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67 Aufrufe14 SeitenConcrete damage plasticity model

Apr 30, 2017

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Concrete damage plasticity model

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67 Aufrufe

Concrete damage plasticity model

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- Ballistic limit assessment for concrete slabs using the MHJC concrete model
- 9143.pdf
- CGJ 1987 24 (1) 114-125 Rowe and Armitage
- Advantages of PET-PP Secugrid
- Chang AUC2008
- Composite Failure Criteria
- ASTM D 2837_Obtaining Hydro Static Design Basis for Thermoplastic Pipe Materials
- Eurocode2_Commentary2008
- Eicher_et_al
- CHONG Alecs KT - Phd Thesis
- COMPRESSION PARAMETERS INVOLVED IN POWDER COMPRESSION AND MANUFACTURING OF TABLET
- 107TOCIEJ-Final2
- 200828 c Ste 397629
- DAMAS Paper Revised
- ESAComp.pdf
- SPE-172496-PA
- wb_vm
- a.pdf
- Sample11
- ZH_2005 RC

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and composite structures with concrete strength degradation

taken into consideration

P. KMIECIK, M. KAMISKI

Wrocaw University of Technology, Wybrzee Wyspiaskiego 25, 50-370 Wrocaw, Poland.

Because of the properties of the material (concrete), computer simulations in the field of reinforced

concrete structures are pose a challenge. As opposed to steel, concrete when subjected to compression ex-

hibits nonlinearity right from the start. Moreover, it much quicker undergoes degradation under tension.

All this poses difficulties for numerical analyses. Parameters needed to correctly model concrete under

compound stress are described in this paper. The parameters are illustrated using the Concrete Damaged

Plasticity model included in the ABAQUS software.

Keywords: numerical modelling, concrete degradation, stress-strain relation, reinforced concrete struc-

tures, composite structures, Abaqus, concrete damaged plasticity

1. Introduction

The two main concrete failure mechanisms are cracking under tension and crushing

under compression. However, concrete strength determined in simple states of stress (uni-

axial compression or tension) radically differs from the one determined in complex states

of stress. For example, the same concrete under biaxial compression reaches strength of

between ten and twenty per cent higher than in the uniaxial state while in the hydro-static

state (uniform triaxial compression) its strength is theoretically unlimited. In order to de-

scribe strength with the equation for triaxial stress, its plane should be presented in a three-

dimensional stress space (since concrete is considered to be an isotropic material in a wide

range of stress). The states of stress corresponding to material failure are on this surface

while the states of safe behaviour are inside. Also the so-called plastic potential surface is

located inside this space. After the plasticity surface is crossed, two situations arise [9]:

x an increase in strain with no change in stress (ideal plasticity),

x material weakening (rupture).

One of the strength hypotheses most often applied to concrete is the Drucker

Prager hypothesis (1952). According to it, failure is determined by non-dilatational

strain energy and the boundary surface itself in the stress space assumes the shape of a

624 P. KMIECIK, M. KAMISKI

energy and the boundary surface itself in the stress space assumes the shape of a cone.

The advantage of the use of this criterion is surface smoothness and thereby no com-

plications in numerical applications. The drawback is that it is not fully consistent with

the actual behaviour of concrete 0.

The CDP (Concrete Damaged Plasticity) model used in the ABAQUS software is

a modification of the DruckerPrager strength hypothesis. In recent years the latter has

been further modified by Lubliner 0, Lee and Fenves 0. According to the modifi-

cations, the failure surface in the deviatoric cross section needs not to be a circle and it

is governed by parameter K c.

Modelling of reinforced concrete structures and composite structures... 625

hydrostatic axis and respectively the compression meridian and the tension merid-

ian in the deviatoric cross section. This ratio is always higher than 0.5 and when it

assumes the value of 1, the deviatoric cross section of the failure surface becomes

a circle (as in the classic DruckerPrager strength hypothesis). Majewski reports

that according to experimental results this value for mean normal stress equal to

zero amounts to 0.6 and slowly increases with decreasing mean stress. The CDP

model recommends to assume Kc = 2/3. This shape is similar to the strength crite-

rion (a combination of three mutually tangent ellipses) formulated by William and

Warnke (1975). It is a theoretical-experimental criterion based on triaxial stress

test results.

