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Green 2004

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behaviour of an aluminum sheet

D.E. Green a, K.W. Neale b,*, S.R. MacEwen c,

A. Makinde d, R. Perrin e

a

Industrial Research and Development Institute, Midland, Ontario, Canada L4R 4L3

b

Faculty of Engineering, University of Sherbrooke Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada J1K 2R1

c

Alcan International Limited, Kingston Research and Development Centre, Kingston,

Ontario, Canada K7L 5L9

d

GE Corporate Research and Development, Engineering Mechanics Laboratory,

Schenectady, NY 12301, USA

e

Wescast Industries Inc., Brantford, Ontario, Canada N3T 5W5

Received 8 October 2003

Available online 7 February 2004

Abstract

A biaxial testing apparatus was used to investigate the elastic-plastic behaviour of an 1145

aluminum sheet alloy. Flat cruciform specimens were deformed up to eective strains of ap-

proximately 0.15 in biaxial stretching, along seven dierent proportional strain paths. A nite

element analysis of each test was carried out using four dierent phenomenological models of

anisotropic plasticity. An iterative procedure was coupled with the numerical analyses in order

to determine the anisotropic parameters in the various yield functions and thus obtain best ts

to these functions. This method of numerically analyzing cruciform specimens leads to fairly

accurate biaxial ow curves, as well as plastic work contours. The results are also compared

with crystal plasticity simulations using a Taylor-type model.

2003 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Keywords: Biaxial testing; Biaxial stressstrain behaviour; Aluminium sheet; Anisotropy; Cruciform

specimens

*

Corresponding author.

doi:10.1016/j.ijplas.2003.11.012

1678 D.E. Green et al. / International Journal of Plasticity 20 (2004) 16771706

1. Introduction

Sheet metal forming is one of the most common metal processing operations. The

manufacture of auto-body parts, for example, involves bending sheet metal between

two die faces so as to give it the desired shape and curvatures. Also, light metal alloy

beverage cans are produced using forming operations such as deep drawing, ironing

and coining. In all of these examples, great precision is required relative to both the

geometry and the mechanical properties of the nal product. It has therefore become

apparent that the traditional trial-and-error method of optimizing such metal

forming operations is rather inecient.

The mathematical modelling of material behaviour is a very eective way of re-

ducing the time and costs involved in optimizing manufacturing processes. Indeed,

numerous complex forming operations have been simulated numerically in order to

predict critical parameters. When a cup is drawn from a blank for example, the

number, position and height of the ears on the upper edge of the cup can be pre-

dicted quite accurately (Becker et al., 1993; Inal et al., 2000).

Essentially two classes of models have been developed for the numerical simu-

lation of sheet metal forming operations. Polycrystal models are based on micro-

scopic deformation mechanisms such as slip on specic atomic planes. These models

are very appealing as they can predict evolving textures during the deformation

process (Asaro and Needleman, 1985; Tugcu et al., in press). However, their main

drawback is that they are very demanding in terms of computer memory and

computation time. Alternatively, other types of models are the phenomenological or

macroscopic models (Tugcu and Neale, 1999; Tugcu et al., 1999, 2002; Wu et al.,

2003). These are simpler to use and require signicantly less computer time than the

polycrystal models and, as a result, are generally being more widely used in industrial

simulations.

A survey of the literature reveals that relatively few experimental investigations

have been carried out to characterize sheet metals under biaxial tension. Some re-

searchers (Stout et al., 1983; Khan and Wang, 1993) have studied thin tubular

specimens under multiaxial loadings (tension/torsion or tension/internal pressure).

However, the data available from such experiments are not directly applicable to

rolled sheets (MacEwen et al., 1992). The hydrostatic bulging of a circular blank is

also a common way of determining the strain hardening characteristics of a given

metal sheet. Although this type of experiment leads to large biaxial strains, it is

restricted to only one particular deformation mode. The determination of the

complete initial yield surface of a sheet metal using the bulge test is clearly not

possible.

Certain researchers (Shiratori and Ikegami, 1967; Shimada et al., 1976; Lin et al.,

1993) have used at cruciform specimens to determine the initial and subsequent

yield surfaces for thin sheets. Because of the diculty of evaluating the stresses in a

cruciform specimen, these workers did not load their samples beyond the elastic

range. The stresses were therefore computed from the strains within the gauge by

using the well-known elastic stress strain relations. In his work on cruciform speci-

mens, Makinde (1986) succeeded in calculating an approximate eective area for

D.E. Green et al. / International Journal of Plasticity 20 (2004) 16771706 1679

each loading direction and thus estimated the stress from the applied load. He was

then able to determine biaxial ow curves for dierent strain paths up to reasonably

large strains. This method, however, is only valid for the particular specimen ge-

ometry used in his study.

