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ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

(REVIEW OF CONCEPTS)
OUTLINE
I. General concepts of Anatomy and Physiology
II. Skeletal System9
III. Muscular System
IV. Integumentary System
V. Nervous System
VI. Circulatory System
VII. Respiratory System
VIII. Digestive System
IX. Endocrine System
X. Urinary System
XI. Reproductive System

GENERAL CONCEPTS
 Anatomy- structures, parts
 Physiology- functions

Constituents/Components of a living matter


1. water- fluid medium of a protoplasm (jelly substance in cell tissue)
2. electrolytes- maintain the osmotic conditions, acid-base balance
3. protein (CHON)- framework of protoplasm
4. carbohydrates (CHO)- general source of energy; major source of energy
 insulin (beta cells)- binds with protein receptors
 brain- only part of the body that doesn’t need insulin; need glucose
5. lipids- together with protein, they form the cell membrane
- guards the cell against outside environment

 Cell- basic unit of an organism/living matter


 Nucleus- controls the biochemical reactions and cell production
 Nucleolus- pacemaker of the cell
 Endoplasmic reticulum- where cellular secretion passes through
- synthesizes peroxisomes
 Ribosome- CHON synthesis
 Mitochondria- synthesize ATP
-powerhouse of the cell
 Lysosomes- phagocytosis
 Golgi Apparatus- accumulation and concentration of secretory products
-synthesize lysosomes
 Cell Membrane- made up of two layer of lipids
 Chromosomes- DNA=genes
 Centerioles- cell division

Cell Division
1. Mitosis- replicates their own kind (cell division)
2. Meiosis- reproductive cells

Transport Mechanism
1. Diffusion- spreading out of molecules from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower
concentration
-“Downhill” phenomenon
 Simple- no carrier needed (passive)
 Facilitated- with a carrier
2. Osmosis- movement of solvent from areas of higher to lower concentration

THE SKELETAL SYSTEM


-it provides a strong, internal framework that supports the body, make up about 20% of its
weight and consists of 206 bones
 Bones
 Osteology- scientific study of performed

Functions of Bones
1. protect delicate organs
2. encloses the bone marrow (productions of RBCs)
3. levers where body movements are performed

Structure of Bones
A. Macroscopic/Gross
-Compact/Hard
-Spongy
B. Microscopic
-Organic substances (collagen) - resilience of bone
-Inorganic substances (calcium and phosphate) - hardness

 Haversian Canal- where blood vessels are found


 Lacunae- osteocytes
 Lamellae- surrounding the canal
Cells in the bone
 Osteocytes- living cell of bones
 Osteoclasts- resorption
 Osteoblasts- deposition
 Normal: osteoblasts=osteoclasts
-increase osteoclastic activity and decrease osteoblastic activity can lead to OSTEOPOROSIS
(normal mineralization but brittle bones)
 Wolff’s Law- more stress on bone, more stronger bone
Types of Bones
1. Long bone (femur, tibia, humerus, ulna, radius)
2. Short bone (carpals)
3. Flat bone (scapula)
4. Irregular bone (vertebra)
5. Sesamoid bone (patella, knee cap, knee pan)- “floating bone”’ buried on a
tendon
 Patella- largest sesamoid bone in the body

Ossification
- formation of bones/ maturation
1. intramembranous (clavicle and skull)
 Clavicle (first to undergo ossification but last to ossify; most commonly fractured long
bone)
2. intracartilaginous/endochondral (all long bones except clavicle)

Bones in the body


 206 bones in the body
 Axial Skeleton (80bones)- center of body except clavicle
a. facial bones (14bones)
 maxillary (2bones)
 nasal (2bones)
 palatine (2bones)
 lacrimal (2bones)
 zygomatic (2bones)
 inferior nasal conchae (2bones)
 ethnoid (1bone)
 sphenoid (1bone)
b. skull (8bones)
 parietal (2bones)
 temporal (2bones)
 occipital (1bone)
 frontal (1bone)
 vomen (1bone)
 mandible (1bone)
c. auditory ossicles (6bones)
 incuss I2bones)
 malleus/hammer (2bones)
 stapes (2bones)
d. hyoid bone (1bone)
manubrium
e.sternum (1bone)- breastbone/shield bone/dagger bone

manubriosternal angle of
Louis (T4-T5)

body

xiphoid
 T4-T5- carina (trachea)- most sensitive part of tracheabroncho

f. vertebrae (26 bones)- houses the spinal cord

Child Adult
(33 vertebrae) (26 vertebrae)
Cervical 7 7
Thoracic 12 12
Lumbar 5 5
Sacral 5 1
Coccygeal 4 1

g. ribs (24bones)
 true ribs (7pairs)
 false ribs (5pairs)
 floating ribs (2pairs)