Similarly, the shape of the planes meridians in the stress space changes. Experi-

mental results indicate that the meridians are curves. In the CDP model the plastic

potential surface in the meridional plane assumes the form of a hyperbola. The shape

is adjusted through eccentricity (plastic potential eccentricity). It is a small positive

value which expresses the rate of approach of the plastic potential hyperbola to its as-

ymptote. In other words, it is the length (measured along the hydrostatic axis) of the

segment between the vertex of the hyperbola and the intersection of the asymptotes of

this hyperbola (the centre of the hyperbola). Parameter eccentricity can be calculated

as a ratio of tensile strength to compressive strength [4]. The CDP model recommends

to assume = 0.1. When = 0, the surface in the meridional plane becomes a straight

line (the classic Drucker-Prager hypothesis).

Another parameter describing the state of the material is the point in which the

concrete undergoes failure under biaxial compression. b0/c0 ( fb0 / fc0) is a ratio of the

strength in the biaxial state to the strength in the uniaxial state. The most reliable in

this regard are the experimental results reported by Kupler (1969). After their approxi-

mation with the elliptic equation, uniform biaxial compression strength fcc is equal to

1.16248 fc 0. The ABAQUS users manual specifies default b0/c0 = 1.16.

The last parameter characterizing the performance of concrete under compound

stress is dilation angle, i.e. the angle of inclination of the failure surface towards the

626 P. KMIECIK, M. KAMISKI

hydrostatic axis, measured in the meridional plane. Physically, dilation angle is in-

terpreted as a concrete internal friction angle. In simulations usually = 36 0,0 or

= 40 0 is assumed.

Parameter name Value

Dilatation angle 36

Eccentricity 0.1

fbo /fco 1.16

0.667

Viscosity parameter 0

The unquestionable advantage of the CDP model is the fact that it is based on pa-

rameters having an explicit physical interpretation. The exact role of the above pa-

rameters and the mathematical methods used to describe the development of the bound-

ary surface in the three-dimensional space of stresses are explained in the ABAQUS

users manual. The other parameters describing the performance of concrete are deter-

mined for uniaxial stress. Table 1 shows the models parameters characterizing its per-

formance under compound stress.

Modelling of reinforced concrete structures and composite structures... 627

The stress-strain relation for a given concrete can be most accurately described on

the basis of uniaxial compression tests carried out on it. Having obtained a graph from

laboratory tests one should transform the variables. Inelastic strains H~cin are used in the

CDP model. In order to determine them one should deduct the elastic part (correspond-

ing to the undamaged material) from the total strains registered in the uniaxial compres-

sion test:

Vc

H 0elc . (2)

E0

When transforming strains, one should consider from what moment the material

should be defined as nonlinearly elastic. Although uniaxial tests show that such be-

haviour occurs almost from the beginning of the compression process, for most nu-

merical analyses it can be neglected in the initial stage. According to Majewski, a lin-

ear elasticity limit should increase with concrete strength and it should be rather as-

sumed than experimentally determined. He calculated it as a percentage of stress to

concrete strength from this formula:

f

elim 1 exp c . (3)

80

628 P. KMIECIK, M. KAMISKI

This ceiling can be simply arbitrarily assumed as 0.4 fcm. Eurocode 2 specifies the

modulus of elasticity for concrete to be secant in a range of 00.4 fcm. Since the basic

definition of the material already covers the shear modulus and the longitudinal

modulus of concrete, at this stage it is good to assume such an inelastic phase thresh-

old that the initial value of Youngs modulus and the secant value determined accord-

ing to the standard will be convergent. In most numerical analyses it is rather not the

initial behaviour of the material, but the stage in which it reaches its yield strength

which is investigated. Thanks to the level of 0.4fcm there are fewer problems with so-

lution convergence.

