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Ottoman Archival Materials for the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries: The Archives

of Istanbul
Author(s): Stanford J. Shaw
Source: International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 6, No. 1 (Jan., 1975), pp. 94-114
Published by: Cambridge University Press
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Int. J. Middle East Stud. 6 (I975), 94-114 Printed in Great Britain
94

Stanford J. Shaw

OTTOMAN ARCHIVAL MATERIALS FOR


THE NINETEENTH AND EARLY TWENTIETH
CENTURIES: THE ARCHIVES OF ISTANBUL

It has been just fifteen years since my researches in the Bagbakanlik Arsivi
(Prime Minister's Archives) in Istanbul on Ottoman provincial administration
and finance before the nineteenth century' led me to attempt to describe what
I saw in the archives for the benefit of other researchers.2 Since that time,
a number of additional collections in that archive have been catalogued and made
available, and my own subsequent research into the Ottoman reform movement
in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries have enabled me to examine these
and other materials which I did not see or examine during my earlier research
efforts in Istanbul. It is the purpose of this survey, then, to describe these more
modern archival materials in Istanbul, particularly those in the Basbakanlik
Arsivi which were not described in my earlier article, in the hope of encouraging
all those interested in modern Ottoman and Middle Eastern history to make use
of them in the course of their own research.3 In order to help the reader under-
stand the nature of the bulk of materials in each collection, I am dividing them
into four general categories: basic laws and regulations, administrative records
and regulations, records of sultans and individual statesmen, and judicial records,
although in fact the materials in each collection at least partly overlap in nature
with those of the others.
I See S. J. Shaw, The Financial and Administrative Organization and Development of
Ottoman Egypt, I517-1798 (Princeton, N.J., 1962); Ottoman Egypt in the Age of the
French Revolution (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1964); The Budget of Ottoman Egypt (The
Hague, Holland, 1968).
2 S. J. Shaw, 'Archival Sources for Ottoman History: The Archives of Turkey',

Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 80 (i960), pp. I-12; 'Turkish Source
materials for Egyptian History', Political and Social Change in Modern Egypt, ed. P. M.
Holt (Oxford University Press, London and New York, 1968), pp. 28-48.
3 The best general inventory of the Basbakanllk Archives in Istanbul is Midhat

Sertoglu, Muhteva Bakimindan Basvekalet Arfivi (Ankara, I955). It is a basic tool, and
should be used consistently and regularly by all researchers.

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The Ottoman archives of Istanbul 95

A. BASIC LAWS AND REGULATIONS

(I) The Hatt-z Hiimayun collection


Containing about Io,ooo documents from early in the eighteenth century to
the start of the Tanzimat (I839), this collection consists primarily of documents
and reports transmitted by the Grand Vezir's office (Bab-t Asafi) to the Sultan
and the Imperial Council for deliberation and action, along with the orders
issued as a result. For the most part, the different documents concerning indivi-
dual problems were not kept together, but rather are found scattered through-
out the collection. While no formal subject classification was followed in putting
them together, the catalogues were generally arranged according to date, with
materials concerning individual subjects often found relatively close to one
another in the listings. Among subjects of interest treated in this collection are
the reforms of sultans Selim III and Mahmud II, the French Expedition to
Egypt, the Wahhabi movement in Arabia, and the Serbian and Greek revolu-
tions. The original Ottoman handscript catalogues now have been supplanted by
copies typed in the Latin script.

(2) The Cevdet collection


Documents were classified and catalogued from 1932 to 1937 by a committee
under the direction of the well-known Istanbul scholar and bibliophile Muallim
M. Cevdet.I Catalogues are available only in the typed Latin script. Covering
primarily the years from I750 to 1839, this collection consists entirely of
individual documents rather than dossiers, and has been catalogued into sixteen
major subject categories:
Number of
documents
Adliye/Judicial affairs 6,371
Askeri/Military affairs 54,984
Bahriye/Naval affairs 12,743
Belediye/Municipal affairs 7,597
Dahiliye/General administration 17,468
Darphane/Ottoman mint, coinage 3,281
Evkaf/Religious foundations 33,35
Iktisat/Economic affairs 2,261
Hariciye/Foreign affairs 9,327
Szhhiye/Public health 1,45I
Nafia/Public works 2,785
Saray/Palace affairs 9,oI9
Timar/Fief and military finances 8,794
Zaptiye/Police and public security 4,550
Eyaldt-z miimtdze/Special provinces ,o032
Maarif/Education and cultural affairs 9,242
Total I84,256

I See Osman Ergin, Mualltm CevdetznHayatz, Eserleri ve Kiitiiphanesi (Istanbul, I937).

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96 StanfordJ. Shaw

Within each general subject catalogue, documents have not been arranged
either by date or by subcategory. In addition, when documents concerned
several subjects, the cataloguers were compelled to make arbitrary judgments as
to which single category catalogue they should be assigned. The careful researcher
therefore should consult as wide a group of subject catalogues as is possible in the
time available.

(3) The Irade collection


This is the basic collection of documents concerning the nineteenth and early
twentieth centuries, containing some 350,000 dossiers concerning the years from
1832 to the end of the Empire. For the most part, it is arranged into dossiers on
each subject, containing the various documents and drafts involved in drawing
up and issuing all the imperial decrees proclaimed during the last century of
Ottoman existence. For the years from 1832 to I310/1892, one catalogue volume
is set aside for the documents concerning each year. Each volume is arranged not
by subject but only according to general category, Dahiliye/Internal affairs or
Hariciye/Foreign and minority affairs from 1832 to 1840, with additional sections
subsequently being provided in each catalogue to include dossiers for irddes
issued by the special legislative bodies organized after that time, the Meclis-i
Vdld-yz Ahkdm-z AdliyelSupreme Council of Judicial Ordinances' after I256/
I840, and the $ura-yz Devlet/Council of State2 after 1284/1867, and also those
issued in connection with reports of the Meclis-i Mahsus-i ViikelalCouncil of
Ministers after 1270/1853. Within each category, dossiers are arranged by date.
The most important state problems are found among the 5,646 dossiers listed
under Meclis-i Mahsus, the 7,2I4 dossiers under yura-yz Devlet, and the 21,136
dossiers under Hariciye. The approximately 80,ooo dossiers under Dahiliye and
26,336 dossiers under Meclis-i Vdld usually, but not always, concern matters of
lesser importance.
In addition to the catalogues arranged by year, a separate series of documents
and catalogues concerning problems related to foreign affairs and the minority
subjects of the Sultan has been prepared for the years from I839 to I857 under
the general title Mesail-i Miihimme/Important Problems.3 Subjects dealt with in
this series are relations with Austria, Denmark, Sardinia, Iran, Monte-
negro, Portugal, England, Wallachia and Moldavia, Serbia, Greece, Russia,
France, Bulgaria, the Pope, Iran, Prussia, Lebanon, Egypt, and Tuscany;
problems concerning the Protestant millet, the Armenian millet, the Kurds, the
Catholic millet, the Jewish millet, the Latin rayas, the Greek millet, the tribes of
eastern Anatolia, the Holy Cities of Mecca and Medina, and the provinces of
Crete, Ni?, Yemen, Sidon, Bagdad, Aleppo, Adana and Mara~, Damascus,
See S.J. Shaw, 'The Central Legislative Councils in the Nineteenth Century
Ottoman Reform Movement before I876', IJMES, vol. I (1970), pp. 54-63.
2 Shaw, 'Central Legislative Councils', pp. 73-84.
3 See Sertoglu, Muhteva Bakmnindan,pp. 56-8, for a detailed list of the dossiers and
their titles.