 Appendicular Skeleton (126bones)


a. Upper Appendicular Skeleton (62bones)
 Scapula (shoulder blade)-prone to pressure ulcers
 Clavicle (collarbone, strut bone)
 Humerus (arm bone/brachium)
 Ulna (medial)
 Radius (lateral)
 Carpals (8bones)
 Metacarpals (5bones)
 Phalanges (14bones)
 Humerus is the longest and heaviest bone in the upper
extremities; 3rd longest bone in the body
 Foosh- fall on the outstretched hand
 Femur is the longest and heaviest bone in the lower
extremities and in the whole body; compromises ¼ (25%) of
the height
 FEMURTIBIALHUMERUS
 Cleidocranial Dysostosis- partial/complete absence of
clavicle together with abnormalities in the skull
 Ischial tuberosity- sit bone
b. Lower Appendicular Skeleton (64bones)
 Femur
 Pelvis (ilium, ischium, pubis)
 Patella (knee cap)
 Tibia (shin bone)
 Fibula (splint bone)
 Tarsals (7bones)
 Metatarsals (5bones)
 Phalanges (14bones)
 Joints- union

Types of Joints
A. According to FUNCTION
1. synarthrodial- without movement
Examples: suture, gouphoses (socket of the teeth)
2. amphiarthrodial- slightly movable
Example: sacroiliac joint (expanded during pregnancy)
3. diarthrodial- freely movable joint
Examples: hips (acebulofemoral joint), shoulder (glerohumeral joint)
B. According to GENERAL TYPE
1. bone and socket- universal joint; allow movement in many directions
2. condyloid- allows movement in two directions and in a circle
3. hinge- allow movement in one plane
4. pivot- allows rotation but no other movement
5. saddle/sellar- two U-shaped surfaces allow movement in two directions and in a circle
6. plane/gliding- allow bones to make small sliding movements from side to side
 Relaxin- make the ligaments and joints lax
THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM
 Myology- scientific study of muscles
 Muscles- compromise 40-50% of the total body weight
-produce moment
-generates heat
-give shapes
Types of Muscles
1. Skeletal Muscle- striated and voluntary
2. Cardiac Muscle- striated and involuntary
3. Smooth Muscle- nonstriated and involuntary

Structure of the Muscles


A. Coverings
1. Epimysium- covering of the entire muscle
2. Perimysium- covering of muscle bundles and fascicle
3. Endomysium- covering of individual muscle fibers

 Z disc to Z disc- sarcomere


 Sarcomere- area between Z disc
 I bind- light area (actin)
 A bind- dark area (both actin and myosin)
B. Muscle fibers
1. Type I- slow twitch
- fatigue resistance
-red fibers
-slow oxidative
2. Type II- fast twitch
- easily fatigue
- white fibers
-fast glycolitic

 Sliding Filament Theory


- During contraction, myosin filaments interact, through their “heads”, with actin filaments.
Cross-bridges are formed that pull actin filaments inward, reducing the distance between the Z
lines that mark the boundary of each sarcomere. With adjacent sarcomeres in neighboring
myofibrils becoming shorter at the same time, the entire muscle fiber contracts
Energy Systems
1. Phosphagen System
-PhosphocreatinineATP
-<15 seconds
2. Glycogen-Lactic Acid System
-GlucoseATP
-30-40 seconds
3. Oxidative System
-oxygenATP
->30 seconds
-endurance activities
THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
 Skin- largest organ of the body
 Liver is the largest gland in the body
Layers of the Skin
1. epidermis- outer periphery
Layers/Strata of Epidermis
- from superficial to deepest
a. stratum corneum (horny layer)
b. stratum lucidum (clear layer)
c. stratum granulosum (granular layer)
d. stratum spinosum (prickle cell layer)
e. stratum basale (germinativum)

 Stratum spinosum and stratum basale are collectively known as stratum


malpinghi

2. dermis- inner layer


-composed of connective vascular tissues, sweat gland, sebaceous gland, nerves and
hair follicle
 Burns- injury caused by exposure to flames, scalding liquids, causatic
chemicals, acids, electric currents, or ionizing radiation

Types of burns

Layers Pain Scar Healing time


Superficial Burn Epidermis Delayed (-) 2 to 3 days
1st degree
(sumburn) onset
Superficial partial Epidermis + Minimal 7-21 days
thickness burns upper dermis
2nd degree
Epidermis + Painful with
Deep partial most of dermis blisters Moderate 21-31 days
thickness burns (keloid) (3-5 wks)
Full thickness burn Epidermis + Anesthetic Severe Without healing
Dermis + time
3rd degree partial
subcutaneous
layer

 Electrical burn is the most devastating and catastrophic type of burn. This type of burn
is commonly results into an amputation.
 “Tip of the iceberg” phenomenon occurs on electrical burn. It means that the extend of
the damage is not seen
 Dermis burn is more painful than the epidermis burn because in the dermis there are
nerves
 Grafting
1. autograft- own skin/self
2. homograft/allograft- some species (cadaver’s skin)
3. xenograft/heterograft- different species\

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM


- it is the human body’s primary communication system which controls and coordinates almost
all body activities