Having defined the yield stress-inelastic strain pair of variables, one needs to de-

fine now degradation variable dc. It ranges from zero for an undamaged material to

one for the total loss of load-bearing capacity. These values can also be obtained from

uniaxial compression tests, by calculating the ratio of the stress for the declining part

of the curve to the compressive strength of the concrete. Thanks to the above defini-

tion the CDP model allows one to calculate plastic strain from the formula:

dc V c

H~cpl H~cin , (4)

1 d c E0

where E0 stands for the initial modulus of elasticity for the undamaged material. Know-

ing the plastic strain and having determined the flow and failure surface area one can

calculate stress c for uniaxial compression and its effective stress V c .

Vc 1 d c E0 H c H~cpl , (5)

Vc

Vc

1 d c

E0 H c H~cpl . (6)

On the basis of uniaxial compression test results one can accurately determine the

way in which the material behaved. However, a problem arises when the person run-

ning such a numerical simulation has no such test results or when the analysis is per-

formed for a new structure. Then often the only available quantity is the average com-

pressive strength ( fcm) of the concrete. Another quantity which must be known in order

to begin an analysis of the stress-strain curve is the longitudinal modulus of elasticity

(Ecm) of the concrete. Its value can be calculated using the relations available in the lit-

erature 0:

220.1 f cm ,

0.3

Ecm (7)

Modelling of reinforced concrete structures and composite structures... 629

where:

fcm [MPa],

Ecm [GPa].

Other values defining the location of characteristic points on the graph are strain c1

at average compressive strength and ultimate strain cu 0:

The formulas (89) are applicable to concretes of grade C50/60 at the most.

On the basis of experimental results Majewski proposed the following (quite accu-

rate) approximating formulas:

Knowing the values of the above one can determine the points which the graph should

intersect.

The curve can be also plotted on the basis of the literature 0, 0, 0,0,0. The most

popular formulas are presented in Table 2, but the original symbols have been re-

placed with the uniform denotations used in Eurocode 2.

630 P. KMIECIK, M. KAMISKI

whether the longitudinal modulus of elasticity represents initial value Ec (at stress

c = 0) or that of secant modulus Ecm. Most of the formulas use initial modulus Ec

which is neither experimentally determined nor taken from the standards. Another

important factor is the functional dependence itself. Even though the Madrid pa-

rabola has been recognized as a good relation by CEB (Comit Euro-International

du Bton), this function is not flexible enough to correctly describe the perform-

ance of concrete.

Table 2. Stress-strain relation for nonlinear behaviour of structure

Formula name/

Formula form Variables

source

1 H

Madrid parabola Vc EcH c 1 c Vc f Ec , H c1

2 H c1

EcH c

Desay Vc

f Ec , H c1

2

& Krishnan H Vc

1 c

formula H c1

kK K 2

Vc f cm

1 k 2K

EN 1992-1-1 Vc f Ecm , f cm , H c1

H c1 Hc

k 1.05Ecm , K

f cm H c1

Vc EcH c if V c d elim f cm

elim 22 H c

2

Vc f cm

4elim 1 H c1

Majewski f cm

2 elim , Vc f Ec , f cm , H c1

formula

f cm

elim 2 H c

2

f cm

elim

2

Ec

Hc

2elim 1 H c1

4elim 1

if V c ! elim f cm

elim in formula (3)

H H 2 Hc

V c ] f cm 2 c

c if ]H d 1

]H c1 ]H c1 c1

Wang & Hsu Vc f f cm , H c1

formula H / ]H 1 2 Hc

Vc ] f cm 1 c c1

if ]H ! 1

2 / ] 1

c1

Hc

Vc Ec , f cm , f cu ,

Senz formula A BH c CH c DH c

2 3

Vc f

H c1 , H cu1

symbols in formula (12)

Modelling of reinforced concrete structures and composite structures... 631

The 2nd order parabola has this property that the tangent of the angle of a tangent

passing through a point on its branch, measured relative to the horizontal axis passing

through this point, is always double that of the angle measured as the inclination of the

secant passing through the same point and the extremum of the parabola, relative to

the same horizontal axis.

