22. MR 2 = Mr 2 + Mr 2
5 2
F C = m L
2
2
or, 2 MR 2 = 3 Mr 2 I = R f
5 2 15

## 23. If ball is released from A, then Ft = m L

K .E A = 0 From the frame of end A,
N = mL
1 2 1 2 1 2 v2 1 f = N = m2 L
At B, K .E. = I + mv = mR 2 2 + mv 2
2 2 2 5 R 2 mL = m2 L

7 =
= mv 2
10 Angular velocity at time t is

1 2 12 v
2
1
= t t=
At C, K .E. = I = mR 2 2 = mV 2

2 25 R 5
(a)
(Q = 0, so will remain constant)

## K .E.B > K.E.C > K .E. A 26. For translational equilibrium f

F = 0
& Applying mechanical energy conservation F = N and f = mg C F
between A and C, we get For rotational equilibrium, N
1 2 1 c = 0
mgh A mghC = I = mv 2 = K C uuur uur
2 5 mg
N + f = 0
uur uuur
KC Since, f 0 N 0
h A = hC +
mg (d)

hA > hC 27. The block will start sliding down (if it does not topple)
(a) at angle of repose
i.e. = tan s = 60

1 2 1 v
2
3v 2
mv + I = mg 15 cm
24. 2 2 R 4g N
Fs
1
I= mR 2
2 mg sin
mg cos
Body is disc.
(d)
The block will start toppling (if it does not slide) at
angle if
25. TangentialforceF(t ) of the
bead will be given by the 15 10
mg sin = mg cos
normal reaction (N), while 2 2
centripetal force (F C) is
provided by friction (fr ). The 2
bead starts sliding when theA t = tan 1
3
centripetal force is just equal
to the limiting friction. As t < s block will first topple before it slides.
(b)

70
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (MORE THAN ONE OPTION) ur
or magnitude of L does not change with time,
(b) So far we are confirmed about two points
1. Pi = 0 Pf = 0 or Vc = 0
Li = Lf or (2mV) a + (2mV) (2a) = I ...(1)
L
(8m)(6a )2
Here, I = + m(2a) 2 + (2m)( a2 ) = 30ma2
12
Substituting in Eq. (1) we get
L L
V
=
5a
2
1 2 1 V 3mV 2 L
Further, E= I = (30ma2 ) =
2 2 5a 5 uuur
r ur
(a), (c) and (d). (1) or dL L and
dt
2. Since, it is a square lamina ur
(2) | L | = L is not changing with time, therefore, it is
I3 = I4 and I1 = I2 (by symmetry) ur
From perpendicular axes theorem, a case when direction of L is changing but its
Moment of inertia about an axis perpendicular to r ur
magnitude is constant and is perpendicular to L at
square plate and passing from O is
all points. This can be written as :
I0 = 1 + I2 = I3 + I4 ur r r
or I0 = 2I2 = 2I3 If L = ( a cos )i + ( a sin )j
Hence, I2 = I3 Here, a = positive constant
Rather we can say I1 = I2 = I3 = I4 r r r
Therefore, I0 can be obtained by adding any two i.e., Then = ( a sin ) i ( a cos ) j
I0 =I1 + I2 = I1 + I3 = I1 + I4 = I2 + I3 ur r ur r
So, that L = 0 and L
= I2 + I4 = I3 + I4
ur
Now, A is constant vector and it is always
r ur ur r ur
3. (a) = A L
perpendicular to . Thus, A can be written as
uuur ur
dL ur ur A = Ak\$
i.e. = A L ur ur
dt we can see that L . A = 0
uuur ur ur
dL i.e., L A also.
The relation implies that is perpendicular to both ur ur
dt Thus, we can say that component of L along A is
ur ur ur ur
A and L . Therefore, option (a) is correct. zero or component of L along A is always constant.
ur ur r ur ur
(c) Here, L. L = L2 Finally we conclude, , A and L are always mutually
Differentiating w.r.t time, we get perpendicular.
uuur uuur
ur dL dL ur dL 4. In case of pure rolling.
L. + .L. = 2 L
dt dt dt
mg sin
uuur
ur 2
2L. dL = 2 L dL f = 1 + mR (upwards)
dt dt I
uuur f sin
ur dL
But since, L Therefore, as decrease force of friction will also
dt decrease.
uuur As net work done by f is zero in case of rolling, so f
ur dL
L. =0 is not a dissipative force.
dt
r r
dL
=0 5. If Fext = 0 P = constant
Therefore, from Eq. (1)
dt

71
r r on the sphere which passes through its centre of
But ext may be non-zero L constant
mass. Therefore, net torque about centre of mass is
For example in case of a non-rigid body, (K.E)
system zero. Or angular velocity will remain constant.
constant
(a) 3. Let v be the velocity of centre of mass (at c) of rod and
two particles and the angular velocity of the system.
r r r r r r
6. If V B = V then VC = 2V and V A = 0 From conservation of linear momentum.
(0.08) (10 + 6) = [0.08 + 0.08 + 0.16]v
(b, c)
A A
SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS 10m/s
r r r
1. L = m( r v )
C
= mr v = mhmax v0 cos C

mv 02 sin 2 mv 30 1 mv 30 6m/s
= v 0 cos = = B B
2g 2g 2 2 4 2 g
v = 4 m/s
AC = CB = 0.5 m
2. h = 2.6 1.0 = 1.6 m
Similarly conservation of angular momentum about
During pure rolling mechanical energy remains
point C.
conserved.
(0.08) (10) (0.5) (0.08) (6) (0.5) = I ..(1)
By conservation of mechanical energy, we get
Here, I = Irod + ITwo particles
1 2 1
mg (1.6) = I + mv 2 ( 3)
2
(1.6)
2 2 = + 2(0.08)(0.5) 2
12
12 2 v
2
1 = 0.08 kg-m2
mg (1 .6 ) = mR 2 + mv
2
25 R 2 Substituing in Eq. (1), we ge
7 Loss of kinetic energy
mg (1 .6) = mv 2
10 1 1
= (0.08)(10) 2 + (0.08)(6)2
2 2
16 g
v= 1 1
7 (0.08 + 0.08 + 0.16)(4) 2 (0.08)(2)2
2 2
= 4 + 1.44 2.56 0.16 = 2.72J
2h 2 1
t= =
g g 4. Let M' be the mass of unwound carpet. Then,
2
M R M
16 g 2 32 M' = 2 =
x = vt = = = 2 .13 m R 2 4
7 g 7
M
M'

v
R
h R/2
v
From conservation of mechanical energy :
R 1M 2 1 2
= v + I
2 2 4
MgR M ' g
2
B M R Mv 2 1 1 M R 2 v
C 2
or, MgR g = +
4 2 8 2 2 4 4 R / 2
In air, during its flight as a projectile only mg is acting

72
At time t = 0, x = L/4 and at time t = T/4 or /2,
7 3Mv2 x = L/2.
or MgR =
8 16 Substituing these limits in Eq. (2) we get
g / 2
2 0
L/2
(cos t )dt
v =
14Rg
L / 4 dx =
3
g
[sin t ]0 / 2
5. In this problem we will write K for the angular momentum
because L has been used for length of the rod.
[ x ] LL // 24 =
2 2
(a) Angular momentum of the system (rod + insect)
L L g
about the centre of the rod O will remain conserved 2 4 = 2 sin 2 sin 0
just before collision and after collison i.e., Ki = Kf . 2

M L = g or 2g
=
4 22 L
v
Substituting in Eq. (1), we get
2g 12V
=
A O C B A O C B L 7L
L/2 L/4 L/4
Just before collision Just after collision
7 7
or V= 2gL = 2 10 1.8 = 3.5 m / s
12 12
l ML 2 L
2
Mv = I = + M Hence, v = 3.5m/s
or 4 12 4 6. Given mass of block X, m = 0.5 kg
Y Y
L 7
or Mv = ML2
4 48
X X
12 v
i.e.., = ...(1)
7 L

30 =30
(b) Due to the torque of weight of insect about O, angular
momentum of the system will not remain conseved
(although angular velocity is constant). As the Mass of drum Y, M = 2kg
insect moves towards B, moment of inertia of the Radius of drum, R = 0.2 m
system increases, hence, the angular momentum of the Angle of inclined plane, = 30
system will increase. Let a be the linear retardation of block X and the
Let at time t1 the insect be at a distance x from O and angular retardation of drum Y. Then,
by then the rod has rotated through an angle . then, a = R
angular momentum at that moment, mg sin 30 =ma ...(1)
ML2 mg
T = ma
L = 12 + Mx
2 or ...(2)
2

TR
dL dx = =
Hence, = 2 Mx ( = constant) I 1
MR 2
dt dt 2
dx dL 2T
= 2Mx. = or = ...(3)
dt dt MR
dx Solving Eqs. (1), (2) and (3) for T, we get
Mgx cos = 2M x 1 M mg
dt
T=
2 M + 2m
g
dx = cos t dt ( = t) Substituting the value, we get
2

73
Therefore, decrease in rotational KE = increase in
1 (2)( 0.5)(9.8) gravitational PE
T = = 1. 63 N
2 2 + (0.5)( 2)
1 2 l l
T = 1.63N or, I = mg ( 2l) + m A g + m B g l +
2
2 2
(ii) From Eq. (3), angular retardation of drum
gl (4m + mA + 3mB )
or, =
(2)(1.63) 2
2T
= = (2)(0.2) = 8.15 rad/s 2 I
MR
(9.8)(0.6)(4 0.05 + 0.01 + 3 0.02)
or linear retardation of block =
a = R = (0.2) (8.15) = 1.63 m/s 2 0.09
At the moment when angular velocity of drum is = 17.64 (rad/s)2
The linear velocity of block will be Equating Eqs. (2) and (3), we get
v0 = 0 R = (10) (0.2) = 2m/s
4.2
Now, the distance (s) travelled by the block until it v= m/s
comes to rest will be given by 0.67
or, v = 6.3 m/s
v2
s = 0 [Using v2 = v02 2as with v = 0]
2a 8. (a) The cylinder rotates about the point of contact.
Hence, the mechanical energy of the cylinder will be
( 2) 2 conserved
= = 1.23 m
2 1.63
7. System is free to rotate but not free to translate.
During collision, net torque on the system (rod A + rod R
R os
B + mass m) about point P is zero. Rc
Therefore, angular momentum of system before collision
= Angular momentum of system just after collision.
(About P). Let be the angular velocity of system just
after collision, then
Li = Lf
mv (2l) = I
Here, I = moment of inertia of system about P
l 2 l

2
= m (2l)2 + mA (l2 /3) + m3 + + l V'
12 2
Given : l = 0.6 m, m = 0.05 kg, mA = 0.01 kg and mB
= 0.02 kg
Substituting the values, we get (PE + KE)1 = (PE + KE)2
I = 0.09 kg-m2
Therefore, from Eq. (1) 1 2 1 2
mgR + 0 = mgR cos + I + mv
2 2
2mvl (2)(0.05)( v)(0.6)
= = but = v/R (No slipping at point of contact)
I 0.09
= 0.67v 1
..(2) and I= mR 2
Now, after collision, mechanical energy will be 2
conserved. Therefore,

v2 1 2
mgR = mgR cos + mR 2
1 1
+ mv
22 R 2 2
0
3 2
or v = gR (1 cos )
4
4
or v2 = gR (1cos )
3
74
v2 4 1 2 1 4
or = g (1cos ) ...(1) = mv = m gR
R 3 4 4 7

mgR
or KR =
co s 7
mg V
Now, once the cylinder loses its contact, N = 0, i.e.,

in
the frictional force, whcih is responsible for its rotation,
s
mg also vanishes. Hence, its rotational kinetic energy
N=0 mg now becomes contant, while its translational kinetic
energy increase.
Applying conservation of energy at 1 and 3.
Decrease in gravitation PE = Gain in rotational KE +
translation KE
Translational KE (KT)
At the time of leaving contact, normal reaction N = 0
= Decrease in gravitational PE KR
and = c. Hence
mgR 6
mv 2 or KT = (mgR) = mgR
mg cos = 7 7
R
From Eqs. (3) and (4)
or v 2 = g cos (2) 6
R KT mgR
7
From Eqs. (1) and (2), KR = mgR
4 7
g (1cos c ) = g cos
3 KT
or KR = 6
7
or cos c = 1
4
or cosc = 4/7 9. (i) In the frame of truck, a pseudo frame ma is applied
or c = cos 1 (4/7) on each disc on the centre of mass.
Torque acting on the disc is

(b) v =
4
gR(1cos ) [From Eq. (1)] fR = I
3
ma ma
At the time of losing contact
cos = cos c = 4/7

4 4
v= gR 1
3 7
z f
f
4
or v= gR x y
7 a = 9 m/s
2

## Therefore, speed of CM of cylinder just before losing

Let a be acceleration of C.M. of disc in frame of truck.
4 For pure rolling
contact is gR
7 a = R
(c) At the moment, when cylidner loses contact
Ia
f =
4 R2
v= gR
7 By Newton's law in x-direction
1 2 f
Therefore, rotational kinetic energy, KR = I ma f = ma a = a
2 m
2
11 2v 1
or KB = mR 2 I= mR 2
2 2 R 2
75
11. Initial and final positions are shown below.
1 mR 2 f Decrease in potential energy of mass m
f = 2
a
2 R m 5R 5mgR
= mg 2 =
ma 4 2
2 f = ma f f = = 6 N Decrease in potential energy of disc
3
(in + x direction) R mgR
= mg 2 =
4 2
f = ( 6i ) N

r m
R 5R
(ii) = r\$ \$f 4
r 3R
Here, f = ( 6i\$ )N (for both the discs) C R/4 4 R/4
P Q P Q
uur ur 3R
rp = r1 = 0.1\$j 0.1k\$
C
4 R 5R
4
uur uur
and rQ = r2 = 0.1\$j 0 . 1 k\$
m

## Therefore, total decrease in potential energy of system

Therefore, frictional torque on disk 1 about point O
(centre of mass). 5 mgR mgR
= + = 3mgR
r r r 2 2
1 = r1 f = ( 0.1 j 0.1k ) ( 6i ) N m
1 2
= (0.6k\$ 0.6\$j) Gain in kinetic energy of system = I
2
uur
or, 1 = 0.6(k\$ \$j) N-m where I = moment of inertia of system
(disc + mass) about axis PQ
uur
and | 1 |= (0.6) 2 + (0.6)2 = 0.85 N-m = moment of inertia of disc.
uur uur r + moment of inertia of mass
Similarly, 2 = r2 f
mR 2 R
2
5R
2
= + m + m
= 0.6 (\$j k\$ ) 4 4 4
uur uur
and | 1 |=| 2 | = 0.85 N-m
15mR 2
10. By conserving AM about bottom most point, we get I=
8
mR 2
mv 0 R = mvR + From conservation of mechanical energy,
2 Decrease is potential energy = Gain in kinetic energy

1 15mR 2 2
mR 2 v 3 3mgR =
mv 0 R = mvR + = mRv 2 8
2 R 2
2 v0
v= =
16g
3 5R
After, t > t0 , it will have pure rolling, Therefore, linear speed of particle at its lowest point

1 1 1 5R 5R 16 g
W f = K . E. = mv 2 + I2 mv0 =
2 v=
2 2 2 4 4 5R

1 11 v
2
1 v= 5gR
= mv 2 + mR 2 2 mv 02
2 22 R 2
12. We can choose any arbitary directions of frictional
2 2
3 1 3 m 4 v0 mv 2 mv forces at different contacts.
= mv 2 mv 20 = 0 = 0
4 2 4 9 2 6 In the final answer the negative values will show the
opposite directions.
Letf1 = friction between plank and cylinder

76
f2 = friction between cylinder and ground
4F
a 1 = acceleration of plank and a 2 = 3m + 8m
a 2 = acceleration of centre of mass of cylinder 1 2
and = angular acceleration of cylinder about its CM. 3m1 F
Directions of f1 and f2 are as shown here (b) f1 = 3m + 8m
Since, there is no slipping anywhere 1 2
= a 1 = 2a 2 ...(1)
m1 F
(Acceleration of plank = acceleration of top point of f2 =
cylinder) 3m1 + 8m2

f1
13. (a) Let just after collision, velocity of CM of rod is v
and angular velocity about CM is . Applying
m1 a2
following three laws :

v0
m m
f2

F f1 L
a1 = m ...(2) 2
2
CM CM v x
f1 + f2
a2 = m ...(3) L
1
2
( f1 f 2 ) R
= ...(4)
I Before collision Before collision
(I = moment of inertia of cylinder above CM)
(i) External force on the system (rod + mass) in
a1 = 2a2 horizontal plane along x-axis is zero.
Applying conservation of linear momentum in x-
direction.
a2 mv 0 = Mv ...(1)
(ii) Net torque on the system about CM of rod is zero
Applying conservation of angular momentum about
L
CM of rod, we get mv0 = I
( f f )R
= 1 2 2
1
m1 R 2
2 L ML2
or mv0 =
2 12
2( f1 f2 )
= ML
m1 R or mv 0 = ...(2)
6
2( f1 f2 ) (iii) Since, the collision is elestic,
a2 = R = ...(5)
m1
l
(Acceleration of bottom most point of cylinder = 0) v+
e =1 = 2 ...(3)
(a) Solving Eqs. (1), (2), (3) and (5), we get v0
From Eqs. (1), (2) and (3) we get the following results
m 1
=
M 4
R a2 mv0 6mv0
v= and =
8F M ML
a1 = (b) Point P will be at rest if x = v
3m1 + 8m2

77
A r = 0.4 m and r = 0.1 m
v mv0 / M '
or x= = 6mv / ML
L But r = 0.4m, comes out to be negative (0.5 rad/s)
0 2
which is not acceptable. Therefore,
or x = L/6 (a) r = distance of CM from AB = 0.1 m
(b) Substituting r = 0.1 m in Eq. (1), we get = 1 rad/
L L CM V
AP = + s i.e., the angular velocity with which sheet comes
2 6 x back after the first impact is 1 rad/s.
(c) Since the sheet returns with same angular velocity
2 P
or AP = L of 1 rad/s, the sheet will never come to rest.
3
15. (a) The distance of centre of mass (CM) of the system
L about point A will be :
(c) After time t = 3v
0 l
r=
6mv0 L 3
angle rotated by rod, = t = ML . 3v Therefore, the magnitude of horizontal force exerted by
0
the hinge on the body is
m 1 m 1
= 2 = 2 = A
y
M 4 M 4
,
x
=
2 3/2l
l l
Therefore, situation will be as shown below : CM
Resultant velocity of point P will be
F
r m 2 v B C
| vP | = 2 v = 2 v0 = v0 = 0
M 4 2 2 F = centripetal force
V or F = (3m) r2
A l 2
P or F = (3m)

3
r v0
or | vP | =
2 2 or, F = 3ml2
(b) Angular acceleration of system about point A is
14. Let r be the perpendicular distance of CM from the line
AB and the angular velocity of the sheet just after 3
colliding with rubber obstacle for the first time. ( F ) l
A 2
Obviously the linear velocity of CM before and after = =
collision will bev1 = (r) (1 rad/s) = r and vf = r IA 2ml 2
uur uuur
vi and v f will be in opposite direction 3F
=
Now, linear impulse on CM 4ml
= change in linear momentum of CM Now, acceleration of CM along x-axis is
or 6 = m (vf + vi) = 30 (r + r)
l 3F F
1 a x = r = or a x = 4m
or r (1 + ) = 3 4ml
5
Similarly, angular impulse about AB = change in angular Now, let Fx be te force applied by the hinge along x-
Angular impulse = Linear impulse perpendicular Fx + F = (3m)a x
distance of impulse from AB F
Hence, 6 (0.5) = IAB ( + 1) or Fx + F = (3m)
[Initial angular velociy = 1 rad/s) 4m
or 3 = [ICM + Mr2] (I + ) 3 F
or 3 = [1.2 + 30r2] (1 + ) ...(2) or Fx + F = F or Fx =
4
4
Solving Eqs. (1) and (2) for r, we get

78
Further if Fy be the force applied by the hinge along angular impulse = change in angular momentum, for
y-axis. Then, any of the disc, we have
Fy = centripetal force
4 2I
.t = I ( 2 ) I =
or Fy = 3ml 2
3 3

## 16. Angular momentum of the system about point O will 2 I

=
remain conserved. 3t
Li = Lf
3. Loss of kinetic energy = Ki Kf
2 ML2
mvL = I mL + 3
=
1 1 1 4
2
1
= I (2) 2 + (2I )() 2 (3I ) = I 2
2 2 2 3 3
3mv
=
L (3 m + M )
kx a kx
17. For rolling without slipping, we have
Using formula
4.
g sin
a=
I f
1+
MR2
2kx f = Ma
1
I = MR 2
2 MR 2
fR =
2 2
a= g sin a = R (Because it is having a pure rolling motion)
3
Ma
M f =
2
a Ma 3
f 2kx = Ma 2kx = Ma
2 2

Mg sin
4kx
a=
3M

a = R M 4kx 2kx
f = =
2 3M 3
COMPREHENSION
4
1 1 f net = Ma = kx
1. I (2)2 = kx12 ...(i) 3
2 2
(d)
1 1
(2I ) ( ) = kx22
2
...(i)
2 2 5. fR = I
From Eqs. (i) and (ii), we have
2kx Ia
x1 R=
3 R
x2 = 2
2kR 2 a
2. Let ' be the common velocity. Then from conservation =
of angular momentum, we have 3I x
(I + 2I)' = I (2) + 2I ()
2kR2 2 a 4k 4k
4 = 2 = =
' = 3 MR 2
x 3M 3M
3
From the question,

79
4k asolid > ahollow
6. v max = A v 0 = x max = x max
3M Kinetic energy of solid cylinder when it reaches ground
1 2 1
xmax = v0
3M = I + mV 2
2 2
4k
2kxmax 11 V
2
1 3
f max = = mg = mR 2 2 + mv 2 = mv 2
3 22 R 2 4

2k 3M 2g sin l 2 2 g sin l
v0 = mg v 2 = 2as = =
I 3
3 4k And 1+
mR 2
3 4k
v0 = mg 3 4 g sin l
2k 3M K . E. solid = m = mg sin l
4 3
3M
= g 1 2 1 2
k For Hollow cylinder, K.E. = I + mv
2 2
(c)
1 1
= mv 2 + mv 2 = mv 2
ASSERATION AND REASON 2 2
1. In case of pure rolling on inclined plane, 2g sin l
& v 2 = 2as = = g sin l
g sin 1 +1
a=
1 + I / mR 2 mv 2 = mg sin l
I solid < I hollow Both are having identical K.E.

80
CHAPTER-8
SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION
FILL IN THE BLANKS
1. An object of mass 0.2 kg executes simple harmonic motion along the x-axis with a frequency of (25/) Hz. At the
position x = 0.04, the object has kinetic energy of 0.5 J and potential energy 0.4 J. the amplitude of oscillations
is ..... m. (1994, 2M)
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
M
Only One option is correct : (a) 2 M L (b) 2
L
1. A particle executes simple harmonic motion with a
frequency f. The frequency with which its kinetic ML M
(c) 2 (d) 2
energy oscillates is : (1987; 2M) L
(a) f/2 (b) f
(c) 2f (d) 4f
5. One end of a long metallic wire of length L is tied to
2. Two bodies M and N of equal masses are suspended the celling. The other end is tied to a massless spring
from two separate massless springs of spring constants of spring constant K. A mass m hangs freely from the
k 1 and k2 respectively. If the two bodies oscillate free end of the spring. The area of cross-section and
vertically such that their maximum velocities are equal, the Young's modulus of the wire are A and Y
the ratio of the one amplitude of vibration of M to that respectively. If the mass is slightly pulled down and
of N is : (1988; 1M) released, it will oscillate with a time period T equal to
:
(a) k 1 /k 2 (b) k2 / k1 (1993; 2M)
(c) k 2/ k 1 (d) k1 / k2 m(YA + KL)
(a) 2 (m/K)1/2 (b) 2
YAK
3. A uniform cylinder of length L and mass M having
cross-sectional area A is suspended, with its length (c) 2 [(mYA/KL)1/2 (d) 2 (mL/KA)1/2
vertical, from a fixed point by a massless spring, such
that it is half-submerged in a liquid of density at 6. A particle of mass m is executing oscillation about the
equilibrium position. When the cylinder is given a origin on the x-axis. Its potential energy is U (x) = k
small downward push and released, it starts oscillating |x|3 , where k is a positive constant. If the amplitude of
vertically with a small amplitude. If the force constant oscillation is a, then its time period T is : (2001)
of the spring is k, the frequency of oscillation of the
(a) proportional to 1 / a
cylinder is : (1990; 2M)
1/2 1/2 (b) independent of a
1 k Ag 1 k + Ag
(c) proportional to
2 M 2 M
(a) (b) a
(d) proportional to a 3/2
1/3
1 k + gL2 1/2
1 k + Ag
(c) (d) 7. A spring of force constant k is cut into two pieces
2 M
2 Ag such that one piece is double the length of the other.
Then the long piece will have a force constant of :
4. A highly rigid cubical block A of small mass M and (1999; 2M)
side L is fixed rigidly on to another cubical block B of (a) 2/3k (b) 3/2k
the same dimensions and of low modulus of rigidity (c) 3k (d) 6k
such that the lower face of A completely covers the
upper face of B. The lower face of B is rigidly held on 8. A particle free to move along the x-axis has potential
a horizontal surface. A small force F is applied energy given by U (x) = k (1 exp (x2 )] For
perpendicular to one of the sides faces of A. After the x + , where k is a positive constant of
force is withdrawn, block A executes small oscillations, appropriate dimensions. Then (1999; 2M)
the time period of which is given by : (1992; 2M)
88
(a) At points away from the origin, the particle is in 13. A block P of mass m is placed on a horizontal frictionless
unstable equilibrium. plane. A second block of same mass m is placed on it
(b) for any finite non-zero value of x, there is a force and is connected to a spring of spring constant k, the
directed away from the origin two blocks are pulled by distance A. Block Q oscillates
(c) if its total mechanical energy is k /2, it has its without slipping. What is the maximum value of frictional
minimum kinetic energy at the origin force between the two blocks? (2004; 2M)
(d) for small displacement from x = 0, then motion is
simple harmonic

## 9. The period of oscillation of simple pendulum of length k

L suspended from the roof of the vehicle which moves Q s
without friction, down an inclined plane of inclination
, is given by : (2000; 2M) P

L l
(a) 2 (b) 2p
g cos g sin a (a) kA/2 (b) kA
(c) s mg (d) Zero
L L
(c) 2 (d) 2
g g tan 14. The x-t graph of a particle undergoing simple harmonic
motion is shown below. The acceleration of the particle
at t = 4/3 s is (2009; M)
10. A particle executes simple harmonic motion between
x = A and x = + A. The time taken for it to go from
1
O to A/2 is T1 and to go from A/2 to A is T2 , then
(2000; 2M)
(a) T1 < T2 (b) T1 > T2 t(s)
0
(c) T1 = T2 (d) T1 = 2T2 4 8 12

## 11. For a particle executing SHM, the displacement x is 1

given by x = A cos t. Identify the graph which
represents the variation of potential energy (PE) as a
3 2 2
function of time t and displacement x : (2003; 2M) (a) cm/s 2 (b) cm/s 2
32 32
PE PE
I II
III 2 3 2
IV
(c) cm/s 2 (d) cm/s 2
32 32
t
x
15. A uniform rod of length L and mass M is pivoted at
(a) I, III (b) II, IV the centre. Its two ends are attached to the springs of
(c) II, III (d) I, IV equal spring constants k. The springs are fixed to rigid
supports as shown in the figure, and the rod is free to
12. A simple pendulum has time period T1 . The point of oscillate in the horizontal plane. The rod is gently
suspension is now moved upward according to the pushed through a small angle in one direction and
relation y = Kt2 , (K = 1 m/ 2 ) where y is the vertical released. The frequency of oscillation is (2009; M)
displacement. The time period now becomes T2 . The

T12
ratio of is : (g = 10 m/s 2 ) (2005; 2M)
T22

6 5
(a) (b)
5 6
4 1 2k 1 k
(c) 1 (d) (a) (b)
5 2p M 2p M

89
masses are in equilibrium m1 is removed without
1 6k 1 24 k disturbing the system. Find the angular frequency and
(c) (d)
2p M 2p M amplitude of oscillation of m2 . (1981; 3M)
16. The mass M shown in the figure oscillates in simple
harmonic motion with amplitude A. The amplitude of
the point P is (2009; M)

k1 k2 m1
P M m2

## 2. An ideal gas is enclosed in a vertical cylindrical

k1 A k2 A
(a) k (b) k container and supports a freely moving piston of mass
2 1 M. The piston and the cylinder have equal cross-
secional area A. Atmospheric pressure is P0 , the volume
k1 A k2 A
(c) k + k (d) k + k of the gas is V0 . The piston is now displaced slightly
1 2 1 2 from its equilibrium position. Assuming that the system
is completely isolated from is surroundings, show that
the piston executes simple harmonic motion and find
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
the frequency of oscillation (1981; 6M)
More than one options are correct:
3. A thin fixed ring of radius 1 m has a positive charge
1. A linear harmonic oscillator of force constant 2 106 1 105 C uniformly distributed over it. A particle of
N/m and amplitude 0.01 m has a total mechanical mass 0.9 g and having a negative charge of 1 106
energy of 160 J. Its : (1989; 2M) C is placed on the axis at a distance of 1 cm from the
(a) maximum potential energy is 100 J centre of the ring. Show that the motion of the
(b) maximum kinetic energy is 100 J negatively charged particle is approximately simple
(c) maximum potential energy is 160 J harmonic. Calculate the time period of oscillations.
(d) maximum potential energy is zero (1982; 5M)

2. Three simple harmonic motions in the same direction 4. Two light springs of force constant k 1 and k 2 and a
having the same amplitude and same period are block of mass m are in one line AB on a smooth
superposed. If each differ in phase from the next by horizontal table such that one end of each spring is
45, then : (1999; 3M) fixed on rigid supports and the other end is free as

( )
shown in the figure. The distance CD between the free
(a) the resultant amplitude is 1 + 2 a ends of the spring is 60 cm. If the block moves along
(b) the phase of the resultant motion relative to the AB with a velocity 120 cm/s in between the springs,
first is 90. calculate the period of oscillation of the block. (k 1 = 1.8
(c) the energy associated with the resulting motion is N/m, k 2 = 3.2 N/m, m = 200 g) (1985; 6M)

## (3 + 2 2 ) times the energy associated with any

60cm

single motion k1 m v k2
(d) the resulting motion is not simple harmonic
A C D B
3. Function x = A sin 2 t + B cos 2 t + C sin t cos t
represents SHM : (1999; 3M) 5. A point particle of mass M attached to one end of a
(a) for any value of A, B and C (except C = 0) massless rigid non conducting rod of length L. Another
point particle of the same mass is attached to the other
(b) If A = B, C = 2B, amplitude = | B 2 | end of the rod. The two particles carry charges + q and
(c) If A = B; C = 0 q respectively. This arrangement is held in a region
(d) If A = B; C = 2B; amplitude = |B| of a uniform electric field E such that the rod makes a
small angle (say of about 5 degree) with the field
SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS direction as shown in figure. Find an expression for the
1. Two masses m1 and m2 are suspended together by a minimum time needed for the rod to become parallel to
massless spring of spring constant k (Fig.). When the the field after it is set free. (1989; 8M)

90
(iii) What is the total energy of the system?