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The Ottoman archives of Istanbul 97

Ankara, Egypt, Bosnia, Diyarbekir, Thessaloniki, I?kodra (Scutari of Albania),


Algiers, Sisam, Tunis, Hudavendigar (Bursa), Yanya (Janina), Uskib, Edirne,
Erzurum, Aydin, and Trabzon; there are also separate catalogues dealing with
problems such as the organization of quarantines, the Sultan's visits to Europe
and different parts of the Empire, measures to be taken in consequence of revolts
in Europe, and the like. An additional series of special catalogues, gathered under
the general title Hiitiit-i Hiimayun (Imperial Rescripts), cover documents con-
cerning subjects such as administrative and municipal regulations, military
organization, the Imperial Arsenal (Tophane-i amire), the Imperial Dockyard
(Tersane-i amire), state-owned buildings (Ebniye-i emiriyye), the Treasury for
Foundation revenues (Hazine-i Evkaf), the private treasury of the Sultan
(Hazine-i hassa-i fahane), weddings of members of the Ottoman family (Sur-i
Hiimayun), Imperial and private factories, and the Imperial treasury. The docu-
ments in these subject collections are arranged according to date, and while they
nominally go only to 1857, in fact documents from later dates may also be found
in some of them, going at least up to the end of the nineteenth century.
Starting in the year 1310/I892, the registers of the Irade collection for each
year were divided according to Ministry, with separate annual catalogue volumes
thus being provided for: DahiliyelInterior, HariciyelForeign and minority
affairs, Adliye/Justice, Maarif/Education, Maliye/Finance, RusumatlExcise and
special taxes, Tophane/Arsenal, Zabtiye/Police and security, Nafia/Public
works, Orman ve Maadin/Forests and mines, Meseyhiye/Religious affairs,
$ehir Emdneti/Istanbul municipality, Imtiyaz ve Mukavelat/Capitulations
privileges and contracts with foreign individuals and companies, Telgraf ve
Posta/Telegraph and post office, and Szhhiye/Public health. Separate catalogue
volumes also were provided in most years for Hususi Irdddt/Special orders out-
side regular categories, Nizdmdt/Organizational ordinances and regulations, and
Defter-i Hakani/Register of Imperial revenues. This system was followed until
1334/I916, well into World War I, when a new subject system was introduced,
with all dossiers and their catalogues organized solely according to subject, in
eight main groups:
Group I dossiers. Matters concerning the Sultanate and the Imperial
family: the organization of the Council of Ministers (Heyet-i Viikela) and
changes in its membership; persons admitted to the presence of the Sultan;
affairs of the Imperial Properties/Emlak-t Hiimayun; religious holidays and
festivals; gifts awarded by the Sultan; foreign ambassadors to the Porte;
Ottoman ambassadors abroad; institutions supported by the Sultan's treasury;
the Emir of Mecca; Tripoli of Libya and Benghazi; foreign rulers and their families.
Group II dossiers. Basic organizational regulations (nizamat) and instructions
(talimat); commercial privileges and agreements; treaties; the coal mine of
Eregli; foreign institutions in the Empire; questions of nationality; special agents
sent to foreign governments; medals and insignia awarded by the Sultan; matters
concerning foreign ships passing through the Straits; roads and bridges.
7 MES 6 I

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98 StanfordJ. Shaw

Group III dossiers. Appointments to administrative positions; awards to


administrators (memurzn).
Group IV dossiers. Temporary laws; tax increases and exemptions.
Group V dossiers. The Holy Cities of Mecca and Medina; the Imperial gift
(siirre) sent annually to the Holy Cities; appointments as Imperial preacher
(Hitabet); declarations of war; pardons for criminal punishments; affairs of the
Hicaz railroad and the Hicaz; organization of courts; administrative organi-
zation and subdivisions; religious foundations; dismissal and trial of admini-
strative officials; orders for execution and penal servitude; construction on state
property; orphanages; martial law matters; societies; schools; provincial
organization.
Group VI dossiers. Petitions to the Sultan (miistediyat); reductions in salary
for officials; foreign subjects in Ottoman service; congresses; private business
companies; provincial budgets; provincial and district representative councils;'
non-Muslim societies; archeological excavations; extraordinary taxes; budgets of
special livas; basic laws (kavanin) and regulations (nizamat); the Ottoman con-
stitution; regulations for the election of deputies; the Mecelle law code; agricul-
tural and industrial fairs and exhibitions; railroads in Rumeli; the abolition of
paper notes (kavaim-i nakdiyye) and the unification of the public debt; news-
papers and magazines; foreign relations problems, with special dossiers on
problems with England over Akaba and Kuwait, with Austria-Hungary over
Bosnia and Herzegovina, with France over its occupation of Tunis and Algiers,
and with various foreign powers regarding the Suez Canal, neutrality of the
Black Sea, and navigation through the Straits; information on peace negotia-
tions with Russia; the revolt of Serbia and Montenegro; Russian war
indemnities; the Congress of Berlin, with special dossiers on matters
concerning reforms in Anatolia, the definition of the Ottoman boundary with
Greece, and lands to be left to Montenegro; Austrian refugees to the Ottoman
Empire.
Group VII dossiers; Military Affairs. Military appointments, demotions and
gifts; military organization; military retirement affairs; military courts; reduction
of military salaries; provisions of sancaks and awards and medals to sancaks;
conscription; Gendarmerie; naval appointments, promotions and awards; naval
retirements; naval courts; naval ranks; fleet affairs.
Group VIII dossiers. Imperial rescripts (Hutut-i Hiimdyun); Imperial de-
clarations (Beyanndme-i Hiimdyun); letters autographed by the Sultan (Ndme-i
Hiimdyun); the Public Debt; papers concerning Yusuf Izzeddin Efendi; Imperial
rescripts for the appointment of Grand Vezirs; and railroads, problems con-
cerning Crete, Egypt, Greece, Bulgaria and Sisam (Samos).
In addition to the Irade document collections noted above, the Basbakanlik
Ar?ivi also possesses a series of Irade registers (Irade kayzt defterleri) listing all
See Sertoglu, Muhteva Bakzmzndan,pp. 52-6, for a detailed list of the dossiers and
their titles.

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The Ottoman archives of Istanbul 99

Irades ever issued by the Ottoman government, arranged by date, with short
summaries of each. However, no attempt has yet been made to coordinate these
listings with the documents found in the Irade documents collection, so these
registers at present are of limited use.