The consequence of this property of the parabola is either the exceedance of the

concretes strength for a correct initial modulus value or the necessity to lower the

value in order to reach a specific stress value in the extreme. Figure 8 shows relation

c c for the Madrid parabola for grade C16/20 concrete. The following batch deno-

tations were assumed:

x Ecm Ec = Ecm = 28608 MPa was assumed as the initial modulus, calculated ex-

tremum fcm = 26.81 MPa;

x Ec/Ecu = 2 the doubled tangent of the angle of the secant passing through point

(c1, fcm), amounting to Ec = 25602 MPa, calculated extremum fcm = 24.00 MPa (correct);

632 P. KMIECIK, M. KAMISKI

x 0.4 fcm the value of initial modulus Ec = 31808 MPa matched so that the curve

intersects point (c, 0.4fcm), calculated extremum fcm = 29.81 MPa;

x Ec = Ecm a straight line describing the elastic behaviour of the concrete up to

(c, 0.4fcm).

As one can see, when initial modulus Ec is assumed to amount to Ecm, the strength of

the concrete is much overrated despite the fact that the initial modulus is still underrated

(numerically Ecm is not the highest value). In the case of parabolic relations one should

artificially lower modulus Ec in order for the graph to intersect the correct value fcm.

A sufficiently detailed description of relation c c has been proposed by Senz. The

function with a 3rd order polynomial in the denominator (Table 2) depends on the vari-

ables:

1 P3 P4 2

A , B

Ec P3 f cm

2 P4 1 P4 1

C , D

P3 f cmH c1 P3 f cmH c1

. (12)

H cu f cm

P1 , P2

H c1 f cu

EcH c1 P3 P2 1 1

P3 , P4

f cm P1 12 P1

Fig. 9. Comparison of curves c-c based on table 2 relations for grade C16/20 concrete

Modelling of reinforced concrete structures and composite structures... 633

The above notation allows one to shape the function graph so that it intersects

points: (c1, fcm) and (cu, fcu). The relation proposed by Wang and Hsu is an interesting

notation. These are two functions describing the curves ascending and descending

part. They also include coefficient representing the reduction in compressive stress

of concrete resulting from locating reinforcing bars in the compressed zone. In figure

9 = 1.0 (no reinforcement taken into account). It is worth noticing that Wang and

Hsu relation, the Majewski relation and the Madrid parabola almost coincide. The

same applies to the Desay and Krishanan relation and the Senz relation, but in the

latter case the same point (cu, fcu) which followed from the Desay and Krishanan for-

mula was assumed since a lower value of function fcu would result in an improper

shape of the curve. The standard relation yields intermediate results.

The tensile strength of concrete under uniaxial stress is seldom determined through a di-

rect tension test because of the difficulties involved in its execution and the large scatter of

the results. Indirect methods, such as sample splitting or beam bending, tend to be used [2]:

The term cracking strain H~tck is used in CDP model numerical analyses. The aim is

to take into account the phenomenon called tension stiffening. Concrete under tension

is not regarded as a brittle-elastic body and such phenomena as aggregate interlocking

634 P. KMIECIK, M. KAMISKI

in a crack and concrete-to-steel adhesion between cracks are taken into account. This

assumption is valid when the pattern of cracks is fuzzy. Then stress in the tensioned

zone does not decrease sharply but gradually. The strain after cracking is defined as the

difference between the total strain and the elastic strain for the undamaged material:

Ht

H 0elt . (15)

Ec

Plastic strain H~t pl is calculated similarly as in the case of compression after defin-

ing degradation parameter dt.

In order to plot curve t t one should define the form of the weakening function.

According to the ABAQUS users manual, stress can be linearly reduced to zero, start-

ing from the moment of reaching the tensile strength for the total strain ten times

higher than at the moment of reaching fctm. But to accurately describe this function the

model needs to be calibrated with the results predicted for a specific analyzed case.

Fig. 11. Modified Wang & Hsu formula for weakening function at tension stiffening for concrete C16/20

The proper relation was proposed by, among others, Wang and Hsu [11]:

Vt EcH t if H t d H cr

0.4

H , (16)

Vt f cm cr if H t ! H cr

Ht

Modelling of reinforced concrete structures and composite structures... 635

where cr stands for strain at concrete cracking. Since tension stiffening may consid-

erably affect the results of the analysis and the relation needs calibrating for a given

simulation, it is proposed to use the modified Wang & Hsu formula for the weakening

function:

n

H

Vt f cm cr if H t ! H cr , (17)

Ht

5. Conclusion

Problems with solution convergence may arise when full nonlinearity of the material

(concrete) with its gradual degradation under increasing (mainly tensile) stress is assumed.