A. Central Nervous System


 Brain- doesn’t need insulin; glucose is the only source of energy
Parts of the Brain
1. Cerebrum (forebrain)
Division
1. left hemisphere- is primarily the speech center and mainly controls logical behavior
2. right hemisphere- assess the three-dimensional world, appreciate artistic values and
recognize friends
Lobes
1. Frontal lobe- conscious control of movement
-concerned with personality and intelligence
-motor function and long term memory
2. Parietal lobe- concerns in sensation and body position
3. Temporal lobe- hearing
4. Occipital lobe- vision
2. Cerebellum (hindbrain) - it coordinates the movements initiated by rest of the brain
-concerns with balance/equilibrium and tone/coordination
3. Brain stem (midbrain) - is the vital control area of the brain and is concerned with
maintaining all the essential regulatory mechanisms of the body: respiration, blood pressure,
pulse rate, alertness and sleep
 Problem in cerebellum can lead to ataxia
 Balance (archi), coordination (neo), tone (paleo)
 Hippocampus is the memory storage and part of the brain most susceptible to anoxia
 Anoxia can lead to amnesia
 Cardiac arrest is the most common cause of anoxia
 CervicalQuadriplegia/tetraplegia=paralysis of trunk + 4 extremities
 Thoracic, Lumbar and SacralParaplegia=trunk + 2 extremities
 High cervical Spinal cord injuryproblem in respiration because of damage in phrenic
nerve (C3C4C5) that controls the diaphragm which is an important organ of respiration
 Pons is the rounded structure that protrudes just below the midrain. It involve in the control
of breathing
 Cerebrospinal fluid- secreted by the choroids plexus, it is clear and
colorless
-it bathes the surface of the brain in the subarachnoid space, between the arachnoid
and pia mater, and internally in the ventricles, which join through a channel (foramen of
Magendie) in the roof of the fourth ventricles
Functions
1. to take food to the brain
2. to remove metabolites
3. to act as a shock absorber
 Diacenphalon (interbrain)- sits atop the brain stem and is enclosed by the cerebral
hemisphere
 Broca’s Area- found at the base of precentral gyrus; damage to this area causes
inability to say words properly (frontal lobe)
 Thalamus- acting a relay for sensory information, it sorts
impulses and sends them to the appropriate areas of the
parietal lobes
-it also assesses sensation
 Hypothalamus- it acts as a link between the nervous and endocrine system, regulating
the autonomic systems as well as the metabolic state of the body. It contains center to
control appetite, thirst, body temperature, and libido

 Spinal Cord- provides a vital communication link between the brain an the
body by way of paired spinal nerves that arise from it
 Gray matter contains the cell bodies of motor neurons
 White matter contains axon that relay messages between the brain and peripheral
nervous system
 Neurons- cells in nervous system
 When cortex get irritated, it can lead to seizure
 During the 3rd month of fetal life, formation of spinal cord=vertebral column
 In adult, spinal cord ends at L1-L2
 Lumbar tap/puncture is injected at L4-L5 (safest level)

B. Peripheral Nervous System


 Cranial Nerves (12 pairs)

Oh Oh Oh To Touch And Feel A Girl’s Vagina Ah Heaven


SE-SE-MO-MO-MI-MO-MI-SE-MI-MI-MO-MO

Cranial Nerves Functions Abnormal


Findings
I. Olfactory Sensory Smell Hyposmia
-exited at the cribiform (decrease in smell)
plate Anosmia (absence
of smell)
Rhinorrhea (escape
of CSF in the nose)
II. Optic Sensory Vision Papilledema;
blurred vision;
blindness; scotoma;
blindness
III. Oculomotor Motor Extraocular muscle Anisucuria; pinpoint
(muscle that moves the pupils; fixed; dilated
eyeball) pupils
Pupil constriction,
elevation of the upper lid
(opening of eyelids)
Cranial Nerves Functions Abnormal
Findings
IV. Trochlear Motor Innervates superior Nystagmus
(stupid nerve) oblique muscle
V. Trigeminal Mixed Sensory: sensation of Trigeminal
(largest cranial nerve) face and eyeball Neuralgia
Motor: masticatory (Tic doloureux)
muscle
VI. Abducens Motor Innervates lateral rectus Diplopia; ptosis of
muscle the eyelid
VII. Facial Mixed Sensory: anterior 2/3 of Bell’s Palsy;
tongue ageusia (loss of
Motor: muscle of facial sense of taste)
expression
Close eyelids
VIII. Acoustic/ Sensory Cochlear branch permits Tinnitus; Vertigo;
Vestibulocochlear hearing Meniere’s disease
Vestibular branch helps
maintain equilibrium
IX. Glossopharyngeal Mixed Sensory: posterior 1/3 of Loss of gag reflex;
the tongue drooling of saliva;
Motor: pharyngeal dysphagia;
muscle and parotid dysphonia;
gland posterior third
Salivates, swallow ageusia
X. Vagus Mixed Controls muscle of the Loss of gag reflex;
(longest cranial nerve) thriat drooling of saliva;
PNS stimulation of dysphagia;
thoracic and abdominal dysarthia;
organs bradycardia;
Talking increased HCl
secretion
XI. Accessory/Spinal Motor Controls trapezius and Inability to rotate
sternomastoid muscle the head and move
the shoulders
XII. Hypoglossal Motor Movement of the tongue Protrusion of the
tongue deviation of
the tongue to one
side of the mouth