In the present investigation, at cruciform specimens have been tested under in-

plane biaxial loading conditions with a view to obtaining both the plastic work

contours and the biaxial ow curves for an aluminum sheet alloy. In order to analyze

the stresses and strains in the sample, a nite element program was developed which

incorporates various anisotropic plasticity theories, and appropriate boundary

conditions. Each biaxial test was simulated, and an iterative procedure was imple-

mented to optimize the numerical simulations. This method of analysis leads to

reasonably accurate predictions of the biaxial stress strain behaviour. A complete

description of the experimental procedure and numerical analysis for the aluminum

alloy tested is given in Green (1995).

2. Description of experiments

The experimental part of this work was conducted using a biaxial testing appa-

ratus that was designed and constructed at the Universite de Sherbrooke. It is

comprised of a hydraulic loading system and a closed-loop control system. A de-

tailed description of the apparatus has been given in Makinde et al. (1992a).

Fig. 1 shows a sketch of the biaxial testing system. A cross-shaped steel slab 152

mm thick constitutes the main load frame; it is welded onto an I-beam structure to

ensure maximum rigidity. A load train of four linear hydraulic actuators is mounted

in a horizontal plane on this frame. Two sets of opposing actuators having a rated

capacity of 250 kN form two orthogonal loading axes. Hydraulic wedge grips with

controllable gripping pressure are installed on each actuator, thereby holding the

specimen at the centre of the loading system. Finally, a load cell is included in each

direction.

Each loading axis is controlled independently by an electrohydraulic closed-loop

channel, which is monitored from an MTS 458.20 microconsole. A function gener-

ator, capable of producing a wide range of waveforms, provides command signals

that control the operation of two opposing actuators. This closed-loop system en-

ables testing to be done in either force or strain control modes. Measurements from

load and displacement transducers are transmitted to a personal computer equipped

with a 16 bit analog/digital expansion board for data acquisition.

order to measure and control strains independently along each loading direction. It

consists of two lightweight frames that are mounted at 90 to each other prior to

1680 D.E. Green et al. / International Journal of Plasticity 20 (2004) 16771706

testing, on either side of a specimen. Each frame houses a pair of sliding blocks

which move with practically no friction as the specimen is deformed. Rounded points

in contact with the sample cause the sliding blocks to move, and their relative dis-

placements are measured using linear variable displacement transducers (LVDTs).

The sheet metal samples tested with this apparatus under biaxial loading are

cruciform in shape. The specimen geometry (Fig. 2) was developed with a central

section thinner than the rest of the specimen so that the maximum strains are at-

D.E. Green et al. / International Journal of Plasticity 20 (2004) 16771706 1681

tained in the central portion. Four arms extend from this square gauge area, and are

held in the hydraulic grips. Seven parallel slots are machined into each arm so that

the strain elds are maintained as uniform as possible in the gauge section, even at

large strains. The absence of shear strains in the gauge area guarantees that the

stresses and strains measured at the centre of the sample are also the principal

stresses and strains. A sandwich design was adopted for this particular set of ex-

periments in which the sample sheet is bonded by an adhesive between two face

sheets, while leaving the central area exposed on both sides.

The dierent parameters that dene the geometry of the specimen were deter-

mined by performing a two-level factorial analysis (Montgomery, 1991). Each ex-

periment in this analysis consisted of numerically simulating the biaxial loading of a

sample up to large strains. Stress and strain distributions in the specimen were

computed using a nite element analysis, and strain uniformity in the gauge was

1682 D.E. Green et al. / International Journal of Plasticity 20 (2004) 16771706

which yielded the greatest uniformity of strains in the gauge, even after considerable

straining, determined the geometry of the specimen used in this work (Fig. 2). A

detailed description of the optimization process is given in Makinde et al. (1992a).

A commercial 1145 aluminum alloy sheet was used for the experimental work. It

was rolled to a nal thickness of 1.2954 mm, and then annealed at 325 C for 2 h.

The initial texture of this alloy was measured experimentally and represented by 1568

discrete grain orientations, as depicted by the 111 pole gure shown in Fig. 3.