## +q E 8. A thin rod of length L and

q
uniform cross-section is
pivoted at its lowest point
6. Two non-viscous incompressible and P inside a stationary
d1 d2
immiscible liquids of densities and homogeneous and non-
1.5 are poured into the two limbs R
viscous liquid. The rod is
free to rotate in a vertical
of a circular tube of radius R and O plane about a horizontal
small cross section kept fixed in a
axis passing through P. P
vertical plane as shown in figure.
The density d 1 of the material of the rod is smaller than
Each liquid occupies one-fourth the circumference of
the density d 2 of the liquid. The rod is displaced by
the tube. (1991; 4+4M)
small angle from its equilibrium position and then
(a) Find the angle that the radius to the interface
released. Show that the motion of the rod is simple
makes with the vertical in equilibrium position.
harmonic and determine its angular frequency in terms
(b) If the whole liquid column is given a small
of the given parameters.(1996; 5M)
displacement from its equilibrium position, show
that the resulting oscillations are simple 9. A solid sphere of radius R is floating in a liquid of
harmonic.Find the time period of these oscillations. density with half of its volume submerged. If the
7. Two identical balls A and B
sphere is slightly pushed and released, it starts
A performing simple harmonic motion. Find the frequency
B, each of mass 0.1 kg,
m
06

## of these oscillations. (2004; 4M)

are attached to two /6 /6
0.

Q
identical massless P
10. A mass m is undergoing SHM in the
springs. The spring-mass
system is constrained to
position y0 with amplitude A and
move inside a rigid smooth pipe bent in the form of a angular frequency . At a distance
circle as shown in figure. The pipe is fixed in a circle y from the mean position, the mass
of radius 0.06 m. Each springs has a natural length of detaches from the spring.
0.06 metre and spring constant 0.1 N/m. Initially, both
Assume that the spring contracts and
the balls are displaced by an angle = /6 radian with
does not obstruct the motion of m. y
respect to the diameter PQ of the circle (as shown in
Find the distance y (measured from m
fig.) and released from rest. (1993; 6M)
the mean position) such that the
(i) Calculate the frequency of oscillation of ball B.
height h attained by the block is
(ii) Find the speed of ball A when A and B are at the
maximum.(A2 > g). (2005)
two ends of the diameter PQ.

## MATCH THE COLUMN

1. Column 1 describes some situations in which a small object moves. Column II describes some characteristics of
these motions. Match the situations in Column I with the characteristics in Column II. (2007; 6M)
Column I Column I
(A) The object moves on the x-axis under a conservative (p) The object executes a simple harmonic motion.
force in such a way that its 'speed' and 'position'

## satisfy v = c1 c2 x 2 , where c1 and c2 are positive

constants.
(B) The object moves on the x-axis in such a way that (q) The object does not change its direction.
its velocity and its displacement from the origin
satisfy v = kx, where k is a positive constant.
(C) The object is attached to one end of a massless (r) The kinetic energy of the object keeps on
spring of constant. The other end of the spring is decreasing

91
attached to the ceiling of an elevator. Initially
everything is at rest. The elevator starts going
upwards with a constant acceleration a. The motion
of the object is observed from the elevator during
the period it maintains this acceleraion.
(D) The object is projected from the earth's surface (s) The object can change its direction only once.

GM e
vertically upwards with a speed 2 , where
Re
M e is the mass of the earth and Re is the radius
of the earth. Neglect forces from objects other than
the earth.

2. Column 1 give a list of possible set of parameters measured in some experiments. The variations of the parameters
in the form of graphs are shown in Column II. Match the set of parameters given in Column I with the graphs
given in Column II. Indicate your answer by darkening the appropriate bubbles of the 4 X 4 matrix given in the
ORS. (2008; 7M)
Column I Column I
(A) Potential energy of a simple pendulum (y-axis) as a (p)
function of displacement (x-axis)

## (B) Displacement (y-axis) as a function of time (x-axis) (q)

the for a one dimensional motion at zero or constant
acceleration when the body is moving along the
positive x-direction.

## (C) Range of a projectile (y-axis) as a function of its (r)

velocity (x-axis) when projected at a fixed angle.

## (D) The square of the time period (y-axis) of a simple (s)

pendulum as a function of its length (x-axis).

FILL IN THE BLANKS
1. 0.06
OBJECTIVE QUESTION (ONLY ONE OPTION)
1. (c) 2. (b) 3. (b) 4. (d) 5. (b) 6. (a) 7. (b) 8.
(d) 9. (a) 10. (a) 11. (a) 12. (a) 13. (a) 14. (d) 15. (c)
16. (d)
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (MORE THAN ONE OPTION)
1. (b, c) 2. (a, c) 3. (b, d)
SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS

k mg V0 M
1. = ,A= 1 2. 2p 3. 0.628 s 4. 2.82s
m2 k r ( P0 A2 + MgA)
92
ML 1 R 1
6. (a) = tan (b) 2
1
5. 7. (i) Hz (ii) 0.0628 m/s (iii) 3.9 104 J
2 2qE 5 6.11

3g ( d2 d1) 1 3g g
8. = 9. 10.
2d1L 2 2R 2

## MATCH THE COLUMN

1. A-p, B-q, C-p, D-q, r
2. A-p, B-q,s, Cs, D-q

SOLUTIONS
FILL IN THE BLANKS or F = Net restoring force = (kx + Ax g)

k + Ag
1 k or a = x
1. Since, v = M
2 m
1 a 1 k + Ag
25 1 k Now, f = | |=

=
2 0.2 2 x 2 M
or k = 50 50 0.2 = 500 N/m (b)
If A is the amplitude of oscillation 4. Modulus of rigidity = F/A
Total energy = KE + PE x
Here, A = L2 and =
1 2 L
kA = 0.5 + 0.4 Therefore, restoring force,
2
F = A = Lx
2 0.9
A= = 0.06 m F L
500 or acceleration, a = = x
M M
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (ONLY ONE OPTION) Since, | a | x and direction of a is opposite to x,
1. In SHM frequency with which kinetic energy oscillates hence oscillations are simple harmonic in nature, time
is two times the frequency of oscillation of diplacement. period of which is given by
displacement
2. (vM )max = (vN)max T = 2
M AM = N A N acceleration

AM k k x
= 2
M
= N = 2 = = 2
L
m
or AN M a
k1
(b)

## 3. When cylinder is displaced by an amount x from its YAK

K1K 2
means position, spring force and upthrust both will 5. Keq = = L
K1 + K2 YA
increase. Hence, +K
Net restoring force = extra spring force + extra upthrust L

Y, A, L
k YA
K1 = L
K

M K2 = K

93
Potential energy is minimum at x = 0.
YAK
= x = 0 is the state of stable equilibrium
YA + LK Now if we displaced the particle from x = 0 then for
m small displacements the particle tends to regain the
T = 2
K eq position x = 0 with force F = 2kx e x 2
For x to be small, F x .
m(YA + LK )
= 2 9. Whenever point of suspension is accelerating
YAK

in
gs
6. U ( x) = k | x |3

[U ]
[ML2 T 2 ]
=
[k] =
x3 L3 90+

Now, time period may depend on
T ( mass) ( amplitude) ( k )
x y z
g
[M 0 L0 T] = [M]x [L]y [ML1 T2 ]z
= [M x+z LyzT2z] l
Equating the powers, we get Take T = 2
geff
2z = 1 or z = 1/2
y z = 0 ory = z = 1/2 r r r
where g eff = g a
Hence, T (amplitude)1/2 r
(a)1/2 a = Acceleration of point of suspension
r
1 In this question a = g sin (down the plane)
or T r r
a | g a | = geff

## 7. l1 = 2l2 = g 2 + ( g sin a ) 2 + 2( g)( g sin a ) cos(90 + a )

Using l1 + l2 = l = g cos .

## 2 10.In SHM ,time taken to go fromx = 0 to x = A/2 is

We get, l1 = l
3 T/12 by using a equation A/2 = Asint
and Time taken to move from x = A/2 to x = A is
1 T/4 T/12 = T/6.
Force constant k lengthofspring
11. Potential energy is minimum (in this case zero) at mean
3 position (x = 0) and maximum at extreme positions
k1 = k
2 (x = +A).
2
At time t = 0, x = A. Hence PE should be maximum.
8. U ( x) = k(1 e x ) Therefore, graph I is correct. Further in graph III, PE
It is an exponentially increasing graph of potential is minimum at x = 0. Hence, this is also correct.
energy (U) with x2 . Therefore, U versus x graph will be
12. y = Kt2
as shown.
From the graph it is clear that at origin, d 2y
= 2K
U dt 2
K
or a y = 2m/s 2 (as K = 1 m/s 2 )

l
T1 = 2
g

x l
and T2 = 2
g + ay
94
T12 g + ay x1 =
k2 A
= k1 + k 2
T22 g
(d)
10 + 2 6
= =
10 5 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (MORE THAN ONE OPTION)
(a) 1 1
1. (a) KEmax = KA2 = 2 106 (10 2 ) 2 = 100 J
2 2
13. Angular, frequency of the system,
So Umin = 160 - 100 = 60 J
k k KEmin = 0
= =
m+m 2m So Umax = 160 J

kA
a max = 2 A = 2. From superposition principle.
2m y = y1 + y2 + y3
This acceleration to the lower block is provided by = a sin t + a sin (t + 45) + a sin (t + 90)
friction. = a [sin t + sin (t + 90)] + a sin (t + 45)
= 2a sin (t + 45) cos 45 + a sin (t + 45)
kA kA
fmax = ma max = m =
2m 2 = ( )
2 + 1 a sin (t + 45)
(a) = A sin (t + 45)
Therefore, resultant motion is simple harmonic of
14. x = A sin t ;T = 8s and A = 1 cm Amplitude.

a = A 2 sin t = 1
4 2 2 4
sin
A= ( 2 +1 a )
8 3
2
8 and which differ in phase by 45 relative to the first.
Energy in SHM (amplitude)2
2 3 3 2
= = cm/s 2 1
16 2 32 [E = mA2 2 ]
2
(d)
Eresultant A 2
( )
2
= = 2 + 1 = (3 + 2 2)
Esingle a
L L ML2
15. k ? 2 = a
2 2 12
(
Eresultant = 3 + 2 2 Esingle)
k 2 ML2
L?= a 3. For A = B and C = 2B
2 12
X = Bcos 2t + B sin 2t
6k
a = ? p
M = 2 B sin 2? t +
4
If A = B, C = 2B, then x = B + B sin 2 ? t ,
M 1 6k
T = 2p f = This is also equation of SHM about the point X = B
6k 2p M
of amplitude B.
(c)
SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
16. Let x1 and x2 are the amplitudes of points P and Q
1. (i) When m1 is removed, only m2 is left. Therefore,
respectively. angular frequency :
x1 + x2 = A
k
k1 x1 = k 2 x2 k1 P k2 =
Q m2
M
(ii) Let x1 be the extension when only m2 is left. Then,
kx1 = m2 g

95
m2 g 3. Given Q = 105 C +Q
or x1 = ....(1) q = 106 C
k
R = 1 m and x m
Similarly, let x2 be extension in equilibrium when both E
m = 9 104 kg q
m1 and m2 are suspended. Then, R
(m1 + m2 )g = kx2
( m1 +m 2 )g Electric field at a distance x from the centre on the axis
x2 = ...(2) of a ring is given by :
k
From Eqs. (1) and (2), amplitude of oscillation : 1 Qx
E=
mg 4 0 ( R + x2 ) 3 / 2
2
A = x2 x1 = 1
k If x < < R, R2 + x2 = R2

Mg Qx
2. In equilibrium, P = P0 + ...(1) and E=
A 40 R3
When piston is displaced Net force on negatively charged particle would be qE
slightly by an amount x, and towards the centre of ring. Hence, we can write
change in volume,
dV = Ax x
Qqx
F=
Since, the cylinder is isolated (4 0 ) R3
from the surroundings, F Qqx
process, is adiabatic is nature. or acceleration a = =
m (40 ) mR3
dP P as | a | x and nature is restoring motion of the
= particle is simple harmonic in nature. Time period of
dV V
which will be given by :
or increase in pressure inside the cylinder,
x
Mg T = 2
( P) P0 + A a
dP = (dV ) = ( A. x)
V V0
(40 ) mR3
or T = 2
Qq
This increase in pressure when multiplied with area of
cross-section A will give a net upward force (or the Substituting the values, we get
restoring force). Hence
(9 104 ) (1)
3
P0 A + MgA
2 T = 2
F = (dP) A = x (9 109 )(10 5 )(106 )
V0

= 0.628 s

## F P0 A 2 + MgA 4. Between C and D block will move with constant speed

or, a= = x
of 120 cm/s. Therefore, period of oscillation will be
M V0 M (starting from C).
Since, a x, motion of the piston is simple harmonic T2 T
in nature. Frequency of this oscillation is given by : T = tCD + + tDC + 1
2 2
1 a
f= m m
2 x Here, T1 = 2 and T2 = 2
k1 k2

1 ( P0 A 2 + MgA) 60
=
2 V0 M and tCD = tDC = = 0.5s
120

## MV0 2 0.2 2 0.2

Hence, T = 2 T = 0.5 + + 0.5 +
( P0 A + MgA)
2 2 3.2 2 1.8

96
(m = 200g = 0.2 kg) (b) When liquids are slightly disturbed by an angle .
T = 2.82 s Net restoring pressure P = 1.5 gh + gh = 2.5 gh
This pressure will be equal at all sections of the liquid.
5. A torque will act on the rod, which tries to align the Therefore, net restoring torque on the whole liquid.
rod in the direction of electric field. This torque will
be of restoring nature and has a magnitude PE sin . h
Therefore, we can write
= PE sin
or I = PE sin ...(1)
h
2
L ML2
Here I = 2 M = and P = qL
2 2
Further since is small, we can write, sin
Substituting these values in Eq. (1) we have = (P)(A) (R)
or, = 2.5 gh AR
ML2 = 2.5 gAR [R sin ( + ) R sin ]

2 = (qL) (E) = 2.5 g AR2 [sin cos + sin cos sin]
Assuming cos = 1 and sin (as is small)
2qE = (2.5 AgR2 cos )
or = or I = (2.5 AgR2 cos ) ...(1)
ML
Here, I = (m1 + m2 ) R2
As is porportional to and its nature is restoring
motion of the rod is simple harmonic in nature, time R R
= A + A (1 .5 ) R 2
period of which is given by: 2 2
ML = (1.25R3 )A
T = 2 = 2
2qE 5
and cos = = 0.98
The desired time will be, 26
Substituting in Eq. (1), we have
T ML
T= = (6.11)
4 2 2 qE =
R
6. (a) In equilibrium, pressure of same liquid at same level As angular acceleration is proportional to , motion
will be same. is simple harmonic in nature.
Therefore, P1 = P2
P + (1.5 gh 1 ) = P + (gh 2 ) R
or T = 2 = 2
(P = pressure of gas in empty part of the tube) 6.11

## 7. Given - Mass of each block A and B, m = 0.1 kg

Radius of circle, R = 0.06 m

A B
x=R
h2 x=R
h1
= /6
1.5
1 2

1.5h 1 = h2
1.5 [R cos R sin ] = (R cos + R sin ) Natural length of spring l0 = 0.06 = R (Half circle)
or 3 cos 3 sin = 2 cos + 2 sin and spring constant, k = 0.1 N/m
or 5 tan = 1 In the stretched position elongation in each spring
x = R.
1 By energy method of calculation of angular frequency
= tan1
5 of oscillation

97
1 1
2 k ( 2R) 2 + 2 mv 2 = constant
2 2 Fa
By differentiating this with respect to time, we get r1
Q G
4kR 2 + mva = 0 (Q v = R and a = R )
or (mR2 ) = 4kR2 W
P
4k
or =
m Given that d 1 < d 2. Therefore, W < FB.
Therefore, net force acting at G will be :
1 acceleration
Frequence of oscillation f =
F = FB W = (SLg) (d 2 d 1) upwards Restoring torque
2 displacement of this force about point P is
l = F r = (SLg) (d 2 d 1) (Q G)
1
L
= (SLg)(d 2 d 2) sin
=
2 or
2
1 4k Here, negative sign shows the restoring nature of
f= torque
2 m
Substituting the values, we have SL2 g (d d )
= 2 1
or
1 4 0.1 1 2
f= = Hz
2 0.1 sin for small values of
(ii) In stretched position, potential energy of the system From Eq. (1), we see that
is | |
Hence motion of the rod will be simple harmonic.
1
PE = 2 k {2x}2 = 4 kx2 Rewriting Eq. (1) as
2
d 2 SL2 g ( d d )
and in mean position, both the blocks have kinetic 2 1
I ...(2)
2 = 2
energy only. Hnce, dt
1 2 Here, I = moment of inertia of rod about an axis
KE = 2 mv = mv
2
2 passing through P.
From energy conservation ML2 ( SLd1 ) L2
PE = KE I= =
3 3
4kx2 = mv 2
Substituting this value of I in Eq. (1), we have
k k
v = 2x = 2 R d 2 3 g( d2 d1)
m m =
Substituting the values dt 2 2 d1 L
Comparing this equation with standard differential
0.1 equation of SHM, i.e.,
v = 2 (0.06) (/6)
0.1
d 2
or v = 0.0628 m/s = 2
(iii) Total energy of the system E = PE in stretched dt2
position The angular frequency of oscillation is
or = KE in mean position
E = mv 2 = (0.1) (0.0628)2J 3g ( d2 d1 )
=
or E = 3.9 104J 2d1 L

## 9. Half of the volume of sphere is submerged.

8. Let S be the area of cross-section of the rod. For equilibrium of sphere,
In the displaced position, as shown in figure. weight weight = upthrust
(W) and upthrust (FB) both pass through its centre of
gravity G.

98
After detaching from the spring net downward
V
Vsg = ( L )( g ) acceleration of the block will be g.
2 Therefore, total height attained by the block above the
L mean position,
s = ...(1)
2 v2
When slightly pushed downwards by x, weight will h = y+
2g
remain as it is while upthrust will increase. The
increased upthrust will become the net restoring force 2 ( A2 y2 )
(upwards). = y+
2g
F = (extra upthrust)
= (extra volume immersed) ( L) (g)
dh
or ma = (R2)x Lg (a = acceleration) For h to be maximum =0
dy
4 3
R a = (R2 g)x
3 2 L dh
Putting = 0 , we get
dy
3g
a = x
2R g
y=
as | a | x and its nature is restoring motion is simple 2
harmonic
MATCH THE COLUMN
1 a
f=
2 x 1. (A) As v = c1 c 2 x 2 is similar to v = A 2 x 2

## 1 3g (B) At x = 0, v = 0 and particle comes to rest.

= (C) As in the lifts reference frame, a pseudo force acts on
2 2R its, which is constant in nature. Hence the motion is
still simple harmonic.
10. At distance y above the mean position velocity of the (D) As speed is 2 times the escape speed, so the object
block.
does not change its direction.
v = A2 y2

99
CHAPTER-9
PROPERTIES OF MATTER
FILL IN THE BLANKS
1. A wire of length L and cross sectional area A is made of a material of Young's modulus Y. If the wire is stretched
by an amount x, the work done is .... (1987, 2M)
2. A solid sphere of radius R made of a material of bulk modulus K is surrounded by a liquid in a cylindrical container.
A massless piston of area A floats on the surface of the liquid. When a mass M is placed on the piston to compress
the liquid the fractional change in the radius of the sphere, R/R, is .... (1988, 2M)
3. A piece of metal floats on mercury. The coefficients of volume expansion of the metal and mercury are 1 and 2
respectively. If the temperature of both mercury and the metal are increased by an amount T, the fraction of the
volume of the metal submerged in mercury changes by the factor ...... (1991, 2M)
4. A horizontal pipeline carries water in a streamline flow. At a point along the pipe, where the cross-sectional area
is 10 cm2, the water velocity is 1ms 1 and the pressure is 2000 Pa. The pressure of water at another point where the
cross-sectional area is 5 cm2, is .... Pa. (Density of water = 103kg/m3) (1994, 2M)

5. A uniform rod of length L and density P is being pulled along a smooth floor with a horizontal acceleration a (see
fig.) The magnitude of the stress at the transverse cross-section passing through the mid point of the rod is ....
(1983, 1M)
L

TRUE/FALSE Vaccum

1. A barometer made of a very narrow tube (see fig) is placed at normal temperature Hg
and pressure. The coefficient of volume expansion of mercury is 0.00018/C and
that of the tube is negligible. The temperature of mercury in the barometer is now
raised by 1C but the temperature of the atmosphere does not change. Then, the
mercury height in the tube remains unchanged. (1983; 2M)

2. Water in a closed tube (see fig.) is heated wih one arm vertically placed above a lamp. Water will begin to circulate
along the tube in counter-clockwise direction. (1983; 2M)

A B

3. A block of ice with a lead shot embedded in it is floating on water contained in a vessel. The temperature of the
system is maintained at 0C as the ice melts. When the ice melts completely the level of water in the vessel rises.
(1986; 3M)

101
6. A vessel contains oil (density = 0.8 g/cm3 ) over mercury
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
(density = 13.6 g/cm3 ). A homogeneous sphere floats
Only One option is correct : with half of its volume immersed in mercury and the
1. A metal ball immersed in alcohol weighs W1 at 0C and other half in oil. The density of the material of the
W2 at 50C. The coefficient of cubical expansion of the sphere in g/cm3 is : (1988; 2M)
metal is less than that of the alcohol. Assuming that (a) 3.3 (b) 6.4
the density of the metal is large compared to that of (c) 7.2 (d) 12.8
alcohol, it can be shown that : (1987; 2M) 7. A homogeneous solid cylinder of length L (L < H/2)
(a) W1 > W2 (b) W1 = W2 cross-sectional area A/5 is immersed such that it floats
(c) W1 < W2 (d) all of these with its axis vertical at the liquid-liquid interface with
length L/4 in the denser liquid as shown in the figure.
2. A vessel containing water is given a constant
The lower density liquid is open to atmosphere having
acceleration a towards the right along a straight
pressure P0 . Then density D of solid is given by :
horizontal path. Which of the following diagram
(1995; 2M)
represents the surface of the liquid? (1981; 2M)

d
(a) a (b) a

2d

## (c) a (d) None of these

5 4
(a) d (b) d
4 5
3. The following four wires are made of the same material.
Which of these will have the largest extension when d
(c) 4d (d)
the same tension is applied? (1981; 3M) 5
(a) Length = 50 cm, diameter = 0.5 mm 8. Water from a tap emerges vertically downwards with
(b) Length = 100 cm, diameter = 1 mm an initial speed of 1.0 m/sec. The cross-sectional area
(c) Length = 200 cm, diameter = 2 mm
of tap is 104 m2 . Assume that the pressure is constant
(d) Length = 300 cm, diameter = 3 mm
throughout the stream of water and that the flow is
4. A body floats in a liquid contained in a beaker. The steady, the cross-sectional area of stream 0.15 m below
whole system as shown in figure falls freely under the tap is : (1998; 2M)
gravity. the upthrust on the body is : (1982;3M) (a) 5.0 104 m2 (b) 1.0 104 m2
(c) 5.0 105 m2 (d) 2.0 105 m2
9. A given quantity of an ideal gas is at pressure P and
absolute temperature T. the isothermal bulk modulus of
the gas is : (1998; 2M)
(a) zero 2
(a) P (b) P
(b) equal to the weight of liquid displaced 3
(c) equal to the weight of the body in air
(d) equal to the weight of the immersed portion of the 3
(c) P (d) 2P
body 2
5. A U-tube of uniform cross-section is partially filled 10. A closed compartment containing gas is moving with
with a liquid I. Another liquid II which does not mix some acceleration in horizontal direction. Neglect effect
with liquid I is poured into one side. It is found that of gravity. Then, the pressure in the compartment is :
the liquid levels of the two sides of the tube are the (1999; 2M)
same, while the level of liquid 1 has risen by 2 cm. If (a) same everywhere
the specific gravity of liquid I is 1.1, the specific (b) lower in front side
gravity of liquid II must be : (1983; 1M) (c) lower in rear side
(a) 1.12 (b) 1.1 (d) lower in upper side
(c) 1.05 (d) 1.0
11. A large open tank has two holes in the wall. One is a

102
square hole of side L at a depth y from the top and the (a) l decreases and h increases
other is a circular hole of radius R at a depth 4y from (b) l increases and h decreases
the top. When the tank is completely filled with water, (c) both l and h increase
the quantities of water flowing out per second from (d) both l and h decrease
both holes are the same. Then, R is equal to : 15. The adjacent graph shows the extension (l) of a wire
(2000; 2M) of length 1 m suspended from the top of a roof at one
(a) L/ 2 (b) 2L end and with a load W connected to the other end. If
(c) L (d) L/ 2 the cross sectional area of the wire is 106 m2 , calculate
the Young's modulus of the material of the wire.
12. A hemispherical portion of radius R is removed from (2003; 2M)
the bottom of a cylinder of radius R. The volume of the l (10 m)
4

## remaining cylinder is V and mass M. It is suspended

4
by a string in a liquid of density , where it stays
3
vertical. The upper surface of the cylinder is at a depth
h below the liquid surface. The force on the bottom of 2
the cylinder by the liquid is : (2001; 2M) 1

W (N)
20 40 60 80

## (a) 2 1011 N/m2 (b) 2 1011 N/m2

(c) 3 1012 N/m2 (d) 2 1013 N/m2
16. The pressure of a medium is changed from 1.01 105
h Pa to 1.165 105 Pa and change in volume is 10%
keeping temperature constant. The bulk modulus of

the medium is : (2005; 2M)
2R (a) 204.8 105 Pa (b) 102.4 105 Pa
(c) 51.2 105 Pa (d) 1.55 105 Pa
17. Water is filled in a cylindrical container to a height of
(a) Mg (b) Mg - Vg 3 m. The ratio of the cross-sectional area of the orifice
(c) Mg + R2 hg (d) g (V + R2 h) and the beaker is 0.1. The square of the speed of the
liquid coming out from the orifice is (g = 10 m/s 2 ) :
13. When a block of iron floats in mercury at 0C, fraction (2005; 2M)
k 1 of its volume is submerged, while at the temperature
60C, a fraction k 2 is seen to be submerged. If the
coefficient of volume expansion of iron is Fe and that
3m
of mercury is Hg , then the ratio of k 1 /k 2 can be
expressed as : (2001; 2M)
52.5cm
1 + 60 Fe 160 Fe
(a) 1 + 60 (b) 1 + 60
Hg Hg
(a) 50 m2 /s 2 (b) 50.5 m2 /s 2
1 + 60 Fe 1 + 60 Hg (c) 51 m2 /s 2 (d) 52 m2 /s 2
(c) 160 (d)
Hg 1 + 60 Fe 18. Water is filled up to a
14. A wooden block, with a coin placed on its top, floats height h in a beaker of
in water as shown in figure. The distance l and h are radius R as shown in
shown there. After some time, the coin falls into the the figure. The density 2R

## water. Then : Coin (2002; 2M) of water is , the

surface tension of
B
water is T and the
l
atmospheric pressure
is P 0. Consider a A
vertical section ABCD h
h
of the water column C
through a diameter of
the beaker. The force
D
103
on water on one side of this section by water on the 2. A wooden plank of length 1 m and uniform cross
other side of this section has magnitude. (2007; 2M) section is hinged at one end to the bottom of a tank
(a) |2 P0 Rh + R2 gh 2RT| as shown in figure. The tank is filled with water upto
(b) |2 P0 Rh + Rgh 2 2RT| a height 0.5 m. The specific gravity of the plank is 0.5.
(c) |P0 R2 + Rgh 2 2RT| Find the angle that the plank makes with the vertical
(d) |P0 R2 + Rgh 2 + 2RT| in the equilibrium position. (exclude the case = 0)
19. A glass tube of uniform internal radius (r) has a valve (1984; 8M)
separating the two identical ends. Initially, the valve
<

## is in a tightly closed position. End I has a hemispherial

soap bubble of radius r. End 2 has sub-hemispherical
soap bubble as shown in figure.

## 3. A ball of density d is dropped on to a horizontal solid

Just after opening the value. (2008; 3M)
surface. It bounces elastically from the surface and
(a) air from end 1 flows towards end 2. No change in
returns to its original position in a time t1 . Next the ball
the volume of the soap bubbles
is released and it falls through the same height before
(b) air from end 1 flows towards end 2. Volume of the
striking the surface of a liquid of density d L.
soap bubble at end 1 decreases
(1992; 8M)
(c) no change occurs
(a) If d < d L, obtain an expression (in terms of d, t1 and
(d) air from end 2 flows towards end 1. Volume of the
d L) for the time t2 the ball takes to come back to
soap bubble at end 1 increases
the position from which it was released.
(b) Is the motion of the ball simple harmonic?
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (c) If d = d L, how does the speed of the ball depend
More than one options are correct? on its depth inside the liquid? Neglect all frictional
1. The spring balance A read 2 and other dissipative forces. Assume the depth of
kg with a block m suspended the liquid to be large.
A
from it. Balance B reads 5 kg
4. A container of large uniform cross-sectional area A
when a beaker with liquid is
resting on a horizontal surface, holds two immiscible,
put on the pan of the balance.
non-viscous and incompressible liquids of densities d
The two balances are now so
and 2d, each of height H/2 as shown in figure. The
arranged that the hanging
lower density liquid is open to the atmosphere having
mass is inside the liquid in the m
pressure P0 . (1995; 5+5)
beaker as shown in the figure.
B (a) A homogeneous solid cylinder of length
In this
L (L < H/2), cross-sectional area A/5 is immersed
situation : (1985; 2M)
such that it floats with its axis vertical at the
(a) the balance A will read more than 2 kg liquid-liquid interface with length L/4 in the denser
(b) the balance B will read more than 5 kg liquid. Determine:
(c) the balance A will read less than 2 kg and B will
(d) the balances A and B will read 2 kg and 5 kg H/2
respectively d

SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
1. Two identical cylindrical vessels with their bases at H/2
the same level each contain a liquid of density . The 2d h
height of the liquid in one vessel is h 1 and in the other
is h 2 . The area of either base is A. What is the work
done by gravity in equalising the levels when the two x
vessels are connected? (1981; 4M) (i) the density D of the solid.