 Spinal Nerves (31 pairs)

C. AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM


Sympathetic Parasympathetic
Nervous System Nervous System
(thoracolumbar) (craniosacral)
Pupil Dilation Constriction
Heart beat Increase Decrease
Blood pressure Increase Decrease
Cardiac output Increase Decrease
Peristalsis Decrease Increase
Blood vessels Constriction Dilation
Bronchi Dilation Constriction
Male sex organ Ejaculation Erection
Bladder Contraction Relaxation
(retention) (emptying)

THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM


- it plays a vital role in maintaining homeostasis by controlling the concentration and
composition of tissue fluid, by supplying cells with essential materials and removing their
wastes, helping to keep the body warm, and by protecting the body against attack by
pathogens.
 Heart
-the heart weighs about 300 grams (11ounces) and is approximately the size of a person’s
fist. It has two atria, two ventricles, and four valves. It receives blood from the two vena
cava and four pulmonary veins and expel it into the aorta and pulmonary artery. It pumps
9,000 liters (16,000 pints) of blood a day at a rate varying between 60 and 160 beats a
minute
 Frankstarting mechanism states that the greater blood in the heart, the more forceful
contraction
 Hering-Breuer Reflex- air enters the lungs, inflate then deflate
 Blood Vessels
 Arteries- are elastic, thick-walled vessels that carry blood under high pressure away from
the heart
 Veins- carry blood from the tissues back to the heart
-contain valves/leaflets (unidirection of blood against gravity)
 Capillaries- the smallest blood vessels
-get blood to all tissue cells
 Blood
-makes up about eight percent of an adult’s mass with 4 to 5 liters (7 to 9 pints) of blood in
a woman and 5 to 6 liters (9 to 10.5 pints) in a man
-a connective tissue
-underpins homeostasis by helping to maintain a stable internal environment inside the
body
-55% plasma and 45% formed elements (hematocrit)
Functions of blood
1. transports oxygen from the lungs to all body cells, and glucose, amino acids, and other
nutrients from the small intestine
2. help regulate the body’s internal environment by maintaining a constant pH in both blood
and tissue fluid, and by helping to maintain a constant body temperature by distributing heat
from sources of production
3. protects the body by preventing leakage from damaged blood vessels through blood
clotting, and by carrying white blood cells to sites of infection where they destroy invading
pathogens
4. removes metabolic wastes
and carries them to a point of
elimination from the body
Superior/Inderior vena cava Right Atrium tricuspid valve Right ventricle pulmonary
artery (unoxygenated blood)  Lungs pulmonary vein (oxygenated blood) Left Atrium
mitral/tricuspid valve Left Ventricle Aorta Systems
 Red color—deoxygenated
 Red scarlet—oxygenated

Blood components/elements
 Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes)
-supply oxygen to all body cell
-biconcave, without nucleus
-Normal lifespan: 120days (4months)
-Normal values: 5,000,000/cu mm (male)
4,500,000/cu mm (female)
-packed with the protein hemoglobin
 Iron-bone marrow
-liver (ferritin)- stored form
 Heme-bilirubin (metabolism of lipids and fats)
 Erythropoeisis- RBC formation
 During the 1st weeks of life, RBC formation are in the yolk
sac; 3 to 6 weeks in the lymphoid tissue (spleen); 6months
onwards in bone marrow
 Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) and Folic Acid are needed for
RBC maturation
 White Blood Cells (Leukocytes)
-play a vital role in defending the body against infections by pathogens
-Normal Values: 5,000 to 10,000/cu mm
Groups of WBC
A. Non Granular
WBC- produce by
lymphoid tissue
B. Granular
WBC- produce by
bone marrow

Non Granular WBC Granular WBC


 Lymp  Neutrophils
hocyt -most abundant WBC
es -1st line of defense against
-immunological bacterial invasion
-2nd most abundant WBC
-responsible for immunologic
reaction and antibodies
 Mono  Eosinphils
cytes -increase during allergic
-largest in the circulating fluid reactions
-defenses against
microorganisms
 Basophils
-important in the formation of
heparin

 Platelets (Thrombocytes)
-important in blood clotting
-cell fragments that lack a nucleus
-formed in the bone marrow
-prevent blood loss
-Normal Values: 200.000 to 500,000/cu mm
 Clotting factors (14 clotting factors)
 Clotting factor VIII deficiency can lead to Hemophilia A (classic Hemophilia
 Clotting factor IX deficiency can lead to Hemophilia B (Christmas Hemophilia)

Blood Groups
Types Agglutinogens Agglutinins
(Antibodies)
Blood type O -- Anti A and Anti B
(universal donor)
Blood type A A Anti B
Blood type B B Anti A
Blood type AB A,B --
(universal
recipient)
Blood type O