(4) The Meclis-i Tanzimat and Nizamat Collection


The texts of all basic laws (kavanin) and organizational regulations (nizamat)
issued by the Council of the Tanzimat (Meclis-i Tanzimat) after its establishment
as the basic Ottoman legislative organization in 1271/1854, and by its successors,
the Supreme Council of Judicial Ordinances/Meclis-i Ahkdm-z Adliye after
1278/I86I, the Council of Statel/ura-yz Devlet after 1285/I868, and the Ottoman
Parliament in 1877-8 and after 1908, have been transcribed in full, along with all
amendments and changes, in a series of thirty-seven registers, of which the first
seven, covering the years from 1271/1854 to 1298/1861, bear the title Meclis-i
Tanzimat defterleri/Registers of the Council of the Tanzimat, and the last thirty,
covering the years from 1301/1883-4 to 1333/1914, bear the title Nizdmat/
Regulations.I The most important texts in this series which were still in force at
the time were published by the Ottoman government in the series known as the
Diistur, or Ottoman Code of Laws, in two series, with various supplements, as
follows:
(a) Series i (Birinci tertib/first arrangement), later known as the 'Old Dusturl
Diistur-i Atik', was first printed in a single volume in 1279/1863, and later re-
printed, with additions, in 1282/I865. This volume was reprinted for a third
time in 1289/1872, also with additions, and then volumes 2, 3, and 4 were
published respectively in 1290/1873, 1293/1876, and 1296/1879, each containing
laws and regulations published in the interval along with corrections and changes
in the laws contained in the earlier volumes. Four supplements (zeyl) were issued
to the first series between 1296/1879 and 1302/1884, adding new laws and amend-
ments, and a volume entitled Miitemmim (Completion), containing laws added
to the original four volumes between 5I Muharrem 1289/1872 and 8 Receb
I325/1907 (thus duplicating many published in the supplements), appeared in
Istanbul in 1335/1919. The first series was concluded with an additional four
volumes, entitled Distur: Birinci tertib, published in Latin letters by the Prime
Minister's Office of the Turkish Republic, in co-operation with the staff of the
Ba?bakanhkAr?ivi, between 1937 and I943:
Volume 5 (Ankara, 1937), regulations issued between 14 Rebi I 1301/1 January
1299/I883 and 26 Receb 1305/26 March 1304/I888.
Volume 6 (Ankara, 1939), regulations issued between 4 Zilkade 1304/13 July
1303/1887 and I4 Ramazan 1312/27 February 13I0/I895.
Volume 7 (Ankara, I94I), regulations issued between 15 ewval 1312/29 March
1311/1895 and 14 Zilhicce 1321/19 February 1319/1903.
p. 26, lists the number of registersand dates for
I Sertoglu, MuhtevaBakzmzndan,
each.
7-2

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Ioo Stanford J. Shaw

Volume 8 (Ankara, I943), regulations issued between 23 Muharrem I322/


28 March I320/1904 and 15 Cemaziyelahir 1326/I July I324/1908.
Since the earlier Diistur volumes contain only those laws issued after I839
which were in force at the time of printing, the Meclis-i Tanzimat and Nizamat
are essential to find those laws which had been annulled by 1872. However,
almost all laws of any importance issued after that date were published in the
Diisturs.
(b) Series 2 (Ikinci tertib/second arrangement), later known as the 'New
Diistur/Diistur-i Cedid, was published in Istanbul in 12 volumes between I329/
1911 and I347/I928 and contained all the basic laws and regulations which
were issued between 1326/1908 and 134I/I922.
Many of the laws and regulations published in the Diistur also were previously
published in the official Ottoman government newspaper, the Takvim-i Vekaii,
of which 2, 19 issues were issued between I247/I83I and I295/1878, after which
it was closed for 12 years by Sultan Abd ul-Hamid II; 283 more issues were
published in 13 months in I890-I, after which it was closed once again. Takvim-i
Vekaii was published once again following the restoration of the Constitution in
I908, and 4,608 additional issues were printed until the Grand National Assembly
of the new Turkish Republic transformed it into the Resmi GazetelOfficial
Gazette in I923. A number of the laws also were published in the private news-
papers of the time.

B. ADMINISTRATIVE RECORDS AND REGULATIONS

(i) The Prime Minister's office/Bab-z Asafi


The records and acts of the Prime Minister's office are separated into two basic
collections, 1561 bound registers covering the years between I227/I8I2 and
I298/1890 and given the general title of Ayniyat (properties) registers, and
352,000 documents and their I,045 catalogues, preserved under the title Bab-z
Ali Evrak Odasz/Document Room of the Sublime Porte.
(a) The Ayniyat collection consists primarily of copies of administrative
orders, issued by the Prime Minister/Grand Vezir and lesser officials, usually
called buyuruldu, along with drafts and copies of various other memoranda/
tezdkir and notes/muharrerat concerning all matters of interest to the Ottoman
government. A full list of the registers, their subjects and dates, will be found in
Sertoglu, Muhteva bakzmandanBasvekalet Arsivi, pp. 47-50.
(b) The documents of the Bab-z Ali Evrak Odasz, consisting primarily of
communications between the Prime Minister's Office and other ministries and
departments of government between 1309/1891 and the end of the Istanbul
government, include drafts of basic laws and administrative regulations, reports
on problems and actions of all sorts, and other matters which make this archive
of primary importance for a study of all problems concerning the Empire during
the last three decades of its existence. The documents concerning the years up to

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The Ottoman archives of Istanbul Ioi

1334/I913 are divided according to Ministry, and then into subcategories of


Incoming Correspondence/varide or gelen, Outgoing Correspondence/sddire or
giden, and Other official documents/takrirdt. It should be noted that only a rela-
tively small portion of the items listed in the Incoming and Other Official
document sections have been preserved, but the materials in the Outgoing
sections remain largely intact and available for study:

Register
volume
Ministry or subject numbers Inclusive dates of correspondence
Adliye/Justice 1-29 24 Rebi II 1278/1861-31 October
1338/1922
Bahriye/Navy 30-51 28 Cemazi II 1265/1849-I2 Rebi I
1341/1922
Dahiliye/Interior
Incoming 52-86 3 Cemazi I 1297/1880-8 Rebi I
1338/1919
Outgoing 87-122 4 Rebi II 1297/I880-II Rebi I
I341/1922
Evkaf/Foundations 123-144 9 Cemazi II 1268/1852-IO Rebi I
1341/1922
Hariciye/Foreign Affairs
Incoming 145-I74 4 Rebi II 1297/1880-7 Rebi I
1341/1922
Outgoing 175-192 21 Rebi I 1296/1879-10 Rebi I
1341/1922
Harbiye/Army
Documents 193-204 14 $eval 1260/1844-I6 Ramazan
1330/1912
Incoming 205-245 i Receb 1265/I849-14 Rebi II
1341/1922
Outgoing 246-273 i Muharrem 1278/1861-11 Rebi I
1341/1922
Hazine-i Hassa/Treasury of Sultan
Incoming 274-275 io Muharrem 1278/1861-31 October
1338/1922
Outgoing 276-277 I Muharrem 1278/I861-31 October
1338/1922
Istizan Irade-i Seniye 278-343 3 Receb 1265/1849-8 Rebi I 134I/1922
defteri/Requests for permission
to issue Irades
Resen Irade-i Seniye, 344-360 28 Cemazi II 1265/1849-25 Cemazi I
Summaries of Irades 1327/1909
Irade-i Hususiye/Special Irades 361-389 6 Muharrem 1286/1869-25 Rebi II
issued on internal regulations 1340/1922
and privileges, judicial,
financial, and police
matters
Maarif/Education
Incoming 390-394 I6 Muharrem 1278/1861-29 Safar
I341/I922
Outgoing 395-399 I Muharrem 1278/1861-i Safar
I341/1922