Uniaxial tests were done at 0, 45 and 90 to the rolling direction (Fig. 4), and the

Lankford coecients or R-values (width-to-thickness strain ratios) measured in each

case were: R0 0.67, R45 0.58 and R90 0.65. The yield stresses were determined at

a value of plastic work per unit volume of 0.025 MPa, and the averages obtained

from several tests were: r0 25:6 MPa, r45 24:4 MPa and r90 24:6 MPa,

respectively. This procedure actually led to the same yield stresses as those obtained

by back extrapolation, or at an oset plastic strain of 0.001.

D.E. Green et al. / International Journal of Plasticity 20 (2004) 16771706 1683

Fig. 4. Uniaxial ow curves for the 1145 alloy at 0, 45 and 90 to the rolling direction.

The tests were conducted in the strain control mode using the biaxial extensom-

eter. Strains were imposed in both directions at the centre of the specimen, within the

region of uniform strains. The initial gauge length (i.e., the distance between contact

points) was set at 25.4 mm, and the strains were taken to be the average strain over

this distance. Because each loading axis is controlled independently, an unlimited

number of strain ratios and loading paths may be applied to the gauge area of the

sample. Biaxial tests were conducted at seven dierent strain ratios: q 0, 0.5, 0.25,

1, 2, 4, 1 where q is the ratio of the principal strain in the transverse direction (TD)

to that in the rolling direction (RD): q eTD =eRD . The forces in the arms of the

specimen were also measured continuously in both directions throughout the tests.

An important aspect of this work was to determine experimental yield functions

for the 1145 sheet in principal stress space. However, the way in which yield stresses

are determined varies from author to author. Hecker (1976) has conducted a com-

prehensive review of the experimental work on yielding and has presented six dif-

ferent denitions of yield. Generally, when yield is dened by a small plastic oset

(ep < 106 ), materials appear to exhibit anisotropic hardening, whereas they appear

to behave more isotropically when yield is determined after a certain amount of

plastic ow. Throughout this study, yield has been dened as a constant amount

of total plastic work per unit volume. From each biaxial test conducted at a given

strain ratio, one yield point was obtained in the principal stress space and a constant

plastic work contour was then determined.

1684 D.E. Green et al. / International Journal of Plasticity 20 (2004) 16771706

3. Analysis of experiments

The uniaxial tensile test is obviously the simplest way of characterizing material

behaviour. The stress is readily obtained by dividing the measured force by the cross-

section area and thus the ow curve is easily determined. However, the stressstrain

behaviour is not so easily obtained from biaxial tests with at cruciform specimens.

Considering the geometry of the specimen, it is dicult to know precisely what the

load-bearing areas are in each direction, and the experimental values of stress cannot

be simply deduced from the forces in the arms. Therefore one of the objectives of this

work was to establish a technique to determine the stresses in the cruciform samples.

The experimental work described earlier was also carried out with a view to ob-

taining the yield surface of thin aluminum sheets. However, this was not the primary

purpose of our investigation. If the determination of yield surfaces was the only

objective of the study, the stresses in the cruciform sample might be calculated using

the eective area method described by Makinde (1986). The ultimate objective of

this work was actually to identify yield criteria that can be used to accurately predict

the biaxial behaviour of aluminum sheets during complex forming operations.

Therefore a nite element analysis was the only eective technique to both calculate

the stresses in the cruciform sample, as well as describe the biaxial behaviour of the

sheet material up to large strains.

A nite element analysis of each biaxial test was carried out in order to obtain the

stresses in the sample. The analysis was based on a rigorous Lagrangian elastic

plastic nite strain formulation. Because of the orthotropy of the aluminum sheet

and the symmetry of the cruciform sample, only one quarter of the sample was

analyzed. Simulations using more or less rened discretizations were compared, and

a mesh comprised of 1891 three-node plane stress elements was adopted (Fig. 5).

The boundary conditions imposed in the nite element model are such that they

exactly reproduce the mechanical constraints on the specimen during a test. In the

experiments the extremity of each arm is locked in the hydraulic grips; thus, the

nodes corresponding to this boundary condition are constrained to have equal dis-

placements. Moreover, the width of the arms at the level where they are gripped is

imposed to remain constant. In the experimental set-up, the tips of the extensometer

are in contact with the specimen at the centre of the gauge area on the symmetry axis

on either side of the sample. The relative displacement of these two sets of material

points is controlled continuously throughout loading, thus imposing the principal

strains at this location. In the nite element discretization of the specimen, the dis-

placement of the two nodes that correspond geometrically to the location of the

extensometer tips is considered to be known. Therefore at each increment during the

nite element simulation, the nodal displacements at the extremity of the arms are

imposed so that the two nodes on the symmetry axes follow the prescribed dis-

placements. In this way the principal strains and strain ratio are actually imposed at

the centre of the gauge area, just as they are experimentally.