Blood type A Blood type B

Blood type AB

THE PULMONARY/RESPIRATORY SYSTEM


Main function: to maintain oxygen and carbon dioxide levels in the blood; maintain acid-base
balance (ABG)
4 Fundamental processes
1. ventilation- gas exchange in our environment between the environment and lungs
2. respiration (external)- gas exchange between lungs and blood
3. respiration (internal)- gas exchange between blood and cell
4. neural control

Airflow

nose pharynx (throat)


-filtration (vibrissae) -common
environment -warming of air passageway of
-humidification food and air
-sense of smell (CN I)

larynx (voicebox)
trachea (windpipe)
-production of voice
-start of lower respiratory
-phonation
tract
1. thyroid cartilage
-16-20 cartilagenous
-Adam’s apple
rings pipe that extend to
2. cricoid cartilage (C6)
larynx to bronchus
(inferior: intubation/
-up to T4 to T5
tracheostomy)
-divided into Right and
3. epiglottis
Left primary bronchus
-prevent food going to trachea
Carina- very sensitive to
to prevent aspiration
coughing reflex
Laryngitis- hoarseness of
voice

secondary (lobar)
segmental bronchus

terminal bronchioles bronchioles 23 divided


-last structure without gas
exchange
alveolar duct

respiratory bronchiole
alveolar sac
alveoli
-functional unit

 Type 2 alveoli cell produces


surfactant whose function is to
decrease the surface tension in the
lungs. If there is no surfactant in
the lungs, it can lead to Respiratory
Distress Syndrome and atelectasis
Gross Anatomy of the Lungs

Right Lung Left Lung


3 lobes 2 lobes
Oblique and horizontal fissures Oblique fissure
10 bronchopulmonary 8 bronchopulmonary
segments segments
Wider Narrower
shorter Longer
Thicker thinner
Wider/vertical bronchus Thinner/horizontal bronchus
 Apex
of
the

lungs contains the highest amount of air


 Base of the lungs contains more blood
 Diaphragm- dome shaped organ
-main/ major organ for ventilation
-contains 80-90% of inhaled air
-C3C4C5 (phrenic nerve)- C4
 Pleural Membrane- covering of the lung made up of serous membrane
parietal pleura
(most sensitive to pain)
visceral pleura
Pleural space
(pleural fluid for lubrication, 5ml)

1. pleuritis- inflammation of the pleura


-pain upon inflammation
2. pleural effusion- increase fluid in the pleura
3. pneumothorax- air inside the pleural space
 hydrothorax- water inside the pleural space
 chylothorax- lymph inside the pleural space
 hemothorax- blood inside the pleural space
4. empyema- pus inside the pleural space
Ventilatory Process
1. Inhalation (2seconds)
-contraction of diaphragm and pectoris muscle
-external intercostals (muscle under the ribs)
2. Exhalation (3seconds)
-relaxation of the diaphragm
 Forced exhalation- abdomen
 Ventilation- medulla (medullary rhythmicity area)
 Damage in the medulla can lead to Ordine’s curse (voluntary breathing)
Lung Volume and Capacity
-undergo Incentive Spirometry
-6L of air per breath
 Inspiratory Reserve Volume (3000mL)- amount of air maximum inhale
 Tidal Volume (500mL)- breath in and out
 Expiratory Reserve Volume (1000mL)- amount of air maximum exhale
 Residual Volume (1500mL)- amount left in lung after maximum exhalation
 Vital capacity (4800mL)- total amount of exchangeable air

 TV+IRV=Inspiratory Capacity (3500mL)- total amount of air that can be inhaled


forcibly
 ERV+RV=Functional Residual Capacity (2500mL)- amount of air remaining in
the lungs after exhalation during quiet breathing
 IRV+TV+ERV=Vital Capacity (4500mL)
 IRV+TV+ERV+RV=Total Lung Capacity (6000mL or 6L)- total volume of air in
fully inflated lungs
 Minute ventilation: TV x RR
 Alveolar Ventilation Rate: TV (functional volume) x RR
 The air that enters the respiratory tract remains in the conducting zone
passageways and never reaches the alveoli. This is called the dead
space volume and during normal tidal breath, it amount to about 15ml.
the functional volume—air that actually reaches the respiratory zone
and contributes to gas exchange—is about 350mL.
 In COPD cases, there is a Force Expiratory volume—inhale/exhale for a
period of time
1. eupnea: 12-20cpm
2. tachypnea: >20 cpm
3. bradypnea: <12cpm

Gas Exchange

 Respiratory bronchiole- start of gas exchange


 Alveoli-functional unit
Pneumocytes
1. Type I alveoli cell- lining alveoli
2. Type II alveolar cell- ovoid shape cell
-produces surfactant (decrease tension inside the lung to prevent atelectasis)
3. alveolar macrophage- last line of defense
 External Gas Exchange
Law of Respiration: Diffusion (from higher concentration to lower concentration)
 Hypoxemia is decrease of oxygen in the blood
 Hypercapnea is increase of carbon dioxide in the blood
 Internal Gas Exchange
Acid Base Balance
ABG Analysis
 Direct relationship: pH and HCO3
 Inverse relationship: pH and PCO2
 Metabolic acidosis is associated with DM and hyperventilation