104
(ii) the total pressure at the bottom of the container.
(b) The cylinder is removed and the original
arrangment is restored. A tiny hole of area Air h
s (s < < A) is punched on the vertical side of the
container at a height h (h < H/2). Determine : A hA
(i) the initial speed of efflux of the liquid at the hole,
(ii) the horizontal distance x travelled by the liquid
B hB
initially, and
(iii) the height h m at which the hole should be punched
so that the liquid travels the maximum distance xm
initially. Also calculate xm.
(Neglect the air resistance in these calculations) (a) Find the total force exerted by liquid A on the
cylinder.
5. A large open top container of negligile mass and (b) Find h, the length of the part of the cylinder in air.
uniform cross sectional area A has a small hole of (c) The cylinder is depressed in such a way that its
cross sectional area A/100 in its side wall near the top surface is just below the upper surface of
bottom. The container is kept on a smooth horizontal liquid A and is then released. Find the acceleration
floor and contains a liquid of density and mass m0 . of the cylinder immediately after it is released.
Assuming that the liquid starts flowing out horizontally
through the hole at t = 0. Calculate : (1997C; 5M) 9. A soap bubble is being blown at the end of very
(i) the acceleration of the container and narrow tube of radius b. Air (density ) moves with a
(ii) its velocity when 75% of the liquid has drained velocity v inside the tube and comes to rest inside the
out. bubble. The surface tension of the soap solution is T.
After sometimes the bubble, having grown to radius R
6. A non-viscous liquid of Q separates from the tube. Find the value of R. Assume
constant density 1000 that R > > b so, that you can consider the air to
kg/m3 flows in streamline be falling normally on the bubble's surface.
motion along a tube of P (2003; 4M)
variable cross section. 5m 10. A liquid of density 900 0.9m
The tube is kept inclined kg/m3 is filled in a
in the vertical plane as 2m cylindrical tank of upper
shown in the figure. radius 0.9 m and lower
The area of cross section of the tube at two points P radius 0.3 m. A capillary
and Q at heights of 2 m and 5 m are respectively 4 tube of length l is attached
103 m2 and 8 103 m2 . The velocity of the liquid at at the bottom of the tank H
point P is 1 m/s. Find the work done per unit volume as shown in the figure.
by the pressure and the gravity forces as the fluid The capillary has outer
flows from point P and Q. (1997; 5M) radius 0.002 m and inner
7. A wooden stick of length L, radius R and density has P is applied at the top of
0.3m
a small metal piece of mass m (of negligible volume) the tank, volume flow rate
attached to its one end. Find the minimum value for the l
of the liquid is 8 106 m3 /s and if capillary tube is
mass m (in terms of given parameters) that would make detached, the liquid comes out from the tank with a
the stick float vertically in equilibrium in a liquid of velocity 10 m/s. Determine the coefficient of viscosity
density (> ). (1999; 10M) of the liquid. (2003; 4M)
[Given ; a 2 = 106 m2 and a 2 /l =2 106 m]
8. A uniform solid cylinder of density 0.8 g/cm3 floats in
11. A container of width 2a is
equilibrium in a combination of two non-mixing liquids
filled with a liquid. A thin y
A and B with its axis vertical. The densities of the
wire of mass per unit length
liquids A and B are 0.7 g/cm3 and 1.2 g/cm3 , respectively.
is gently placed over the
The height of liquid A is h A = 1.2 cm. The length of the
liquid surface in the middle of
part of the cylinder immersed in liquid B is h B = 0.8 cm.
the surface as shown in the
(2002; 5M)
figure. As a result, the liquid
surface is depressed by a
2a

105
distance y (y < < a). Determine the surface tension of the fall in height (in mm) of water level due to opening
the liquid. (2004; 2M) of the orifice.
[Take atmospheric pressure = 1.0 105 N/m2, density
12. A small sphere falls from rest in a viscous liquid. Due of water = 1000 kg/m3 and g = 10 m/s 2. Neglect any
to friction, heat is produced. Find the relation between effect of surface tension.] [2008]
the rate of production of heat and the radius of the
sphere at terminal velocity. (2004; 2M) COMPREHENSION
13. Consider a horizontally oriented syringe containing Passage
water located at a height of 1.25 m above the ground. A wooden cylinder of diameter 4r, height h and density
The diameter of the plunger is 8 mm and the diameter /3 is kept on a hole of diameter 2r of a tank, filled with
of the nozzle is 2 mm. The plunger is pushed with a liquid of density as shown in the figure. The height of
constant speed of 0.25 m/s. Find the horizontal range the base of cylinder from the base of tank is H.
of water stream on the ground. 1. Now level of the liquid starts decreasing slowly when
(Take g = 10m/s 2 ). (2004; 2M) the level of liquid is at a height h 1 above the cylinder
the block just starts moving up. At what value of h 1 ,
will the block rise : (2006; 5M)
D = 8 mm D = 2 mm
h1

/3 h
1.25m

2r

14. A U-shaped tube contains a liquid of density and it (a) 4h/9 (b) 5h/9
is rotated about the line as shown in the figure. Find 5h
the difference in the levels of liquid column. (c) (d) remains same
3
(2005; 2M)
2. The block in the above question is maintained at the

position by external means and the level of liquid is
lowered. The height h 2 when this external force reduces
H to zero is : (2006; 5M)

/3
h2

L

## 15. Two soap bubbles A and B are kept in a closed

chamber where the air is maintained at pressure 4h 5h
(a) (b)
8 N/m2. The radii of bubbles A and B are 2 cm and 4 9 9
cm, respectively. Surface tension of the soap-water 2h
used to make bubbles is 0.04 N/m. Find the ratio nB/ (c) remains same (d)
3
n A, where nA and n B are the number of moles of air in
bubbles A and B, respectively. [Neglect the effect of 3. If height h 2 of water level is further decreased, then:
gravity.] [2008] (2006; 5M)
(a) cylinder will not up and remains at its original
16. A cylindrical vessel of height 500 mm has an orifice position
(small hole) at its bottom. The orifice is initially closed (b) for h 2 = h/3, cylinder again starts moving up
and water is filled in it up to height H. Now the top is (c) for h 2 = h/4, cylinder again starts moving up
completely sealed with a cap and the orifice at the (d) for h 2 = h/5 cylinder again starts moving up
bottom is opened. Some water comes out from the
orifice and the water level in the vessel becomes Passage
steady with height of water column being 200 mm. Find
5
A small spherical monoatomic ideal gas bubble =
3
106
is trapped inside a liquid of density l (see figure). 6. The buoyancy force acting on the gas bubble is
Assume that the bubble does not exchange any heat with (Assume R is the universal gas constant)
the liquid. The bubble contains n moles of gas. The (2008; 4M)
temperature of the gas when the bubble is at the bottom
( p0 + l gH ) 2 / 5
(a) l nRgT0
isT0 , the height of the liquid is H and the atmospheric
pressure is p 0 (Neglect surface tension) ( p0 + l gy) 7/ 5
p0
Liquid l nRgT0
(b)
( p0 + l gH ) [ p0 + l g( H
2/5
y)] 3/ 5
H
y ( p0 + l gH ) 3/ 5
(c) l nRgT0
( p0 + l gy )8 / 5
4. As the bubble moves upwards, besides the buoyancy
force the following forces are acting on it l nRgT0
(2008; 4M) (d)
( p0 + l gH ) 3/ 5[ p0 + l g ( H y )] 2/ 5
(a) Only the force of gravity
(b) The force due to gravity and the force due to the
pressure of the liquid ASSERATION AND REASON
(c) The force due to gravity, the force due to the This question contains, statement-I (assertion) and
pressure of hte luiquid and the force due to statement-II (reasons).
viscosity of the liquid 1. Statement-I : The stream of water flowing at high
(d) The force due to gravity and the force due to speed from a garden hose pipe tends to spread like a
viscosity of the liquid fountain when held vertically up, but tends to narrow
down when held vertically down.
5. When the gas bubble is at a height y from the bottom, (2008; 3M)
its temperature is (2008; 4M) Because :
2 /5 2/5 Statement-II : In any steady flow of an incompressible
p0 + l gH p0 +l g(H y)
(a) T0
(b) T0

fluid, the volume flow rate of the fluid remains constant.
p0 + l gy p0 +l gH (a) Statement-I is true, statement -II is true, statement-
II is a correct explanation for statement-I
3/ 5 3/ 5
p0 + l gH p0 +l g(H y) (b) statement-I is true, statement-II is true; statement-
(c) T0
(d) T0
II is NOT a correct explanation for statement-I
p0 + l gy p0 +l gH (c) statement-I is true, statement-II is false.
(d) statement-I is false, statement-II is true.

107
MATCH THE COLUMN
*1. Column II shows five systems in whcih two objects are labelled as X and Y. Also in each case a point P is shwon.
Column I gives some statements about X and/or Y. Match these statements to the appropriate system(s) from
Column II.
Column - I Y Column - II
(A) The force exerted (p) X Block Y of mass M left on a fixed inclined plane X, slides,
by X on Y has on it with a constant velocity.
P
magnitude Mg.

(B) The gravitational (q) Two ring magnets Y and Z, each of mass M, are kept in
potential energy frictionless vertical plastic stand so that they repel each
P
innermost other. Y rests on the base X and Z hangs in air in
continuously Z equilibrium. P is the topmost point of the stand on the
increasing. Y common axis of the two rings. The whole system is in a
X lift that is going up with a constant velocity.

## (C) Mechanical (r) A pulley Y of mass m0 is fixed to a tablethrough a clamp

energy of the P X. A block of mass M hangs from a string that goes over
Y
system X + Y the pulley and is fixed at point P of the table. The whole
is continuously X system is kept in a lift that is going down with a constant
decreasing. velocity.

## (D) The torque of (s) A sphere Y of mass M is put in a nonviscous liquid X

the weight of Y Y kept in a container at rest. The sphere is released and it
about point P X moves down in the liquid.
P

## (t) A sphere Y of mass M is falling with its terminal velocity

Y
in a viscous liquid X kept in a container.

X
P

FILL IN THE BLANKS

1 YA 2 Mg ( ?1 ? 2 )T L
2 L
1. x 2. 3. 4. 500 5.
3 AK 1 + ?1T 2

TRUE/FALSE
1. F 2. F 3. F
OBJECTIVE QUESTION (ONLY ONE OPTION)
1. (c) 2. (c) 3. (a) 4. (a) 5. (b) 6. (c) 7. (a)
8. (c) 9. (b) 10. (b) 11. (a) 12. (d) 13. (a) 14. (d)
15. (a) 16. (d) 17. (a) 18. (b) 19. (b)
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (MORE THAN ONE OPTION)
1. (b, c)

SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
Ag t1 dL
1. ( h1 h2 )2 2.45 3. (a) d d (b) no (c) remains same
r L
108
5d dg (6 H + L ) g 3H 3
4. (i) (ii) P = P = P0 + (b) (i) (3H 4h ) (ii) h(3H 4h) (iii) At h = ; H
4 4 2 8 4

g gm0
5. (i) (ii) 6. 29025 J/m3 , 29400 J/m3
50 2 A

( )
4T 1
7. R2 L 8. (a) zero (b) 0.25 cm (c) g/6 9. 10. Ns/m2
v 2
720

a dQ 5 2 L2
11. 2 y 12. r 13. 2m 14. H =
dt 2g

COMPREHENSION
1. (c) 2.(a) 3.(a)

1. (a)

## MATCH THE COLUMN

1. (A) - (p), (t); (B) - (q), (s), (t); (C) - (p), (r), (t); (D) - (q).

SOLUTIONS

## FILL IN THE BLANKS V 1g = Vi 2g ( 1 = density of metal, 2 = density of

mercury)
1 2
1. W= Kx Vi 1
2 =
V 2
YA
Here, K = fraction of volume of metal submerged in mercury
L = x (say)
1 YA 2 Now, when the temperature is increased by T.

2 L
W= x
1 2
1 = 1 + T and 2 = 1 + T
Mg 1 2
2. P =
A 1 1 + 2 T 1 1 + 2 T
x'= =
V P Mg 1 + 1T 2 2 1 + 1 T
= =
V K AK
x 1+ 2T x 1 + 2 T
= 1 =1
4 3 x 1+ 1T 1 + 1T
Now as, V = R or V R3
x
3
( ?1 ? 2 ) T
V R R 1 V =
= 3 (1 + ?1T )
or R = 3 V ...(1)
V R
From Eq. (1) 4. From continuity equation
A1v1 = A2v2
R Mg
= A 10
R 3 AK v2 = 1 v1 = (1) = 2 m/s
A2 5
3. The condition of floating is, Applying Bernoulli's theorem at 1 and 2
Weight = Upthrust

109
Now, when ice melts, lead will sink and it would
1 2 displace the water equal to volume of lead itself. So,
volume of water displaced in this case would be,
m
v1 v2 V2 =
l
Now, as l > w, V2 < V1 or level will fall.

## OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (ONLY ONE OPTION)

1 1
P1 + ?v12 = P2 + ? v22 1. Wapp = Wactual Upthrust
2 2 Upthrust F = VS Lg
Here, VS = volume of solid, L = density of liquid

1
2
(
P2 = P1 + v1 v2
2 2
) At higher temperature

F' = VS L g
' '
1
= 2000 + 10 (14)
3
2 F ' VS' 'L (1+ S )
= . = (1+ )
P2 = 500 Pa F VS L L

5. Let A be the area of cross-section of the rod. From the Since, S < L (given)
FBD of rod at mid-point F < F
L/2 or W2 > W1
2. Net force on the free surface of the liquid in equilibrium
m (from accelerated frame) should be perpendicular to it.
T
Forces on a water particle P on the free surface have
been shown in the figure. In the figure, ma is the
L pseudo force.
Mass (m) = volume density = A
2
1
T = ma = LA a
2
P
ma 90 F
T 1
Stress = = aL
A 2
Fnet mg
TRUE/FALSE

## 1. P1 = P2 = 1atm = hg . On changing the temperature,

Fl Fl
g will not change. So, h = constant. On increasing 3. l = =
AY d 2
the temperature of mercury, its density will decrease. Y
4
Hence, level of mercury in barometer tube will increase.

## 2. When tube is heated the density of water at A will l

decrease, hence the water will rise up or it will circulate or (l)
d2
in clockwise direction.
l
Now, is maximum in (a).
3. When ice melts, level of water does not change. In d2
displaced the water equal to the weight of lead. So, 4. In a freely falling system g eff = 0 and since, Upthrust
volume of water displaced would be, = Vi L g eff
m (Vi = immersed volume, L = density of liquid)
V1 = (m = mass of lead)
w Upthrust = 0

110
5. P1 = P2
A1
v2 = v1 ...(2)
A2
Substituting value of v2 from Eq. (2) in Eq. (1)
h A12 v1
.v 2 = v12 + 2gh
2 1
1 2 A2
A1 1
A12 v12
or A22 =
v12 + 2gh
h
A1v1
A2 ==
v12 + 2gh
P0 + 1 gh = P0 + II gh
1 = II Substituting the given values
A2
6. Let density of material of sphere (in g/cm3) be . (104 m2 )(10m/ s) 2
Applying the condition of floatation, A2 =
v2
1.0m / s 2) + 2(10)(0.15)
Weight = Upthrust
A 2 = 5.0 105m2
V V
or V g = oil g + Hg g
2 2 9. In isothermal process
Hg 0.8 13.6 PV = constant
or = oil + = + = 7.2 g/cm3 PdV + VdP = 0
2 2 2 2
dV P
or dV = V

7. dP dP
d Bulk modulus, B = = V
D
dV / V dV
3L/4
P
L/4 B = V = P
V
B = P
2d Note : Adiabatic bulk modulus is given by B = P
10. If a fluid (gas of liquid) is accelerated in positive x-
(i) Considering vertical equilbrium of cylinder direction, then pressure decrease in positive x-direction.
Weight of cylinder = Upthrust due to upper liquid + Change in pressure has following differential equation.
upthrust due to lower liquid
y
(A/5) (L) Dg =(A/5) (3L/4) (d) g + (A/5) (L/4) (2d) (g)
3 1
D = d + (2d ) a
4 4 x

5
D= d
4
dP
= a
8. From conservation of energy dx
v22 = v12 + 2gh ...(1) where is the density of the fluid. Therefore, pressure
is lower in front side.
[can also be found by applying Bernoulli's theorem
between 1 and 2] 11. Velocity of efflux at a depth h is given by v = 2 gh
From continuity equation Volume of water flowing out per second from both the
A1v1 = A2v2 holes are equal.

111
a 1v1 = a 2v2 1
or (L2) 2g ( y) = R 2
2 g (4 y )
h
L
or R=
2
12. F2 F1 = upthrust 2
F2 = F1 + upthrust
F2 = gh (R2) + Vg
or F2 = g (V + R2h)

13. FB = mg 1 2 1
v1 = P0 + 0 + v22
P0 + gh + ...(2)
2 2
Vi d L g = Vd S g
Solving Eqs. (1) and (2), we have
V d V d
k1 = i = s , k 2 = i = s v22 =
2 gh
V 0C d L 0C V d L 60C A2
1 2
1+ L T A12
ds
=
1 + T Substituting the values, we have
dL s
2 10 2.475 = 50m2/s 2
k2 1 + 60 Hg v22 =
= 1(0.1) 2
k1 1 + 60 Fe
18. Force from right hand side liquid on left hand side
14. l will decrease because the block moves up, h will liquid.
decrease because the coin will displace the volume of (i) Due to surface tension force
water (V1) equal to its own volume when it is in the = 2RT (towards right)
water whereas when it is on the block it will displace (ii) Due to liquid pressure force
the volume of water (V2) whose weight is equal to
x= h
weight of coin and since density of coin is greater than
the density of water, V1 < V2. = ( P0 + gh)(2R.x )d x
x =0
Wl
15. Y = =(2P0Rh + Rgh 2) (towards left)
Al Net force is |2P0Rh+ Rgh 2 2RT|
W l
= 4T 4T
l A 19. p1 = r and p2 = r
1 2
1 l
= = 2 1011 N/m2 r1 <r2, p1 > p2
slope A Air will flow from 1 to 2 and volume of bubble
at end-1 will decrease.
16. From the definition of bulk modulus,
Therefore correct option is (b).
dP
B= OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (MORE THAN ONE OPTION)
( dV / V )
1. Liquid will apply an upthrust on m An equal force will
Substituting the values, we have
be exerted (from Newton's third law) on the liquid.
(1.1651.01) 105 Hence A will read less than 2 kg and B more than 5 kg.
B = Pa = 1.55 105Pa Therefore, the correct options are (b) and (c).
(10/100)

## 17. Applying continuity equation at 1 and 2, we have SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS

A1v1 = A2v2 ...(1) 1. Let h be the same level on both the tubes in equilibrium.
Further applying Bernoulli's equation at these two Equating the volumes, we have
points, we have

112
t1
or time of fall =
2

Hence, velocity of the ball just before it collides with
h liquid is
h1 h
t1
v= g ...(2)
2
Retardation inside the liquid
Ah1 + Ah2 =2Ah upthrustweight
a=
mass
h1 + h2
h=
2 Vd L g Vdg d L d
= = g (V=Volume of ball) ...(2)
Work done by gravity = Ui Uf Vd d
h h h Time taken to come to rest under this retardation will
W = m1 g 1 + m2 g 2 ( m1 + m2 ) g be
2 2 2
v gt1 gt1 dt1
Ah1gh1 Ah2 gh2 h +h t= = = =
= + [ Ah1 + Ah2 ] g 1 2 a 2a d d 2( dL d )
2 2 4 2 L g
d
Simplifying this, we get
Same will be the time to come back on the liquid
Ag surface. Therefore,
W= ( h1 h2 )2
4 (a) t2 = time the ball takes to came back to the position
from where it was released
2. Submerged length = 0.5sec, F = Upthrust,
= t1 + 2t
W = Weight.
(i) Weight which will act at centre of plank. dt1
= t1 + d d
F L

d
= t1 1 +

0.5m dL d

O t1 dL
W or t2 = d d
L
(ii) Upthrust which will act at centre of submerged (b) The motion of the ball is periodic but not simple
portion. harmonic because the acceleration of he ball is g in air
Taking moments of all forces about point O. Moment
of hinge force will be zero. dL d
and g inside the liquid which is not
Moment of W (clockwise) = Moment of F (anti- d
clockwise) proportional to the displacement, which is necessary
and sufficient condition for SHM.
l 0.5sec
( Alg) sin = A(0.5 sec )(w)(g ) sin (c) When d L = d, retardation or acceleration inside the
2 2 liquid becomes zero (upthrust = weight). Therefore, the
all will continue to move wih constant velocity v = gt 1 /
(0.5) 2 (1) (0.5) 2 1
cos 2 = = = (As l = 1m) 2 inside the liquid.
(l 2 )() (0.5) 2
4. (a) (i) Considering vertical equilibrium of cylinder :
1 Weight of cylinder = upthrust due to upper liquid +
cos = upthrust due to lower liquid
2
= 45 H
or Note that h 1 and h 2
2
3. In elastic collision with the surface, direction of velocity
is reversed but its magnitude remains the same. A A 3L A L
( L )D .g = ( d ) g + 5 4 (2d )( g)
Therefore time of fall = time of rise. 5 5 4
113
3 1 3H
D = d + (2d ) Therefore, x will be maximum at h =
4 4 8
The maximum value of x will be
5
D= d
4 3H 3H
xm = 3H 4
(ii) Considering vertical equilibrium of two liquids and the 8 8
cylinder.
Total pressure at the bottom of the cylinder = 3
Atmospheric pressure + Pressure due to liquid of xm = H
4
density d + Pressure due to liquid of density 2d + 5. (i) Mass of water = (Volume)(density)
Pressure due to cylinder
A
L
5d
g
A
H H 5 4
= P0 + dg + 2dg +
2 2 A

dg (6 H + L )
or P = P0 +
4 H
(b) (i) Applying Bernoulli's theorem at 1 and 2
A/100
H H 1 V
P0 + dg + 2dg h = P0 + (2d )v2
2 2 2
Here, v is velocity of efflux at 2. F
Solving this, we get
m0 = (AH)
m0
H= ...(1)
H/2 A
P h2
1 m
Hh Velocity of efflux, V = 2 gH = 2 g 0
2 2 A
V
h 2m0 g
=
A

## x Thrust force on the container due to draining out of

liquid from the bottom is given by.
g F = aV2
v = (3H 4h )
2
2m0 g
(ii) Time taken o reach the liquid to the bottom will be F = (A/100)V2 = (A/100)
A
t = 2h / g
Horizontal distance x travelled by the liquid is m0 g
F=
50
g 2h
3H 4h ) Acceleration of the containder, a = F/m0 = g/50
2 g
x = vt =
a = g/50

x = h(3H 4h) (ii) Velocity of efflux when 75% liquid has been drained
(iii) For x to be maximum out i.e., height of liquid.
H m
dx h= = 0
dh
= 0 4 4 A
H
h=
1 V = 2gh 4
or (3H 8h ) = 0 V
2 h(3H 4h )
m
3H = 2g 0
or h= 4 A
8
114
m0 g
V =
2 A F

L G
6. Given : A1 = 4 103 m2 , A2 = 8 103 m2 l B
B C

h 1 = 2m, h 2 = 5m C
L/2
v1 = 1 m/s and = 103 kg/m3 l/2

YCM
From continuity equaion, we have
(M + m)g
(1)
A (2)
A1 v1 = A2 v2 or v2 = 1 v1
A2 l = Immersed length of the rod
G = CM of rod
4 10 3 B = Centre of buoyant force (F)
or v2 = (1m/s)
8 103 C = CM of (rod + mass (m))
YCM = Distance of C from bottom of the rod
1 m
v2 = m/s
2
F
A2
v2

GC BB
A1
v1
2
h2
h1 1 (M + m)g
h
(3)
Mass m should be attached to the lower end because
otherwise B will be below G and C will be above G and
Applying Bernoulli's equation at section 1 and 2
the torque of the couple of two equal and opposite
1 2 1 forces F and (M + m)g will be counter clockwise and
P1 + v1 + gh1 = P2 + v22 + gh2
2 2 displacing the rod leftwards. Therefore, the rod cannot
be in rotational equilibrium. See the figure (3).
1
or P1 P2 = g (h2 h1 ) + v2 v1
2
2 2
( ...(2) ) Now, refer figures (1) and (2).
For vertical equilibrium
(i) Work done per unit volume by the pressure as the Mg + mg = F (upthrust)
fluid flows from P to Q. or (R2 L)g + mg = (R2 l) g
W1 = P1 P2
R 2 L + m
1
= g (h2 h1 ) + ( v22 v12 ) [From eq. (1)] l =
...(1)
R
2
2
1 Position of CM (of rod + m) from bottom
= g (h2 h1 ) + ( v22 v12 ) J/m3
2
= [29400 375) J/m3
L
2
M.
=
r 2 L
L
2
( )
( )
YCM = ...(2)
= 29025 J/m3 M +m R L + m
2
(ii) Work done per unit volume by the gravity as fluid
flows from P to Q.
l
W2 = g (h 2 h 1 ) = {(103 ) (9.8) (5 2)}Jm3 Centre of buoyancy (B) is at a height of from the
or W2 = 29400 J/m3 2
bottom
7. Let M = Mass of stick = R2 L We can see from figure (2) that for rotational equilibrium
of the rod, B should either lie above C or at the same
level of B.