D.E. Green et al. / International Journal of Plasticity 20 (2004) 16771706 1685

In the design of the cruciform specimen, the arms are comprised of three sheets

bonded together, whereas the central sheet alone constitutes the gauge section. This

composite conguration is also modelled in the numerical simulations. The behav-

iour of the central sheet was characterized by uniaxial tensile tests, but additional

tensile samples, machined from the sandwich structure of the arms, were tested in

order to determine the behaviour in this area. The elastic modulus, yield stress and

hardening were extracted from these tests, and the numerical program ascribed the

appropriate properties to elements in both the arms, as well as in the central gauge

section.

The nite element analysis provides the computed stresses and strains in the

cruciform sample, as well as the forces applied in each arm. The computed forces at

the grips can be compared with those obtained experimentally to verify the accuracy

of the numerical model. If and when the computed forces coincide with the forces

actually measured in the arms, then the computed stresses in the gauge area are

considered to be good estimates of the actual stresses. That is, when the computed

force (in the arms) vs. strain (in the centre of the sample) curves coincide with the

corresponding experimental force vs. strain curves, then the computed stress vs.

strain curves (for the central gauge area) are considered to reect the actual work

hardening behaviour of the material.

1686 D.E. Green et al. / International Journal of Plasticity 20 (2004) 16771706

As in classical plasticity theory, the plastic strain increments were derived from a

plastic potential which was assumed to be the yield surface (Hill, 1950), and the

plastic strain increments depij are normal to the yield locus /rij (normality rule); i.e.,

@/

depij dk 1

@rij

where dk is a scalar depending on material hardening and rij are the components of

the Cauchy stress tensor. Various yield criteria have been proposed since von Mises

work for isotropic materials. However, because of the inherent anisotropy of cold

rolled metal alloys, the only criteria that were implemented in the nite element

program were those that account for planar anisotropy.

In 1948, Hill formulated the rst yield criterion for anisotropic materials (Hill,

1948). In the case of orthotropic sheets this function can be written as:

/ rij g hr2x 2hrx ry f hr2y 2ns2xy 2

where f, g, h and n are anisotropic parameters, and rx , ry and sxy are the stress

components in the plane of the sheet. This quadratic form has been widely used by

engineers in spite of inherent limitations for alloys having an average R-value less

than one (Pearce, 1968; Woodthorpe and Pearce, 1970).

In 1989, Barlat and Lian proposed a non-quadratic tricomponent criterion for

rolled sheets in the following form:

m m m

/rij ajK1 K2 j aj K 1 K2 j cj2K2 j 3

s

2

rx hry rx hry

with K1 ; K2 p2 s2xy 4

2 2

where a, c, h, p and m are parameters which characterize the material anisotropy.

Hill (1979) also proposed a non-quadratic yield function for planar isotropic

sheets, but later modied this to incorporate in-plane anisotropy (Hill, 1990). This

criterion is given by the following function:

m m

m rb

/rij rx ry 2

rx ry 4s2xy

sy

m1 h i

2

r2x r2y 2s2xy 2ar2x r2y brx ry 2 5

Here rb is the yield stress in balanced biaxial tension, sy is the yield stress in simple

shear, and a and b are anisotropic parameters.

The last yield criterion that was incorporated into the present numerical analysis

was that proposed by Montheillet et al. (1991):

m

/rij ca1 rx a2 ry j hrx ry j 2nsxy j

m m

6

D.E. Green et al. / International Journal of Plasticity 20 (2004) 16771706 1687

It has already been pointed out that determining the stresses in a cruciform

sample is not a straightforward matter. In this section, an iterative procedure will be

described that leads to the determination of the stresses in the cruciform samples

throughout each of the biaxial tests. This in turn will lead to the determination of

biaxial ow curves and the work hardening behaviour of this sheet material.

The yield functions presented in the previous section are dened by a number of

parameters that attempt to describe the anisotropy of cold rolled sheets. Although

these parameters can mostly be determined from standard tensile tests, certain pa-

rameters can only be obtained from more complex biaxial tests. For instance, the

value of the exponent m in the non-quadratic yield functions and the experimental

value of the yield stress in balanced biaxial tension are obtained from biaxial tests.

However, these parameters cannot be determined directly from the present experi-

mental program. Without knowing a priori the initial shape of the yield surface, and

without being able to completely determine the parameters in the yield criteria, it is

not possible to carry out reliable simulations of the biaxial tests.