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM


-it converts food into the raw materials that build and fuel our body’s cells
Functions
1. takes in food (ingest)
2. breaks it down physically and chemically into nutrient molecules (digest)
3. absorbs the nutrients into the bloodstream
4. it rids the body of the indigestible remains (defecates)
Histological Composition
 Mucosa- innermost lining/layer
-secretes digestive enzymes, lymphatic tissue (defense against bacteria)
 Submucosa-highly vascularized
 Muscularis externa- muscular layer (smooth muscle)
 Serosa/Adventitia-outermost lining (serous membrane)
 Peritoneum- covering of organs
-largest serous membrane of the body
a. visceral- adheres to the organ
b. parietal- adheres to the abdominal wall

Major Peritoneal Folds


1. Mesentery- connects small intestine to posterior abdominal wall
2. Mesacolon- large intestine to posterior abdominal wall
3. Mesoappendix- appendix to posterior abdominal wall
4. Falciform Ligament- liver to anterior abdominal wall
5. Lesser omentum- stomach to liver
6. Greater omentum- covers abdominal organ
-highly adipose layer

2 parts of Digestive System


A. Gastrointestinal Tract (Alimentary Canal)
1. Mouth (Oral Cavity)
-bounded by lips, cheeks, vulva and fauces, teeth
Mechanical: Mastication (chewing)—CN V
- mouth + teeth + salivary glands = BOLUS (one flexible round mass)

Chemical: Saliva (Salivary glands)—CN VII and IX


1. parotid glands- inferior/anterior ear (mumps)
2. submandibular and sublingual- floor of the mouth
 salivary amylase (CHO/starches)
 lingual lipase (lipids)
 lysozyme (antibacterial)
 Swallowing- CN IX and X
Gate: pharyngeal muscle
2. Pharynx (Throat)
-common passage of food and air
-conduit
Gate: upper esophageal sphincter
3. Esophagus
- tube that connects pharynx to stomach
-conduit, muscular tube extending pharynx
-no absorption/chemical digestion
Mechanical: Peristalsis (wave-like movement) pushes the bolus
Gate: lower esophageal sphincter
 If LES fails to open, there is Achalasia (thoracic pain) and if LES fails to close, there is
heartburn
4. Stomach
-J-shaped enlargement

-reservoir/mixing area of food


Mechanical: Churning (wavelike mixing movement)
-liquefies bolus into chime
Chemical: Chemical breakdown
 HCl (antibacterial)
 Gastric amylase (CHO)
 Pepsin (CHON)
 Lipase (lipids)
Gate: pyloric sphincter
5. Small Intestine
-major area for digestion and absorption
-10 feet in length
 duodenum (ampulla of vater)- secretes pancreatic juices
(hepatopancreatic duct)
Mechanical: segmentation (localized contraction alternating contract)
Chemical: variation of mucosa
1. pancreatic enzymes
 maltasemaltose (2 glucose)
 sucrasesucrose (1glucose + 1fructose)
 lactaselactose (1glucose + 1galactose)
2. pepsin and peptidase- for protein peptides
3. lipase and pancreatic lipase- for lipids, triglyceride
Absorption:
CHOfacilitated diffusion (fructose) and active transport (glucose and galactose)
CHONactive transport
Lipids simple diffusion (fat soluble vitamins, cholesterol)
Gate: ileocecal sphinter
6. Large Intestine
-completion of digestion
-no chemical/enzymatic digestion

Mechanical: Haustral churning (facultative)


Chemical: Fermentation (bacteria, NH4, methane gas)
Gate: anal sphincter internal anal sphincter and external anal sphincter (voluntary)

B. ACCESSORY ORGANS
1. Pancreas- retroperitoneal near greater curvature
-Exocrine (with duct)pancreatic enzyme
-Endocrine (without duct)Islets of Langerhans
Glucagon
Alpha cells
Beta cells
Insulin
Delta cells
Somatostatin
2. Liver- right hypochondriac area
- heaviest organ; 2nd largest organ
Liver Functions
 CHO metabolism
a. converts glycogen into glucose
b. converts glucose to glycogen or triglycerides
 Lipid metabolism
a. store triglyceride
b. synthesis of cholesterol
 CHON metabolism
a. converts toxic ammonia (NH4) to urea
b. symthesis of plasma proteins
 Removal of drugs/hormones
 Excretion of bilirubin
 Synthesize bile salts (lipid absorption)
 Phagocytosis
 Activation of Vitamin D

THE ENDOCTRINE SYSTEM


-together with the nervous system, it coordinates and directs the activity of the body’s cells