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1o2 Stanford J. Shaw

Register
volume
Ministry or subject numbers Inclusive dates of correspondence
Maliye/Finance
Documents 400-444 8 $eval 1260/I844-13 Muharrem
1290/1873
Incoming 445-472 29 $aban I277/I86I-IO Rebi I
1341/1922
Outgoing 473-517 i Muharrem 1278/I861-IO Rebi I
1341/1922
Meclis-i Ayanl Council of Notables
Incoming 518-520 25 Zilkade 1326/1908-I4 Muharrem
1340/1921
Outgoing 521-522 26 Zilkade 1326/1908-8 Safar
134I/I922
Meclis-i Mebusan/Council of Representatives
Documents 523-524 2 Zilhicce 1327/1909-8 Receb
1338/1920
Incoming 525-526 3 Zilhicce 1326/1910-8 Receb
1338/1920
Outgoing 527-528 25 Zilkade 1326/1910-13 Receb
1338/1920
Mefihat/Religion
Incoming 529-532 i Muharrem 1290/I873-9 Rebi I
134I/1922
Outgoing 533-537 I Muharrem I279/186I-1O Rebi I
1341/1922
Nafia/Public Works
Incoming 538-544 28 Zilhicce I285/1869-21 October
1338/1920
Outgoing 545-549 17 Zilhicce 1286/1870-I October
1338/1920
Ticaret ve Nafia/Trade and Public Works
Incoming 550-551 28 Cemazi I 1265/1849-o10 aban
1328/1910
Outgoing 552 21 Safar I327/I909-1I Rebi I 1329/1911
Ticaret/Trade
Incoming 553-554 17 Muharrem 1290/1873-2 Rebi I
1341/1922
Outgoing 555-558 20 Muharrem 1290/1873-10 Rebi I
1341/1922
Ticaret ve Sihhiye/Trade and Health
Incoming 559 9 Muharrem 1278/I86I-12 Muharrem
1290/1873
Outgoing 560 i Muharrem 1278/I86I-I3 Muharrem
1290/1873
Ticaret ve Ziraat/Trade and Agriculture
Incoming 56I-562 15 Rebi I 1329/19I1-I4 Rebi I
1336/1918
Outgoing 563 28 Zilkade I327/I909-4 Rebi II 33I/I9I3
Orman ve Maadin/Forests and Mines
Incoming 564-567 27 Receb 1289/I872-8 February
1326/1911
Outgoing 568-570 7 Cemazi I I299/1882-I5 Rebi I
1336/1917

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The Ottomanarchivesof Istanbul I03

Register
volume
Ministry or subject numbers Inclusive dates of correspondence

Sihhiye/Health
Incoming 57I-572 21 Muharrem I290/I873-10 Rebi I
I34I/I922
Outgoing 573-575 21 Muharrem 1290/I873-Io Rebi I
1341/1922
Posta ve Telgraf/Post and Telegraph
Incoming 576-58I 17 Muharrem 1290/1873-II Receb
I337/91I9
Outgoing 582-586 17 Safar I293/I876-8 Receb I337/1I9
Rusumat/Excise Taxes
Incoming !587-59I Io Muharrem I278/I86I-IO Receb
1327/1909
Outgoing !592-595 2 Muharrem I278/I861-I5 Receb
1327/1909
$ura-i Devlet/Council of State
Incoming !596-598 i6 Receb I295/I878-II Rebi I I341/1922
Outgoing 599-60I 22 Receb I295/I878-29 Safar 1341/1922
$ura-i Devlet mazbata defteril (602-640 23 Zilhicce I285/I869-12 Rebi I
Protocols of proposed legislation I341/1922
issued by the Council of State
Tophane/Arsenal
Incoming 641-646 13 Receb I278/I86I-IO Zilkade
1327/1909
Outgoing 647-649 i8 Muharrem 1290/1873-5 Cemazi II
I327/I909
Zabtiye/Gendarmerie
Incoming (650-657 29 Cemazi II 1265/1849-24 Receb
1327/1909
Outgoing (658-663 2 Muharrem I278/I861-19 Cemazi II
I327/I909
Anadolu Teftif Komisyonul
Anatolian Inspection Commission
Incoming 4664-666 5 Rebi II I313/1895-28 Safar 1320/I902
Outgoing 667-668 io Rebi I 1313/1895-28 Ramazan
1320/1920
Bulgaristan Komiserligi
Police Superintendence of Bulgaria
Incoming (672-676 13 Sevak I3I3/I895-28 Zilkade I319/1902
Outgoing 677 I9 Receb 1315/I897-25 Zilhicce I32I/I904
Documents 678-680 2 Rebi I I3Ii/i893-6 Receb I327I1909
Sicil-i Ahval Komisyonul 68i-682 6 Receb 1305/1888-8 Muharrem
Commission to Register and I31I/I893
Supervise Bureaucrats
$ehremaneti/Istanbul Municipality
Incoming 683-686 i6 Muharrem I278/I86I-6 Safar
1327/1909
Outgoing 687-689 5 Muharrem I278/I861-23 Receb
I327/I909
Sedarete gelen fifreli telgraflar/
Ciphered telegrams coming to
the Grand Vezir (mostly decoded)
Incoming (690-698 I July I320/I902-28 February 1327/1909

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104 Stanford 7. Shaw

Register
volume
Ministry or subject numbers Inclusive dates of correspondence
Sedaretten giden fifreli telgraflar/
Ciphered telegrams sent by
Grand Vezirate
Outgoing 699-705 I December I320/1905-26 May
1327/1911
Hariciye miiteferrikasz/Foreign 706-715 ii October 1302/1887-20 September 1922
and minority affairs, miscellaneous
Hicaz Demir Yollarz/The Hicaz
Railroad
Incoming 716 8 Zilhicce 1319/19o2-12 Zilkade 1332/1914
Outgoing 717 7 Zilhicce 1319/1902-12 Zilkade
1332/1914
Defter-i Hakani Nezareti/
Ministry in charge of revenues
from certain imperial properties
Incoming 720-723 10 Muharrem 1278/1861-20 Receb
1330/1912
Outgoing 724-726 2 Muharrem 1278/I861-2o Rebi II
1330/1912
Divan-i Muhasebat/Accounting
Council
Incoming 727-733 o1 Muharrem 1297/1879-26 Rebi II
1297/1879
Outgoing 734-735 i Safar 1299/1881-28 Zilhicce 1330/1912
Miilkiye Tekaut Sandzgz/Civil
Service Retirement Bank
Incoming 736-738 9 Cemazi II 1297/1880-17 Cemazi II
1329/1911
Outgoing 739-740 ii Cemazi II I297/I880-3 Ramazan
1328/1910
Memurin-i Miilkiye Komisyonul
Commission on Civil Service
bureaucrats
Incoming 741 7 Ramazan I314/I897-5 $aban I326/I908
Outgoing 742 24 Receb 1314/1897-18 Receb 1326/I908
Mizsr KomiserligilHigh 743-750 IO Rebi II 1300/1883-24 $eval 1332/I914
Commissioner for Egypt
Miimtaze Hariciye miiteferrikasz/ 751-757 22 Receb 1307/1890-12 June 1330/1914
Foreign relations of special
provinces
Muhacirin Komisyonu/Commission
Refugees
Incoming 758-760 2 Muharrem I278/I861-7 Receb
1326/1908
Outgoing 761-764 3 Muharrem I278/1861-24 Cemazi II
1326/1908
Islahat-i Maliye Komisyonul
Financial Reform Commission
Incoming 765-766 27 *eval 1296/1879-29 Cemazi II
1326/1908
Outgoing l-
767-768 27 $eval 1296/1879-29 Cemazi II
1326/1908