115
1 9. The bubble will separate from the tube when thrust
Therefore, YCM force due to striking air at B is equal to the force due
2
to excess pressure.
L
( R 2 L)
Tdl

R2 L + m 2

or, v
2R 2

( R L) + m
2 B
r
or m + R2 L R2 L
or m R2 L ( )
b
Av 2 = 2T cos 2 b, cos =
Minimum value of m is R2 L ( ) . R
(A = Area of bubble at B where air strikes)
8. As the pressure exerted by liquid A on the cylinder is
4T
radial and symmetric. Av 2 = A
So the force due to this pressure cancels out and net R
value is zero.
4T
R = 2
v
Air h
10. When the tube is not there.
1 2 1
A hA P + P0 + v1 + gH = v22 + P0
2 2
1
B hB P + gH = (v22 v12 )
2
Av
A1v1 = A2v2 or v1 = 2 2
A1
(b) In equilibrium :

2
Weight of cylinder = Net upthrust on the cylinder 1
2 A2
Let s be the area of cross-section of the cylinder, then P + gH = 2 v2 A v2
1
weight = (s) (h + h A + h B ) cylinderg
upthrust on the cylinder = upthrust due to liquid
2

A + upthrust due to liquid B 1 2 (0.3) 2
= sh A A g + sh B B g = v2 1
2 (0.9) 2
Equating these two

s (h + h A + h B ) cylinderg = sh A? A g + sh B ? B g 1 1
(10)2 1
or (h + h A + h B ) cylinder = hA A + hB B =
2 81
Substituting,
h A = 1.02cm, h B = 0.8 cm and A = 0.7 g/cm3 4 103
B = 1.02 g/cm3 and cylinder = 0.8 g/cm3 =
81
In the above equation, we get
h = 0.25 cm 4 103 900
=
FB Mg 81
(c) Net acceleration a =
M 4
105 N/m2
=
hA? A + ? B ( h + hB ) ( h + hA + hB ) ? cylinder 9
= g This is also the excess pressure P.
? cylinder( h + hA + hB ) By Poiseuille's equation, the rate of flow of liquid in
Substituting the values of h, hA , hB ,B and cylinder we get the capillary tube
g ( P) a 4
a= (upwards)
6 Q=
8l
116
13. Equation of continuity (Av = constant)
( a 2 )( P ) a 2
2
l
6
8 10 = 8 (8) (0.25) = (2) 2 (v ) ...(1)
4 4
Here, v is the velocity of water with which water comes
2
( a2 )( p ) al

out of the syringe (Horizontally).
Solving Eq. (1), we get
=
8 8 10 6 v = 4m/s
The path of water after leaving the syringe will be
Substituting the value, we have parabola. Substituting proper values in equation of
4
( )
trajectory.
(10 6 ) 103 2 10 6
= 9 1 2 2h
h= gt t =
8 8 106 2 g
1 we have,
= Ns/m2
720
2 1.25
x = vt = 4 = 2m
10
11. Free body diagram of the wire is as shown in figure.
(x = horizontal range)

## 14. For circular motion of small elements dx, we have

a dF = (dm) x 2
T T
y or dP = 2 x.dx

P2
P1 dP =
L
2 xdx
0

= mg/l
2 L2
T= surface tension P2 P1=
2
Considering the equilibrium of wire in vertical direction.
2Tlcos = mg ...(1)
y
For y << a, cos =
a
Substituting the values in Eq. (1), we ge
ag
T=
2y dx

2r 2 g
12. Terminal velocity vT = (s L ) x
9
and viscous force F = 6rvT 2L2
gH =
dQ 2
= FvT = ( 6rv ) (v ) = 6 rv 2
T T
2 L2
T
dt
H=
2 2g
2 r 2 g
= 6p?r (? s ? L )
9 ? 4S 4 0. 04 100
15. For bubble A, PA = P0 + R = 8 + 2
A
8g 2
= ( s L )2 r 5 = 16 N/m2
27
4S 4 0. 04 100
dQ For bubble B, PB = P0 + R = 8 + 4
or r5 B
dt = 12 N/m2
117
4 3
PB
pR B ( P0 ) 4r 2 + 4r 2 hg = P0r 2 + ( P0 + gh2 )3 r 2
nB 3 12 64 3
= = =6
nA P 4 pR 3 16 8 Solving this we get,
A A
3 4h
h2 =
16. P + ? gh = P0 9
200 4h
P + 1000 10 = 10 5 3. For h 2 < buoyant force will further decrease.
1000 9
hence, the cylinder remains at its original position.
P = 10 5 2000 = 9.8 10 4 N/m
2

PV f = P0V i 4. (d)
1
5. For adiabatic process T. P
500 mm
= constant
P
T0 . (P0 + l gH )2 / 5 = T . [ P0 + l g (H y )]2 / 5
H
200 mm
2 / 5
P + l g (H y )
2/5
P0 + l gH
T = T0 = T0 0
300 ( 500 H ) P0 + l g (H y ) P0 + l gH
9.8 10 4 A = 10 10 4 A
1000 1000 (b)
H = 206 mm
Height fallen = 206 - 200 = 6 mm nRT
6. V=
P
COMPREHENSION
P0 + l g (H y )
2/5
nRT 0
V=
[P0 + l g (H y )] P0 + l gH
( P0+ gh)4 r
2
1
Buoyant force
lnRgT0
= l gV =
(P0 + l gH ) [ 2 /5
P0 + l g (H y )]3 / 5
(b)
1.
P0r
2
ASSERTION AND REASON

0 g(h+h))3r 4r hg
2 2
(P+ 1
3 1. From continuity equation, Av = constant
1
Equating the net downward forces and net upward or A
forces we get v

correct option is (a)
( P0 + gh1 ) 4r 2 + 4 r 2 hg = P0 r 2 + ( P0 + g ( h1 + h))3r 2
3

5
h1 =
h
3
2 Again equating the forces, we get

P0 4 r
2

P0r
2

0 gh)3 r 4r hg
2 2
(P+ 2
3
118
CHAPTER-12
OPTICS
FILL IN THE BLANKS
1. A light wave of frequency 5 1014 Hz enters a medium of refractive index 1.5. In the medium the velocity of the
light wave is .... and its wavelength is .... (1983, 2M)
2. A convex lens A of focal length 20 cm and a concave lens B of focal length 5 cm are kept along the same axis with
a distance d between them. If a parallel beam of light falling on A leaves B as a parallel beam, then d is equal to
..... cm. (1985, 2M)
3. A monochromatic beam of light of wavelength 6000 in vacuum enters a medium of refractive index 1.5. In the
medium its wavelength is ..... its frequency is .... (1985, 2M)
4. In Young's double slit experiment, the two slits act as coherent sources of equal amplitude A and of wavelength
of . In another experiment with the same set up the two slits are sources of equal amplitude A and wavelength
, but are incoherent. The ratio of the intensity of light at the mid point of the screen in the first case to that in
the second case is .... (1986, 2M)
5. A thin lens of refractive index 1.5 has a focal length of 15 cm in air. When the lens is placed in a medium of refractive
index. 4/3, its focal length will become ... cm. (1987, 2M)
6. A point source emits sound equally in all directions in a non-absorbing mediuim. Two points P and Q are at a
distance 9 m and 25 m respectively from the source. The ratio of amplitudes of the waves at P and Q is .....
(1989, 2M)
7. A slab of material of refractive index 2 shown in figure has a curved surface APB of radius of curvature 10 cm and
a plane surface CD. On the left of APB is air and on the right of CD is water with refractive indices as given in
the figure. An object O is placed at a distance of 15 cm from the pole P as shown. The distance of the final image
of O from P, as viewed from the left is .... (1991, 2M)
n1 = 1.0 A C
n2 = 2.0 4
n3 =
3
O
P E

15cm
B D
20cm
8. A thin rod of length f/3 placed along the optic axis of a concave mirror of focal length f such that its image which
is real and elongated, just touches the rod. The magnification is .... (1991, 1M)
9. A ray of light undergoes deviation of 30 when incident on a equilateral prism of refractive index 2 . The angle
made by the ray inside the prism with the base of the prism is .... (1992; 1M)
10. The resolving power of electron microsocope is higher than that of an optical microscope because the wavelength
of electrons is .... than the wavelength of visible light. (1992, 1M)
11. If 0 and 0 are, respectively, the electric permittivity and magnetic permeability of free space, and the
corresponding quantitites in a medium, the index of refraction of the medium in terms of the above parameter is ....
(1992, 1M)
12. A slit of width d is placed in front of a lens of focal length 0.5 m and is illuminated normally with light of wavelength
5.89 107 m. The first diffraction minima on either side of the central diffraction maximum are separated by
2 103m. The width d of the slit is .... m. (1997, 1M)
13. Two thin lenses, when in contact, produce a combination of power + 10 diopters. When they are 0.25 m apart, the
power reduces to + 6 diopters. The focal lengh of the lenses are ..... m and m. (1997, 2M)
14. A ray of light is incident normally on one of the faces of a prism of apex angle 30 and refractive index 2 . The
angle of deviation of the ray is ..... degrees. (1997, 2M)

184
TRUE/FALSE
1. The intensity of light at a distance r from the axis of a long cylindrical source is inversely proportional or r.
(1981; 2M)
2. A convex lens of focal length 1m and a concave lens of focal length 0.25 m are kept 0.75 m apart. A parallel beam
of light first passes through the convex lens, then through the concave lens and comes to a focus 0.5 m away
from the concave lens. (1982; 2M)
3. A beam of white light passing through a hollow prism give no spectrum.
(1983; 2M)
4. Two slits in a Youn g's double slit experiment are illuminated by two different sodium lamps emitting light of the
same wavelength. No interference pattern will be observed on the screen. (1984; 2M)
5. In a Young's douuble slit experiment performed with a source of while light, only black and white fringes are
observed. (1987; 2M)
6. A parallel beam of white light fall on a combination of a concave and a convex lens, both of same material. Their
focal lengths are 15 cm and 30 cm respectively for the mean wavelength in white light. On the same side of the
lens system, one sees coloured patterns with violet colour nearer to the lens. (1988; 2M)

OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS eahc other. The angles of reflection and refraction are
r and r'. The critical angle is : (1983; 1M)
Only One option is correct :
1. When a ray of light enters a glass slab from air :
(1980; 1M) i r
(a) its wavelength decrease
(b) its wavelength increases r'
(c) its frequency increases
(d) neither its wavelength nor its frequency changes (a) sin 1 (tan r) (b) sin 1 (cot i)
2. In Young's double slit experiment, the separation (c) sin 1 (tanr') (d) tan1 (sin i)
between the slits is halved and the distance between 6. Two coherent monochromatic light beams of intensities
the slits and the screen is doubled. The fringe width I and 4I are superposed. The maximum and minimum
is : (1981; 2M) possble intensities in the resulting beam are :
(a) unchanged (b) halved (1988; 1M)
(c) doubled (d) quadrupled (a) 5I and I (b) 5I and 3I
(c) 9I and I (d) 9I and 3I
3. A glass prism of refractive index 1.5 is immersed in
water (refractive index 4/3). A light beam incident 7. A short linear object of length b lies along the axis of
normally on the face AB is totally reflected to reach the a concave mirror of focal length f at a distance u from
face BC if : (1981; 3M) the pole of the mirror. The size of the image is
B A approximately equal to : (1988; 2M)

1/2 1/2
u f f
(a) b (b) b
C f u f
2
u f f
(a) sin > 8/9 (b) 2/3 < sin < 8/9 (c) (d) b
f u f
(c) sin < 2/3 (d) none of these
8. A beam of light consisting of red, green and blue
4. A convex lens of focal length 40 cm is in contact with colours is incident on a right angled prism. The refractive
a concave lens of focal length 25 cm. The power of he indices of the material of the prism for the above red,
combination is : (1982; 3M) green and blue wavelengths are 1.39, 1.44 and 1.47
(a) 1.5 D (b) 6.5D respectively. The prism will : (1989; 2M)
(c) + 6.5D (d) + 6.67 D

## 5. A ray of light from a denser medium strikes a rarer

medium at an angle of incidence i (see figure). The
reflected and refracted rays make an angle of 90 with
45
185
(a) separate the red colour from the green and blue 12. Spherical aberration in a thin lens can be reduced by:
colours (1994; 2M)
(b) separate the blue colour from the red and green (a) using a monochromatic light
colours (b) using a double combination
(c) separate all the three colours from the one another (c) using a circular annular mark over the lens
(d) not separate even partially any colour from the (d) increasing the size of the lens
other two colours
13. A narrow slit of width 1 mm is illuminated by
9. An astronomical telescope has an angular magnification monochromatic light of wavelength 600 nm. The
of magnitude 5 for distance objects. The separation distance between the first minima on either side of a
between the objective and the eyepiece is 36 cm and screen at a distance of 2 m is : (1994; 1M)
the final image is formed at infinity. The focal length (a) 1.2 cm (b) 1.2 mm
f0 of the objective and the focal length fe of the (c) 2.4 cm (d) 2.4 cm
eyepiece are : (1995; 2M)
14. An isosceles prism of
(a) f0 = 45 cm and fe = 9 cm
angle 120 has a refractive rays
(b) f0 = 50 cm and fe = 10 cm
index 1.44. Two parallel of
(c) f0 = 7.2 cm and fe = 5 cm
monochromatic light enter
(d) f0 = 30 cm and fe = 6 cm
the prism parallel to each 120
other in air as shown. The
10. A thin prism P1 with angle 4 and made from glass of
rays emerge from the
refractive index 1.54 is combined with another thin
opposite face :
prism P2 made from glass of refractive index 1.72 to
(1995; 2M)
produce dispersion without dviation. The angle of the
prism P2 is : (1990; 2M) (a) are parallel to each other
(a) 5.33 (b) 4 (b) are diverging
(c) 3 (d) 2.6 (c) make an angle 2 [sin 1 (0.72) 30] with each other
(d) make an angle 2 sin 1 (0.72) with each other
11. Two thin convex lenses of focal length f1 and f2 are
15. The focal lengths of the objective and the eyepiece of
separated by a horizontal distance d (where d < f1 , d
a compound microscope are 2.0 cm and 3.0 cm
< f2 ) and their centres are displaced by a vertical
respectively. The distance between the objective and
separation as shown in the figure:
the eyepiece at 15.0 cm. The final image formed by the
y eyepiece is at infinity. The two lenses are thin. The
distance in cm of the object and the image produced
by the objective, measured from the objective lens,
and respectively : (1995; 2M)
x
O
(a) 2.4 and 12.0 (b) 2.4 and 15.0
(c) 2.0 and 12.0 (d) 2.0 and 3.0
d 16. A diminished image of an object is to be obtained on
Taking the origin of coordinates O, at the centre of the a screen 1.0 m from it. This can be achieved by
first lens, the x and y-coordinates of the focal point of appropriate placing : (1995; 2M)
this lens system, for a parallel beam of rays coming (a) a concave mirror of suitable focal length
from the left, are given by : (1993; 2M) (b) a convex mirror of suitable focal length
(c) a convex lens of focal length less than 0.25 m
f1 f2
(a) x = f + f , y =
(d) a convex lens of suitable focal length
1 2
17. Consider Fraunhoffer diffraction pattern obtained with
f1 ( f2 + d ) a single slit illuminated at normal incidence. At the
(b) x = f + f d , y = f + f angular position of the first diffraction minimum the
1 2 1 2
phase difference (in radian) between the wavelets from
f1 f 2 + d ( f1 d ) ( f1 d ) the oppoosite edges of the slit is : (1995; S)
(c) x = f1 + f 2 d
,y=
f1 + f2 d
(a) (b)
f1 f2 + d ( f1 d) 4 2
(d) x = f1 + f 2 d
,y =0 (c) 2 (d)

186
19. A real image of a distant object is formed by a combination shall be : (1999; 2M)
planoconvex lens on its principal axis. Spherical
aberration : (1998; 2M)
(a) is absent
(b) is smaller if the curved surface of the lens faces
the object
(c) is smaller if the plane surface of the lens faces the (a) straight (b) circular
object (c) equally spaced
(d) is the same whichever side of the lens faces the (d) having fringe spacing which increases as we go
object outwards

## 25. A concave lens of glass, refractive index 1.5 has both

20. A parallel monochromatic beam of light is incident surfaces of same radius of curvature R. On immersion
normally on a narrow slit. A diffraction pattern is in a medium of refractive index 1.75, it will behave as
formed on a screen placed perpendicular to the direction a : (1999; 2M)
of the incident beam. At the first minimum of the (a) convergent lens of focal length 3.5 R
diffraction pattern, the phase difference between the (b) convergent lens of focal length 3.0 R
rays coming from the two edges of the slit is : (c) divergent lens of focal length 3.5 R
(1998; 2M) (d) divergent lens of focal length 3.0 R
(a) zero (b) / 2
(c) (d) 2 26. In a compound microscope, the intermediate image is:
(2000; 2M)
21. A concave mirror is placed on a horizontal table with (a) virtual, erect and magnified
its axis directed vertically upwards. Let O be the pole (b) real, erect and magnified
of the mirror and C its centre of curvature. A point (c) real, inverted and magnified
object is placed at C. It has a real image also located (d) virtual, erect and reduced
at C. If the mirror is now filled with water, the image
27. A hollow double concave lens is made of very thin
will be : (1998; 2M)
transparent material. It can be filled with air of either
(a) real and will remain at C
of two liquids L1 or L2 having refracting indices n 1 and
(b) real and located at a point between C and .
n 2 respectively (n 2 > n 1 > 1). The lens will diverge a
(c) virtual and located at a point between C and O
parallel beam of light if it is filled with : (2000; 2M)
(d) real and located at a point between C and O
(a) air and placed in air
(b) air and immersed in L1
22. A spherical surface of radius of curvature R, separates
(c) L1 and immersed in L2
air (refractive index 1.0) from glass (refractive index
(d) L2 and immersed in L1
1.5). The centre of curvature is in the glass. A point
object P placed in air is found to have a real image Q 28. A diverging beam of light from a point source S having
in the glass. The line PQ cuts the surface at a point divergence angle falls symmetrically on a glass slab
O and PO = OQ. The distance PO is equal to : as shown. The angles of incidence of the two extreme
(1998; 2M) rays are equal. If the thickness of the glass slab is t
(a) 5 R (b) 3 R and its refractive index is n, then the divergence angle
(c) 2 R (d) 1.5 R of the emergent beam is : (2000; 2M)

## 23. Yellow light is used in a single slit diffraction experiment S

with slit width of 0.6 mm. If yellow light is replaced by
X-rays, then the observed pattern will reveal :(1998; i i
2M)
(a) that the central maximum is narrower
t
(b) more number of fringes n
(c) less number of fringes
(d) no diffraction pattern
(a) zero (b)
24. A thin slice is cut out of a glass cylinder along a plane (c) sin 1 (l/n) (d) 2 sin 1 (l/n)
parallel to its axis. The slice is placed on a flat plane 29. In a double slit experiment instead of taking slits of
as shown. The observed interference fringes from this equal widths, one slit is made twice as wide as the

187
other, then in the interference pattern : (2001; 2M) 32. Two beams of light having intensities I and 4I interfere
(a) the intensities of both the maxima and the minima to produce a fringe pattern on a screen. The phase
increases difference between the beams is /2 at point A and
(b) the intenseity of the maxima increase and the at point B. Then the difference resultant intensities at
minima has zero intensity A and B is : (2001; 2M)
(c) the intensity of maxima decreases and that of (a) 2I (b) 4 I
minima increases (c) 5 I (d) 7 I
(d) the intensity of maxima decreases and the minima
has zero intensity 33. In a young's double slit experiment, 12 fringes are
observed to be formed in a certain segment of the
30. A point source of light B, placed at a distance L in screen when light of wavelength 600 nm is used. If the
front of the centre of a plane mirror of width d, hanging wavelength of light is changed to 400 nm, number of
vertically on a wall. A man walks in front of the mirro fringes observed in the same segment of the screen is
along a line parallel to the mirror at a distance 2L from given by : (2001; 2M)
it as shown. The greatest distance over which he can (a) 12 (b) 18
see the image of the light source in the mirror is : (c) 24 (d) 30
(2000; 2M)
34. A ray of light passes through four transparent media
with refractive indices 1, 2, 3 and 4 as shown in the
figure. The surfaces of all medcia are parallel. If the
d B emergent ray CD is parallel to the incident ray AB, we
must have : (2002; 2M)
L 1 2 3 4
D
2L C
A B
(a) d/2 (b) d
(c) 2d (d) 3d

## 31. A rectangular glass slab ABCD of refractive index n 1, (a) 1 = 2 (b) 2 = 3

is immersed in water of refractive index n 2(n 1> n 2). A (c) 3 = 4 (d) 4 = 1
ray of light is incident at the surface AB of the slab as
shown. The maximum value of the angle of incidence 35. A given ray of light suffers minimumd eviation in an
max , such that the ray comes out only from the other equilateral prism P. Additional prism Q and R o f
surface CD, is given by : (2000; 2M) identical shape and of the same mateiral as P are now
added as shown in the figure. The ray will suffer :
A D (2001; 2M)
max n1 n2
Q
B C
P R

1 n1 1 n2
(a) sin cos sin (a) greatier deviation
n2 n1
(b) no deviation
1 1 1 (c) same devaition as before
(b) sin n1 cos sin (d) total internal reflection
n2
36. An observer can see through a pin-hole the top end
1 n1 of a thin rod of height h, placed as shown in the figure.
(c) sin
n2 The beaker height is 3h and its radius h. When the
beaker is filled with a liquid up to a height 2h, he can
1 n2 see the lower end of the rod. Then the refractive index
(d) sin of the liquid is : (2002; 2M)
n1

188
40. In the adjacent diagram cP represeent a wavefront and
AO and BP, the corresponding two rays. Find the
condition on for constructive interference at P
between the ray BP and reflected ray OP.(2003; 2M)
O R
3h

h
C d
2h
5 5
(a) (b)
2 2 A P

3 3 B
(c) (d)
2 2 3
(a) cos = (b) cos =
2d 4d
37. Which one of the following spherical lenses does not
4
exhibit dispersion? The radii of curvature of the surface (c) sec cos = (d) sec cos =
of the lenses are as given in the diagrams: d d
(2002; 2M) 41. The size of the image of an object, which is at infinity,
as formed by a convex lens of focal length 30 cm is 2
(a) R1 R2 (b) R1 cm. If a concave lens of focal length 20 cm is placed
between the convex lens and the image at a distance
of 26 cm from the convex lens, calculate the new size
of the image. (2003; 2M)
(c) R R (d) R (a) 1.25 cm (b) 2.5 cm
(c) 1.05 cm (d) 2 cm
38. In the ideal double-slit experiment, when a glass-plate 42. A ray of light is incident at the glass-water interface
(refractive index 1.5) of thickness t is introduced in the at an angle i, it emerges finally parlalel to the surface
path of one of the interfering beams (wavelength ), of water, then the vlaue of g would be :(2003; 2M)
the intensity at the position where the central maximum
occurred previously remains unchange.d The minimum Air
thickness of the glass-plate is : (2002; 2M)
r
2
(a) 2 (b)
3 w = 4/3
r
Water
(c) (d) Glass
3
i
39. Two plane mirrors A and B are aligned parallel to each
other, as shown oin the figure. A light ray is incident (a) (4/3) sin i (b) 1/sin i
at an angle 30 at a point just inside one end of A. The (c) 4/3 (d) 1
plane of incidence coincides with the plane of the 43. White light is incident on the interface of glass and air
figure. The maximum number of times the ray undergoes as shown in the figure. If green light is jsut totaly
reflections (including the first one) before it emerges internally reflected then the emerging ray in air contains.
out is : (2002; 2M) (2004; 2M)
2 3
Air
B
0.2m
Glass Water

30

## A (a) yellow, orange, red

(a) 28 (b) 30 (b) violet, indigo, blue
(c) 32 (d) 34 (c) all colours (d) all colours except green

189
44. A ray fo light is incident on an equilaterla glass prism 49. A convex lens is in contact with concave lens. The
placed on a horizontal table. For minimum deviation magnitude of the ratio of their focal length is 2/3. Their
which of the following is true ? (2004; 2M) equivalent focal length is 30 cm. What are their
individual focal lengths? (2005; 2M)
(a) 70, 50 (b) 10, 15
(c) 75, 50 (d) 15, 10
Q R

## P S 50. A point object is placed at

distance of 20 cm from a thin
planoconvex lens of focal
length 15 cm. The plane surface
of the lens is now silvered.
(a) PQ is horizontal (b) QR is horizontal 20 cm
(c) RS is horizontal The image created by the system is at : (2006; 3M)
(d) Either PQ or RS is horizontal (a) 60 cm to the left of the system
(b) 60 cm to the right of the system
45. A point object is placed at the centre of a glass sphere (c) 12 cm to the left of the system
of radius 6 cm and refractive index 1.5. The distance of (d) 60 cm to the right of the system
the virtual image from the surface of the sphere is :
(2004; 2M) 51. The graph between object distnace u and image distance
(a) 2 cm (b) 4 cm v for a lens is given below. The focal length of the lens
(c) 6 cm (d) 12 cm is : (2006; 3M)
v
46. In a YDSE bi-chromatic light of wavelength 400 nm and
560 nm are used. The distance between the slits is 0.1
mm and the distance between the plane of the slits and
the screen is 1 m. The minimum distance between two +11
successive regions of complete darkness is :
(2004; 2M) +10
(a) 4 mm (b) 5.6 mm
(c) 14 mm (d) 28 mm +9 u
9 10 11
47. In Young's double slit experiment intensity at a point (a) 5 + 0.1 (b) 5 + 0.05
is 1/4th of the maximum intensity. Angular position of (c) 0.5 + 0.1 (d) 0.5 + 0.05
this point is : (2005; 2M)
52. A biconvex lens of focal length f forms a circular image

of radius r of sun in focal plane. Then which option
(a) sin 1 d (b) sin 1 2d
is correct? (2006; 3M)
(a) r2 f (b)r2 f2

(c) sin 1 3d (d) sin 1 4d
(c) If lower half part is covered by black sheet, then
area of the iamge is equal to r2 /2
(d) If f is doubled, intensity will increase
48. A container is filled with water ( = 1.33) upto a height
of 33.25 cm. A concave mirror is placed 15 cm above
53. A ray of light travelling in water is incident on its
the water level and the image of an object placed at the
surface open to air. The angle of incidence is , which
bottom is formed 25 cm below the water level. The
is less than the cirtical angle. Then there will be :
focal length of the mirror is : (2004; 2M)
(2007; 3M)
(a) only a reflected ray and no refracted ray
33.25 cm 15 cm

## (b) only a reflected ray and no reflected ray

(c) a reflected ray and a refracted ray and the angle
between them would be less than 180 2
25 cm (d) a reflected ray and a refracted ray and the angle
between them would be greater than 180 2
1

## O 54. In an experiment to determine the focal length (f) of a

(a) 10 cm (b) 15 cm concave mirror by the u-v method, a student places the
(c) 20 cm (d) 25 cm object pin A on the principal axis at a distance x from

190
the pole P. The student looks at the pin and its 2. White light is used to illuminate the two slits in a Youn
inverted image from a distance keeping his/her eye in g's double slit experiment. The separation between the
line with PA. When the student shifts his/her eye slits is b and the screen is at a distance d (>> b) from
towards left, the image appears to the right of the the slits. At a point on the screen directly infront of
object pin. Then : (2007; 3M) one of the slits, certain wavelengths are missing. Some
(a) x < f (b) f < x < 2f of these missing wavelengths are : (1984; 2M)
(c) x = 2f (d) x > 2f (a) = b 2 /d (b) = 2b 2 /d
55. Two beams of red and violet colours are made to pass (c) = b 2 /3d (d) = 2b 2 /3d
separately through a prism (angle of the prism is 60).
In the position of minimum deviation, the angle of 3. A converging lens is used to form an image on a
refraction will be (2008; 3M) screen. When the upper half of the lens is covered by
(a) 30 for both the colours an opaque screen : (1986; 2M)
(b) greater for the violet colour (a) half of the iamge will disappear
(c) greater for the red colour (b) complete image will be formed
(d) equal but not 30 for both the colours (c) intensity of the image will increase
(d) intensity of the image will decrease
56. A light beam is travelling from Region I to Region IV
(Refer Figure). The refractive index in Regions I, II, III 4. A planet is observed by an astronomical refracting
n0 n2 n telescope having an objective of focal length 16 m and
and IV are n 0 , , and 0 , respectively. The angle an eyepiece of focal length 2 cm : (1992; 2M)
2 6 8
(a) the distance between the objective and the eyepiece
of incidence for which the beam just misses entering
is 16.02 m
Region IV is (2008; 3M)
(b) the angular magnification fo the planet is 800
Region I Region II Region III Region IV
(c) the image of the planet is inverted
n0 n0 n0 (d) the objective is larger than the eyepiece
2 6 8
5. In an interfernce arrangement similar to Young's double-
slit experiment, the slits S 1 and S 2 are illuminated with
1 3 1 1
(a) sin (b) sin coherent microwave sources, each of frequency 106 Hz.
4 8 The sources are synchronized to have zero phase
difference. The slits are separated by a distance
1 1 1 1
(b) sin (d) sin d = 150 M. The intensity I () is measured as a function
4 3 of , where Q is defined as shown. If I0 is the maximum
57. A ball is dropped from a height of 20 m above the intensity, then I () for 0 90 is given by :
surface of water in a lake. The refractive index of water (1995; 2M)
is 4/3. A fish inside the lake, in the line of fall of the
ball, is looking at the ball. At an instant, when the ball S1
is 12.8 m above the water surface, the fish sees the d/2
speed of ball as [Take g = 10 ms/s 2.] (2009; M)
(a) 9 m/s (b) 12 m/s
(c) 16 m/s (d) 21.33 m/s d/2
S2
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
More than one options are correct? (a) I () = I0 /2 for = 30
1. In the Young's double slit experiment, the interefernce (b) I () = I0 /4 for = 90
pattern is found to have an intensity ratio between the (c) I () = I0 for = 0
bright and dark fringes as 9. This implies that : (d) I () is constant for all values of
(1982; 2M) 6. Which of the following form (s) a virtual and erect
(a) the intensities at the screen due to the two slits image for all position of the object? (1998; 2M)
are 5 units and 4 units respectively (a) Convex lens
(b) the intensities at the screen due to the two slits (b) Concave lens
are 4 units and 1 unit respectively. (c) Convex mirror
(c) the amplitude ratio is 3 (d) Concave mirror
(d) the amplitude ratio is 2

191
7. A ray of light travelling in a transparent medium falls beam from C is of intensity 20 W/m2 . Calculate intensity
on a surface separating the medium from air at an angle at P on the screen. (1982; 5M)
of incidence 45. The ray undergoes total internal C
reflection. If n is the refractive idnex of the medium
with respect to air, select the possible value (s) of n
from the following : (1998; 2M)
(a) 1.3 (b) 1.4 60
A P
(c) 1.5 (d) 1.6 60

## 8. In a Young's double slit experiment, the separation

between the two slits is d and the wavelength of the
light is . The intensity of light falling on slit 1 is four B S
times the intensity of light falling on slit 2. Choose the 3. In Young's double slit experiment using
correct choice (s). (2007; 4M) monorochormatic light the fringe pattern shifts by a
(a) If d = , the screen will contain only one maximum certain distance on the screen when a mica sheet of
(b) If < d < 2, at least one more maximum (besides refractive index 1.6 and thickness 1.964 microns is
the central maximum) will be observed on the introduced in the path of one of the interfering waves.
screen The mica sheet is then removed and the distance
(c) If the intensity of light falling on slit 1 is reduced between the slits and the screen is doubled. It is found
so that it becomes equal to that of slit 2, the that the distance between successive maxima (or
intensities of the observed dark and bright fringes minima) now is the same as the observed fringe shift
will increase upon the introduction of the mica sheet. Calculate the
(d) If the intensity of light falling on slit 2 is increased wavelength of the monochromatic light used in the
so that it becomes equal to that of slit 1, the experiment. (1983; 6M)
intensities of the observed dark and bright fringes
will increase 4. A plano-convex lens has a thickness of 4 cm. When
palced on a horizontal table, with the curved surface
SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS in contact with it, the apparaent depth of the bottom
most point of the lens is found to be 3 cm. If the lens
1. The convex surface of a thin concave-convex lens of is inverted such that the plane face is in contact with
glass of refractive index 1.5 has a radius of curvature the table, the apparent depth of the centre of the plane
20 cm. The concave surface has a radius of curvature face is found to be 25/8 cm. Find the focal length of
60 cm. The convex side is silvered and placed on a the lens. Assume thickness to be negligible while
horizontal surface. (1981; 2M) finding its focal length. (1984; 6M)
5. A beam of light consisting of two wavelength, 6500
and 5200 is used to obtain interference fringe in a
Young's double slit experiment. (1985; 6M)
(i) Find the distance of the third bright fringe on the
screen from the central maximum for wavelengh
6500
(i) Where should a pin be placed on the optic axis (ii) What is the least distance from the central maximum
such that is image is formed at the same place? where the bright fringes due to both the
(ii) If the concave part is filled with water of refractive wavelengths coincide?
index 4/3, find the distance through which the pin The distance between the slits is 2 mm and the distance
should be moved, so that the image of the pin between the plane of the slits and the screen is 120 cm.
again coincides with the pin.
6. Monochromaic light is incident on a plane interface AB
between two media of refractive indices n 1 and n 2
2. Screen S is illuminated by two point sources A and B.
(n 2 > n 1 ) at an angle of incidence as shown in the
Another source C sends a parallel beam of light
figure. The angle is infinitesimally greater than the
towards point P on the screen (see figure). Line AP is
critical angle of the two media so that total internal
normal to the screen and the lines AP, BP and PC are
reflection takes place. Now if a transparent slab DEFG
in one plane. The distances AP, BP and CP are 3 m,
of uniform thickness and of refractive index n 3 is
1.5 m and 1.5 m respectively. The radiant powers of
introduced on the interface (as shown in the figure),
sources A and B are 90 W and 180 W respectively. The
show tha for any value of n 3 all light will ultimately be

192
reflected back again into medium II. Consider separately
the cases: (1988; 6M) A
(i) n 3 < n 1 and n 3 > n 1
F
Medium I
( n1 )
D E
Medium III
G ( n3 ) F B
A B
Medium II
( n2 )
10. A narrow monochromatic beam of light of intensity I
is incident on a glass plate as shown in figure. Another
identical glass plate is kept close to the first one-and
7. A right prism is to be made by selecting a proper parallel to it. Each glass plate reflects 25 per cent of the
material and the angles A and B (B A), as shown in light incident on it and transmits the remaining. Find
figure. It is desired that a ray of light incident on the the ratio of the minimum and maximum intensities in
face AB emerges parallel to the incident direction after the interference pattern formed by the two beams
two internal reflections. (1987; 7M) obtained after one reflection at each plate.
(1990; 7M)

A B

C 2
1
(i) What should be the minimum refractive index n for
this to be possible? 11. Two parallel beams of light P and Q (separation d)
containing radiations of wavelengths 4000 and 5000
5
(ii) For n = is it possible to achieve this with the (which are mutually coherent in each wavelength
3 separately) are incident normally on a prism as shown
angle B equal to 30 degrees? inf igure. The refractive index of the prism as a function
of wavelength is given by the relation, () = 1.20 +
8. A parallel beam of light travelling in water (refractive
index = 4/3) is refracted by a spherical air bubble of b b
radius 2 mm situated in water. Assuming the light rays where is in and b is positive constant. The
2
2
to be paraxial. (1988; 6M)
value of b is such that the condition for total reflection
(i) Find the position of the image due to refraction at
at the face C is just satisfied for one wavelength and
the first surface and the position of the final
is not satisfied for the other. (1991; 2 + 2 + 4M)
image. A
(ii) Draw a ray diagram showing the positions of both
the images. P sin = 0.8

9. In a modified Young's double slit experiment, a
monochromatic uniform and parallel beam of light of d
wavelength 6000 and intensity (10/) Wm2 is incident
normally on two apartues A and B of radii 0.001 m and 90
Q
0.002 m respectively. A perfectly transparent film of C
B
thickness 2000 and refractive index 1.5 for the (a) Find the value of b.
wavelength of 6000 is placed in front of aperture A (b) Find the deviation of the beams transmitted through
(see figure.) Calculate the power (in W) received at the the face AC.
focal spot F of the lens. The lens is symmetrically (c) A convergent lens is used to bring these
placed with respect to the apertures. Assume that 10% transmitted beams into focus. If the intensities of
of the power received by each aperture goes in the the upper and the lower beams immediately after
original direction and is brought to the focal spot. transmission from the face AC, are 4I and I
(1989; 8M) respectively, find the resultant intensity at the
focus.