The rst step in the stress analysis procedure, therefore, is to determine all the

parameters in the yield criteria. Barlat and Lians 1989 function was selected (be-

cause of its simplicity and exibility) and the value of rb was initially estimated such

that

r0 r90

rb 7

2

and m was chosen within the range of values found in the literature (Barlat and Lian,

1989; Lege et al., 1989). Having estimated the undetermined parameters in the yield

criterion, a nite element analysis was carried out for each of the seven biaxial

tension tests. Because certain parameters in the yield function were simply estimated,

this rst series of numerical simulations was not expected to provide accurate stresses

in the sample. As a result, further steps in the iterative process were required.

The rst series of numerical simulations (using estimated parameters when they

could not be determined directly from uniaxial tensile tests) provided a rst esti-

mation of the stresses in the cruciform samples, and led to ow curves in both the

RD and the TD. These results are only accurate to the extent to which the computed

forces in the arms of the sample approach the forces measured experimentally. These

ow curves were then modied with the assumption that, if the forces calculated at

the grips did indeed coincide with the actual forces recorded during the tests, then the

stresses calculated at the centre of the gauge area would be good estimates of the

actual stresses. The stressstrain curves, as well as their corresponding forcestrain

curves, were therefore scaled point-by-point (the strains were not modied) by ex-

actly the amount required to make the computed forces coincide exactly with the

experimental ones.

For each dierent biaxial strain path, the computed ow curves can be used to

determine a yield point in principal stress space. In this study, yield was dened as a

predetermined value of total accumulated plastic work. Accordingly, a point on the

1688 D.E. Green et al. / International Journal of Plasticity 20 (2004) 16771706

yield surface, or more precisely the constant work contour, can be found for each

biaxial strain path. If, however, the scaled ow curves are used to determine these

yield points rather than the ow curves initially computed, then the resulting yield

locus will be closer to the experimental yield locus (or plastic work contour). Al-

though this procedure is not truly rigorous, it does provide a good estimate of the

shape of the experimental yield surface. Furthermore, it was found that, regardless of

the yield function or the value of the estimated parameters used in the rst series of

numerical simulations, the yield points obtained from the scaled ow curves re-

mained virtually identical, when they were dened at a given level of total plastic

work. This estimate of the experimental yield surface was then used to improve the

estimation of the unknown parameters in the yield function. The equibiaxial yield

stress (rb ) and the yield function exponent (m) can be easily determined graphically

from the seven biaxial yield points previously obtained. The value of the exponent m

is generally calibrated against the plane strain ow stress (rp ) for tests in both the

RD and the TD. Adjustments were made to the values of rb and m until the ana-

lytical yield locus provided a best-t to the yield points.

The rst step in this iterative stress analysis led to a good estimate of the shape of

the experimental yield surface. The second step consisted of carrying out another

series of simulations of all the biaxial tests with the set of biaxial parameters (rb and

m) that most closely represented the shape of the experimental yield surface (the

parameters that were dened from uniaxial tensile tests remained unchanged). This

time, the overall accuracy of the simulated ow curves was improved compared to

the rst series of simulations; this was evidenced by a better agreement between the

computed and the experimental forces in the arms of the cruciform sample. Once

again, the computed ow curves were scaled as was described earlier, the yield points

in principal stress space were determined, and the values of the biaxial parameters

(rb and m) were evaluated. It was found that this iterative procedure converged in

two or, at the most, three steps. Thus, all the anisotropic parameters required in the

phenomenological yield functions could be determined either with uniaxial tests or

by the procedure described above.

The accuracy of the stresses computed by nite element analysis is not only de-

pendent on adequately determining the parameters in the yield function, but also on

appropriately describing the work hardening behaviour of the sheet material. An

eective stress (re ) is generally dened from the yield function so that a complex state

of stress can be reduced to one scalar. An eective plastic strain can also be dened

by considering the principle of the equivalence of plastic work,

dW p rij depij re depe 8

p

where dW is the increment of plastic work per unit volume. A unique eective

stress-eective strain curve can therefore be deduced from an actual experiment, thus

providing a description of material hardening. In the nite element program used in

the course of this work, a piecewise linear representation of this reference curve was

used to describe material hardening.

The eective stresseective strain relation is generally dened from a uniaxial

tensile test for the sake of simplicity. However, it might also be obtained from

D.E. Green et al. / International Journal of Plasticity 20 (2004) 16771706 1689

other tests such as plane-strain tension or equibiaxial tension (Hill, 1990, 1991).