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The Ottoman archives of Istanbul 105

Register
volume
Ministry or subject numbers Inclusive dates of correspondence
Mekke-i Mukerreme/Affairs 769-770 9 March I326/I910-4 August I334/1918
of Mecca
Mekatib-i Askeriye/Military
Schools
Incoming 770/2 I Zilkade I3I6/I899-9 Safar 1326/1908
Outgoing 770/2-3 I Cemazi I 1298/1881-16 Receb
1326/I908
Tibbiye/Medicine
Incoming 771 II Safar I278/I861-23 Muharrem
1293/1876
Outgoing 772-773 3 Muharrem 1278/I86I-I Rebi I
1296/1879
Techizat-i Askeriye Komisyonu/ 774-775 26 Zilhicce 1319/1902-5 $aban I326/I908
Commission for special military
equipment taxes
Tevhid-i Mubayiat Komisyonu/ 776-777 3 Muharrem I323/I905-8 Cemazi II
Commission on unification of 1323/1905
government purchases
Iase Komisyonu/Commission of 778-779 25 August I334/I9I8-I6 Rebi II
food supplies I337/I92I
Mzszr islerine dair/Affairs of Egypt 784 12 Ramazan 1301/I884-4 Rebi I
I304/I886
Sadaret Mektubi-i Miihimme 785-789 2 $aban 1308/I89I-2 July I337/I92I
Kalemi Kayit Defteri/Register of
correspondence prepared by the
Secretariat for Important
correspondence of the Prime
Minister's Office
Buyuruldu defteri/Register of 790 I Rebi I I302/I884-I8 Zilkade I302/I885
orders (buyuruldu)issued by the
Prime Minister
Der Saadet Miiteferrika defteri/ 791 1300/1883-1337/I92I
Register of miscellaneous matters
concerning Istanbul
Arzuhal defteri/Register of 792-877 28 Cemazi I I306/I889-4 November
petitions received by Prime 1338/I922
Minister's office, and those
initiated by it
Telgraf Arzuhal/Register of 878-883 3 March I326/I9Io-4 January 1338/1922
petitions received and sent by
telegram
Takvim-i vekayine mahsus 884-890 3 $aban 1336/1918-4 November
defterler/Registers concerning 1338/1922
the government newspaper,
Takvim-i Vekayi, and other
official publications
Miidevvenat/Collected reports on 891-895 12 Ramazan 1326/1908-8 Rebi I
various matters 1341/I922
Tesrifat/Protocol and 896-913 9 Cemazi II 1276/1861-I Rebi I
Ceremonies 1341/1922
Vildyat-i Mumtazeden/ 914-916 7 Rebi II I297/I88o-14 Cemazi II
Correspondence from the 1304/1887

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1o6 StanfordJ. Shaw

Register
volume
Ministry or subject numbers Inclusive dates of correspondence

special provinces (Crete,


Cyprus, Bosnia-Herzegovina,
Sisam, East Rumelia)
Vilayat-i Miimtaze islahat-i 917-933 3 Muharrem 1298/1880-25 September
Umumiye hulasa defteri/Register 1337/1922
of reform measures in the
special provinces
Umum Miihimme defteri/Register 934-936 12 Muharrem 1298/1880-22 Cemazi I
of important orders and decrees 1324/1906
Hicaz vilayeti islahat-t umumiye 936/2 19 Cemazi I 1314/1896-17 August
defteri/Register of reform 1313/1898
measures in Hicaz province
Affairs of Bulgaria 937-966 I Receb I309/I892-29 Receb I319/I901
Affairs of East Rumelia 966/2-985 I Muharrem 1297/1879-31 August
1325/I909
Affairs of Crete 986-1002 18 Ramazan I288/187I-8 December
I335/19I9
Affairs of Cyprus and I003 24 Rebi I 131O/I892-I3 Rebi I 1338/1919
Bosnia-Herzegovina
Affairs of Sisam (Samos) 1004-1oo8 13 Receb 1247/1831-3 Ramazan
1335/1917
Affairs of Mt Lebanon and 1009 13 *eval 1309/1892-16 Rebi II 1337/1919
Sisam (Samos)
Affairs of Mt Lebanon 1013-1021 i6 Cemazi II I266/I849-I6 Rebi II
I337/I919
Affairs of Tripoli of Libya and 1022-1028 5 Zilkade I330/19I2-23 $eval 1339/1921
Benghazi
Affairs of Egypt 1029-1048 26 Rebi I 1262/1846-7 Zilkade 1338/1920
Tayin ve infisal defteri/Register 1049-1060 15 Rebi I 1307/1889-21 February
showing dates of appointments 1323/1908
and dismissals of bureaucrats and
officials in the ministries and
departments

(c) Ahkdm Defterleri. Administrative orders (ahkdm) regarding problems in


the individual provinces of the Empire were recorded in a separate series of
registers, of which approximately 450 survive for the years from 1155/1742 to
I295/I878 for most provinces, and to 1326/1908 for a few. The provinces for
which such registers are available (and the number available for each) are:
Anadolu (185), Sivas (36), Trabzon (8), Diyarbekir (9), Damascus (9), Adana (9),
Karaman (39), Aleppo (9), Erzurum (19), Cezayir (23), Rakka (25), Rumeli (85),
Oczakov (Ozu) and Silistria (49), Istanbul (26), Bosnia (9) and the Morea (2z).'
(d) Regulations concerning the minorities. In addition to the materials found in
other classifications indicated above, special registers were kept concerning the
millets, their leaders and members, as well as the churches and other institutions

Sertoglu, Muhteva Bakzmzndan,p. 26, lists the number of registers and dates for
each province.

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The Ottoman archives of Istanbul 107

which they as well as foreign governments and missionary organizations main-


tained within the Empire. Thus there are seven Kilise defterlerilChurch registersx
covering the years from 1286/I869 to 1340/1921, and eighteen registers listed
under the classification Gayri miislim cenmatlara dit defterler/Registers2 con-
cerning the non-Muslim communities, running from as early as 2I46/1830 to as
late as 1321/I918.

(2) The Council of Ministersl/Meclis-i Viikeld


The records of the deliberations and actions of the Ottoman Council of
Ministers available at present consists of six major series of bound registers, kept
in the Amedi Odasz section of the Basbakanhk Ar?ivi.
(a) Meclis-i Viikeld mazbatalarz. Protocols of the deliberations and decisions
of the Council of Ministers on important matters, bound into 224 volumes
covering the years from ii Rebi II I302/1885 to io Rebi I I341/I922. Each
protocol is one or two pages in length and contains a summary of the problem
under discussion, the main arguments, and the decision, along with the signatures
of all ministers present. These protocols came to the archives in loose and scattered
form, and were bound by the archives, so those on many important matters are
lacking. Nevertheless this is a valuable and unique source for research into the
policies and ideas of the government during the period under discussion.
(b) Register nos. 225-241. Mazbata ve irade-i seniye dosyalart. Bound dossiers
of papers leading to certain irades issued by the government between 9 $aban
1298/1881 and 27 Rebi II 1334/1916.
(c) Register nos. 242-288. Iradat-i seniye ve tezakir-i resmiye ve mazabit
miisveddatz.Draft copies of irades, protocols and other official documents issued
by the Council of Ministers between 14 Cemazi I I334/1916 and 8 Rebi I
134I/1922.
(d) Register nos. 290-297. Tezakir-i Hususiye/drafts of special notes issued by
the Council of Ministers between 9 Cemazi I I334/I916 and 27 $aban 1341/I922.
(e) Register nos. 298-299. Tezakir-i maiaza musveddatz.Drafts of petitions
prepared for presentation to the Sultan from 29 Rebi II I333/I915 to i Cemazi I
I333/I9I5-
(f) Register nos. 300-417. Tezakir-i saniye dosyalarz.Bound dossiers of minor
petitions presented between i Receb 1305/I888 and 30 Zilkade 13I4/1897.