Simple FE techniques, consisting in reducing the size of stress increment or increasing the

maximum number of steps when solving the problem by means of the Newton-Raphson

approach, may prove to be insufficient. Therefore the CDP model uses viscosity parameter

which allows one to slightly exceed the plastic potential surface area in certain suffi-

ciently small problem steps (in order to regularize the constitutive equations). Viscoplastic

adjustment consists in choosing such > 0 that the ratio of the problem time step to ap-

proaches infinity. This means that it is necessary to try to match the value of a few times

in order to find out how big an influence it has on the problem solution result in

ABAQUS/Standard and to choose a proper minimum value of this parameter.

The CDP model makes it possible to define concrete for all kinds of structures. It is

mainly intended for the analysis of reinforced concrete structures and concrete-con-

crete and steel-concrete composite structures. However, it is recommended that before

an analysis of the structure one should test the behaviour of the material itself, e.g. by

carrying out a numerical analysis of cylindrical samples under compression, in order

to compare it with the given stress-strain relation. Because of the character of concrete

failure, some quantities can be rather assumed than determined in laboratory tests.

Therefore the assumptions should be verified by comparing other parameters, e.g. the

deflection of the modelled structural component. This means that the model parame-

ters often need to be calibrated several times in the course of the numerical analysis.

Wrocaw Centre for Networking and Supercomputing holds a licence for the Abaqus software

(http://www.wcss.wroc.pl), grant No. 56.

References

[1] ABAQUS: Abaqus analysis user's manual, Version 6.9, 2009, Dassault Systmes.

[2] Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures. Part 1-1: general rules and rules for buildings,

Brussels, 2004.

636 P. KMIECIK, M. KAMISKI

[4] Jankowiak I., Kkol W., Madaj A.: Identification of a continuous composite beam numeri-

cal model, based on experimental tests, 7th Conference on Composite Structures, Zielona

Gra, 2005, pp. 163178.

[5] Jankowiak I., Madaj A.: Numerical modelling of the composite concrete-steel beam inter-

layer bond, 8th Conference on Composite Structures, Zielona Gra, 2008, pp. 131148.

[6] Kmita A., Kubiak J.: Investigation of concrete structures. Guide to laboratory classes,

Wrocaw University of Technology Publishing House, Wrocaw, 1993.

[7] Lee J., Fenves G.L.: Plastic-damage model for cyclic loading of concrete structures, Journal

of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 124, No. 8, 1998, pp. 892900.

[8] Lubliner J., Oliver J., Oller S, Oate E.: A plastic-damage model for concrete, Interna-

tional Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol. 25, 1989, pp. 299329.

[9] Majewski S.: The mechanics of structural concrete in terms of elasto-plasticity, Silesian

Polytechnic Publishing House, Gliwice, 2003.

[10] Szumigaa A.: Composite steel-concrete beam and frame structures under momentary

load, Dissertation No. 408, Pozna Polytechnic Publishing House, Pozna, 2007.

[11] Wang T., Hsu T.T.C.: Nonlinear finite element analysis of concrete structures using new

constitutive models, Computers and Structures, Vol. 79, Iss. 32, 2001, pp. 27812791.

z uwzgldnieniem degradacji wytrzymaociowej betonu

waciwoci materiau, jakim jest beton. W przeciwiestwie do stali, jest to materia, ktry

podczas ciskania wykazuje nieliniowo ju od samego pocztku swojej pracy. Ponadto pod-

czas rozcigania ulega znacznie szybszej degradacji, co skutkuje problemami natury nume-

rycznej. W niniejszej pracy opisano parametry niezb

dne do prawidowego zamodelowania

betonu w zoonym stanie napr

enia. Parametry te przedstawiono na przykadzie modelu

Concrete Damaged Plasticity zawartego w programie ABAQUS.

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