Different Kinds of Glands


 Exocrine- with duct (sweat
glands, sebaceous gland,
pancreatic intestinal gland)
- releases a hormone through a
duct
 Paracrine- produces hormone (chemical) adjacent to neighboring cells
o make hormone for their neighboring cells
 Autocrine- target organ is itself
 -make hormone themselves
 Endocrine- hormone has to pass in the bloodstream
 Hormones- chemical messengers are carried to all parts of the body by the
blood stream
Major Glands in the Endocrine System
1. Pituitary Gland or Hypophysis
-the most important of the endocrine glands, releases nine or more hormones that either
target other endocrine glands or stimulate them to release hormones, or directly control body
functions
-lies just below the brain, protected within the sella turnica of the sphenoid bone
a. Anterior lobe or Adenohypophysis
 Growth Hormone (GH)
-also called somatotropin, GH targets body cells, especially those in bone and muscle and
stimulates growth, in children, and repair by stimulating cell division
 Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
- also called thyrotropin, TSH targets the thyroid gland and stimulates the release of two
hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine that, in turn, accelerate metabolic rate
 Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
- ACTH targets the cortex (outer part) of the adrenal glands and stimulates the release of
corticosteroid hormones that help regulate metabolism and play an important part in
helping the body resist stress
 Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
-In women, FSH targets the ovaries and stimulates maturation of an ovum and production
of the sex hormone estrogen. In men, FSH targets the testes and stimulates sperm
production
 Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
-In women, LH targets the ovaries and triggers ovulation, and stimulates the release
production of the sex hormones estrogen and progesterone. In men, LH (sometimes called
interstitial cell stimulating hormone or ICSH) stimulates production of the sex hormone
testosterone
 Prolactin
-Prolactin targets the mammary glands in a women’s breasts and stimulates milk
production during pregnancy
 Hypothalamus controls the operation of the pituitary gland
b. Posterior lobe or Neurohypophysis
 Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
-also called vasopressin. AND targets the kidneys and increase the amount of water returned
to the blood during urine production, thereby reduce urine volume, conserving water, and
helping the body to maintain its water balance
 Oxytocin
-In women, oxytocin targets the uterus and stimulates muscle contraction at birth; it also
stimulates the mammary glands to release milk during breastfeeding
2. Pineal gland
-hanging from the roof of the third ventricle in the posterior diencephalon
-secretes melatonin which is responsible for sleep-wake cycle
 High melatonin levels promotes drowsiness, and the hormone is believed to help set the
body’s ‘internal clock’
3. Thyroid gland
-situated in the front of the neck below the larynx
 Thyroxine and Triiodothyronine act on all body cells, increasing their metabolic rate and the
pace of cell division
 Calcitonin decreases levels of calcium in the blood by reducing the rate at which bone is
broken down
4. Parathyroid gland
-embedded in the posterior part of the thyroid gland
-secretes parathyroid hormone (PTH) which has the opposite effect to calcitonin because it
increases the level of calcium in the blood by stimulating bone breakdown
5. Thymus gland
-located posterior to the sternum
-produces a number of hormones that are responsible for the normal development of T-
lymphocytes and the immune responses
-produces a hormone called thymosin
6. Pancreas
-situated inferior and posterior to the stomach
-pancreas has an endocrine portion, that releases two hormone—insulin and glucagon
 Insulin reduces blood glucose levels by stimulating cells to take up glucose, and the liver to
store glucose as glycogen
 Glucagon increases blood glucose levels by stimulating the liver to break down glycogen
and release glucose into the bloodstream
7. Adrenal gland
-sitting like ‘hats’ on top of the kidneys, the two adrenal glands divide into two parts. The
outer cortex secretes steroid hormones called corticosteroids: glucocorticoids help control
cell metabolism and reduce stress: and mineralocorticoids control levels of sodium and
potassium in the blood. The inner adrenal medulla secretes noradrenaline and adrenaline—
two hormones that, untypically, work rapidly to help the body deal with stress, and produce
the ‘fight or flight’ rection.
8. Ovaries and Testes
- the ovaries and testes also release hormones—estrogen and progesterone by the ovaries
and testosterone by the testes—that maintain secondary sexual characteristics and stimulate
sex cell production
THE URINARY/RENAL SYSTEM
Main function: waste management of the body
4 main functions
1. Regulation of pH
2. Regular blood volume
3. Regulate blood pressure
4. Metabolism (Na, Aldosterone)
Filters blood of what?
1. NH4ammonia
2. Na
3. Bilirubinproduct of dead RBC
4. CO2
5. uric acid

Coverings of kidney
1. renal capsule- innermost covering; preserving shape
2. adipose capsule and renal fascia- hold the kidney in place
 Renal pelvis- reservoir of most urine
 Renal cortex- outer region which is light in color
 Renal medulla- deep to the cortex which is a darker reddish brown area
 Medullary Pyramid- triangular regions with a striped appearance
 Renal Columns- an extensions of cortex-like tissue that separate the medullary
pyramids
 Nephron- functional unit of kidney that produce a urine
 Nephroptosis- dropping of kidney due to decrease fats