(3) Records of Ministries and Departments


The only nineteenth-century Ottoman ministries whose records are in any way
organized and available to researchers are those of (a) the Ministry of Foreign
Affairs, located in the Defterdarlik building, Istanbul, and of (b) the Ministry of
Sertoglu, Muhteva Bakzmzndan,pp. 27-8.
2
Ibid. pp. 28-9.

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io8 StanfordJ. Shaw

Finance, located at the Basbakanhk Ar?ivi. However, of the former only about
I0,000 bound registers and Ioo,ooo documents are catalogued and available,
while several million items remain uncatalogued, and of the latter only some
8,ooo bound registers are available as the Mdliyeden miidevver collection, while
7,800,000 documents from the same Ministry remain unavailable along with
5,500,000 documents from the Ministry of Religious Foundations and 460,000
items from the Ministry of Trade. The archives of the Ministry of Education are
stored in the Topkapi Sarayi, Istanbul, in the possession of the Ministry, but
work to classify and catalogue it has only begun. Those of the Ministry of War
remain in its possession and are stored, uncatalogued, in the Sultanahmed
section of Istanbul, while the more important materials have been transferred to
the Ministry of War's own archives in Ankara, at present available only for
official research. The Navy Department's papers are stored in the Naval Dock-
yard in the Kasimpapa section of Istanbul, and are opened to researchers only on
rare occasions. The records of the departments which cared for census and
cadastre operations in Ottoman times are possessed by the Tapu ve Kadastro
Umum Miidiirliigii in its offices in Istanbul and Ankara and are available for
research, but under rather severe restrictions and limitations. The Ministry of
Justice archives also remain in its own possession in Ankara, and are not presently
available for researchers. In sum, therefore, for all practical purposes researchers
can follow the work of most ministries and departments only by consulting the
relevant materials in the Irade and the Bab-z Ali Evrak Odasi collections.

(4) Records of the Imperial Council/Divan-i Hiimayun


With the rise of functional ministries and departments as well as the Council of
Ministers as part of the Tanzimat reforms, the old Imperial Council lost much of
its previous importance. It did, however, continue to exist, largely as a record-
keeping body for certain categories of government documents and orders in fact
instituted and carried out by other departments of government. The researcher
will thus find that the Imperial Council's Miihimmeregisters, the most important
records of Ottoman governmental action from the sixteenth to the end of the
eighteenth century, provide no more than a scattering of the more important
orders and decrees issued by the Sultan during the last three quarters of
the nineteenth century (volumes 253-263 cover the years from 1255/1839 to
I323/1905). Additional records of importance kept by the Divan-i Hiimayun
include:
(a) Treaty Registers. 106 volumes recording treaties and other agreements and
acts concluded between the Ottoman Empire and foreign states, from the
seventeenth to the twentieth centuries (Amedi kalemi):

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The Ottoman archives of Istanbul o09

Dates covered
Belgium I254/I838-I327/I909
Brazil I274/I857-I324/1906
Bulgaria 1286/1869-I329/191
Denmark II70/I756-1334/I915
Dubrovnik/Ragusa IOI3/1604-1221/1806
Europe (all orders issued concerning I250/I834-I284/1867
European merchants trading in the Empire)
France I044/I634-I328/I910
Germany/Austria-Hungary 975/I567- 332/I9I3
Great Britain/England 1086/I675-I332/I913
Greece I250/I834-1330/I91I
Holland IO91/680-I33I/I912
Iran I238/1822-1331/I9I2
Italy 1239/I736-I332/I913
Mexico 1282/I865-1331/1912
Montenegro 1320/I902-I323/1905
Norway I325/I907-I332/I913
Poland IOI6/I607-1173/I759
Portugal 1259/1843-1330/1911
Prussia II74/1760-1332/1913
Rumania (Wallachia and Moldavia) II42/1729-1324/1906
Russia III3/I70I-I32I/I903
Sardinia I239/I823-1320/1903
Serbia 1253/1837-I332/1913
Sicily II53/I740-I276/1859
Sisam/Samos I263/1846-1306/I888
Spain I196/I78I-1223/1808
Sweden II72/I758-I242/I826
Sweden and Norway II49/I736-1331/I912
The Seven Islands Republic I215/I800-I222/1807
Tuscany I215/I800-I222/I807
Venice III2/1700-122I/I806
The Ba?bakanllkAr?ivi also has a separate collection of the original treaty and
protocol documents, from I797 to I920, all fully catalogued and indexed.
(b) Name-i Hiimdyun Defterleri/Registers of letters to and from the Sultan,
including correspondence with the ferifs of Mecca, foreign rulers and princes,
heads of state and heads of government, and the like; also copies of many
treaties and contracts and orders regarding the payment of the wages of the
Janissaries and other military corps. Seventeen registers, from 1111/1699 to
I336/1917. There are also cartons containing the original name documents fr om
1256/1840 to 1331/1912.
(c) Kanunname-i Askeri DefterlerilRegisters of law codes and regulations con-
cerning the Ottoman army. Eight registers, from I222/I807 to I318/1900, with
most materials concerning the first half of the nineteenth century.
(d) The Meclis-i Tanzimat and Nizamat collection. See page 99.
(e) Tevcihat ve Redif ve Mevad ve Miirettebe ve Miihimme-I Asdkir Defterleri.
Fourteen registers, covering 1196/178I to 1326/1908, including administrative
orders regarding military appointments, dismissals and salaries, conscription,
and the reserve army.

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Io Stanford J. Shaw

(f) Imtiyaz Defterleri. Five registers, from I286/186I to I334/1915, recording


orders granting various sorts of concessions (imtiyaz) to Ottoman and foreign
subjects.
(g) Mukteza Defterleri. Thirty-five registers, from I282/I865 to I330/I91I,
containing opinions as to the legal ramifications of various acts of the Ottoman
government.
(h) Ahkam Defterleri. See page o06.
(i) Tevcilzat-i Miilkiye Defterleri. Three registers of appointments to positions
in the bureaucracy, from I280/1863 to I330/19II.
(j) Kilise Defterleri. See page 0o7.
(k) 3ehbenderDefterleri. Three registers of the instructions and orders issued
to Ottoman consuls and other representatives appointed to foreign countries
between I217/1802 and I330/1911.
(I) Ni4an Defterleri. Forty-four registers of decorations awarded by the Sultan
between I262/I845 and 134I/I922.
(m) Gayri Miislim Cemaatlara aid Defterler. See page 107.