193
12. Light is incident at an angle on one planar end of point of incidence is the origin A (0,0). The medium has
a transparent cylindrical rod of refractive index n. a variable index of refraction n (y) is given by
Determine the least value of n so that the light entering n (y) = [ky3/2 + 1]1/2 where k = 1.0 (meter)3/2 .
the rod does not emerge from the curved surface of the The refractive index of air is 1.0 (1995; 10M)
rod irrespective of the value of . (1992; 8M) y
Air P ( x1 , y1 )

t = 1.0m
B (x, y)
Medium
x
13. In given figure, S is a monochromatic point source A (0, 0) Air
emitting light of wavelength = 500 nm. A thin lens of (a) Obtain a relation between the slope of the trajectory
circular shape and focal length 0.10 m is cut into two of the ray at a point B (x, y) in the medium and the
identical halves L1 and L2 by a plane passing through incident angle at the point.
a diameter. The two halves are placed symmetrically (b) Obtain an equation for the trajectory y (x) of the
about the central axis is SO with a gap of 0.5 mm. The ray in the medium.
distance along the axis from S to L1 and L2 is 0.15 m (c) Determine the coordinaes (x1, y1) of the point P,
while that from L1 and L2 to O is 1.30 m. The screen where the ray intersects thre upper surface of the
at O is normal to SO. (1993; 5 + 1 M) slab-air boundary.
(d) Indicate the path of the ray subsequently.
16. Angular width of central maximum in the Fraunhofer
A diffraction pattern of a slit is measure.d The slit is
illuminated by light of wavelength 6000, When the
L1 0.5mm
S slit is illuminated by light of another wavelength, the
O width decreases by 30%. Calculate the wavelength of
L2 this light. The same decreases in the angular width of
Screen
central maximum is obtained when the original
0.15m 1.30m apparatus is immersed in a liquid. Find refractive index
of the liquid. (1996; 2M)
17. A right angle prism (45-90-45) of refractive index n
(i) If the third intensity maximum occurs at the point has a plane of refractive index n 1 (n 1 < n) cemented to
A on the screen, find the distance OA. its diagonal face. The assembly is in air. The ray is
(ii) If the gap between L1 and L2 is reduced from its incident on AB. (1996; 3M)
original value of 0.5 mm, will the distance OA A
increases, decrease or remain the same.

## 14. An image Y is formed of point object X by a lens

whose optic axis is AB as shown in figure. Draw a ray n1
n
diagram to locate the lens and its focus. If the image
Y of the object X is formed by a concave mirror (having
the same optic axis as AB) instead of lens, draw
another ray diagram to locate the mirror and its focus. B C
Write down the steps of construction of the ray (i) Calculate the angle of incidence at AB for which the
diagrams. (1994; 6M) ray strikes the diagonal face at the critical angle.
X (ii) Assuming n = 1.352, calculate the angle of
incidence at AB for which the refracted ray passes
through the diagonal face undeviated.
A B
18. A double slit apparatus is immersd in a liquid of
Y
refractive index 1.33. It has slit separation of 1 mm and
15. A ray of light travelling in air is incident at grazing distance between the plane of slits and screen is
angle (incident angle = 90) on a long rectangular slab 1.33 m. The slits are illuminated by a parallel beam of
of a transparent medium of thickness t = 1.0 m. The light whose wavelength in air is 6300. (1996; 3M)
194
(i) Calculate the fringe width. thickness as the first one but having refractive index
(ii) One of the slits of the apparatus is covered by a 1.7. Interference pattern is observed using light of
thin glass sheet of refractive index 1.53. Find the wavelength 5400 . It is found that the point P on the
smallest thickness of the sheet to bring the adjecent screen, where the central maximum (n = 0) fall before
minimum as the axis. the glass plates were inserted, now has 3/4 the original
intensity. It is further observed that what used to be
19. A thin plano-convex lens of focal length f is split into the fifth maximum earlier lies below the point P while
two halves. One of the halves is shifted along the the sixth minima lies above P. Calculate the thickness
optical axis. The separation between object and image of glass plate. (Absorption of light by glass plate may
planes is 1.8 m. The magnification of the image formed be neglected). (1997; 5M)
by one of the half lens is 2. Find the focal length of 23. A prism of refractive index n 1 and another prism of
the lens and separation between the halves. Draw the refractive index n 2 are stuck togehter with a gap as
ray diagram for image formation. (1996; 5M) shown in the figure. The angle of the prism are as
shown n 1 and n 2 depend on l, the wavelength of light

10.8 104
according to : n 1 = 1.20 + and n 2
O 2

1.80 104
1.8m = 1.45 + where is in nm. (1998; 8M)
2
20. In Young's experiment, the source is red light of D
C
wavelength 7 107 m. When a thin glass plate of 70
refractive index 1.5 at this wavelength is put in the
n2
path of one of the interfering beams, the central bright
fringe shifts by 103 m to the position previously n1

20
occupied by the 5th bright fringe. Find the thickness

of the plate. When the source is now changed to green 60
40
light of wavelength 5 107 m, the central fringe shifts A B
to a position initially occupied by the 6th bright fringe (a) Calcualte the wavelength 0 for which rays incident
due to red light. Find the refractive index of glass for at any angle on the interface BC pass through
green light. Also estimate the change in fringe width without bending at that interface.
due to the change in wavelength. (1997C; 5M) (b) For light of wavelength 0, find the angle of
21. A thin equiconvex lens of glass of refractive index incidence i on the face AC such that the deviation
= 3/2 and of focal length 0.3 m in air is sealed into an produced by the combination of prisms is minimum.
opening at one end of a tank filled with water = 4/
3. On the oppoosite side of the lens, a mirror is placed 24. A coherent parallel beam of microwaves of wavelength
inside the tank on the tank wall perpendicular to the = 0.5 mm falls on a Young's double slit apparatus.
lens axis, as shown in figure. The separation between The separation between the slits is 1.0 mm. The
the lens and the mirror is 0.8 m. A small object is intensity of microwaves is measured on a screen placed
palced outside the tank in front of. Find the position parallel to the plane of the slits at a distance of 1.0 m
(relative to the lens) of the image of the object formed from it as shown in the figure. (1998; 8M)
y
by the system (1997C; 5M)
0.8m
0.9m
30 d = 1.0mm x

D = 1.0m

Screen
(a) If the incident beam falls normally on the double
22. In a Young's experiment, the upper slit is covered by slit apparatus, find the y0-coordinates of all the
a thin glass plate of refractive index 1.4, while the lower interference minima on the screen.
slit is covered by another glass plate, having the same (b) If the incident beam makes an angle of 30 wit the
195
x-axis (as in the dotted arrow shown in figure), 28. A convex lens of focal length 15 cm and a concave
find the y-coordinates of the first minima on either mirror of focal length 30 cm are kept with their optics
side of the central maximum. axis PQ and RS parallel but separated in vertical
direction by 0.6 cm as shown. The distance between
25. The Young's double slit experiment is done in a medium the lens and mirror is 30 cm. An upright object AB of
of refractive index 4/3. A light of 600 nm wavelength height 1.2 cm is placed on the optic axis PQ of the lens
is falling on the slits having 0.45 mm separation. The at a distance of 20 cm from the lens. If A'B is the image
lower slit S 2 is covered by a thin glass sheet of after refraction from the lens and the reflection from
thickness 10.4 m and refractive index 1.5 The the mirror, find the distance of A'B' from the pole of the
interfernce pattern is observed on a screen placed 1.5 mirror and obtain its magnification. Also locate positions
m from the slits as shown in the figure. of A' and B' with respect to the optic axis RS.
(1999; 10M) (2000; 6M)
y
A

S1
S P Q
0.6cm B
O S
R
S2 30 cm

## 29. A glass plate of refractive index 12.5 is coated witha

thin layer of thickess t and refractive index 1.8. Light
(a) Find the location of central maximum (bright fringe of wavelength travelling in air is incident normally on
with zero path difference) on the y-axis. the layer. It is partly reflected at the upper and the
(b) Find the light intensity of point O relative to the lower surfaces of the layer and the two reflected rays
maximum fringe intensity. interfere. Write the condition for their constructive
(c) Now, if 600 nm light is replaced by white light of inteference. If = 648 nm, obtain the least value of t
range 400 to 700 nm, find the wavelengths of the for which the rays interfere constructively.
light that form maxima exactly at point O. (2000; 4M)
[All wavelengths in the problem are for the given
medium of refractive index 4/3. Ignore dispersion] 30. The refractive indices of the crown glass for blue and
red light are 1.51 and 1.498 respectively and those of
26. The x-y plane is the boundary between two transparent the flint glass are 1.77 and 1.73 respectively. An
media. Medium1 with z 0 has a refractive index 2 isosceles prism of angle 6 is made of crown glass. A
and medium 2 with z 0 has a refractive index beam of white light is incident at a small angle on this
3.
prism. The other flint glass isosceles prism is combined
A ray of light in medium 1 given by vector with the crown glass prism such that there is no
ur
A = 6 3i\$ + 8 3 \$j 10k\$ is incident on the plane of deviation of the incident light. (2001; 5M)
(i) Determine the angle of the flint glass prism.
separation. Find the unit vector in the direction of the
(ii) Calculate the net dispersion of the combined
refracted ray in medium-2. (1999; 10M)
system.
27. A quarter cylinder of radius R and refractive index 1.5
31. A vessels ABCD of 10 cm width has two small slits S 1
is placed on a table. A point object P is kept at a
and S 2 sealed with identical glass plates of equal
distance of mR from it. Find the value of m for which
thickness. The distance between the slits is 0.8 mm.
a ray from P will emerge parallel to the table as shown
POQ is the line perpendicular to the plane AB and
in figure. (1999; 5M)
+ve passing through O, the middle point of S 1 and S 2 . A
monochromatic light source is kept at S, 40 cm below
P and 2 m from the vessel, to illuminate the slits as
shown in the figure alongside. Calculate the position
of the central bright fringe on the other wall CD with
P A respect to the line OQ. Now, a liquid is poured into the
mR vessel and filled upto OQ. The central bright fringe is
R
found to be at Q. Calculate the refractive index of the
liquid. (2001; 5M)

196
A D
1 2 3
S2
P Q
O
40cm S1
2m 10cm
S
35. A prism of refracting angle 30 is coated witha thin
C film of transparent material of refracting indx 2.2 on
B
face AC of the prism. A light of wavelength 6600 is
32. A thin biconvex lens of refractive index 3/2 is placed incident on face AB such that angle of incidence is 60.
on a horizontal plane mirror as shown in the figure. Find (2003; 4M)
The space between the lens and the mirror is then A
filled with water of refractive index 4/3. It is found that
when a point object is placed 15 cm above the lens on
its principal axis, the object concides with its own 30
image. On repeating with another liquid, the object and 60 f = 2.2
the image again coincide at a distance 25 cm from the
lens. Calculate the refractive index of the liquid. p = 3
(2001; 5M) B C
(a) the angle of emergence and
(b) the minimum value of thickness of the coated film
on the face AC for which the light emerging from
33. A poin source S emitting light of wavelength 600 nm the face has maximum intensity. [Given refractive
is placed at a very small height h above a flat reflecting
index of the material of the prism is 3 ]
surface AB (see figure). The intensity of the reflected
light is 36% of the incident intensity. Inteference
36. Figures shows an irregular block of material of refractive
fringes are observed on a screen placed parallel to the
reflecting surface at a very large distance D from it. index 2 . A ray of light strikes the face AB as shown
(2002; 5M) in the figure. After refraction it is incident on a spherical
P Screen surface CD of radius of curvature 0.4 m and enters a
medium of refractive index 1.514 to meet PQ at E. Find
the distance OE upto two places of decimal.
(2004; 2M)
D B C

45
S = 2 O E
P Q
h
=1
B
= 1.514
(a) What is the shape of the inteference fringes on 60
A D
the screen? 37. An object is approaching a thin convex lens of focal
(b) Calculate the ratio of the minimum to the maximum length 0.3 m with a speed of 0.01 m/s. Find the
intensities in the interference fringes formed near magnitudes of the rates of change of position and
the point P (shown in the figure). lateral magnification of image when the object is at a
(c) If the intensity at point P corresponds to a distance of 0.4 m from the lens. (2004; 4M)
maximum, calculate the minimum distance through
which the reflecting surface AB should be shifted 38. In a Young's double slit experiment, two wavelengths
so that the intensity at P again becomes maximum. of 500 nm and 700 nm were used. What is the minimum
distance from the central maximum where their maximas
34. In the figure, light is incident on the thin lens as coincide again? Take D/d = 103 . Symbols have their
shown. The radius of curvature for both the surface is usual meanings. (2004; 4M)
R. Determine the focal length of this system.
(2003; 2M) 39. AB and CD are two slabs. The medium between the
slabs has refractive index 2. Find the minimum angle of

197
incidence of Q, so that the ray is totally reflected by
B D
both the stabs. (2005; 2M)
A Q = 2 B
60 60

60
=2
A E
C
P C p = 3 D
(a) Find the angle of incidence for which the deviation
of light ray by the prism ABC is minimum.
40. A ray of light is incident on a prism ABC of refractive
(b) By what angle the second prism must be rotated.
index 3 as shown in figure. (2005; 4M) so that the final say suffer net minimum deviation.

## MATCH THE COLUMN

1. Some laws/processes are given in Column I. Match these with the physical phenomena given in Column II.
Column I Column II
(A) Intensity of light received by lens (p) radius of aperture (R)
(B) Angular magnification (q) dispersion of lens
(C) Length of telescope (r) focal length f0, fe
(D) Sharpness of image (s) spherical aberration

2. An optical component and an object S placed along its optic axis are given in Column I. The distanc between the
object and the component can be varied. The propertices of images are given in Column II. Match all the properties
of images from Column II with the appropriate components given in Column I. Indicate your answer by darkening
the appropriate bubbles of the 4 4 matrix given in the ORS
Column I Column II

## (D) (s) Image at infinity

3. Column I shows four situations of standard Young's double slit arrangment with the screen placed far away from
the slits S1 and S2. In each of these cases S1P0 = S2P0, S1P1 - S2P1 = /4 and S1P2 - S2P2 = /3, where is the wavelength
of the light used. In the cases B, C and D, a transparent sheet of refractive index and thickness t is pasted on
slit S2. The thicknesses of the sheets are different in different cases. The phase difference between the light waves
reaching a point P on the screen from the two slits is denoted by (P) and the intensity by I(P). Match each situation
given in Column I with the statement(s) in Column II valid for that situation.
Column - I Column - II
(A) (p) (P0) = 0

P2
S2 P1
P0
S1

198
(B) ( - 1) t = /4 P2
(q) (P1) = 0
S2 P1
P0
S1

P2
S2 P1
P0
S1

S2 P1
P0
S1

## ASSERTION AND REASON

This section contains, statement I (assertion) and
statement II (reasons).
1. Statement-I : The formula connecting u, v and f for a 1. Light travels as a : (2007; 4M)
spherical mirror is valid only for mirrors whose sizes (a) parallel beam in each medium
are very small compared to their radii of curvature. (b) convergent beam in each medium
(2007; 3M) (c) divergent beam in each medium
Because : (d) divergent beam in one medium and covergent
Statement II : Laws of reflection are strictly valid for beam in the other medium
plane surfaces, but not for large spherical surfaces. 2. The phases of the light wave at c, d, e, and f are c,
(a) Statement-I is true, statement-II is true; statement- d , e and f respectively. It is given that e f .
II is a correct explanation for statement -I (2007; 4M)
(b) Statement-I is true, statement-II is true; statement- (a) c cannot be equal to d
II is NOT a correct explanation for statement -I (b) d can be equal to e
(c) Statement-I is true, statement-II is false (c) (d f ) is equal to (c e)
(d) Statement-I is false, statement-II is true (d) (d c) is not equal to (f e)

## COMPREHENSION 3. Speed of light is : (2007; 4M)

(a) the same in medium-1 and medium-2
Passage (b) large in medium-1 than in medium-2
The figure shows a surface XY separating two (c) large in medium-2 than in medium-1
transparent media, medium-I and medium-2. Teh lines (d) different at b and d
ab and cd represent wavefronts of a light wave travelling
in medium-I and incident on XY. The lines ef and gh
represent wavefronts of the light wave in medium-2
after refraction.
b d

Medium-1

X a Y
c
f h

Medium-2

e g
199
FILL IN THE BLANKS
1. 2 108 m/s, 4 107 m 2. 15
25
3. 4000, 5 1014 Hz 4. 2 5. 60 6.
9
7. 30 cm o the right of P. Image will be virtual 8. 1.5 9. zero

10. smaller 11. 12. 2.945 104
0 0
13. 0.125, 0.5 14. 15

TRUE/FALSE
1. T 2. F 3. T 4. T 5. F 6. T

## OBJECTIVE QUESTION (ONLY ONE OPTION)

1. (a) 2. (d) 3. (a) 4. (a) 5. (a) 6. (c) 7. (d)
8. (a) 9. (d) 10. (c) 11. (c) 12. (c) 13. (d) 14. (c)
15. (a) 16. (c) 17. (c) 18. (b) 19. (b) 20. (d) 21. (d)
22. (a) 23. (d) 24. (a) 25. (a) 26. (c) 27. (d) 28. (b)
29. (a) 30. (d) 31. (a) 32. (b) 33. (b) 34. (d) 35. (c)
36. (b) 37. (c) 37. (a) 38. (a) 39. (b) 40. (b) 41. (b)
42. (b) 43. (a) 44. (b) 45. (c) 46. (d) 47. (c) 48. (c)
49. (d) 50. (c) 51. (c) 52. (c) 53. (c) 54. (b) 55. (a)
56. (b) 57. (c)

## OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (MORE THAN ONE OPTION)

1. (b, d) 2. (a, c) 3.(b, d) 4. (a, b, c, d) 5. (a, c) 6. (b, c) 7. (c, d)
8. (a, b)

SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
1. (i) 15 cm (ii) 13.84 cm 2. 13.97 W/m2 3.5892 4. 75 cm
5. (i) 1.17 mm (ii) 1.56 mm 7. (i) 2 (ii) No 8. (i) 6mm, 5mm 9. 7 106 W

1
10. 11. (a) b = 8 105 ()2 (b) 4000 = 37, 3000 = 27.13 (C) 9I 12. 2
49
13. (i) 1 mm (ii) increase 15. (a) Slope = cot i (b) 4y1/4 = x (c) (4m, 1m) 16. 4200, 1.43

1 2 2
17. (i) i1 = sin 1 n n1 n1 (ii) 73 18. (i) 0.63 mm (ii) 1.579 m
2
19. 0.4 m, 0.6 m 20. 7 106 m, 16, 5.71 105 m 21. 0.9 m from the lens (rightwards) or 0.1 m behind the
mirror
3
22. 9.3 m 23. (a) 600 nm (b) sin 1 24. (a) + 0.26 m, + 1.13 m (b) 0.26 m, 1.13 m
4
3I max 1 4
25. (a) 4.33 mm (b) I = = (c) 650 nm; 433.33 nm 26. \$ \$ \$
(3i+4j5k) 27.
4 5 2 3

1
28. 15 cm, 3/2 29.2t = n 2 with = 1.8 and n = 1, 2, 3..., 99 nm, tmin = 90 nm

200
30. (i) 4 (ii) 0.04 31. 2 cm above point Q on side CD, = 1.0016 32. 1.6
1 3 R
33. (a) circular (b) (c) 300nm 34. 35. (a) zero (b) 1500 36. 6.06 m
16 3 1
37. 0.09 m/s, 0.3/s 38. 3.5 mm 39. 60 40. (a) 60 (b) 60

## MATCH THE COLUMN

1. A-p, B-r, C-r, D-p, q, s.
2. A-p, q, B-q, C-p, q, r, s, D-p, q, r, s.
3. A-p, s; B-q; C-t; D-r, s, t.

## ASSERTION AND REASON

1. (c)

COMPREHENSION
1. (a) 2. (c) 3. (b)

SOLUTIONS

## FILL IN THE BLANKS

Frequency remains unchanged.
c 3 10 8
1. v = = = 2.0 108 m/s 4. In case of YDSE, at mid-point intensity will be Imax =
1.5 4I0 . In the second case when sources are incoherent,
v 2.0 108 the intensity will be I = I0 + I0 = 2I0
= = = 4.0 107 m
f 5.0 1014 4I 0
Therefore, the desired ratio is 2I = 2
0
2. At I1 , second focus of convex lens should coincide Here I0 is the intensity due to one slit.
with first focus of concave lens.
or
Power of combination of lens is zero. 1 1
5. fair = (1.51)
p = 0 = P1 + P2 dP1P2 R1 R2
1 1 d
0= + 1.5 1 1
20 5 100 fmedium = 1
4 / 3 R1 R2
Solving this, we get d = 15 cm
Dividing Eq. (2) by E. (1), we get
d
f medium
f air =4
ll
fmedium = 4fair = 4 15 = 60 cm

1
6. I 2 (in case of point source)
5cm r
20cm and I A2
1
? A
6000 r
3. medium = air = = 4000
1.5 A1 r2 25
or =
3.010 8 A2 = r1 9
v v
f = air = medium = = 5.0 1014 Hz
? air ? medium 6.0 107

201
7. Rays starting from O will suffer single refraction from
5f 5f
spherical surface APB. Therefore, applying or or OP' =
v=
2 2
+Ve Length of image of rod
2 A C
5f f
1 CP' = OP' OC = 2 f =
2 2
O
P E f /2
Magnification = = 1.5
f /3
B D Here, negative sign implies that image is inverted.
15cm
9. Let m be the angle of minimum deviation. Then
u 2 1 u2 1 A + m
= sin
v u R
= 2
1.0 2.0 1.02.0 sin( A /2)
=
v 15 10 (A = 60 for an equilateral prism)
1 1

1 60 + m
= sin
v 10 7.5 2
2 =
or v = 30 cm 60
sin
Therefore, image of O will be formed at 30 cm to the 2
right of P.
Note that image will be virtual. There will be no effect Solving this we get m = 30
of CED. The given deviation is also 30 (i.e. m )
Under minimum deviation, the ray inside the prism is
8. F = focus parallel to base for an equilateral prism.
C = centre of the curvature 10. The resolving power of a microscope is inversely
Image proportional to the wavelength of the wave used De-
Brogie matter wave is used in case of an electron
C microscope whose wavelength is less than the
P' P F O
wavelength of visible light used in optical microscope.
f 1
Object
3
11. Speed of light in vacuum, c =
0 0
When the object lies between F and C, image is real,
elongated and inverted. As one end of rod just touches 1
and speed of light in same medium, v =
its image, this end should lie at C. Because image of
object at C is at C itself. Therefore, refractive index of the medium is
Let P' be the image of other end of rod P.
For P : c 1/ e00
= = =
5f v 1/ e 0 0
u = (2f f/3) =
3 12. Given
Minima
1 1 1
Applying the mirror formula : v + u = f
y
1 3 1
or
v 5f = f Central
d
f maxima
1 3 1
y
= 5f f
v

Minima
202
2y = 2 103 m P P 1
y = 1 103 m I= = or I
S 2rl r
First minima is obtained at
2. At I1 , second focus of convex lens coincides with first
y focus of concave lens. Hence, rays will become parallel
d sin = but sin = tan = to the optic axis after refraction from both the lenses.
f

y
d = ll
f

f 5.89 10 7 0.5
d = =
y 1 103 0.75m 0.25m
= 2.945 104 m 1.0m

## 13. When the lenses are in contact, the power of the

3. Through a thin glass slab
system is ray of light almost passes
P = P1 + P2 or P1 + P2 = 10...(1) undeviated. A hollow
When lenses are separated by a distance d = 0.25 m prism can be assumed to Air
be made up of three thin
1 glass slabs as shown in
= m
4 figure.
The power is P = P1 + P2 d P1 P2
P1 P2
or P1 + P2 = 6 ...(2) 4. To obtain interference, source must be coherent. Two
4 different light sources can never be coherent.
Solving Eqs. (1) and (2), we can find that P1 = 8 dioptre
and P2 = 2 dioptre 5. With white light we ge coloured fringes (not only
1 black and white) with centre as white.
f1 = m = 0.125 m
8
6. Focal length of concave is less i.e., power of concave
A
lens will be more. Hence the combination will behave
like a concave lens. Further V is greater than all other
60 i2 colours. Hence, fV will be least.
i 1 = 90 r2

B C
R
1
f2 = m = 0.5 m Y
2

## 14. Ray falls normally on the face AB. Therefore, it will

pass undeviated through AB. OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (ONLY ONE OPTION)
r2 = 90 60 = 30
v
1. =
sin i2 f
= 2 = sin r
2 In moving from air to glass, f remains unchanged while
i2 = 45 v decreases. Hence, should decreases.
Deviation = i2 r2 = 45 30 = 15 D
(Deviation at face AC only) 2. =
d
TRUE FALSE d is halved and D is double
Fringe width will become four times.
1. At a distance r from a line source of power P and Correct option is (d).
length I, the intensity will be,
3. Let c be the critical angle at face AC, then

203
w = 4/3 = 8 R
sinc = C = sin 1 = sin 1 (tan r)
g 3/2 9 D
Angle of incidence at face AC is i = Correct option is (a).
Total internal reflection (TIR) will take place on this
( ) =( )
2 2
surface if. 6. Imax = I1 + I 2 4I + I = 9I
i > c
> c
( ) =( )
or 2 2
or sin > sin c Imin = I1 I 2 4I I = I
Correct option is (c)
B A
7. From the mirror formula :

1 1 1
+ =
v u f (f = constant) ....(1)
v2 dv u 2 du = 0

v2
or |dv| = | du |
u2
8 Here, |dv| = size of image
or sin >
9 |du| - size of object (short) lying along the axis = b
Correct option is (a) further, from Eq. (1), we can find
2
1 1 f v2
+
2 = u f
4. P = P1 + P2 =
f1 ( m) f2 ( m) u
1 1 Substituting these values in Eq. (2) we get
= = 1.5 D
0.4 0.25 2
f
Size of image = b
5. r + r' + 90 = 180 u f
Correct option is (d).

## 8. The colours for which i > c, will get total internal

reflection :
i r i > c or sin i > sin c
90 Denser A
Rarer
r'

i
i=r

45
r' = 90 r B C
Further, i=r i = 45
Applying Snell's law, 1 1 1
or sin 45 > or >
D sin i = R sin r' 2
or D sin r = R sin (90 r) = R cos r
or for which > 2 or > 1.414
R
= tan r Hence, the rays for which > 1.414 will get TIR
D For green and blue > 1.414 so, they will suffer TIR
on face AC only red comes out from this face.
Correct option is (a).