The uniaxial test in the RD was initially used to dene the hardening of this

alloy, but the relative dierence between the calculated and the measured forces,

averaged for all the strain paths, was found to be somewhat high. (Had an ex-

perimental biaxial ow curve been available, this would no doubt have proven

more accurate in determining material hardening for the simulation of these bi-

axial tests.) This initial reference curve was therefore adjusted (after all the pa-

rameters in the yield function were fully determined) until the average relative

dierence between the calculated and measured forces was reduced to zero over

the entire range of strains.

To summarize, this stress analysis procedure consisted of carrying out simu-

lations of all the biaxial tests in an iterative way until the unknown biaxial pa-

rameters in the yield criteria are adequately determined and a unique ow curve

which describes material hardening is dened. The stress analysis method was

carried out for each of the yield criteria considered in this paper. Once the op-

timization procedure was completed, each of the seven experimental biaxial tests

was simulated using the nite element analysis one last time. The actual pa-

rameters for the various models are presented in the Appendix. In the absence of

a technique capable of directly measuring the stresses in the cruciform sample,

this nal series of simulations provided computed stresses and biaxial ow curves

that can be considered to be fairly accurate.

tention because of their ability to account for microstructural eects such as texture

evolution. A numerical program has been developed in which one material point is

considered to be a polycrystal comprised of N grains, and may be subjected to a

variety of homogeneous deformation modes such as uniaxial tension or biaxial

stretching. This numerical program was used to simulate the same biaxial strain

paths as those investigated experimentally. The 1145 aluminum sheet was considered

virtually rate-insensitive (m 0:002) and the slip system hardening was assumed to

behave according to the following power-law relationship:

n

h0 c

sc s0 1 9

n s0

The parameters in this hardening law were obtained by adjusting their values until

the ow curve predicted by the crystal plasticity program gave a best t to the ex-

perimental plane strain ow curve in the RD (see Fig. 16a). The values obtained for

this aluminum alloy were s0 7 MPa, h0 =s0 520, n 0:2. The results of these

simulations are presented and discussed in the following sections. A full description

of the crystal plasticity formulation can be found in Asaro and Needleman (1985);

Wu et al. (1996) and Inal et al. (2000).

1690 D.E. Green et al. / International Journal of Plasticity 20 (2004) 16771706

5. Results

Having optimized the yield surface shape and hardening curve, nite element

simulations of the biaxial tests were performed to obtain the stresses and strains in

the entire specimen. The ow curves were extracted from the gauge area for both the

RD and the TD. The forces measured experimentally in the arms of the sample were

plotted against the strains imposed at the centre of the specimen and compared with

the forcestrain curves calculated numerically. Fig. 6 represents the stressstrain

curves predicted by each plasticity theory (including the crystal plasticity model),

Fig. 6. Simulated ow curves for the q 0:25 strain path in: (a) the RD, and (b) the TD.

D.E. Green et al. / International Journal of Plasticity 20 (2004) 16771706 1691

while Fig. 7 represents the corresponding force-strain curves for the test done at

q 0:25. Figs. 8 and 9 present the same types of curves for the strain ratio q 0:5,

and Figs. 1017 give the results for each of the other imposed strain ratios.

The stress analysis procedure dened in Section 3 leads to the determination of

contours of equivalent total plastic work. Two principal stress values are determined

for each biaxial test by calculating the accumulated area under the stress vs. plastic

strain curves (i.e., the total plastic work) in both loading directions at the same point

Fig. 7. Comparison of the experimental and simulated forcestrain curves for the q 0.25 strain path in:

(a) the RD, and (b) the TD.

1692 D.E. Green et al. / International Journal of Plasticity 20 (2004) 16771706

Fig. 8. Simulated ow curves for the q 0.5 strain path in: (a) the RD, and (b) the TD.

in time. Fig. 18 represents the equivalent work contours for which the total amount

of plastic work per unit volume is W p 0:05 MPa (which is equivalent to

epe 0:002). The work contours presented in Fig. 19 correspond to an accumulated

plastic work per unit volume W p 0:15 MPa (or epe 0:005). The experimental

yield points are dened from both the scaled biaxial ow curves, and from the ow

curves obtained from actual uniaxial tests. Yield points were also determined, in the

same manner, from the ow curves predicted by the crystal plasticity model (Taylor

model). For the sake of comparison, the anisotropic yield functions used in the nite

element simulations are also plotted in these gures. Finally, the biaxial material

D.E. Green et al. / International Journal of Plasticity 20 (2004) 16771706 1693

Fig. 9. Comparison of the experimental and simulated forcestrain curves for the q 0.5 strain path in:

(a) the RD, and (b) the TD.

parameter rb has been extracted, whereas it could not have been determined directly

from any simple experiment. A ratio of rb =r0 0:945 was found for this alloy.