C. RECORDS OF THE SULTANS AND INDIVIDUAL STATESMEN

Most of the records left by individual nineteenth-century sultans through the


reign of Abd ul-Aziz (1861-76) survive in the archives of the Topkapl Sarayl.I
These, however, are not plentiful and are of little use. The far more voluminous
records left by sultans Abd ul-Aziz (1861-76), Murad V (1876), Abd ul-Hamid II
(I876-I909) and Mehmed V Redad (1909-1919), numbering about 5,500,000
items in all and preserved in the Ylldiz Palace, the Dolmabahce Palace, and the
Topkapl Sarayl, were turned over to the Ba?bakanllkAr?ivi in 1949, but of these,
only the records of the Ylldlz Palace Archives, consisting mainly of the papers of
Abd ul-Hamid II and of the statesmen of his time, have been at least partly
catalogued and made available. These materials were classified into forty subject
sections (each section being called kzszmin Turkish and abbreviated here as K):
(KI) Official reports (mazbata) and petitions (arz tezkeresi) prepared by the
Council of Ministers to secure orders from the Sultan.
(K2) Reports and petitions of other administrative bodies and legislative
councils submitted to the Council of Ministers.
(K3) Reports of the Council of Ministers and other administrative and
legislative bodies which never were made into laws.
(K4) Petitions prepared by various official bodies and some private individuals
and groups which were not subsequently made into laws.
(K5) Petitions submitted to the Sultan.
(K6) Reports and petitions submitted to the Sultan.
See Tahsin Oz, TopkapzSarayi Miizesi Arsivi Kilavuzu (2 vols., Ankara, 1938-40),
vol. I, pp. 3 (on Sultan Abd ul-Aziz), 5 (on Abd ul-Hamid II), io (on Abd ul-Mecid),
67 (on Princess Bahice Sultan), 76 (on Princess Bezmialem Sultan), and passim.

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The Ottoman archives of Istanbul 1I i

(K7) Imperial edicts (ferman) and patents of office (menqur).


(K8) Notes written by the Sultan and his private secretary, containing his
thoughts and opinions on various matters.
(K9) Notes written by the Sultan's private secretary and other high admini-
strative officials on various matters.
(Kio) Documents and registers of the commissions established to take
valuable items from the Imperial Treasury of the Topkapl Sarayi for deposit in
the Ylldlz Palace.
(KII) Drafts of petitions, communications, and telegrams sent by the Chief
Secretary of the Sultan on various matters of state policy.
(Ki2) Photographic albums and picture collections.
(KI3) Instructions to Ottoman officials appointed as ambassadors to foreign
governments or as provincial governors.
(KI4) Memoranda (ldyiha) and other reports submitted to the Sultan by
Ottoman officials and foreigners describing conditions in different places and
institutions of the Empire and, in many cases, proposing reforms or changes.
(Ki5) Reports (ariza) to the Sultan concerning the activities of individual
Ottoman officials and private subjects, both within and outside the Empire.
(Ki6) Printed books presented to the Sultan.
(KI7) Reports and other papers on the deposition and subsequent death of
Sultan Abdul-Aziz (I861-76), Sultan Murad V's short reign, on the revolution-
ary efforts of Ali Suavi, and on the banishment of a number of political and
intellectual leaders by Abdulhamid. Also papers on the Kiileli revolt (I859).
(KI8) The collected papers of important Ottomans of the time, including
Ahmed Cevdet Papa and Ahmed Midhat Papa.
(Ki9) Miscellaneous papers on various subjects.
(K2o) Messages to the Sultan.
(K2i) Maps of the Empire.
(K22) Reports of commissions sent to investigate various internal problems
as well as the administrations of individual provincial governors.
(K23) Documents concerning the constitutions and parliaments of 1876-7
and I908-14.
(K24) Registers of communications issued by the Grand Vezirs and other high
officials.
(K25) Treaties and contracts concluded by the Ottoman government.
(K26) Reports of special commissions formed by the Sultan to study some
articles of the Constitution, the annual budgets of government, and govern-
mental organization and operation.
(K27) Copies of reports, communications and telegrams sent by the Grand
Vezirs.
(K28) Documents and reports on the Russo-Turkish war (I877-8).
(K29-K30) (combined) Official reports on various matters of domestic and
foreign policy.

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II2 Stanford J. Shaw

(K3 ) Collected papers of important Ottoman officials, including Hayruddin


Papa, Prince Halim Papa, Damad Mahmud Papa, Mehmed Kamil Papa, Gazi
Ahmed Muhtar Pasa, Mehmed Said Papa, Ahmed Cevad Pasa, Mehmed Emin
Ali Papa, and the Egyptian Khedive Ismail Papa.
(K32) Documents on ceremonies welcoming foreign rulers, princes, ambassa-
dors and the like.
(K33) Historical documents concerning the Tanzimat period and before.
(K34) Petitions and reports to the Sultan by public and private individuals.
(K35) Miscellaneous papers.
(K36) Miscellanous papers.
(K37) Memoranda, laws, and decrees on internal Ottoman administrative
problems and organization, including drafts and actual laws.
(K38) The private handbooks and notebooks of Sultan Abd ul-Hamid II.
(K39) Documents and registers concerning the problems of Greece, Crete
and the Mediterranean islands.
(K4o) Documents and registers concerning Bulgaria, and also concerning
Egypt, emanating primarily from Gazi Muhtar Papa, Ottoman commissioner
in Egypt between 1892-3 and I908-9.
For a detailed list of many documents found in this collection see S. J. Shaw,
'The Ylldlz Palace Archives of Abdiilhamit II', Archivum Ottomanicum,vol. III
(1971), pp. 211-37. Thousands more palace materials from Abd ul-Hamid's time
as well as those of his predecessors and successors to the end of the Empire
remain uncatalogued and unavailable.
Additional documents and registers from the palace of Abd ul-Hamid II can
be found in the Ylldiz Palace Library, now part of the collections of the Istanbul
University Library. Many collections of individual statesmen remain in private
hands. However, those of Ahmed Cevdet Papa can be found at the Istanbul
Municipal Library (Belediye Kiitiiphanesi); those of Ahmed Cevad Pasa at the
Istanbul Archeological Museum; and various smaller collections are available
at the Turk Tarih Kurumu (Turkish Historical Society) Library, Ankara, and the
Municipal Library, Istanbul.