204
9. O e Linear magnification for L2
v f ( f d) 1 f2
m= = 2 1 . =
u f2 + f 2 d f1 d f2 + f 1 d
P1 l1 P2
Therefore, second image will be formed at a distance
f0 fe
f2
of m or below its optic axis.
f2 + f 1 d
35cm

## Therefore, y - coordinate of the focus of system will

be
P1 I2 = 36 cm
f0 + fe = 36 ....(1) f 2 .
y=
Further angular magnification is given as 5. Therefore, +
2 f1 d
f
f0
( f1 d ).
fe = 5 ...(2)
or y= f + f d
2 1
Solving Eqs. (1) and (2), we get
f0 = 30 cm and fe = 6 cm 12. Spherical aberration is caused due to spherical nature
Correct option is (d). of lens. Paraxial and marginal rays are focussed at
different place on the axis of the lens. Therefore, image
10. Deviation : d = ( 1) A so formed is blurred. This aberration can be reduced
Given net = 0 by either stopping paraxial rays or marginal rays,
(1 1)A1 = (2 1)A2 which can be done by using a circular annular mark
( 1 1) (1.541) over the lens.
or A2 = ( 1 A1 = (1.721) (4) = 3 e
2
Correct option is (c).
11. From the first lens parallel beam of light is focussed at
its focus i.e.. at a distance f1 from it. This image I1 acts
as virtual object for second lens L2 . Therefore, for L2 .
Paraxial rays Marginal rays
y f (f d)
y= 2 1 13. For first dark fringe on either side d sin =
f2 + f 1 d
dy D
or =l y =
I2 D d
x
O I1 Therefore, distance between two dark fringes on either
2 D
L1
L2 side = 2y =
f1 d
d Substituting the values, we have
f1
2(60010 6 mm)(2103 mm)
u = + (f1 d), f = + f2 distance = = 24 mm
(1.0mm)
1 1 1 1 1 Dark
= f +u = f + f d
v 2 1
y
f 2 ( f1 d )
Hence, v=
f2 + f1 d

d
D
f 2 ( f1 d )
x =d+ v=d+
f2 + f1 d
sin = y/D
f1 f2 + d ( f1 d)
= Dark
f1 + f 2 d

205
14. The diagrammatic representation of the given problem A diminished real image is formed by a convex lens
is shown in figure. when the object is placed beyond 2 f and the image of
such object is formed beyond 2 f on other side.
Thus, d > (df + 2f)
i r or 4f < 0.1 m
o4 f < 0.25 m
120

17. Path difference between the opposite edges is .
For a phase difference of 2, we gets a path difference
i
of .

P
A
From figure it follows that i = A = 30
From Snell's law, we written O O'
n 1 sin i = n 2 sin r
or sin r =
B
Now = r i = sin 1 (0.72) 30
= 2() = 2 {sin 1 (0.72) 30}
18. The focal length of conbination is given by
15. Since, the final image is formed at infinity, the image
formed by the objective wil;l be at the focal point of 1 1 1 1 1 1
= = +
the eyepiece, which is 3.0 cm. The image formed by the F 40 25 F F1 F2
objective will be at a distance of 12.0 cm (= 15.0 cm
3.0 cm) from the objective. 200 2
O E V= or F= cm = m
3 3
Power of the combination in dioptres,

3 1
O P= P = F (m )
2
= 1.5
12.0m 3m

## 15.0m 19. In general spherical aberration is minimum when the

total deviation produced by the system is equally
If u is the distance of the object from the objective, we
divided on all refracting surfaces. A planoconvex lens
have
is used for this purpose. In order that the total deviation
1 1 1 be equally divided on two surfaces, it is essential that
+ =
u v f more parallel beam (or the incident and refracted) be
incident on the convex side. Thus, when the object is
1 1 1 far away from the lens, incident rays will be more
+ =
u 12.0 2.0 parallel than the refracted rays, therefore, the object
should face the convex side, but if the object is near
(1.20)(2.0) 24.0 the lens, the object should face the plane side. This
u = = = 2.4 cm
12.02.0 10.0 has been shown in figure.
First
16. Image can be formed on the screen if it is real. Real minimum
image of reduced size can be formed by a concave P
mirror or a convex lens as shown in figure.
A

b O
t B D
1 2t
O
C F O 2f f

1m
20. At first minima, b sin =
C
1m
206
or b = 23. Diffraction is obtained when the slit width is of the
order of wavelength of light (or any electromagnetic
y
or b = wave) used. Here, wavelength of X-r a y s
D (1 100) < < slit width (0.6 mm). Therefore, no
D diffraction pattern will be observed.
or y=
b
24. Locus of equal path difference are the lines running
yb parallel to the axis of the cylinder. hence, straight
or = sin = 0 ...(1) fringes are obtained.
D
Now, at P (First minima) path difference between the
Note : Circular rings (also called Newton's rings) are
rays reaching from two edges (A and B) will be
observed in intereference pattern when a plano-convex
yb yb lens of large focal length is placed with its convex
x = (Compare with x = in YDSE)
D D surface in contact with a plane glass plate because
or x = (From Eq. 1) locus of equal path difference in this case is a circle.
Corresponding phase difference (f) will be
2 25. R1 = R, R2 = + R, g = 1.5 and m = 1.75
= .x
1 g 1 1
= 1
2 f m 1
R R2
f= . = 2

R1 R2
21. The ray digram is shown in figure. Therefore, the
iamge will be real and between C and O.
Normal at P will
pass through C
C C

## Substituting the values, we have

Image 1 1.5 1 1 1
= 1 =
f 1. 75 R R 3. 5R
P O

O
f = + 3.5R
Therefore, in the medium it will behave like a convergent
22. Let us say PO = OQ = x lens of focal length 3.5 R. It can be understood as,
u n > g , the lens will change its behaviour.
1 = 1.0 2 = 1.5

## P 26. The ray diagram is a as follows :

O Q
B
FO A' E

+ve A A'' O F0
B'

2 2 2 1
Appling =
v u R
Substituting the values with sign
B''
1.5 1.0 1.51.0
= From the figure it is clear that image formed by objective
+X X +R (or the intermediate image) is real, inverted and
(Distance are measured from O and are taken as positive magnified.
in the direction of ray of light)
2.5 0.5 27. The len Makers' formula is :
=
X R 1 nL 1 1
X = 5R = 1
f nm R1 R2

207
where n L = Refractive index of lens and 30. The ray diagram will be as follows :
n m = Refractive index of medium. G
In case of double concave lens, R1 is negative and R2
C
A D
1 1
H
is positive. Therefore, will be negative. For
R1 R2
d S
the lens to be diverging in nature, focal length f should

n
be negative or L 1 should be positive or n L > n m B E
I
m
n L F
but since n 2 > n 1 (given), therefore, the lens should be r
filled with L2 and immersed in L1 . J

## 28. The path of rays become parallel to initial direction as HI = AB = d

they emerge. d
Applying Snell is law at P DS = CD =
2
d
sin
1
sin GH = 2CD = 2 = d
2n = 2 , at Q, n = 2 2
sin 2 sin Similarly, IJ = d
O GJ = GH + HI + IJ
= d + d + d = 3d

31. Rays come out only from CD, means rays after
i i refraction from AB get total internally reflected at AD.
A D From the figure :
r r
A D

r2

r1
max
n1
r B n2 C
B E
C i i
F r1 + r2 = 90
r1 = 90 r2
29. In intereference we know that (r1 )max = 90 (r2 )min and (r2 )min = C (for total
Imax = ( I1 + I 2 )2 and Imin = ( I1 ~ I 2 )2
Under normal conditions (when the width of both the n2 n2
where sinC= n or C = sin 1
slits are equal) 1 n1
I1 = I2 = I (say)
(r1 )max = 90 C
Imax = 4I and Imin = 0
Now applying Snell's law at face AB :
When the width of one of the slits is increased.
Intensity due to that slit would increase, while that of n1 sin max sin max sin max
=
the other will remain same. So, let : n2 = sin(r1 ) max = sin(90 C ) cos C
I1 = I and I2 = I ( > I)
n1
Then, Imax = I (1 + )2 > 4I or sin max = cosC
n2

( )
2
and Imin = I 1 > 0 n1
max = sin 1 cos C
Intensity of both maxima and minima is increased. n2

n1 1 n2
= sin 1 cossin
n2 n1

208
32. I () = I1 + I2 + 2 I1I 2 cos ..(1) Note : The Snell's law, which the students read in their
Here, I1 = I and I2 = 4I sin i
plus two syllabus = sin r comes from sin i =

At point A, = IA = I + 4I = 5I
2 constant
At point B, = IB = I + 4I 4I = 5I
IA IB = 4I 1 = 1, 1 sin i1 = 2 sin i2

## Note : Eq. (1) for resultant intensity can be applied

only when the sources are coherent. In the question
it is given that the rays interfere. Interference takes i
1
place only when the sources are coherent. That is why 2
we applied equation number (1). When the sources are r
incoherent, the resultant intensity is given by I = I1 +
I2

D
33. Fringe width, =
d
When the wavelength is decreased from 600 nm to 400 2 = , or sin i = sin r
4
nm, fringe width will also decrease by a factor of or
6 sin i
or = sin r
2
or the number of fringes in the same segment will
3 35. Figure (a) is part of an equilateral prism of figure (b)
increase by a factor of 3/2. as shown in figure which is a magnified image of figure
Therefore, number of fringes observed in the same (c). Therefore, the ray will suffer the same deviation in
figure (a) and figure (c).
3
segment = 12 = 18
2

## Note : Since , therefore, if YDSE apparatus is

immersed in a liquid of refractive index , the
wavelength and thus the fringe width will decrease Q Q
times.

## 34. Applying Snell's law at B and C,

P R
P R
sin i = constant or
(a) (b)
1 sin iB = 4 sin iC
But AB| |CD
iB = iC
or 1 = 4

1 4 (c)

## D Note : Question are often asked based on part of a

i
B prism For example, section shown in figure (a) is part
i C of a prism shonw in figure (c).
A

36. PQ = QR = 2h i = 45
ST = RT = h = KM = MN

209
So, KS = h2 + (2h2 ) = h 5 I 2 3
= = 30
d 0.2/ 3
h 1
sin r = = Therefore maximum number of reflection are 30.
h 5 5
40. PR = d
P PO = d sec
and CO = PO cot 2= d sec cos 2
h
path difference between the two rays is,
2h x = CO + PO = (d sec + d sec cos 2)
S
phase difference between the two rays is
i
r = (one is reflected, while another is direct)
R Therefore, condition for constructive interference should
2h T Q
be)
O R
M
K N
2h
sin i sin45
5
= sin r = = C
1/ 5 2

1 1 1
37. = ( 1) A P
f 1
R R2

1 B
For no dispersion, d = 0 3
f x = , .....
2 2
1 1
or d =0
1
R R2
or d cos (1 + cos 2) =
2
or R1 = R2
d
38. Path difference due to slab should be integral multiple or (2cos2 ) =
of or x = n cos 2
or ( 1)t = n n = 1, 2, 3, ...
or cos =
n 4d
or t=
1
For minimum value of t, n = 1 41. Image formed by convex lens at I1 will acg as a virtual
object for concave lens. For concave lens

t = 1 = 1.51 = 2
ll
0.2
39. d = 0.2 tan 30 = l2
3
l=2 3
26cm 4cm

B 1 1 1
=
v u f
0.2m
1 1 1
30

=
30

A or
v 4 20
or v = 5 cm
Magnification for concave lens

210
v 5
= = 1.25 400 560
m= (2n 1) = (2m 1)
u 4 2 2
As size of the image at I1 is 2 cm. Therefore, size of
2n 1 7 14
images at I2 will be 2 1.25 = 2.5 cm or = = = ....
2m 1 5 10
42. Applying i.e., 4th minima of 400 nm coincides with 3rd minima of
Snell's law ( sin i = constant) 560 nm.
at 1 and 2, we have Locaion of this minima is,

(2 41)(1000)(400 106 )
Y1 =
Air 2 0.4
r = 14 mm
Next 11th minima of 400 nm will coincide with 8th
minima of 560 nm.
r Location of this minima is,
Water
Glass (2 111)(1000)(400 106 )
+ Y2 =
i
2 0.1
= 42 mm
Required distance of Y2 Y1 = 28 mm
1 sin i1 = 2 sin i2 Hence, the correct option is (2).
Here, 1 = glass , i1 = i
2 = glass = 1 and i2 = 90

g sin i = (1) (sin 90) 47. I = Imax cos 2
2
1
or ug =
sin i I max
= Imax cos 2
4 2
1 1
43. CriticalangleC = sin 1 cos =
2 2
Wavelength increases in the sequence of VIBGYOR.
According to Cauchy's formula refractive index () or =
2 3
decreases as the wavelength increases. Hence the
refractive index will increases in the sequence of 2 2
ROYGBIV. The critical angle C will thus increase in the = = x ...(1)
3
same order VIBGYOR. For green light the incidence
angle is just equal to the critical angle. For yellow, where x = d sin
orange and red the critical angle will be greater than Substituting in Eq. (1), we get
the incidence angle. So, these colours will emerge from
the glass air interface. sin =
3d
Hence, the correct option is (a).

44. During minimum deviation the ray inside the prism is or = sin 1
3d
parallel to the base of the prism in case of an equilateral
Hence, the correct option is (b). 48. Distance of object from mirror
33.24
45. When the object is placed at the centre of the glass = 15 + = 40 cm
sphere, the rays fro the object fall normally on the 1.33
surface of the sphere and emerge undeviated. Distance of image from mirror
Henc, the correct opion is (c). 25
= 15 + = 33. 8 cm
46. Let nth minima of 400 nm coincides with mth minima 1.33
of 560 nm, then

211
1 1 1
From the mirror, + = f
v u f
1 1 1 52. r
+ =
33.8 40 f
f = 18.3 cm r = f tan
Most suitable answer is (c). or rf
r 2 f 2
49. Let focal length of convex lens isf,+lens length of
3 53. Since < C , both reflection and refraction will take
concave lens would be f . place. From the figure we can see that angle between
2
reflected and refracted rays is less than 180 2.
From the given condition,
1 1 2 1
= =
30 f 3 f 3 f
f = 10 cm
Air
Therefore, focal length of convex lens = + 10 cm and
that of concave lens = 15 cm Waterq

## 50. Combination = 2P2 + PM

1 2 15
= f Option (c) is correct
f 15 2
Using mirror formula, 54. Since object and image move in opposite directions,
1 1 1 1 1 2 the positioning should be as shown in the figure.
+ = = Object lies between focus and centre of curvature
v u f v 25 15
f < x < 2f.
v = 12 cm
51. From the lens formula : Image
1 1 1
= Object
right
f v u we have
left
1 1 1 Correct option is (b).

f = 10 10
55. At minimum deviation ( = m) :
or f=+ 5
u = 0.1 A 60
Further, r1 = r2 = = = 30 (For both colours)
and v = 0.1 (from the graph) 2 2
Now, differentiating the lens formula we have, Correct option is (a).
f v u
2 = + 56. Critical angle from region III to region IV
2
f v u2
n0 / 8 3
v u sin ? C = =
f = 2 + 2 f
2 n0 / 6 4
or
v u
Substituting the values we have, 1 1 3 1
or sin ? = sin ? C = =
0.1 0.1 2
6 6 4 8
f = 2 + 2 (5)
10 10 1 1
= 0.05 ? = sin
8
f + f = 5 + 0.05
Correct option is (b).

212
57. Let speed of ball in air at height of 12.8 m from water 3. When upper half of the lens is covered, image is
surface be u. formed by the rays coming from lower half of the lens.
Or image will be formed by less number of rays.
u = 2 gh = 2 10 7 .2 = 12 = 12 m/s
Therefore, intensity of image will decrease. But complete
4 image will be formed.
Speed of ball as observed by fish is u = 16 m/s
3
4. Distance between objective and eyepiece
(c) L = f0 + fe = (16 + 0.02) m = 16.02 m
Angular magnification
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (MORE THAN ONE OPTION) M = f0 / fe= 16/0.02 = 800
2 Image is inverted and objective is large than the
I max ( I1 + I 2 ) 2 I1 / I 2 + 1
1. = = = 9 (Given)
eyepiece.
I min ( I1 I 2 )2 I 2 / I 2 1

5. The intensity of light is I () = I0 cos 2
I1 2
Solving this, we have I = 4
2
2 2
( x ) = ( d sin )
2
where =
But I A2
A1 (i) for = 30
= 2
A2 c 3 108
= = = 300 m and d = 150 m
Correct options are (b) and (d). v 106

2. At P (directly infront of S 1 ) 2 1
= (150) =
300 2 2
y= b
2
Path difference. =
2 4
d
I0
I () = I0 cos 2 = (option a)
4 2
(ii) For = 90
P
S1 b 2
b y=
2 = (150) (1) =
S2 300
or
and I () = 0

(iii) For = 0, = 0 or = 0
b 2
y.(b) ( b)
X = S 2 P S 1 P = 2 b2 I () = I0 (Option c)
d = =
d 2d
Those wavelengths will be missing for which 1 1 1
6. For a lens : v u = f
1 3 2 5 3
X = , , .....
2 2 2

b2
1 = 2X =
d

2X b2 O I
2 = =
3 3d

2X b 2
3 = =
3 5d
Correct option are (a) and (c).
213
1 1 1 2 1 2 1
i.e. = f +u v

u
=
R
v
For a concave lens f and u are negative i.e., v will With proper signs :
always be negative and image will always be virtual. 1.5 1 1.51 1 3 1 8
For a mirror : = or = =
20 x 60 x 40 120 120
120
x=
= 15 cm
8
(ii) Now, before striking with the concave surface, the ray
O I is frist refracted fro a plane surface. So, let x be the
distance of pin, then the plane surface will form its
4
image at a distance x (h
1 1 1 app. = h) from it.
+ = 3
v u f
2 1 2 1
Now, using = with proper signs,
1 1 1 v u R
i.e. = f u
v
1.5 4/3 1.54/3
Here, f is positive and u is negative for a convex mirror. we have 20 ( 4 / 3x) =
60
Therefore, v is always positive and image is always
virtual. 1 3 1 26
or = + =
x 40 360 360
7. For total internal reflection to take place :
Angle of incidence, i > critical angle, C
or sin i > sin C 2. Resultant intensity at P :
IP = IA + IB + IC
1
or sin 45 > PA PB
n = + cos 60 + IC cos 60
4 ( PA) 2
4( PB ) 2
1 1
or > 90 180
2 n = + cos 60 + 20 cos 60
4(3) 2
4(1.5) 2
or n> 2
= 0.79 + 3.18 + 10
or n > 1.414
= 13.97 W/m2
Therefore, possible values of n can be 1.5 or 1.6 in the
given options.
3. Shifting of fringes due to introduction of slab in the
path of one of the slits, comes out to be,
8. for d = , there will be only one, central maxima.
For < d < 2, there will be three maximas on the (1)tD
screen coresponding to path difference, y = ...(1)
d
x = 0 and x = . Now, the distance between the screen and slits is
Correct options are (a) and (b), doubled. Hence, new fringe width will become

## SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (2D )

' = ....(2)
d
1. (i) Image of object will coincide with it if ray of light
after refraction from the concave surface fall normally Given, y = '
on concave mirror so formed by silvering the convex ( 1)tD 2D
surface. Or image after refraction from concave surface or =
d d
shold form at centre of curvature of concave mirror or
at a distance of 20 cm on same side of the combination. (1) t (1.61)(1.964 106 )
= =
Let x be the distance of pin from the given optical 2 2
system. Applying. = 0.5892 106 m
= 5892

214
4. Refer figure (a) :
1 D
y1 = 31 = 3
d

## (3)(6500 1010 )(1.2)

4cm 4cm =
(2 103 )
= 11.7 104 m = 1.17 mm
O O (ii) Let n 1 bright fringe of 1 coincides with n 2 bright
(a) (b)
fringe of 2 . Then,
In the case refraction of the rays starting from O takes
n11D n2 2 D
place from a plane surface. So, we can use =
d d
dactual
d app = n1 2 5200 4
or = = =
n2 1 6500 5
4
or 3= Therefore, 4th bright fringe of 1 coincide with 5th
bright fringe of 2 . Similarly, 8th bright fringe of 1 will
4 coincide with 10th bright fringe of 2 and so on. The
or = least distance from the central maximum will therefore
3
corresponding to 4th bright fringe of 1 (or 5th bright
Refer figure (b) : In this case refraction takes place of 2 ). Hence,
from a spherical surface. Hence, applying
41 D 4( 6500 10 10)(1.2)
Ymin = = 3
= 15 .6 10 4 m
d ( 2 10 )
1 2 = 1.56 mm

n1
6. Given is slightly greater than sin 1
n2
(i) When n3 < n1 :
2 1 2 1
=
v u R n3 n1 n3 n2
i.e., n 3 < n 1 < n 2 or n < n or sin 1 < sin 1
we have, 2 2 n2 n1
1 4/3 14/3 Hence, critical angle for III and II will be less than the
=
(25/8) 4 R critical angle for II and I. So, if TIR is taking palce
between I and II, then TIR will definitely take place
1 1 8 1 between I and III.
or = =
3R 3 25 75 (ii) When n3 < n1 : Now two cases may arise :
R = 25 cm Case I : n 1 < n 3 < n 2
Now, to find the focal length we will use the lens In this case there will be no TIR between I and III but
Maker's formula : TIR will take place between III and II. This is because:

1 1 1 I
= ( 1)
f R1 R2 III i
i
P
4 1 1 II
= 1 i >
3 25
1 Ray of light first enters from II to III i.e., from denser
=
75 to rarer
f = 75 cm i>
Applying Snell's law at P :
25. (i) The desired distance will be : n 2 sin = n 3 sin i

215
n2 x + y = 90, 90 > 2ic
or sin i = sin ic < 45
n3
n1
Since, sin is slightly greater than n A
2 B
A B
n2 n1 n1
sin i is slightly greater than n n or n P Q
3 2 3
C
n1
but n is nothing but sin (c)I,III (ii) To the refractive index of the medium for this
3
happen
or TIR will now take place on I and III and the ray will
1 1
be reflected back. = = = 2
Case 2 : n 1 < n 2 < n 3 sin ic sin 45
This time while moving from II to III, ray of light will
5 1 1 3
bend towards normal. Again applying Snell's law at P: For = 3 , sin ic 1 = = 5 / 3 = 5 ,
B
ic = 37, y = 30 (Given)
I
III i x = 60 , x > ic
i
but y < ic
II P
i> Total internal reflection will take place on face
AC but not on BC.
n 2 sin = n 3 sin i
n2
sini = n sin 8.
3
P Q
n1
Since, sin slightly greater than n
2

n2 n1 n1
sin i will be slightly greater than n n or n 2 1 2 1

3 2 3 Applying = , one by one on two
v u R
n1 spherical surfaces.
but n is sin (c)I,III First on left surfaces :
3
i.e, sin i > sin (c)I,III 1 4/3 14/3

or i > (c)I,III v1 = +2
Therefore, TIR will again take place between I and III
and the ray will be reflected back. 1 1
or
v1 = 6
Note : Case I and case III of n 3 > n 1 can be explained
or v1 = 6mm
by one equation only. But two cases are deliberately
i.e., first image will be formed at 6 mm towards left of
formed for better understanding of refraction, Snell's
P.
law and total internal reflection (TIR).
Second on right surface : Now, distance of first image
7. Let x is the incident angle for reflection at AC. For total I1 from Q will be 10 mm (towards left).
internal reflection x > ic (critical angle). 4/3 1 4/31

Let y be the incident angle of the ray on face BC. For v2 10 = 2
Total internal reflection y > ic
4 1 1 4
=
x + y > 2ic , But x = CA and y = CB or 3v2 = 6 10 15
or v2 = 5mm

216
(ii) The ray diagram is shown in figure.
2
Q 91 32
P 64 64 31
16
1
91
I2 C 1 16
I1 4 31
4
6mm 2mm 2mm
5mm Interference pattern is to take place between rays 1
and 2
I1 = 1/4 and I2 = 9I/64
Note :
2
I min I1 I 2 1
(i) At P and Q both normal will pass through C. = =

I1 + I 2
I max 49
(ii) At P ray of light is travelling from a denser medium
(water) to rare medium (air) therefore, ray of light will 11. (a) Total internal reflecion (TIR) will take place first for
bend away from the normal and on extending meet at the wavelength for which critical angle is small or is
I1 . Similarly at Q, ray of light bends towards the large.
A
normal.

## 9. Power received by aperture A. i=

( )
PA = I rA
2 10

= () (0.001)2 = 105 W B
C
From the given expression of , it is more for the
Power received by aperture, B wavelength for which value of is less.
Thus, condition of TIR is just satisfied for 4000
( )
PB = I rB
2 =
10

() (0.002)2 = 4 105 W or
or
i = c for 4000
= c
Only 10% of PA and PB goes to the original direction. or sin = sinc
Hence,
1
% of PA = 106 = P1 (say) and or 0.8 = (for 4000)
% of PB = 4 106 = P2 (say)
Path difference created by slab :
x = ( 1)t = (1.5 1) (2000) = 1000 1
or 0.8 =
Corresponding phase difference, b
1.20 +
2 2 (4000)2
= x = 1000 =
6000 3 Solving this equation, we get
Now, resultant power at the focal point : b = 8.0 105 ()2

P = P1 + P2 + 2 P1 P2 cos A A

= 106 + 4 106 + 2 (10 6 )(4 106 ) cos
3 = 90 i
i i
=7 106 W (b)

C C
10. Each plate reflects 25% and transmits 75%. B For 4000 B For 5000
Incident beam has an intensity I. This beam undergoes
For, 4000 condition of TIR is just satisfied. Hence, it
multiple reflections and refractions. The corresponding
will emerge from AC, just grazingly.
intensity after each reflection and refraction
or, 84000 = 90 i = 90 sin1 (0.8) = 37
(transmission) are shown in fiugre.

217
(r)max = c or (r')min = (90 c)
b 8.0 105 Now, if minimum value of r' i.e., 90 c is greater than
For 5000 : = 1.2 + 2 = 1.2 + = 1.232
(5000)2 Qc, then obviously all value of r' will be greater than
Qc i.e., total internal reflection will take place at face AB
sin iair
Applying = in all conditions. Therefore, the necessary conditions is
sin imedium (r')min c or (90 c) c
or sin (90 c) sin c
sin iair sin iair cos c sin c
or 1.232 == = or
sin 0.8 or cot c 1
iair = 80.26
5000 = iair imedium = 80.26 sin1 (0.8) = 27.13
or n 2 1 1
or n2 2
P r or n 2
R
i 1 Therefore, minimum value of n is 2
i r
(c)
2 13. (i) For the lens, u = 0.15m; f = + 0.10 m
S
1 1 1
Path difference between rays 1 and 2 : Therefore, using v u = f we have
x = (QS) PR ....(1)
1 1 1 1 1
QS = + +
Further
PS
= sin i v u f = (0.15) (0.10)
or v = 0.3 m
PR
= sin r v 0.3
PS Linear magnification, m = = = 2
u 0.15
PR / PS sin r
= Hence, two images S 1 and S 2 of S will be formed at 0.3
QS / PS = sin i m from the lens as shown in figure. Image S 1 due to
(QS) = PR part 1 will be formed at 0.5 mm above its optic axis
Substituting in Eq. (1), we get x = 0 (m = 2). Similarly, S 2 due to part 2 is formed 0.5 mm
Phase difference between rays 1 and 2 will be zro. below the optic axis of this part as shown.
Or these two rays will interfere constructively. So, Hence, d = distance between S 1 and S 2 = 1.5 mm
maximum intensity will be obtained from their D = 1.30 0.30 = 1.0 m = 103 mm
interference. = 500 nm = 5 104 mm
Therefore, fringe width,
or Imax = ( I1 + I 2 ) 2 = ( 4I + I ) 2 = 9I
D ( 5 10 4 )(10 3 )
1 = = mm
12. sin c = ( = critical angle) d (1.5)
n c
1
= mm
3
Now, as the point A is at the third maxima
n
1 1
OA = 3 = 3 mm
3
c
n2 1 or OA = 1mm
r' = 90 r
(r') = 90 r Note : The language of the question is slightly
(r')min = 90 (r)max confusing. The third intensity maximum may be
understood as second order maximum (zero order, first
sin(i )max sin90 order and the second order). In that case
and n = sin( r ) = sin( r ) ( imax = 90)
max max 1
OA = 2 = 2 mm = 0.67 mm .
1 3
Then, sin (r)max = = sin c
n
218
(ii) If the gap between L1 and L2 is reduced, d will media is parallel to x-axis or normal at any point
decrease. Hence, the fringe width will increase will be parallel to y-axis.
or the distance OA will increase.
y

A P
1 S1 0.5mm
S 0.25mm
O
0.25m B (x, y)

t=0
2 1.5m
S2

x
A
D = 1.0m
0.15m 0.3m
1.3m Secondly, refractive index increases as y is increased.
14. Steps (i) In case of a lens Therefore, ray of light is travelling from rarer to denser
medium i.e., it will bend towards the normal and shape
X of its trajectory will be as shown below.
L

A F B
Normal
O

Y

## (a) Join X and Y. The point O, where the line XY cuts

the optic axis AB, is the optical centre of the lens. Now, refer to figure (1):
(b) Draw a line parallel to AB from point X. Let it cuts Let i be the angle of incidence at any point B on its
the lens at L. Join L and Y. The point F where the path
line LY cuts the optic axis AB is the focus of the = 90 i
lens F. or tan = tan (90 i) = cot i
Note : As the image is inverted, lens should be a or slope = cot i
convex because lens always forms a virtual and erect dy
image. (b) but tan =
dx
(ii) In case of a concave mirror
dy
Y' = cot i ...(1)
dx
X
Applying Snell's law at A and B
F C B
O A
P
n A sin i A = nB sin iB
n A = 1 because y = 0
Y
sin iA = 1 because iA = 90 (Grazing incidence)
(a) Draw a line YY perpendicular to AB from point
Y. Let it cuts the line AB at point P. Locate a nB = Ky3 / 2 + 1
point Y Such that PY = PY.
(b) Extend the line XY. Let it cuts the line AB at = y 3/ 2 + 1 because K = 1.0(m) 3/ 2
point O. Then O is the pole of the mirror.
1
(c) Join X and Y. The point C, where the line XY (1)(1) = ( y 3 / 2 + 1) sin i
1
+
y 3/2

## cuts the optic axis AB, is the centre of curvature

1
of the mirror. sin i =
or i
(d) The centre point F of OC is the focus of the y 3/2
+1
mirror. y3/2

## 15. (a) Refractive index is a function of y. It varies cot i = y 3/ 2 or y3 / 4 ...(2)

along y-axis i.e., the boundary separating two Equating equations (1) and (2), we get

219
dy 6000
= y3 / 4 or y 3/ 4 dy = dx 4200 =
dx
y x
6000
or
0

y 3 / 4dy = dx
0
=
4200
or = 1. 429 1.43

## or 4 y1/ 4 = x ...(3) 17. (i) Critical angle c at face AC will be given by

n n
The required equation of trajectory is 4 y1/ 4 = x. c = sin 1 1 or sin c = 1
n n
(c) At point P, where the ray emerges from the slab
y = 1.0 m Now, it is given that r2 = c
x = 4.0 m [From Eq. 3) r1 = A r2 = ( 45 c )
Therefore, coordinates of point P are
Applying Snell's law at face AB, we have
P = (4.0 m, 1.0 m)
(d) As n A sin i A = nP sin iP and n A = nP = 1 sin i1
n=
sin r1 or sin i1 = n sin r1
Therefore, iP = i A = 90 i.e., the ray will emerge parallel
to the boundary at P i.e., at grazing emergence. i1 = sin 1( n sin r1)

## 16. (a) (i) Given = 6000 A

Let be the width of slit and D the distance between
screen and slit. 45
r2 n1
First minima
I1 r1 n

45
B C

f Substituting value of r1, we get

## i1 = sin 1{n sin(45 c )}

= sin 1{n(sin 45 cosc cos45 sin c )}

n n
First minima is obtained at b sin = = sin 1 ( 1 sin 2 c sin c sin c = 1
or b = sin 2 n

n 1 n1 n1
2
or = = sin 1

b
2 n
2
n

2
Angular width of first maxima = 2 =
b 1
Angular width will decrease by 30% when is also i1 = sin 1 ( n 2 n12 n1 )
decreased by 30%. 2
Therefore, new wavelength Therefore, required angle of incidence (i1 ) at face AB
for which the ray strikes at AC at critical angle is
30
= ( 6000 ) 6000 1
100 i1 = sin 1 ( n 2 n12 n1 )
2
= 4200
(ii) When the apparatus is immersed in a liquid of
(ii) The ray will pass undeviated through face AC when
refractive index , the wavelength is decreased times.
Therefore, either ( a) n1 = n or

