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Chapter 9: Solid and Hazardous Waste Production

Methods of Solid Waste Disposal
The Human Population produces large amounts of unwanted, discarded
product known as ________________.
Solid waste generated by agricultural, mining, and manufacturing activities
are referred to as _______________________________.
Most of the solid waste generated in the United States come from
Mining activities provide many raw materials for both ____________ products
and ______________ products.
What is typically referred to as trash or garbage that is thrown out by
residential or commercial buildings is known as ___________________________
or (MSW).
The United States is the world leader in producing solid waste, generating
nearly __ pounds of waste per person per year.
The largest source of municipal waste in the U.S. is _________________.
In the United States, about 25% of municipal solid waste currently is
___________, and another 54% is buried in __________.

Open Dumping
_______________ are simply large fields or holes in the ground where garbage
is deposited and often buried.

Sanitary Landfills
____________________ are specially prepared facilities that must meet specific
federal requirements mandated by the Resource Conservation and
Recovery Act for location, design, operation, closure, monitoring, and
financial assurance.

Sanitary Landfill Disadvantages:

Landfills release _____________________ (Methane and CO2) as wastes

_________ Materials leach out of landfills as liquid moves downward through
the layers. This liquid is known as _____________.
____________________ is generated from both the landfill and trucks
transporting waste.
Incineration of Waste
Some municipal solid waste is sent to waste-to-energy incinerators. These
incinerators can reduce the volume of solid waste up to 90%. The waste
incinerators can be used to produce steam to create electrical energy.

Incineration disadvantages:
Releases air pollutants such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxides, ___________,
and ____________.
Creates large amounts of ___________ that must be stored in hazardous
waste landfills.
Expensive to build and operate; incineration typically costs __________as
much as landfilling.

Methods of Reducing Solid Waste Production

__________- Simple ways to reduce consumption may be to walk, bike, or
carpool to work, read newspapers or magazines online, and buy items
_________- Reusing items that arent One-time use like water bottles.
___________- Materials like Paper, steel, aluminum, glass, and some plastics
are reprocessed to provide materials for new products.
The three types of recycling are Primary recycling or closed-loop recycling,
Secondary recycling, and Compositing.
In ___________________, materials are converted to new products of the same
type. Like an aluminum can recycled toward another aluminum can.
In _______________________, materials are converted into a different type of
product. Like converting old rubber tires into rubberized road surfacing.
________________ is a type of recycling that utilizes the natural role of
decomposing bacteria and fungi to convert biodegradable waste into
usable soil amendments.

Methods of Hazardous Waste Disposal

Any waste that poses potential harm to human health due to its toxicity is
known as ___________________________.
Hazardous waste is often _____________, flammable, or dangerously
Many _________________ nations do not have adequate procedures for
dealing with hazardous waste materials.
Households in the United States alone generate over __________________
tons of hazardous waste each year.

Integrated Management of Hazardous Waste

1. Producing less and recycling
Producing less hazardous waste will require industries to actively search
for _________________ to commonly used hazardous materials.
Some types of hazardous waste can be recycled to become
___________________ for other industrial processes

2. Converting to Less Hazardous Substances- Methods of ________________

____________ Methods- Some types of hazardous waste can be remediated
by chemical reactions that convert the waste into compounds that are less
____________ Methods- Hazardous waste can also be physically removed by
distilling liquid mixtures to remove toxic compounds.
_____________Methods- _______________ includes the use of organisms, such
as bacteria or other microorganisms, to remove contaminants from solid or
liquid hazardous waste.
_____________________ utilizes natural plant species or genetically engineered
plants to absorb contaminants such as mercury, lead, pesticides, or organic
________________- Much like solid waste incineration, hazardous waste can
also be broken down in high temperature incinerators.
____________________- This device generates plasma by passing and
electrical current through the gas at very high temperatures. This process
converts solid or liquid hazard waste into synthetic gas that can be utilized
to make fuels.

Storing Hazardous Waste

The least expensive method of disposal of hazardous waste is simple burial
on land and therefore this is the predominant method used in the United

Storing methods:
____________________(injection)- This is the most common form of storing liquid
hazardous waste. Liquid wastes are pumped through pipes into permeable
injection zones that are beneath aquafers and ideally sealed off by
impermeable vertical rock layers above the injection zone.
__________________- some liquid hazardous waste is simply stored in natural
topographic depressions in the earth or man-made lagoons or ponds
_______________________- Solid or Liquid hazardous waste can also be placed in
drums or barrels that are sealed and buried in special hazardous waste
landfill facilities

Hazardous Waste Legislation in the United States

________________________________________________ (RCRA)- This act allows the
EPA to set standards for management of several types of hazardous waste
The Crave-to-grave system is used to track hazardous waste disposal.
Comprehensive Environment Response, Compensation, and Liability Act
(_________________________)- This act identifies areas that have been
contaminated with hazardous waste. These areas, known as superfund sites,
are placed on the national priorities list for cleanup.
The U.S. Government, state legislatures, and local agencies are passing laws
and providing incentives for the cleanup of abandoned industrial and
commercial sites is known as _________________.
___________________- This international treaty was drafted as a result of
hazardous waste, including e-waste, from developed nations being shipping
overseas to developing countries without their permission.
_______________________________ (POPs) treaty- This Treaty originated at the
Stockholm convention. It is the international agreement to phase out 12
organic persistent pollutants, also known as the dirty dozen, such as DDT
and PCBs.