D. JUDICIAL RECORDS
The archives of the Muslim religious courts, containing substantial information
on social and economic conditions within the Empire as well as on foundations
and strictly legal and judicial matters, can be found in three major collections
and several smaller ones in Turkey:
(i) Istanbul Miiftiiliik, the former Bab-z Me?ihat in Istanbul, has 8,866 $eriat
court registers from 27 courts in the Istanbul area, covering the years from I501
to 1922. The courts represented, and number of registers from each are: Istanbul
Kadiligl (334), Evkaf-i Hiimayun Mifetti?hlii (80I), Istanbul Bab Mahkemesi
(544), Kasimpapa (I79), Uskiidar (8oi), Ahigelebi (66I), Davutpa?a (I92),

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The Ottoman archives of Istanbul 113

BakirkOy (i6), Kartal (40), Adalar (8), Beykoz (3), Bilad-i Metruke (36), Kismet-i
Askeriye (2,142), Galata (1,040), Balat (155), Beledi kassamllgi (I55), Rumeli
$er'iatclligi ve Sedareti (624), Mahfil-i $er'iyat (io8), Anadolu Sedareti (I77),
Besiktas (231), Tophane (275), Mahmudpasa (246), Hawas-i Refia (629),
Yenik6y (I74), Evkaf Muhasebeciligi (I29), Hask6y (40), and Maliye Beyt
ul-Mal kassamllgi (Io6). The bulk of these registers are from the eighteenth and
nineteenth centuries, but some are from earlier times.
(2) The Topkapi Sarayl Museum, Istanbul. $eriat court records for the
following judicial districts (with the number of registers and inclusive dates in
parentheses): Edirne (684 registers, 945/1538-1341/1945), Ayvallk (i register,
I228/I8I3-I33I/I9I5), Bafra (5 registers, I309/1893-I328/I912), Balkesir (I09
registers, 1295/1879-1311/1895), Bartin (ii registers, 1306/I888-I325/I9o8),
Bayramic (6 registers, 1286/1870-1324/1908), Biga (13 registers, I246/I83I-
1322/1906), Bolu (263 registers, 1070/I659-1306/1890), Burhaniye (27 registers,
1138/I725-1329/1913), 9anakkale (I2 registers, 1246/I830-1294/1877), Divrik
(9 registers, I304/I886-1329/19I3), Diizce (31 registers, 1302/1884-1325/1909),
Eceabad (5 registers, 1303/I885-I329/1903), Edremit (103 registers, 921/1515-
1323/1907), Ezine (7 registers, I2I4/1847-1327/19I1), Gebze (30 registers,
II23/171I-1317/190I), Gerede (io registers, I255/I840-1328/1910), G6nen
(II registers, 1303/1887-1340/1924), Gorele (40 registers, I266/I849-1340/1924),
Goynuk (24 registers, II54/1741-1329/19I3), Giresun (49 registers, 1275/I858-
1338/1922), Hopa (i register, 13II/I893-1328/1922), Izmit (o0 registers, I220/
I805-I329/I913), Mesudiye (6 registers, I288/I871-1340/1924), Mudurnu (7
registers, 1231/1816-I325/1909), Ordu (2 registers, 13I9/1903-1325/I909),
Pazar (io registers, I279/1863-1329/I9I3), Rize (23 registers, 1270/I854-I332/
1906), Rodoscuk/Tekirdag (245 registers, 953/I546-1298/1882), Samsun (43
registers, 1200/1786-1340/1924), Slndlrgi (7 registers, I3Io/I894-1330/1914),
Tirebolu (io registers, I206/1792-133I/1915), Trabzon (297 registers, 963/I555-
1334/1918), Zafranbolu (45 registers, III9/1805-I324/1908), Zonguldak (13
registers, 1238/I823-I326/9Io0).
(3) The Ethnographic Museum, Ankara. $eriat court records for the follow-
ing judicial districts (with the numbers of registers and dates in parentheses):
Ankara (319 registers, 991/I583-I326/1908), Ayas (34 registers, 1I67/I753-
1343/1924), Kalecik (7 registers, 1250/1834-1324/I906), Beypazarl (87 registers,
1299/I88I-I340/I92I), (ankir
(76 registers, Io63/1652-I330/192I), (erkes
(io registers, 1256/1840- 327/1909), Qorum (i6 registers, 1255/1839-I327/1909),
Egin (36 registers, 1199/1784-1329/1911), Eskisehir (2 registers, I286/I869-
1309/1891), Sivrihisar (69 registers, 122I/I806-1342/I923), Giimiiuhane (3
registers, 1302/1884-1329/191), Kayseri (289 registers, 895/1489-I333/1914),
Klr?ehir (24 registers, I292/I875-1332/1913), (Ciekdagi/Mecidiye (2 registers,
1324/1906-1329/1911), Yozgat (30 registers, I298/I880-I334/1915), Bogazllyan
(I register, I306/I888-I321/1903, Ahiska (i register, 1232/1816-1241/1825),
and 8 miscellaneous $eriat volumes concerning timar and iltizam holdings.
8 MES 6

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I 4 Stanford J. Shaw

(4) In various provincial museums: Adana (424 registers for Adana, Urfa,
Gaziantep, Mara?, ICel, Malatya and vicinity), Afyonkarahisar (I58 registers for
Afyon, Denizli and environs), Antalya (46 registers for Antalya and vicinity),
Bergama (6 registers for Bergama), Bursa (827 registers for Bursa, Bilecik and
vicinity), Diyarbekir (252 registers for Diyarbekir, Elazig, Hakkari, Bitlis, Siirt,
Mardin, Bingol, Tuneeli and vicinities), Hatay (ioi registers for Hatay and
vicinity), Izmir (179 registers for Izmir, Aydin, Mugla and vicinity), Kastamonu
(207 registers for Kastamonu and vicinity), Konya (329 registers for Konya,
Burdur, Isparta and vicinity), Kiitahya (90 registers for Kiitahya and vicinity),
Manisa (297 registers for Manisa and vicinity), Nigde (22 registers for Nigde and
vicinity), Sinop (23 registers for Sinop and vicinity), Sivas (12I registers for
Sivas and vicinity), Tokat (107 registers for Tokat, Amasya and vicinity), and
Van (9 registers for Van, Agrl and vicinity).'
Foreign scholars wishing to do research in any archive or library in Turkey
should apply to the Turkish Embassy in their home country as far in advance as
possible, specifying their scholarly background and subject of research, and the
archives and libraries in which the research is to be undertaken. Permission is
granted only for a calendar year, and additional applications must be made for
renewals. Xerox and microfilm equipment is available at the Ba?bakanlikArsivi,
but the archive is not normally equipped to fill photographic orders by mail.
Persons wishing to make photographic copies should apply for permission for
this as well when making their research application, and it normally is helpful if
scholars wishing microfilm copies bring their own microfilm with them. The
staff at the Basbakanlik Arsivi is extremely knowledgeable and helpful to serious
scholars, but because of staff shortages and the large number of researchers
using the archives, the latter are allowed to order no more than ten items daily or
to photograph more than one hundred items during a calendar year. It is to be
hoped that, with the recent acquisition of efficient Xerox equipment, the archives
may be able to modify at least the latter restriction. While not all the materials in
this and other archival collections have yet been catalogued or made available,
the quantities of important registers and documents which are accessible make it
imperative that researchers plan to spend as much time as possible in Istanbul.

LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA

I The materials available in the Muslim court archives are discussed in detail in Halit
Ongan, Ankara'nzn 1 Numaralh 5er'iye Sicili (Ankara, 1958); Ronald Jennings, 'The
Judicial Registers (Ser'i Mahkeme Sicilleri) of Kayseri (1590-I630) as a Source for Otto-
man History' (Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Los Angeles, 1972).
See also Nazmi Sevgen, 'Ser'i Mahkemelerin Sicil Hazinesi', Belgelerle Turk Tarihi
Dergisi, vol. 8, no. 44 (May I971), pp. i6-i8; and Osman Ersoy, 'Ser'iye Sicilleri'nin
Toplu Kataloguna Dogru', Ankara University, Dil ve Tarih-Cografya Fakiiltesi Dergisi,
vol. xxI (I963), pp. 33-85.

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