220
r2 = 0 i.e., ray falls normally on face AC. t = 15790
or t = 1.579m
Here n1 n (because n1 < n is given)
r2 = 0 19. For both the halves, position of object and image is
same. Only difference is of magnification. Magnification
or r1 = A r2 = 45 0 = 45 for one of the halves is given as 2 (> 1). This can eb
sin i1 for the first one, because for this, | v | > | u |. Therefore,
Now applying Snell's law at face AB, we have n = sin r mangification, | m | = | v/u | > 1.
1 So, for the first half
sin i1 | v/u | = 2or | v | = 2 | u |
or 1.352 = Let u = x then v = + 2x and | u | + | v | = 1.8 m
sin 45
t i..e 3x = 1.8m or x = 0.6 m
1 Here, u = 0.6 m and v = + 1.2 m
sin i1 = (1. 352 )
2 1 1 1 1 1 1
Using = = =
sin i1 = 0.956 f v u 1.2 0.6 0.4
f = 0.4m
i1 = sin 1( 0.956) 73 For the second half
Therefore, required angle of incidence is 1 1 1
i = 76 =
f 1.2 d (0.6 + d )

## 18. Given, = 1. 33, d = 1mm , D = 1. 33 m 1 1 1

or = +
= 6300 0. 4 1. 2 d 0.6 + d
(i) Wavelength of light in the given liquid : Solving this, we get d = 0.6 m
Magnification for the second half will be
6300
= = 4737 = 4737 10 10 m
1. 33 v 0.6 1
m2 = u = (1.2) = 2
'D
Fringe width, = and magnification for the first half is :
d
v 1.2
4737 1010 m)(1.33)m m1 = u = (0.6) = 2
=

(1 103 m ) The ray diagram is as follows :
d
= 6.3 106m
B1
= 0.63 mm
(ii) Let t be the thickness of the glass slab. t = 0.4m t = 0.4m
Path difference due to glass slab at centre O.
A A,A
glass
1 2

x = 1 t

liquid
B
1.53
= 1 t
1.53 0.6m 0.6m 0.6m
or x = 0.15t 20. (i) Path difference due to the glass slab, x = ( 1)t
Now, for the intensity to be minimum at O, this path = (1.5 1)t = 0.5t
' Due to this slab, 5 fringes have been shifted upwards.
difference should be equla to Therefore,
2
x = 5red
' or 0.5t = (5) (7 102 m)
x = t = thickness of glass slab = 7 106 m
2
(ii) Let ' be the refractive index for given light then
4737
x = (' 1)t
or 0.15t =
2

221
Now the shifting is of 6 fringes of red light. Therefore, i.e., second image I2 is formed at 1.2 m from the lens
x = 6red or 0.4 m from the plane mirror. This will act as a virtual
(' 1)t = 6red object for mirror. Therefore, third real image I3 will be
formed at a distance of 0.4 m in front of the mirror after
(6)(7 107 )
(' 1)= = 0.6 reflection from it. Now this image will work as a real
7 10 6 object for water-glass interface. Hence, applying
' = 1.6 2 1 2 1
(iii) In part (i), shifting of 5 bright fringes was equal to =
v u R
103 . Which implies that
5red = 103 m [Here = Fringe width] 3/2 4/3 3/24/3
3 We get v (0.80.4) = 0.3
10 4
red = m = 0.2 103 m
5 v4 = 0.54m
i.e., fourth image is formed to the right of the lens at
D a distance of 0.54 m from it. Now finally applying the
Now since = or l
d same formula for glass-air surface.
green green 1 3/ 2 13/ 2
= =
red red v5 0. 54 0.3
v5 = 0.9m
green 5 10 7 i.e., position of final image is 0.9 m relative to the lens
green = red = (0.2 10 )
3
7 (rightwards) or the image is formed 0.1 m behind the
red 7 10
mirror.
green = 0.143 103 m
= green red = (0.143 0.2) 103 m 22. 1 = 1.4 and 2 = 1.7 and let t be the thickness of each
= 5.71 105 m glass plates.
Path difference at O, due to insertion of glass plates
21. From lens Maker's formula, will be
1 1 1
= ( 1) 1
f R1 R2 S1
6th Minima

1 3 1 1 O
= 1
0. 3 2 R R
We have 5th Minima
S2
2
(Here, R1 = R and R2 = R)
R = 0.3
x = (2 1 )t = (1.7 1.4) t = 0.3t
2 1 2 1 Now, since 5th maxima (earlier) lies below O and 6th
Now applying = at air glass surface,
v u R minima lies above O.
we get
This path difference should lie between 5 and 5 +
3/2 1 3/21 2
= So, let x = 5 + ...(2)
v1 (0.9) 0.3
v1 = 2.7m
Where <
i.e., first image I1 will be formed at 27 m from the lens. 2
This will act as the virtual object for glass water Due to the path different x, the phase dfference at O
2 1 2 1 will be
surface. Therefore, applying = at glass 2 2
v u R
= x = (5 + )
water surface, we have

4/ 3 3/ 2 4/33/2 2
= (10 + .) ...(3)
v2 2.7 = 0.3
v2 = 1.2m 3
Intensity at O is given by I max and since
4
222
10.8 104 1 1.5 3
I (f) = Imaxcos 2 sin i =
1.20 + = =
2 (600)2 2 2
4
3 (l = l0 = 600 nm)
I max = Imaxcos 2
4 2 or i = sin 1 (3/4)

## 3 24. Given = 0.5 mm, d = 1.0 mm, D = 1m

or = cos 2 ....(4)
4 2 (a) When the incident beam falls normally :
From Eqs. (3) and (4), we find that
in S P1
=d
s 1 y2
= x1
6
1 O
31
i.e., x = 5 + = = 0.3t (t = 0.3t ) S2 =x
2
6 6
in 1
ds
31 (31)(5400 1010 )
t = = m
6(0.3) 1.8
Path difference between that two rays S 2 P and S 1 P is
or t = 9.3 106 m = 9.3m x = S 2 P S 1 P = d sin
For minimum intensity,
1.80 10 4
23. n 1 = 1.20 + 10.8 10 and n 2 = 1.45 +
4
( = )
02 20 d sin = (2n 1) , n = 1, 2, 3, ....
2
Here, is in nm.
(a) The incident ray will no deviate at BC if n 1 = n 2 (2n 1)
or sin =
2d
1.80 10 4
1.20 + 10.8 10
4
= 1.45 + ( = 0 ) (2n 1)0.5 2n 1
02 02 = =
2 1.0 4
9 104 (2n 1)
= 0.25 As sin 1 therefore 1 or n 2.5
20 4
So, n can be either 1 to 2
3 102
or, 0 =
or 0 = 600 nm 1 1
0.5 When n = 1, sin1 = or tan 1 =
(b) The given system is a part of an equilaterla prism 4 15
of prism angle 60 as shown in figure. 3
n = 2, sin 2 =
4
60
D
3
C or tan2 =
70
7
y = D tan = tan (D = 1m)
i So, the position of minima will be :
20

60 y1 = tan 1 = m = 0.26m
40 15
A B
At minimum deviation, 3
y2 = tan 2 = m = 1.13m
60 7
r1 = r2 = = 30 = r (say)
2 [In this case, net path dfference x = x1 = x2 ]
sin i [In this case x = x1 = x2 ]
n1 =
sin r
sin i = n 1 sin 30

223
s in S P1 3
=d 1 y2 or d sin 2 =
x1 2
1 O 3 (3)(0.5) 3
or sin 2 = = =
S2 x2 2d (2)(1.0) 4
=
in 1
ds 3 y2
tan 2 = =
[In this case, net path difference x = x1 x2 ] 7 D
d 3
sin or y2 = m = 1.13m
in 2 =
= ds x 7
x 1 2
Similarly, by for P1
O
2

S2 y2 x1 x2 = or x1 = x2 = = =
P2
2 2 2 2

(0.5) 1
And as minima can be on either side of centre O. or d sin 1 = or sin 1 = = =
2 2d (2)(1.0) 4
Therefore, there will be four minimas at positions +
0.26 m and + 1.13 m on screen. 1 y1
(b) When = 30, path difference between the rays tan 1 = =
15 D
before reaching S 1 and S 2 is
x1 = d sin = (1.0) sin 30 = 0.5 mm = 1 m = 0.26 m
or y1 =
So, there is already a path differnce of between the 15
rays.
Therefore, y-coordinates of the first minima on either
Position of central maximum : Central maximum is
side of the central maixmum are y1 = 0.26 m and y2 =
defined as a point where net path difference is zero.So
1.13 m.
x 1 = x 2
or d sin = d sin
Note : In this problem sin = tan = is not valid as
or = = 30
is large
1 y0
or tan = =
3 D 25. Given = 600 m = 6 107 m,
d = 0.4 mm = 0.45 103 m
1 D = 1.5m
y0 = nm (D = 1m)
3 Thickness of glass sheet, t = 10.4 m = 10.4 106 m
y0 = 0.58m Refractive index of medium m = 4/3
and refractive index of glass sheet, ug = 1.
Central (a) Let central maximum is obtained at a distance y
P2 maximum
x = 0 yd
P below point O. Then x1 = S 1 P S 2 P =
y = 0.58m D
2
P1
O
1 S1
30
OP1 = y1
and O
y
OP2 = y2
P
S2
At point P, x 1 = x 2
Above point P x 2 > x1 and Path difference due to glass sheet
Below point P x 2 > x 2
Now, let P1 and P2 be the minimas on either side of g
x 1 = 1 t
central maxima. Then, for P2 m
3 Net path difference will be zero when
x2 x1 = or x2 = x1 + =+ = x 1 = x 2
2 2 2 2
224
= 1300nm, 650 nm, 433.33 nm, 325 nm..
yd g
The wavelength in the range 400 to 600 nm are 650 nm
or = 1 t
D m and 433.33 nm.

g D ur
y= 1 t 26. Incident ray A = 6 3\$i + 8 3j10k
\$ \$
m d
Substituting the values, we have (
= 6 3 \$i + 8 3 \$j + 10k\$ ) ( )
1.5 1.5 z t
y= 1 1 z
4/3 4/3 y
P
y = 4.33 103 m A Q'
or we can say y = 4.33 mm

2 x
(b) At O, x1 = 0 and x2 = 1t x
m O
10 k
Net path difference, x = x2 3j
8
Corresponding phase difference, or simple 3 i+
6
2 Q
= . x

Substituting the values, we have uuur uuur
QO + PQ
(As shown in figure)
1.5 uuur
2 Note that QO is lying x-y plane.
= 1 (0.04 106 )
6 107 4 / 3 Now, QQ' and Z-axis are mutually perpendicular. hence,
we can shown them in two dimensionla figure as
13
= below:
3 z
k

Now, I () = Imax cos 2 2 P
A
1 = 2
13
I = Imax cos 2 6
q
Q Q'
O
I = 3 Imax r=1
4 1 = 3

(c) At O : Path difference is x = x2 = g 1t

m
For maximum intensity at O ur
Vector A makes an angle i with z-axis given by
x = n (Here n = 1, 2, 3,....)
x x x
= , , ..... and so on 10
1 2 3
( ) + (8 3 )
i = cos1 2 2
(10) + 6 3
2
1.5
x = 1 (10.4 106 m)
4/3
1
1.5 = cos1
2
= 1 (10.4 10 6 nm)
4/3 i = 60
x = 1300 nm Unit vecotr in the direction QOQ' will be
Maximum intensity will be corresponding o

= 1300nm,
1300 1300 1300 q\$ =
6 3i\$ +8 3 \$j =
5
(
1 \$ \$
3i + 4 j )
( )
nm, nm, nm ..... 2
2 3 4 (6 3 ) 2 + 8 3

225
Snell's law gives v +60
and linear magnification, m1 = = = 3
3 sin i sin60 u 20
= =
2 sin r sin r i.e., first image formed by the lens will be 60 cm from
it (or 30 cm form mirror) towards left and 3 times
3/2 1 magnified but inverted. Length of first image A1 , B1
sin r = =
3/ 2 2 would be 1.2 3 = 3.6 cm (inverted)
A
r = 45
Now, we have to find a unit vector in refracted ray's
B1 Optics axis of lens
direction OR. Say it is \$r whose magnitude is 1. Thus, 0.6cm B
\$r = (1 sin r) q\$ 1 cos r) k\$ Optics axis of mirror

3.0cm
1
[ q\$ k\$ ]
A1
=
2 60cm
3.0cm 20cm
1 1 \$ \$ \$ Reflection from mirror : Image formed by lens (A1 B1 )
= (3i + 4 j ) k
2 5 will behave like a virtual object for mirror at a distance
of 30 cm from it as shown. Therefore, u = + 30 cm, f
\$r = 1 (3i\$ + 4j5k)
\$ \$ = 30 cm
5 2 1 1 1
Using mirror formula, v + u = f
2 1 2 1
27. Applying =
v u R
1 1 1
First on plane surface or + ==
v 30 30
1.5 1 1.51 v = 15 cm
= 0 (R )
AI1 mR =
v 15 1
and linear magnification, m2 = = =+
AI1 = (1.5 mR) u +30 2
Then on curved survace
i.e., final image A' B' will be located at a distance of 15
1 1.5 11.5 cm from the mirror (towards right) and since
=
(1.5mR + R) R 1
magnification is + , length of final image would be
[v because final image is at infinity] 2
1.5 0.5 1
= 3.6 = 1.8 cm
(1.5m + 1) R R 2
3 = 1.5m + 1 A'B' = 1.8 cm,
Point B1 is 0.6 cm above the optic axis of mirror,
3
m=2 1
2
therefore, its image B' would be (0.6) = 0.3 cm
2
4
or m= above optic axis. Similarly, point A1 is 3 cm below the
3
1
28. (a) Rays coming from object AB first refract from the optic axis, therefore, its image A' will be 3 = 1.5 cm
2
lens and then reflect from the mirror.
Refraction from the lens : below the optic axis as shown below :
u = 20 cm, f = + 15 cm
1 1 1
Using lens formula v u = f B'

1 1 1 A'
= A'B' = 1.8cm
v 20 15
v = +60 cm 15cm
226
Total magnificaion of the image,
1
1 3 or 3.6t = n
2
m = m1 m2 = (3) + =
2 2 Least values of t is corresponding to n = 1 or
3
A'B' = (m) (AB) = (1.2) = 1.8cm tmin =
2 2 3.6
Note that, there is no need fo drawing the ray diagram 648
if not asked in the question. or tmin = nm
7.2
Note : With reference to the role of an optic instrument or tmin = 90 nm
(whether it is a lens or a mirror) the coordinates of the 30.(i) When angle of prism is small and angle of incidence
object (X0 , Y0 ) is also small, the deviation is given by = ( 1)A
Net deviation by the two prism is zero. So,
1 1 1
Xi is obtained using v u = f Flint
A1
Here, v is actual X1 and u is X0 i.e., the above formula
1 1 1
can be written as X X = f
i 0 A2
Crown
1
Similarly, Yi is obtained from m = 1 + 2 = 0
O
or (1 1)A1 + (2 1) A2 = 0 ...(1)
Here, 1 and 2 are the refractive indices for crown and
Here, I is Yi and O is Y0 .e., the above formula can be
flint glasses respectively.
written as m = Yi /Y0 or Yi = mY0 .

29. Incident ray AB is partly reflected as ray 1 from the Hence,1 = 1.51+ 1.49 = 1.5 and 2 = 1.77 + 1.73 =1.75
upper surface and partly reflected as ray 2 from the 2 2
A1 = Angle of prism for crown glass = 6
lower surface of the layer of thickness t and refractive
Substituting the value in Eq. (1), we ge
index 1 = 1.8 as shown in figure. Path difference
(1.5 1)(6) + (1.75 1)A2 = 0
between the two rays would be
A 1 2 This gives A2 = 4
Hence, angle of flint glass prism is 4 (Negative sign
shown that flint glass prism is inverted with respect to
B the crown glass prism.)
t 1 = 1.8 (ii) Net dispersion due to the two prisms is
= ( b1 r1 ) A1 + ( b 2 r 2 ) A2
2 = 1.5 = (1.51 1.49) (6) + (1.77 1.73)(4)
= 0.04
Net dispersion is 0.04
x = 21 t
31. 2X at R will be zero if X1 = X2
= 2 (1.8)t = 3.6t
or d sin = d sin
Ray 1 is reflected from a denser medium, therefore, it
or =
undergoes a phase change of , whereas the ray 2
or tan = tan
gets reflected from a rarer medium, therefore, there is
not change in phase of ray 2. y1 y2
Hence, phase difference between rays 1 and 2 would D1 = D2
be f = . Therefore, condition of constructive
intereference will be 10
or y 2 = D1 , y1 = (40) cm
1 D2 200
x = n where n = 1,2 3, ...
2 or y2 = 2 cm

227
(ii) The central bright fringe will be observed at point 1
Q. If the path difference created by the liquid slab of
thickness t = 10 cm or 100 mm is equal to X1 , so that
the net path difference at Q becomes zero.
S1 1 1 1 1
t=100mm 1
= (1 1) + (2 1)
F' R R R

1 3 2 (1)
or = 1
Q F ' 2 R R

S2 1 1 (2)
or = =
S R R R
R 10
F' = = (R = 10 cm)
2 2
Now, the image coincides with object when it is placed
So, ( 1)t = X 1 at 25 cm distance.
or ( 1) (100) = 0.16 Hence F' = 25
or 1 = 0.0016
or = 1.0016 10
or 2 = 25 or 50 25 = 10 or 25 = 40
32. Let R the radius of curvature of both the surfaces of
40
the equi-convex. lens. In the first case :
= = 1.6 or = 1.6
Let f1 be the focal length of equi-convex lens of 25
refractive index 1 and f2 and focal length of
planoconcave lens of refractive index 2 . The focal 33 (a) Shape of the inference fringes will be circular.
l;ength of the combined lens system will be given by: (b) Intensity of light reaching on the screen directly
from the source I1 = I0 (say) and intensity of light on
1 1 1 mirror is I2 = 36 % of I0 = 0.36 I0
= +
F f1 f2
I1 I0 1 I1 1
= =
1 =
3 I 2 0.36 I 0 = 0.36 or I 2 0.6
2
2
4 I1
2 =
3 1 1
2
I2 0.6 1
I min = 1
1 1 1 1 I max = I1
2
= 2 16
= (1 1) + (2 1)
+ 1 1
R R R + 1
I2 0.6
3 2 4 1
= 1 + 1 (c) Initially path difference at P between two waves
2 R 3 R reaching from S and S' is
1 1 2 3R P
= = or F =
P
R 3 R 3R 2
Now, image coincides with the object when ray of light S S
retraces its path or it falls normally on the plane mirror.
This is possible only when object is at centre of h h+x
curvature of the lens system.
Hence, F = 15 cm (Distance of object = 15 cm) h h+x
S' S'
Initial Final
3R
or = 15 cm or R = 10 cm
2
Therefore, for maximum intensity at P :
In the second case, let be the refractive index of the
liquid filled between lens and mirror and let F' be the 1
2h = n ...(1)
focal length of new lens system. Then, 2
228
Now, let the source S is displaced by x (away or or sin 60 = 3 sin r1
towards mirror) then new path difference will be 2h +
2x or 2h 2x. So, for maximum intensity at P 1
sin r1 =
1 2
2h + 2x = n + 1 ...(2)
2
or r1 = 30

Now, r1 + r2 = A
1 r2 = A r1 = 30 30 = 0
or 2h 2x = n 1 ...(3) Therefore, ray of light falls normally on the face AC
2
and angle of emergence i2 = 0.
Solving Eqs. (1) and (2) or Eqs. (1) and (3), we get
600 (b) Multiple reflection occurs between surfaces of film.
x= = = 300 nm
Intensity will be maximum if intereference takes place
2 2
in the transmitted wave.
Note : Here, we have taken the condition of maximum For maximum thickness
intensity at P as : x = 2t = (t = thickness)
6600
t = 2 = = 1500
2 2.2
Path difference x = n
1
2
36. Applying Snell's law on face AB
Because the reflected beam suffers a phase difference (I) sin 45 = ( 2) sin r
of .
1
34. For refraction at first surface, sin r =
2
2 1 2 1 or r = 30

v1 = + R ...(1) i.e., ray becomes parallel to AD inside the block. Now
applying
For refraction at second surface,
2 1 2 1
3 2 = on face CD,
3 2 v u R
v2 v1 = + R ...(2)

## Adding Eqs. (1) and (2), we get 1.514 2 1.514 2

=
3
OE 0.4
1 2 Solving this equaion, we get
OE = 6.06 cm
1 1 1
37. Differentiating the lens formula v u = f with respect
v1
v2 to time, we get
3 1 dv 1 dv
3 1 R . + . = 0 (as f = constant)
v2 = v1 R or v2 = 3 v 2 dt 2 dt
3 1
Therefore, focal length of the given lens system is
dv v du
2
3 R dt 2 . dt
= ...(1)
u
3 1
Further, substituting proper values in lens formula.
35. (a) sin i1 = sin r1 We have
A
1 1 1
+ =
v 0.4 0.3
30
(u = 0.4m, f = 0.3 m)
60 90 or v = 1.2 m
30
Puting the values in Eq. (1)

B C
229
Magnitude of rate of change of position of image the ray of light should be minimum. Therefore, the
= 0.09 m/s second prism should be rotated by 60 (anticlockwise).
v
Laterel magnification, m = B,D E
u

dv du
u v.
dm dt dt
= 2
dt u

(0.4)(0.09)(1.2)(0.01)
=
(0.4) 2 A C
= 0.3/s
Magnitude of rate of change of lateral magnification MATCH THE COLUMNS
= 0.3/s
2. (A), (C) and (D) : In case of concave mirror or convex
lens image can be real, virtual, diminished magnified or
38. Let n 1 bright fringe corresponding to wavelength
of same size.
1 = 500 nm coincides with n 2 bright fringe
(B) : In case of convex image is always virtual (for real
corresponding to wavelength 2 = 700 nm.
object).
D D
n1 1 = n2 2
d d ASSERATION AND REASON
n1 2 7 1. Law of reflection can be applied to any type of surface.
or = = Correct option is (c).
n2 1 5
This imples that 7th maxima of 1 coincides with 5th
COMPREHENSION
maxima of 2 . Similarly 14th maxima of l1 will coincide
with 10th maxima of 2 and so on. 1. Wavefronts are parallel in both media. Therefore, light
which is prependicular to wavefront travels as a parallel
n11 D
Minimum distance = beam in each medium.
d Hence, the correct option is (a).
= 7 5 107 103
= 3.5 103 m = 3.5 mm 2. All points on a wavefront are at the same phase.
39. Critical angles at 1 and 2 d = c and f = e
d f = c e
1 1 1 1 Hence, the correct option is (c).
C1 =sin = sin = 45
2
2
3. In medium-2 wavefront bends away from the normal
1 3 1 3
after refraction. Therefore, ray of light which is
C2 =sin = sin = 45 perpendicular to wavefront bends towards the normal
2 2 in medium-2 during refraction. So, medium-2 is denser
Therefore, minimum angle of incidence or its speed in medium-1 is more.
for total internal reflection to take place on both slabs
should be 60. b d
imin = 60'
40. (a) At minimum deviation r1 = r2 = 30 Medium-1
From Snell's law a
c
sin i1 X Y
sin i1 f
= sin r or 3 = sin30 h
1
Medium-2
3 e
sin i1 = or i1 = 60 g
2
(b) In the position shown net deviation suffered by
Hence, option (b) is correct.

230
CHAPTER-14
ELECTROSTATICS
FILL IN THE BLANKS
1. Five identical capacitor, each of area A, are arranged such that adjacent plates are at a distance d apart, the plates
are connected to a source of emf V as shown in the figure. (1984; 2M)
The charge on plate 1 is .... and on plate 4 is ....

2. Figure shows line of constant potential in a region in which an electric field is present. The values of the potential
are written in brackets of the points A, B and C, the magnitude of the electric field is greatest at the point .....
(1984; 2M)

A
B

C
(50V)
(40V)
(30V)
(20V)
(10V)

3. Two small balls having equal positive charge Q (coulomb) on each are suspended by two insulating strings of equal
length L (metre) from a hook fixed to a stand. The whole set-up is taken in a satellite into space where there is no
gravity (state of weightlessness). The angle between the strings is ..... and the tension in each string is .... newtons.
(1986; 2M)

4. Two parallel plate capacitors of capacitances C and 2C are connected in parallel and charged to a potential difference
V. The battery is then disconnected and the region between the plates of capacitor C is completely filled with a
material of dielectric constant K. The potential difference across the capacitors now become ...... (1988; 2M)

5. A point charge q moves from point P to point S along the path PQRS (Fig.) in a uniform electric field E pointing
parallel to the positive direction of the X-axis. The co-ordinates of points, P, Q, R and S are (a, b, 0), (2a, 0, 0), (a,
b, 0), (0, 0, 0) respectively. The work done by the field in the above process is given by the expression.
(1989; 2M)

P
S Q x
R E

248
6. The electric potential V at any point x, y, z (all in metres) in space is given V = 4x2 volt. The electric field at the
point (1m, 0.2 m) is .... V/m (1992; 1M)

7. Five point charges, each of value + q coulomb, are placed on five vertices of a regular hexagon of side L metre.
The magnitude of the force on the point charge of value q coulomb placed at the centre of the hexagon is ...
newton. (1982; 1M)
q q
q
q

q q

TRUE/FALSE
1. The work done in carrying a point charge from one point to another in an electrostatic field depends on the path
along which the point charge is carried. (1981; 2M)

2. Two identical metallic spheres of exactly equal masses are taken. One is given a positive charge Q coulomb and
the other an equal negative charge. Their masses after charging are different. (1983; 2M)

3. A small metal ball is suspended in a uniform electric field with the help of an insulated thread. If high energy X-
ray beam falls on the ball, the ball will be deflected in the direction of the field. (1983; 2M)

4. Two protons A and B are placed in between the two plates of a parallel plate capacitor charged to a potential
difference V as shown in the figure. The forces on the two protons are identical. (1986; 3M)
+

+
+

+

+
+

+

+ B
+

+
+

+
+
+

+

+ V
5. A ring of radius R carries a uniformly distributed charge + Q. A point charge q is placed in the axis of the ring
at a distance 2R from the centre of the ring and released from rest. The particle executes a simple harmonic motion
along the axis of the ring. (1988; 2M)

6. An electric line of forces in the x-y plane is given by the equation x2 + y2 = 1. A particle with unit positive charge,
initially at rest at the point x = 1, y = 0 in the x-y plane, will move along the circular line of force. (1988; 2M)

## OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (c) same as at a point 5 cm away from the surface

Only One option is correct : (d) same as at a point 25 cm away from the surface
1. An alpha particle of energy 5 MeV is scattered through
180 by a fixed uranium nucleus. The distance of 3. Two equal negative charges q are fixed at points
closest approach is of the order of : (1981; 2M) (0, a) and (0, a) on y-axis. A positive charge Q is
(a) 1 (b) 1010 cm released from rest at the point (2a, 0) on the x-axis.
The charge Q will :
(c) 1012 cm (d) 1015 cm
(1984; 2M)
2. A hollow metal sphere of radius 5 cm is charged such (a) execute simple harmonic motion about the ori-
that the potential on its surface is 10 V. The potential gin
at the centre of the sphere is : (1983; 1M) (b) move to the origin and remain at rest
(c) move to infinity
(a) zero
(d) execute oscillatory but not simple harmonic
(b) 10 V motion

249
4. A charge q is placed at the centre of the line joining 0) and (d, 0) respectively of x-y co-ordinate system.
two equal charge Q. The system of the three charges Then: (1995; 2M)
will be in equilibrium if q is equal to : (1987; 2M) (a) the electric field E at all points on the x-axis has
the same direction
Q Q (b) work has to be done in bringing at a test charge
(a) (b)
2 4 from to the origin
(c) electric field at all point on y-axis is along x-axis
Q Q
(c) + (d) + (d) the dipole moment is 2qd along the x-axis
4 2
5. A solid conducting sphere having a charge Q is 9. A parallel plate capacitor of capacitance C is con-
surrounded by an uncharged concentric conducting nected to a battery and is charged to a potential
hollow spherical shell. Let the potential difference difference V. Another capacitor of capacitance 2C is
between the surface of the solid sphere and that of the similarly charged to a potential difference 2V. The
outer surface of the hollow shell be V. If the shell is charging battery is now disconnected and the capaci-
now given a charge of 3Q, the new potential differ- tors are connected in parallel to each other in such a
ence between the same two surfaces is :(1999; 2M) way that the positive terminal of one is connected to
(a) V (b) 2V the negative terminal of the other. The final energy of
(c) 4V (d) 2V the configuration is : (1995; 2M)
3
6. Seven capacitors each of capacitance 2F are con- (a) zero (b) CV 2
nected in a configuration to obtain an effective capaci- 2
10 25 9
tance F . Which of the following combination will (c) CV 2 (d) CV 2
11 6 2
achieve the desired result be ? (1990; 2M) ur
10. The magnitude of electric field E in the annular region
of a charged cylindrical capacitor : (1996; 2M)
(a) is same through out
(a) (b) is higher, near the outer cylinder than the inner
cylinder
(c) varies as 1/r, where r is the distance from the axis
(d) varies as 1/r2 , where r is the distance from the axis
(b)
11. A metallic solid sphere is placed in a uniform electric
field. The lines of force follow the path (s) shown in
figure as : (1996; 2M)

(c) 1 1
2 2
3 3
4 4
(d)
(a) 1 (b) 2
7. Two identical thin rings, each of radius R are coaxially (c) 3 (d) 4
placedadistance R apart. If Q1 and Q2 respectively are
the charges uniformly spread on the two rings, then 12. An electron of mass me, initially at rest moves through
work done in moving a charge q from the centre of one a certain distance in a uniform electric field in time t1 .
ring to that of the other is : (1992; 2M) A proton of mass mp , also, initially at rest, takes time
(a) zero t2 to move through an equal distance in this uniform
(b) q (Q1 Q2 ) ( )
2 1 / 2( 4 0 R ) electric field. Neglecting the effect of gravity, the ratio
t2 /t1 is nearly equal to (1997 1M)
(c) q 2( Q1 / Q2 )/(40 R) (a) 1 (b) (mp /me)1/2