6. Discussion

In the earlier work of MacEwen et al. (1992), the experimental equipment em-

ployed in this investigation was used for the biaxial tension testing of a thin

1694 D.E. Green et al. / International Journal of Plasticity 20 (2004) 16771706

Fig. 10. Simulated ow curves for the q 1 strain path in: (a) the RD, and (b) the TD.

can-stock aluminum alloy (3104-H19). An elastic analysis was carried out to extract

the eective biaxial load-bearing area, and the stresses were initially obtained by di-

viding the forces measured in the arms of the specimen by the eective area. However,

the nite element analysis revealed that, while this eective area is constant before

yielding, it is actually a function of both strain and strain path during plastic de-

formation. The initial yield surfaces were obtained by accounting for these variations

in eective area. The complete biaxial ow curves were not presented in that work.

D.E. Green et al. / International Journal of Plasticity 20 (2004) 16771706 1695

Fig. 11. Comparison of the experimental and simulated forcestrain curves for the q 1 strain path in: (a)

the RD, and (b) the TD.

MacEwen et al. (1992) have shown that the particular geometry of the specimens

used for the biaxial tests requires that a numerical analysis be employed to extract

the stresses in the gauge area. The work presented in this paper is an extension of

that previous study. The present stress analysis has focused on accurately modelling

the initial yield function and, as a result, the simulations of the biaxial tests have

furnished very good results. The dierences between the simulations and the ex-

periments are very small.

1696 D.E. Green et al. / International Journal of Plasticity 20 (2004) 16771706

Fig. 12. Simulated ow curves for the q 2 strain path in: (a) the RD, and (b) the TD.

In Montheillet et al.s (1991) criterion, rb and the yield function exponent m are

not independent. This means that if m is calibrated against the yield stresses in plane

strain tension, the value of rb cannot be adjusted. In the case of this alloy, the value

of rb is obtained when the value of the yield function exponent is m 1:83, even

though the yield stresses in plane strain tension are overestimated. With Hills 1990

function, the anisotropic parameter rb and the exponent m are also intrinsically

related as follows:

D.E. Green et al. / International Journal of Plasticity 20 (2004) 16771706 1697

Fig. 13. Comparison of the experimental and simulated forcestrain curves for the q 2 strain path in: (a)

the RD, and (b) the TD.

ln2 R45

m 10

ln2rb =r45

It was found that, when rb is calibrated against the yield points in stress space and

the value of m is deduced from (10) and experimentally determined values of R45 and

r45 , the Hill 1990 criterion predicts yield stresses in plane strain that are too high.

However, by modifying the exponent to m 1:5, the yield stresses in plane strain

tension are obtained with much greater accuracy. This implicitly leads to an R-value

1698 D.E. Green et al. / International Journal of Plasticity 20 (2004) 16771706

Fig. 14. Simulated ow curves for the q 4 strain path in: (a) the RD, and (b) the TD.

at 45 that does not agree very well with the experimental value (if the experimental

value of r45 is maintained).

Barlat and Lians (1989) theory has the advantage that rb and the exponent m are

completely independent. The value of m can therefore be adjusted until the yield

surface shape ts the experimental data for plane strain tension. A value of m 8

was found for this alloy. Barlat and Lians yield function is the most versatile of

those considered in this study. Furthermore, assuming that the yield stress in simple

D.E. Green et al. / International Journal of Plasticity 20 (2004) 16771706 1699

Fig. 15. Comparison of the experimental and simulated forcestrain curves for the q 4 strain path in: (a)

the RD, and (b) the TD.

shear is the same as that in pure shear, four anisotropic parameters are sucient to

fully determine the yield surface.

A careful examination of the dierent gures where the computed and the ex-

perimental force vs. strain curves are compared indicates that, of the four models

considered in this investigation, the Barlat and Lian (1989) model and the Hill (1990)

model gave the best correlation with experimental data. It can also be seen from

Fig. 19 that the experimental yield data lie closest to the Barlat and Lian (1989) yield

1700 D.E. Green et al. / International Journal of Plasticity 20 (2004) 16771706

Fig. 16. Simulated ow curves for the plane-strain tests path in: (a) the RD, and (b) the TD.

locus. It appears that the Hill (1948) quadratic model provides less accurate pre-

dictions of the biaxial ow curves for this aluminum alloy sheet. This is not sur-

prising as the non-quadratic models have more parameters with which to more

accurately capture the shape of the yield surface.