Urine Formation
Each nephron consists of a glomerulus and a renal tubule, comprising a Bowman’s
capsule, proximal and distal convoluted tubules, a loop of Henle, and a collecting duct.
Blood flows at high pressure through the capillaries of the Bowman’s capsule and only
small molecules are forced through the walls into the first part of the nephron. The filtrate
passes down the proximal tubule, which secretes further metabolites and salts and reabsorbs
water, sodium, essential salts, glucose and amino-acids into the blood. The loop of Henle and
distal tubule are concerned with the reabsorption of water and maintenance of the overall acid-
alkaline balance of the body. Unwanted salts, urea and water are left as urine.
Filtration of blood and formation of urine
1. Glomerular Filtration
2. Tubular Reabsorption
3. Tubular Secretion
 Filtration- PUSH solute TOWARDS Bowman’s Capsule
1. Glomerular Hydrostatic Pressure (GHP)
- push toward capsule
-facilitate filtration
-55mmHg
2. Capsule Hydrostatic Pressure (CHP)
-push toward the glomerulus
-opposes filtration
-15mmHg
3. Blood Colloid Osmotic Pressure (BCOP)
-pulling pressure
-pulls toward glomerulus
-oppose filtration
-30mmHg
 Net Filtration Pressure- must be >1 in order to filtration to occur
GHP - [CHP + BCOP]
 Glomerulonephritis is the inflammation in the glomerulus manifested by
hematuria
 Pyelonephritis is the inflammation of the kidney
 Tubular Reabsorption
1. Proximal Convulted Tubulke
-most reabsorption occurs here
a. 100% GAL (glucose, amino acid, lactic acid)
b. 80-90% bicarbonates
c. 65% K and Na (with obligatory H2O reabsorption)
d. 55% Cl
2. Loop of Henle
-descending Loop of Henle- facultative H2O reabsorption
-thick ascending Loop of Henle- 90% reabsorption of Na, K, and Cl
3. Distal Convolated Tubule and Collecting Ducts
-reabsorption of Na and Cl
-distal ends responsive to Aldosterone and ADH
-facultative H2O reabsorption absorbs Na and absorbs H2O
 Tubular Secretion
1. Proximal Convulated Tube
-hydrogen (pH)
2. Distal Convulated Tubule and Collecting Duct
-potassium and ammonia
 The urinary bladder can store 600 to 800 mL of urine but there is an urge to urine if it is
300-400mL
THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
-The primary sex organs or gonads are the testes in male and ovaries in females. The gonads
produce sex cells or gametes and secrete sex hormone.
A. MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
-The reproductive role of the male is to manufacture male gametes called sperm and
deliver them to the female reproductive tract
-The primary reproductive organs of the male are the testes or male gonads, which have
both exocrine (sperm producing) function and endocrine (testosterone producing) function
1. Penis
-designed to deliver sperm into the female reproductive tract
-the skin-covered penis consists of a shaft, which ends in an enlarged tip, the glans penis
-the skin covering the penis is loose, and it folds downward to form a cuff of skin, the
prepuce or foreskin.
-2 parts: body (organ of intercourse) and glans (highly sensitivity; increase blood flow)
 The foreskin is surgically removed shortly after birth, by a procedure called circumcision
PENIS
Functions:
-reproductive organ (sperm)
-excretory organ (urine)

2 corpus sponginsum 1 corpus cavernosa

erectile tissues

sexual stimulation

severe contraction

erection/ejaculation

2. Scrotun
-rugated skin covered muscular pouch suspended from the perineum
 Under the normal conditions, the scrotum hangs loosely from its attachments, providing
the testes with a temperature that is below body temperature. When the external
temperature is very cold, the scrotum becomes heavily wrinkled as it pulls the testes
closer to the warmth of the body wall
 The scrotum, which provides a temperature about 3 degree Celsius, is necessary for
the production of healthy sperm
3. Testes
Leydigs cell-production of testosterone
Seminifirous tubules- spermatozoa (production of sperm)
4. Epididymis- responsible for conduction of sperm from the testis to the vas deferens
-20 ft long; start of maturation (12-20 days); 64 days—maturation of sperm
Characteristics of Healthy Sperm
-60 to 70 million/ejaculation- 3cc (quantity)
-motility (quality)
-force of ejaculation

5. Vas deferens (ductus deferens) - cut during vasectomy-permanent sterility (after 20


ejaculation and after 2 (-) semen count 24 hours apart)
6. Prostate Gland- excrete alkaline fluid
Seminal Vesicle- maintain the life of semen
Seminal Fluid- protect the semen against the pH of vagina
B. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
1. Mon veneris- cushion during sexual intercourse
2. Clitoris- counterpart of glans
-most sensitive because it is highly vascular
-center for sexual arousal
3. Fourchette- where episiotomy is done
4. Hymen- tough, elastic, semicircle tissue that covers the opening to the vagina
-Internal-
1. Ovary- female gonad
2. Fallopian tube- conveys ova from the ovary to the uterus
Infundibular- aid in transportation of egg
Ampulla- site of fertilization
Isthmus- narrower passage; site of ectopic pregnancy
Interstitial- connects fallopian tube and uterus

3. Uterus- site of implantation


Fundus- contraction; expulsion of baby