(d) q (Q1 Q2 ) ( )
2 + 1 / 2 (4 0 R )
(c) (me/mp )1/2 (d) 1836

## 13. A non-conducting ring of radius 0.5 m carries a total

8. Two point charges + q and q are held fixed at (d, charge of 1.11 1010 C distributed non-uniformly on

250
it circumference producing an electric field E every- Q
l =0

l =

## (l = 0 being centre of the ring) in volt is :

(1997; 2M)
(a) +2 (b) 1
(c) 2 (d) zero
q 2q
(a) (b)
14. A parallel combination of 0.1M resistor and a 10F 1+ 2 2+ 2
capacitor is connected across a 1.5 V source of neg- (c) 2q (d) + q
ligible resistance. The time required for the capacitor to
get charged upto 0.75V is approximately (in second) 19. A parallel plate capacitor of area A, plate separation d
(1997; 2M) and capacitance C is filled with three difference dielectric
(a) infinite (b) loge2 materials having dielectric constant K1, K2 and K3 as
(c) log10 2 (d) zero shown. If a single dielectric material is to be used to
15. A charge + q is fixed at each of the points x = x0 , achieve the same capacitance C in this capacitor then its
x = 3x0 , x = 5x0 .... . on the x-axis and a charge q dielectric constant K is given by : (2000; 2M)
is fixed at each of the points x = 2x0 , x = 4x0 , x = 6x0
A/2 A/2
..... . Here x0 is a positive constant. Take the electric d
potential at a point due to a charge Q at a distance r k1 k2 2
from it to be Q/40 r. Then the potential at the origin d
k3
due to the above system of charges is : (1997; 2M)
q
(a) zero (b) 8 x ln 2 A = Area of plates
0 0
1 1 1 1
q ln 2 (a) K = K + K + 2K
(c) infinite (d) 4 x 1 2 3
0 0
1 1 1
16. Two identical metal plates are given positive charges (b) K = K + K + 2K
1 2 3
Q1 and Q2 (< Q1 ) respectively. If they are now brought
close together to form a parallel plate capacitor with 1 K1 K 2
capacitance C, the potential difference between them (c) K = K + K + 2 K3
1 2
is: (1999; 2M)
(a) (Q1 + Q2 )/2C (b) (Q1 + Q2 )/C K1K 2 K 2K 3
(c) (Q1 Q2 )/C (d) (Q1 Q2 )/2C (d) K = K + K + K + K
1 2 2 3
17. For the circuit shown, which of the following state-
ments is corret (1999; 2M) 20. Three positive charges of equal value q are placed at
V1= 30 V V2 = 20 V the vertices of an equilateral triangle. The resultant
+ + lines of forces should be sketched as in :
S1 S3
C1 = 2pF C2 = 3pF (2001; 1M)
S2

## (a) With S1 closed, V1 = 15V, V2 = 20V

(b) With S3 closed, V1 = V2 = 25V (a) (b)
(c) With S1 and S 2 closed, V1 = V2 = 0
(d) With S1 and S 3 . closed, V1 = 30V, V2 = 20V
18. Three charges Q, + q and + q, are placed at the vertices
of a right angle triangle (isosceles triangle) as shown.
The net electrostatic energy of the configuration is (c) (d)
zero, if Q is equal to : (2000; 2M)

251
21. Consider the situation shown in the figure. The capaci- hexagon such that the electric field at O is double the
tor A has a charge q on it whereas B is uncharged. The electric field when only one positive charge of same
charge appearing on the capacitor B a long time after magnitude is placed at R. Which of the following
the switch is closed is : (2001; 1M) arrangements of charge is possible for P, Q, R, S, T and
U respectively? (2004; 1M)
q
+ P Q
+
+ S O
U R
+
+
A B T S
(a) zero (b) q/2 (a) +, , +, , , + (b) +, , +, , +,
(c) q (d) 2q (c) +, +, , +, , (d) , +, +, , +,
22. A uniform electric field pointing in positive x-direction
exists in a region. Let A be the origin B be the point 27. Consider the charge configuration and a spherical
on the x-axis at x = + 1 cm and C be the point on the Gaussian surface as shown in the figure. When calcu-
y-axis at y = + 1cm. Then the potential at the points A, lating the flux of the electric field over the spherical
B and C satisfy : (2001; 1M) surface, the electric field will be due to: (2004; 1M)
(a) VA < VB (b) VA > VB +q1 q2
(c) VA < VC (d) VA < VC

## 23. Two equal point charges are fixed at x = a and x =

+ a on the x-axis. Another point charge Q is placed at q1
the origin. The change in the electrical potential en-
ergy of Q, when it is displaced by a small distance x (a) q 2 (b) only the positive charge
along the x-axis is approximately proportional to : (c) all the charges (d) + q 1 and q 1
(2002; 1M)
(a) x (b) x2 28. Three infinitely long charge sheets are placed as shown
(c) x3 (d) 1/x in figure. The electric field at point P is :
(2005; 1M)
24. Two identical capacitors, have the same capacitance
z
C. One of them is charged to potential V1 and the other
to V2. The negative ends are also connected, the z = 3a
.P
decrease in energy of the combined system is : z=0
2
(2002; 1M) x
z=a
1 1
(a) C(V12 V22 ) (b) C(V12 + V22 ) 2 \$ 2 \$
4 4 (a) k (b) k
0 0
1 1
(c) C (V1 V2 ) 2 (d) C (V1 + V2 ) 2
4 4 4 \$ 4 \$
(c) k (d) k
25. A metallic shell has a point charge q kept inside its 0 0
cavity. Which one of the following diagram correctly 29. A long, hollow conducting cylinder is kept coaxially
represents the electric lines of forces? (2003; 1M) inside another long, hollow conducting cylinder of
larger radius. Both the cylinders are initially electrically
neutral. (2007; 3M)
(a) a potential difference appears between the two
(a) (b)
cylinders when a charge density is given to the
inner cylinder
(b) a potential difference appears between the two
cylinders when a charge density is given to the
(c) (d) outer cylinder
(c) no potential difference appears between the two
cylinders when a uniform line charge is kept along
26. Six charges, three positive and three negative of equal the axis of the cylinders
magnitude are to be placed at the vertices of a regular
252
(d) no potential difference appears between the two
q
cylinders when same charge density is given to (a) The electric field at point O is directed
both the cylinders 8pe 0 R 2
along the negative x-axis
30. Consider a neutral conducting sphere. A positive point (b) The potential energy of the system is zero
charge is placed of outside the sphere. The net charge (c) The magnitude of the force between the charges
on the sphere is then : (2007; 3M)
(a) negative and distributed uniformly over the sur- q2
at C and B is
face of the sphere 54 pe 0 R 2
(b) negative and appears only at the point on the
sphere closest to the point charge q
(c) negative and distributed non-uniformly over the (d) The potential at point O is
12 pe 0 R
entire surface of the sphere
(d) zero
31. A spherical portion has been removed from a solid 34. A parallel plate capacitor C with plates of unit area and
sphere having a charge distributed uniformly in its separation d is filled with a liquid of direlectric con-
volume as shown in the figure. The electric field inside d
the emptied space is : (2007; 3M) stant K = 2. The level of liquid is initially. Suppose
3
the liquid level decreases at a constant speed v, the
time constant as a function of time t is (2008; 3M)

## (a) zero everywhere (b) non-zero and uniform

(c) non-uniform (d) zero only at its centre

## 32. Positive and negative point charges of equal magni-

a a
tude are kept at 0,0, and 0,0,
2
, respectively.
2 6e 0 R (15 d + 9vt )e 0 R
(a) (b)
The work done by the electric field when another 5 d + 3 vt 2 d 2 3dvt 9 v 2 t 2
positive point charge is moved from (a, 0, 0) to
(0, a, 0) is : (2007; 3M) 6e 0 R (15 d 9vt )e 0 R
(c) (d)
(a) positive 5 d 3vt 2 d 2 + 3 dvt 9 v 2 t 2
(b) negative
(c) zero 35. Three concentric metallic spherical shells of radii R, 2R,
(d) depends on the path connecting the initial and 3R, are given charges Q1, Q2, Q3, respectively. It is
final positions found that the surface charge densities on the outer
surfaces of the shells are equal. Then, the ratio of the
q q 2q charges given to the shells, Q1 : Q2 : Q3, is
33. Consider a system of three charges , and (2009; M)
3 3 3
(a) 1 : 2 : 3 (b) 1 : 3 : 5
placed at point A, B and C respectively, as shown in (c) 1 : 4 : 9 (d) 1 : 8 : 18
the fitgure. Take O to be the centre of the circle of
radius R and angle CAB = 60 (2008; 3M) 36. A disc of radius a/4 having a uniformly distributed
charge 6C is placed in the x-y plane with its centre at
(a/2, 0, 0). A rod of length, 'a' carrying a uniformly
distributed charge 8C is placed on the x-axis from
x = a/4 to x = 5a/4. Two point charges 7C and 3C are
placed at (a/4, a/4, 0) and (3a/4, 3a/4, 0), respectively.
Consider a cubical surface formed by six surfaces
x = a/2, y = a/2, z = a/2. The electric flux through
this cubical surface is (2009; M)

253
4. A dielectric slab of thickness d is inserted in a parallel
y
plate capacitor whose negative plate is at x = 9 and
positive plate is at x = 3d. The slab is equidistant from
the plates. The capactior is given some charge. As x
goes from 0 to 3d : (1998; 2M)
x (a) the magnitude of the electric field remains the
same
(b) the direction of the electric field remains the same
(c) the electric potential increases continuously
(d) the electric potential increases at first, then de-
2C 2C
(a) (b) crease and again increases
0 0
5. A positively charged thin metal ring of radius R is fixed
10C 12C
(c) (d) in the x-y plane with its centre at the origin O. A
0 0 negatively charged particle P is released from rest at
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS the point (0, 0, z0 ) where z0 > 0. Then the motion of P
is
More than one options are correct?
(1998; 2M)
1. A parallel plate capacitor is connected to a battery.
(a) periodic for all values of z0 satisfying 0 < z0 <
The quantitites charge, voltage, electric field and en-
(b) simple harmonic for all values of z0 satisfying 0 <
ergy associated with this capacitor are given by Q0 ,
z0 < R
V0 , E0 and U0 respectively. A dielectric slab is now
(c) approximately simple harmonic provided z0 < < R
introduced to fill the space between the plates with the
(d) such that P crosses O and continues to move
battery still in connection. The corresponding quanti-
along the negative z-axis towards z =
ties now given as Q, V, E and U are related to the
previous one as : (1989; 2M) 6. A non-conducting solid sphere of radius R is uni-
(a) Q > Q0 (b) V > V0 formly charged. The magnitude of the electric field due
(c) E > E0 (d) U > U0 to the sphere at a distance r from its centre :
(1998; 2M)
2. A parallel plate capacitor is charged and the charging (a) `increases as r increases, for r < R
battery is then disconnected. If the plates of the (b) decreases as r increases, for 0 < r <
capacitor are moved further apart by means of insulat- (c) decreases as r increases, for R < r <
ing handles. (1987; 2M) (d) is discontinuous at r = R
(a) the charge on the capacitor increases
(b) the voltage across the plates increases 7. An elliptical cavity is carved within a perfect conduc-
(c) the capacitance increasees tor. A positive charge q is placed at the centre of the
(d) the electrostatic energy stored in the capacitor cavity. The points A and B are on the cavity surface
increases as shown in the figure. Then : (1999; 3M)
(a) electric field near A in the cavity = elecrtic field
3. A parallel plate capacitor of plate area A and plate near B in the cavity
separation d is charged to a potential difference V and (b) charge density at A = charge density at B
then the battery is disconnected. A slab of dielectric (c) potential at A = potential at B
constant K is then inserted between the plates of the (d) total electric field flux through the surface of the
capacitor so as to fill the space between the plates. If cavity is q/0 .
Q, E and W denote respectively, the magnitude of
charge on each plate, the electric field between the A
plates (after the slab is inserted), and work done on the q B
system, in the process of inserting the slab, then :
(1999; 3M)
0 AV 0 KAV 8. For spherical symmetrical charge distribution, variation
(a) Q = (b) Q = of electric potential with distance from centre is given
d d
in diagram. Given that :
V 0 AV 2 1 q
(c) E = (d) W = 1 V =
Kd 2d K 4 0 R0 for r R0

254
A +q
q
and V = 4 r for r R0
0 q
Then which option (s) are correct : (2006; 5M) D C
O
V
B +q
r 4. Three point charge q, 2q and 8q are to be placed on
r = R0 a 9 cm long straight line. Find the positions where the
charges shold be placed such that the potential energy
(a) Total charge within 2R0 is q of this system is minimum. In this situaion, what is the
(b) Total electrostatic energy for r R0 is zero electric field at the position of the charge q due to the
(c) At r =R0 electric field is discontinuous other two charges? (1987; 1M)
(d) There will be no charge anywhere except at r =
R0 5. Three particles, each of mass 1 g and carrying a charge
9. Under the influence of the Coulomb field of charge +Q, q, are suspended from a common point by insulated
a charge - q is moving around it in an elliptical orbit. massless strings, each 100 cm long. If the particles are
Find out the correct statement(s). (2009; M) in equilibrium and are located at the corners of an
(a) The angular momentum of the charge - q is equilateral triangle of side length 3 cm calculate the
constant charge q on each particle. (Take g = 10 m/s 2 )
(b) The linear momentum of the charge - q is constant (1988; 5M)
(c) The angular velocity of the charge - q is constant 6. Three concentric spherical metallic shells, A, B and C
(d) The linear speed of the charge - q is constant of radii a, b and c (a < b < c) have surface charge
densities , and respectively. (1990; 7M)
SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (i) Find the potential of the three shells A, B and C.
1. A charge Q is distributed over two concentric hollow (ii) If the shells A and C are at the same potential,
spheres of radii r and R (> r) such that the surface obtain the relation between the radii a, b and c.
densities are equal. Find the potential at the common
7. Two fixed charges 2Q and Q are located at the points
centre. (1981; 3M)
with coordinates ( 3a, 0) and (+ 3a, 0) respectively in
the x-y plane. (1991; 8M)
2. The figure shows two identical parallel plate capacitors
(a) Show that all points in the x-y plane where the
connected to a battery with the switch S closed. The
electric potential due to the two charges is zero, lie
switch is now opened and the free space between the
on a circle. Find its radius and the location of its
plates of the capacitors is filled with a dielectric of
centre.
dielectric constant (or relative permittivity) 3. Find the
(b) Give the expression V (x) at a general point on the
ratio of the total electrostatic energy stored in both
x-axis and sketch the function V (x) on the whole
capacitors before and after the introduction of the
x-axis.
dielectric (1983; 6M)
(c) If a particle of charge + q starts form rest at the
S
centre of the circle, show by a short quantitative
argument that the particle eventually crosses the
V A C B C circle. Find its speed when it does so.
8. (a) A charge of Q is uniformly distributed over a
spherical volume of radius R. Obtain an expression
3. Two fixed, equal, positive charge, each of magnitude for the energy of the system.
q = 5 105 C are located at points A and B separated (b) What will be the corresponding expression for the
by a distance of 6 m. An equal and opposite charge energy needed to completely disassemble the
moves towards them along the line COD, the perpen- planet earth against the gravitational pull amongst
dicular bisector of the line AB. The moving charge, its constituent particles?
when it reaches the pointC at a distance of 4 m from Assume the earth to be a sphere of uniform mass
O as a kinetic energy of 4 J. Calculate the distance of density. Calculate this energy, given the product
the farthest point D which the negative charge will of the mass and the radius of the earth to be 2.5
reach before returning towards C. (1985; 6M) 1031 kg-m.

255
(c) If the same cahrge of Q as in part (a) above is the resulting capacitor. (1996; 2M)
given to a spherical conductor of the same radius
R, what will be the energy of the system? A
(1992; 10M)
K2
9. Two parallel plate capacitors A and B have the same d
spearation d = 8.85 104 m between the plates. The K1
plate areas of A and B are 0.04 m2 and 0.02m2 respec-
tively. A slab of dielectric constant (relative permittiv-
ity) K = 9 has dimensions such that it can exactly fill
the space between the plates of capacitor B. 13. Two isolated metallic solid spheres of radii R and 2R
(1993; 7M) are charged such that both of these have charge
density . The spheres are located far away from ach
A B B other and connected by a thin conducting wire. Find
the new charge density on the bigger sphere.
(1996; 3M)

## 14. Two capacitors A and B with capacities 3 F and 2F

110 V are charged to a potential difference of 100 V and 180
(a) (b) (c)
(i) The dielectric slab is placed inside A as shown in V respectively. The plates of the capacitors are con-
figure (a). A is then charged to a potential differ- nected as shown in the figure with one wire of each
ence of 110 V. Calculate the capacitance of A and capacitor free. The upper plate of A is positive and that
the energy stored in it. of B is negative. An unchanged 2 F capacitor C with
(ii) The battery is disconnected and then the dielec- lead wires falls on the free ends to complete the circuit.
tric slab is removed from A. Find the work done by Calculate : (1997; 5M)
the external agency in removing the slab from A. C
(iii) The same dielectric slab is now placed inside B,
2F
filling it completely. The two capacitor A and B are +
3F 2F
then connected as shown in figure (c). Calculate
the energy stored in the system. A 100 V 180 V B

10. A circular ring of radius R with uniform positve charge (i) the final charge on the three capacitors and
density per unit length is located in the y-z plane (ii) the amount of electrostatic energy stored in the
with its centre at the origin O. A particle of mass m and system before and after completion of the circuit.
positive charge q is projected from the point

( )
P R 3,0,0 on the positive x-axis directly towards O, 15. A conducting sphere S 1 and of radius r is attached to
an insulating handle. Another conducting sphere S 2 of
with an initial speed v. Find the smallest (non-zero) radius R is mounted on an insulating stand S 2 is
value of the speed v such that the particle does not initially uncharged.
return to P. (1993; 4M) S 1 is given a charge Q brought into contact with S 2 and
removed. S 1 is recharged such that the charge on it is
11. Two square metal plates of side 1 m are kept 0.1 m again Q and it is again brought into contact with S 2
apart like a parallel plate capacitor in air in such a way and removed. This procedure is repeated n times.
that one of their edges is perpendicular to an oil (1998; 8M)
surface in a tank filled with an insulating oil. The plates (a) Find the electrostatic energy of S 2 after n such
are connected to a battery of emf 500 V. The plates are contacts with S 1.
then lowered vertically into the oil at a speed of (b) What is the limiting value of this energy as n ?
0.001ms 1 . Calculate the current drawn from the battery
during the process. (Dielectric constant of oil = 11, 16. A non-conducting disc of radius a and uniform posi-
0 = 8.85 1012 C2 N1 m1 ). (1994; 6M) tive surface charge density is placed on the ground
with its axis vertical. A particle of mass m and positive
12. The capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with plate charge q is dropped, along the axis of the disc from a
area A and separation d, is C. The space between the height H with, zero initial velcoity. the particle has q/
plates is filled with two wedges of dielectric constant m = 40 g/. (1999; 10M)
K1 and K2 respectively (figure). Find the capacitance of (a) Find the value of H if the particle just reaches the
disc.
256
(b) Sketch the potential energy of the particle as a force experienced by the charge q at this moment.
function of its height and find its equilibrium (2003; 4M)
position. 21. There are two large parallel metallic plates S 1 and S 2
17. Four point charges + 8 C, 1C, 1C and + 8 C carrying surface charge densities S 1 and S 2 respec-
tively (1 > 2 ) placed at a distance d apart in vacuum.
are fixed at the points 2 7 / 2 m, 3 / 2 m, Find the work done by the electric field in moving a
+ 3 / 2 m and + 2 7 / 2 m respectively on the y-axis. point charge q a distance a (a < d) from S 1 towards S 2
A particle of mass 6 104 kg and charge + 0.1C along a line making an angle /4 with the normal to the
moves along the x-direction. Its speed at x = + is V0 . plates. (2004; 2M)
Find the least value of V0 for which the particle will
cross the origin. Find also the kinetic energy of the 22. A conducting bubble of radius a, thickness t (t < < a)
particle at the origin. Assume that space is gravity has potential V. Now the bubble collapse into a drop-
free. (1/40 = 9 109 Nm2 /C2 ). (2000; 10M) let. Find the potential of the droplet. (2005; 2M)

18. A small ball of mass 2 103 kg having a charge of 1C 23. A solid sphere of radius R has a charge Q distributed
is suspended by a string of length 0.8 m. Another in its volume with a charge density ? = kr a , where
identical ball having the same charge is kept at the
k and a are constants and r is the distance from its
point of suspension. Determine the minimum horizon-
tal velocity which should be imparted to the lower ball, R 1
so that it can make complete revoltuion. centre. If the electric field at r = is times that at
2 8
(2001; 5M) r = R, find the value of a.
19. Eight point charges are placed at the corners of a cube
of edge a as shown in figure. Find the work done in
disassembling this system of charges. (2003; 2M)
ASSERATION AND REASON
This question contains, statement-I (assertion) and
+q q
statement-II (reason).
1. Statement-I : For practical purposes, the earth is used
q +q as a reference at zero potential in electrical circuits.
+q (2008; 3M)
q Because :
Statement-II : The electrical potential of a sphere of
+q q radius R with charge Q uniformly distributed on the
Q
20. A positive point charge q is fixed at origin. A dipole surface is given by
r 40 R .
with a dipole moment p is placed along the x-axis
r (a) Statement-I is true, statement -II is true, statement-
away from the origin with p pointing along positive II is a correct explanation for statmeent-I
x-axis Find : (a) the kinetic energy of the dipole when (b) statemen-I is true, statement-II is true; statement-
it reaches a distance d from the origin, and (b) the II is NOT a correct explanaion for statmeent-I
(c) statement-I is true, statement-II is false
(d) statement-I is false, statement-II is true

FILL IN THE BLANKS

0 AV 2 AV Q2 3 kq12
1. , 0 2. B 3. 180, 4. V 5. qEa 6. 8 \$i 7. (Attraction)
d d 160 L2 K +2 L2
TRUE/FALSE
1. F 2. T 3. T 4. T 5. F 6. F

257
OBJECTIVE QUESTION (ONLY ONE OPTION)
1. (c) 2. (b) 3. (d) 4. (a) 5. (a) 6. (a) 7. (b) 8. (c)
9. (b) 10. (c) 11. (d) 12. (b) 13. (a) 14. (d) 15. (d) 16. (d)
17. (d) 18. (b) 19. (d) 20. (c) 21. (a) 22. (b) 23. (b) 24. (c)
25. (c) 26. (d) 27. (c) 28. (b) 29. (a) 30. (d) 31. (b) 32. (c)
33. (c) 34. (a) 35. (b) 36. (a)
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (MORE THAN ONE OPTION)
1. (a, d) 2. (b, d) 3. (a, c, d) 4. (b, c) 5. (a, c) 6. (a, c) 7. (c, d)
8. (a, b, c, d) 9. (a)
SUBJECTIVE QUESTIONS
3
1. Q( R + r ) 2. 3. Maximum distance from O = 8.48 m
5
4 0 ( R + r )
2 2

4. (i) Charge q should be at a distance of 3 cm from 2q (ii) Eelctric field = 0 5. 3.17 109 C

a2 a 2 b2
V = ( a b + c ), V = b + c V = + c (iii) a + b = c
6. (i) A
0
B
0 b , C
0 c c

Q 1 2 Q 1 2
7. (a) Radius = 4a, Centre = (5a, 0) (b) Vs = 4 for x 3a, Vx = 4
0 3a x 3a + x 0 x 3 a 3a + x

Qq 3 Q3 3 GM 2 Q2
for x > 3a (c) v = 8. (a) U = (b) U = 22
E = 1.5 10 J (c) U =
80 ma 20 0 R 5 R 80 R
9. (i) CA = 2 10 9F, UA = 1.21 105 J (ii) W = 4.84 105 J (iii) U = 1.1 105 J

q CK1 K2 K2 0 A
10. vmin = 11. i = 4.43 109 A 12. CR = in K where C =
2 0 m K2 K1 1 d

5
13. 14. (i) q 1 = 90 C, q 2 = 210C, q 3 = 150C (ii) (a) Ui = 47.4mJ (b) Uf = 18 mJ
6

QR R
n
qn2 Q2 R =
a
15. (a) Un = (b)U = Here q n 1
r R+r 16. (a) H =
80 R 80 r 2 3

1 q2
17. (v0 )min = 3m/s, K = 3 104 J 18. 5.86 m/s 19. W = 5.824 4 a
0

ur ( 1 2 )qa 1/3
21. W = 22. V' = V q
qp pq \$i
20. (a) KE = (b) F =
20 3t
23. a=2
4 0 d 2 20 d 3
ASSERTION AND REASION
1. (b)

258
SOLUTIONS

## FILL IN THE BLANKS ur V \$ V \$ V \$

E = i+ j+
z
k
0 A 6.
x y
1. C=
d V = 4x2
V V V
Therefore, = 8 x and =0=
x y z
ur
E = 8 x \$i
ur
or E at (1m, 0.2m) is 8 i\$ V/m

## 7. Force on q due to charges at 1 and 4 are equal and

opposite. Similarly, forces on q due to charges at 2
and 5 are also equal and opposite. Therefore, net force
on q due to charge at 1, 2, 4 and 5 is zero. Only
unbalanced force is between q and + q at 3 which

0 AV 1 q2 q2
Q1 = c(V 0) = is equal to and 9.0 109 (attraction)
d 4 0 L2 L2
Q 4 = C ( 0 V ) + C( 0 V ) TRUE FALSE
0 AV 1. Electrostatic force is conservative in nature and in
= 2CV = 2
d conservative force field work done is path indepen-
dent.

## dV 2. Mass of negatively charged sphere will be slightly

2. is greatest for B. more than the mass of positively charged sphere
dr
because some electrons will be given to the negatively
charged sphere while some electrons will be taken out
3. Due to electrostatic repulsion the charges will move as from the positively charged sphere.
farthest as possible and the angle between the two
string will be 180. Tension in each string will be equal 3. When X-rays fall on the metal
to electrostatic repulsion between the two charges. ball, some electrons are emited
Thus, from it due to photoelectric effect.
The ball thus gets positively
1 QQ Q2 charged and on a positively
T = Fe = 4 =
0 (2 L )
2
160 L2 charged ball an electrostatic force
in the direction of electric field
4. Total charge will remain uncharged. acts. due to this force ball gets
Hence Q = Q' deflected in the direction of elec-
or 3CV = (KC + 2C)' tric field.
3
V' = V
4. Electric field between the plates of capacitor is almost
K +2 uniform. Therefore, force on both the protons will be
identical. It hardly matters whether they are placed
ur r r near positive plate or negative plate.
5. WFe = F.d ( d = displacement)
ur uur 5. Motion is simple harmonic only when charge q is not
= ( qE\$i). rs . rp very far from the centre of ring on its axis. Otherwise
motion is periodic but not simple harmonic in nature.
= ( qE\$i). (a\$i b\$j
6. Electric lines force does not represent the path of the
= qEa charged particle but tangent to the path at any point
on the line shows the direction of electric force on it

259
and it is not always necessary that motion of the (10)(1) 10
particle is in the direction of force acting on it. Cnet = = F
10 + 1 11
OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS (ONLY ONE OPTION)
1. From conservation of mechanical energy
decrease in kinetic energy = increase in potential energy
1 ( Ze)(2e) 1 F
or 4 0 rmin = 5 MeV
10F
= 5 1.6 1013 J
7. VC1 = VQ1 + VQ2
+ Ze + 2e (Z = 92)
1 Q1 1 Q1
rmin = 4 R + 4
0 0 R 2

1 2Ze 2 1 Q
= Q1 + 2
4 0 R
rmin =
4 0 5 1.6 10 13 2
Q2
(9 109 )(2)(92)(1.6 1019 ) 2 Q1
=
5 1.6 1013 R 2
R
= 5.3 1014 m = 5.3 10 12 cm
i.e., rmin is of the order of 1012 cm. C1 R C2
correct option is (c).
2. Electric potential at any point inside a hollow metallic 1 Q
Similarly, VC2 = Q2 + 1
4 0 R
sphere is constant. Therefore, if potential at surface is
2
10 V, potential at centre will also be 10 V.
3. Motion is simple harmonic only if Q is released from V = VC1 VC2
a point very far from the origin on x-axis. Otherwise
motion is periodic but not simple harmonic. 1 1
= ( Q1 Q2 ) ( Q1 Q2 )
4. Since, q is at the centre of two charges Q and Q, net 40 R 2
force on it is zero, whatever the magnitude and sign of
charge on it. For the equilibrium of Q, q should be =
(Q1 Q2 )
2(40 R)
( 21 )
negative because other charge q will repel it, so q

( )
should attract it. Simultaneously these attractions and
repulsions should be equal. W = qV = q (Q1 Q2 ) 2 1 / 2(4 R)
0

## Q q Q 8. The diagramatic representation of the given question

is shown in figure.
1 QQ 1 Qq
= Eq
4 0 r 2
4 0 ( r / 2) 2
y
E
Q
or q= Eq
4
x
Q
or with sign q=
4
correct option is (b).
q q
5. In such situation potential difference depends only on ( d, 0) (d, 0)
ur
the charge on inner sphere. Since, charge on inner The electrical field E at all points on the x-axis will not
sphere is unchanged. Therefore, potential difference V have the same direcion.
will remain unchanged. For d x < d, electric field is along positive x-axis
while for all other points it is along negative x-axis.
C1C2 ur
6. In series, C = The electric field E at all points on the y-axis will be
C1 + C2
260
12. Electrostatic force, Fe = eE (for both the particle). But
parallel to the x-axis (i.e., \$i )
acceleration of electron, a e = Fe/me and acceleration of
(option c)
proton, a p = Fe/mp
The electrical potential at the origin due to both the
charges is zero, hence, no work is done in bringing a 1 1
S= ae t12 = a p t22
test charge from infinity to the oriign. 2 2
Dipole moment is directed from the q charge to the
t2 ae mp
+ q charge (i.e., \$i direction). =
t1 = ap me
9. Q1 + Q2 = 3CV
l = 0 uruur l =0
Q=CV
1
Q=4CV
2 13. . = l = dV = V (centre) V (infinity)
Edl
+ l=
+ but V (infinity) = 0
Q1
+ l = 0 uruur