As mentioned earlier, initial simulations were carried out using an eective stress-

eective strain curve obtained from the uniaxial ow curve in the RD. In this case the

calculated force-strain curves generally lie above the experimental curves for all of

the plasticity theories considered. It would therefore appear that the uniaxial curve is

not the most accurate for describing material hardening for the biaxial tension case.

D.E. Green et al. / International Journal of Plasticity 20 (2004) 16771706 1701

Fig. 17. Comparison of the experimental and simulated forcestrain curves for the plane-strain tests in: (a)

the RD, and (b) the TD.

curve from a test in biaxial tension, such as the plane strain tension of a very wide

sheet specimen. The experimental work by Wagoner (1980) on 2036-T4 sheets also

indicated that the work hardening rate in uniaxial tension is higher than that in plane

strain tension. Such a ow curve not being available at the time of writing, the initial

reference curve was slightly lowered so that the simulated force-strain curves

would lie on the experimental curves. This adjustment is somewhat arbitrary, but

1702 D.E. Green et al. / International Journal of Plasticity 20 (2004) 16771706

Fig. 18. Anisotropic work contours at a value of plastic work of 0.05 MPa.

even up to eective plastic strains of 0.15.

The ow curves obtained from the crystal plasticity simulations compare quite

well with the experimental results obtained from our nite element analysis.

Considering the shape of the predicted plastic work contours, it appears that the

Taylor model does not describe the planar anisotropy of the sheet as well as

the phenomenological models. The initial texture is the only parameter dening the

shape of the yield surface with this theory, whereas at least four parameters are used

in the phenomenological theories. The crystal plasticity model predicts a yield stress

in uniaxial tension in the TD equal to that in the RD, whereas experimental results

yield the ratio r90 =r0 0:96. Consequently the ow curves in the TD tend to be too

high for the biaxial strain paths.

7. Conclusion

data for an 1145 aluminum sheet metal under in-plane biaxial stretching conditions.

D.E. Green et al. / International Journal of Plasticity 20 (2004) 16771706 1703

Fig. 19. Anisotropic work contours at a value of plastic work of 0.15 MPa.

The equipment enables any strain path to be imposed in the gauge portion of the

sample. A numerical analysis of each test has led to the determination of biaxial ow

curves as well as constant plastic work contours. Some of the phenomenological

yield functions considered, such as that of Barlat and Lian (1989) and Hill (1990),

have proven to accurately describe the behaviour of this alloy. Crystal plasticity

predictions of the biaxial behaviour of this alloy were also carried out and were

found to be reasonably accurate.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research

Council of Canada (NSERC) and by a grant from Alcan International Ltd. The

invaluable assistance of Mr. L. Thibodeau of the Universite de Sherbrooke during

the experimental part of the project is gratefully acknowledged. K.W.N. is Canada

Research Chair in Advanced Engineered Material Systems, and the support of this

program is greatly appreciated.

1704 D.E. Green et al. / International Journal of Plasticity 20 (2004) 16771706

Appendix

The parameters for each of the models investigated in this work are presented below.

The balanced biaxial yield stress for this material was found to be rb 24.2 MPa.

Hill (1948):

1 1 1 1

h

2 r20 r290 r2b

1

f h

r290

1

g h

r20

!

1

n R45 1 R0 =R90 g

2

2r0 =rb m 2j1 hjm

a

1 hm j1 hjm

c2a

r0

h

r90

1=m 1=m

r0 2 2rm0

p with s y m

sy 2a 2m c a1 hm c1 h

m was adjusted to m 8.

Hill (1990):

m

rb m

2rb =r45 1

sy

1 m m

a 2rb =r90 2rb =r0

4

1

b 2rb =r0 m 2rb =r90 m 2rb =r45 m

4

m was adjusted to m 1.5.

Montheillet et al. (1991):

An average R-value and an average yield stress are dened as:

R0 R90 r0 r90

R and ru

2 2

D.E. Green et al. / International Journal of Plasticity 20 (2004) 16771706 1705

m

r0 =ru

c

2 R 1

h c 2R 1

m

r0

n 2m1 c

r45

1=m

1h

a1

c

m 1=m

r0 =r90 h

a2

c

m was adjusted so that rb c1=m ra0 a and found to be m 1:83.

1 2

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