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APUSH Exam Review Bootcamp, Day 4:

Historical Thinking Skills (HTS): Continuity & Change Over Time (CCOT)
Historical thinking involves the ability to recognize, analyze, and evaluate the dynamics of historical
continuity and change over periods of time of varying length, as well as the ability to relate these
patterns to larger historical processes or themes. In the CCOT essay, you will address three basic
questions that apply to any historical time period: What changes? What stays the same? And why?


Social dislocations resulting from wartime conditions frequently bring lasting change within a
society. Evaluate the relevance of this generalization to American society in the twentieth century in
view of the experience of Blacks AND women.


"I am not, nor ever have been, in favor of bringing about in any way the social and political
equality of the white and black races." How can this 1858 statement of Abraham Lincoln be
reconciled with his 1862 Emancipation Proclamation?


In the two decades before the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, there was a profound
shift in the way many Americans thought and felt about the British government and their colonial
governments. Assess the validity of this statement in view of the political and constitutional debates
of these decades.

CCOT Terms
Increased, declined, throughout this period, due to, because of, result of,
expanded, continued, still, persisted, led to, caused by, the reason
contracted, lasting, enduring, ongoing, for this
transformed, altered, constant, sustained, maintained,
developed, evolved, remained GENERAL
previously, before, CHRONOLOGY
after, turning point, In the beginning of the
eventually, slowly, time period,
new, rapidly, By the end of the time
gradually period,
From that point forward,
Over time,
In the early 1300s
By the late 1800s


Make a timeline with the beginning and end date. Add any important events and developments
during this time period that might be relevant. Put these on the timeline in the approximate time in
which they occurred if youre not sure of the actual date, was it in the beginning, middle, or end?
Above the timeline, start writing down changes that address what the prompt is asking try to place
these in their approximate chronological location. Below the timeline, write down any continuities
you can think of (what stayed the same for all or most of the time period?).


3) TAKE A POSITION: Overall, more change or more continuity?


(There is no correct answer here as long as you can support your interpretation with evidence!)

Write a thesis that 1) identifies 2-3 specific changes and 2) 2-3 specific continuities, and 2) takes a
position about whether this was a period of greater change or continuity. Be sure to indicate the
time period! Use a dependent clause (despite, however, although, yet) to indicate your position. Here
are some examples:

During the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment, significant changes occurred in
European views about religion such as change 1 , change 2 , change 3. However,
continuity 1 and continuity 2 were still common throughout the time period.

During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, continuity 1 and continuity 2

continued to be prominent in Europe, however change 1 , change 2 and change 3 were
significant changes in European beliefs about religion.

Despite the fact that change 1 , change 2 , change 3 in European attitudes about religion,
continuity 1 and continuity 2 persisted throughout the time period.

Although continuity 1 and continuity 2 continued during the Scientific Revolution and
Enlightenment, change 1 , change 2 and change 3 changed significantly.

Write your thesis here: