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PART 1926SAFETY AND HEALTH 1926.60 Methylenedianiline.

1926.61 Retention of DOT markings, plac-


REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION ards and labels.
1926.62 Lead.
Sec. 1926.64 Process safety management of high-
ly hazardous chemicals.
Subpart AGeneral 1926.65 Hazardous waste operations and
1926.1 Purpose and scope. emergency response.
1926.2 Variances from safety and health 1926.66 Criteria for design and construction
standards. of spray booths.
1926.3 Inspectionsright of entry.
1926.4 Rules of practice for administrative Subpart EPersonal Protective and Life
adjudications for enforcement of safety Saving Equipment
and health standards.
1926.5 OMB control numbers under the Pa- 1926.95 Criteria for personal protective
perwork Reduction Act. equipment.
1926.6 Incorporation by reference. 1926.96 Occupational foot protection.
1926.971926.98 [Reserved]
Subpart BGeneral Interpretations 1926.100 Head protection.
1926.101 Hearing protection.
1926.10 Scope of subpart. 1926.102 Eye and face protection.
1926.11 Coverage under section 103 of the act 1926.103 Respiratory protection.
distinguished. 1926.104 Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards.
1926.12 Reorganization Plan No. 14 of 1950. 1926.105 Safety nets.
1926.13 Interpretation of statutory terms. 1926.106 Working over or near water.
1926.14 Federal contract for mixed types
1926.107 Definitions applicable to this sub-
of performance.
part.
1926.15 Relationship to the Service Contract
Act; Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act.
1926.16 Rules of construction. Subpart FFire Protection and Prevention
1926.150 Fire protection.
Subpart CGeneral Safety and Health 1926.151 Fire prevention.
Provisions 1926.152 Flammable liquids.
1926.20 General safety and health provi- 1926.153 Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-Gas).
sions. 1926.154 Temporary heating devices.
1926.21 Safety training and education. 1926.155 Definitions applicable to this sub-
1926.22 Recording and reporting of injuries. part.
[Reserved]
1926.23 First aid and medical attention. Subpart GSigns, Signals, and Barricades
1926.24 Fire protection and prevention.
1926.25 Housekeeping. 1926.200 Accident prevention signs and tags.
1926.26 Illumination. 1926.201 Signaling.
1926.27 Sanitation. 1926.202 Barricades.
1926.28 Personal protective equipment. 1926.203 Definitions applicable to this sub-
1926.29 Acceptable certifications. part.
1926.30 Shipbuilding and ship repairing.
1926.32 Definitions. Subpart HMaterials Handling, Storage,
1926.33 Access to employee exposure and Use, and Disposal
medical records.
1926.34 Means of egress. 1926.250 General requirements for storage.
1926.35 Employee emergency action plans. 1926.251 Rigging equipment for material
handling.
Subpart DOccupational Health and 1926.252 Disposal of waste materials.
Environmental Controls
Subpart IToolsHand and Power
1926.50 Medical services and first aid.
1926.51 Sanitation. 1926.300 General requirements.
1926.52 Occupational noise exposure. 1926.301 Hand tools.
1926.53 Ionizing radiation. 1926.302 Power-operated hand tools.
1926.54 Nonionizing radiation. 1926.303 Abrasive wheels and tools.
1926.55 Gases, vapors, fumes, dusts, and 1926.304 Woodworking tools.
mists. 1926.305 Jackslever and ratchet, screw,
1926.56 Illumination. and hydraulic.
1926.57 Ventilation. 1926.306 Air receivers.
1926.58 [Reserved] 1926.307 Mechanical power-transmission ap-
1926.59 Hazard communication. paratus.

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Pt. 1926 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

Subpart JWelding and Cutting APPENDIX C TO SUBPART LLIST OF NA-


TIONAL CONSENSUS STANDARDS
1926.350 Gas welding and cutting. APPENDIX D TO SUBPART LLIST OF TRAINING
1926.351 Arc welding and cutting. TOPICS FOR SCAFFOLD ERECTORS AND DIS-
1926.352 Fire prevention. MANTLERS [RESERVED]
1926.353 Ventilation and protection in weld- APPENDIX E TO SUBPART LDRAWINGS AND
ing, cutting, and heating. ILLUSTRATIONS
1926.354 Welding, cutting, and heating in
way of preservative coatings. Subpart MFall Protection
Subpart KElectrical 1926.500 Scope, application, and definitions
applicable to this subpart.
GENERAL 1926.501 Duty to have fall protection.
1926.502 Fall protection systems criteria
1926.400 Introduction.
and practices.
1926.401 [Reserved]
1926.503 Training requirements.
INSTALLATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS APPENDIX A TO SUBPART MDETERMINING
ROOF WIDTHS
1926.402 Applicability.
APPENDIX B TO SUBPART MGUARDRAIL SYS-
1926.403 General requirements.
TEMS
1926.404 Wiring design and protection.
APPENDIX C TO SUBPART MPERSONAL FALL
1926.405 Wiring methods, components, and
ARREST SYSTEMS
equipment for general use.
APPENDIX D TO SUBPART MPOSITIONING DE-
1926.406 Specific purpose equipment and in-
VICE SYSTEMS
stallations.
APPENDIX E TO SUBPART MSAMPLE FALL
1926.407 Hazardous (classified) locations.
PROTECTION PLANS
1926.408 Special systems.
1926.4091926.415 [Reserved]
Subpart NHelicopters, Hoists, Elevators,
SAFETY-RELATED WORK PRACTICES and Conveyors
1926.416 General requirements. 1926.550 [Reserved]
1926.417 Lockout and tagging of circuits. 1926.551 Helicopters.
1926.4181926.430 [Reserved] 1926.552 Material hoists, personnel hoists,
and elevators.
SAFETY-RELATED MAINTENANCE AND 1926.553 Base-mounted drum hoists.
ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS 1926.554 Overhead hoists.
1926.431 Maintenance of equipment. 1926.555 Conveyors.
1926.432 Environmental deterioration of
equipment. Subpart OMotor Vehicles, Mechanized
1926.4331926.440 [Reserved] Equipment, and Marine Operations
SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR SPECIAL 1926.600 Equipment.
EQUIPMENT 1926.601 Motor vehicles.
1926.602 Material handling equipment.
1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. 1926.603 Pile driving equipment.
1926.4421926.448 [Reserved] 1926.604 Site clearing.
1926.605 Marine operations and equipment.
DEFINITIONS
1926.606 Definitions applicable to this sub-
1926.449 Definitions applicable to this sub- part.
part.
Subpart PExcavations
Subpart LScaffolds
1926.650 Scope, application, and definitions
1926.450 Scope, application and definitions applicable to this subpart.
applicable to this subpart. 1926.651 Specific excavation requirements.
1926.451 General requirements. 1926.652 Requirements for protective sys-
1926.452 Additional requirements applicable tems.
to specific types of scaffolds. APPENDIX A TO SUBPART PSOIL CLASSIFICA-
1926.453 Aerial lifts. TION
1926.454 Training requirements. APPENDIX B TO SUBPART PSLOPING AND
APPENDIX A TO SUBPART LSCAFFOLD SPECI- BENCHING
FICATIONS APPENDIX C TO SUBPART PTIMBER SHORING
APPENDIX B TO SUBPART LCRITERIA FOR DE- FOR TRENCHES
TERMINING THE FEASIBILITY OF PROVIDING APPENDIX D TO SUBPART PALUMINUM HY-
SAFE ACCESS AND FALL PROTECTION FOR DRAULIC SHORING FOR TRENCHES
SCAFFOLD ERECTORS AND DISMANTLERS APPENDIX E TO SUBPART PALTERNATIVES TO
[RESERVED] TIMBER SHORING

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor Pt. 1926
APPENDIX F TO SUBPART PSELECTION OF CONNECTION AND A STAGGERED CONNEC-
PROTECTIVE SYSTEMS TION: NON-MANDATORY GUIDELINES FOR
COMPLYING WITH COMPLYING WITH
Subpart QConcrete and Masonry 1926.756(C)(1)
Construction
Subpart SUnderground Construction,
1926.700 Scope, application, and definitions Caissons, Cofferdams and Compressed Air
applicable to this subpart.
1926.701 General requirements. 1926.800 Underground construction.
1926.702 Requirements for equipment and 1926.801 Caissons.
tools. 1926.802 Cofferdams.
1926.703 Requirements for cast-in-place con- 1926.803 Compressed air.
crete. 1926.804 Definitions applicable to this sub-
1926.704 Requirements for precast concrete. part.
1926.705 Requirements for lift-slab construc- APPENDIX A TO SUBPART SDECOMPRESSION
tion operations. TABLES
1926.706 Requirements for masonry con-
struction. Subpart TDemolition
APPENDIX A TO SUBPART QREFERENCES TO
SUBPART Q OF PART 1926 1926.850 Preparatory operations.
1926.851 Stairs, passageways, and ladders.
Subpart RSteel Erection 1926.852 Chutes.
1926.853 Removal of materials through floor
1926.750 Scope. openings.
1926.751 Definitions. 1926.854 Removal of walls, masonry sec-
1926.752 Site layout, site-specific erection tions, and chimneys.
plan and construction sequence. 1926.855 Manual removal of floors.
1926.753 Hoisting and rigging. 1926.856 Removal of walls, floors, and mate-
1926.754 Structural steel assembly. rial with equipment.
1926.755 Column anchorage. 1926.857 Storage.
1926.756 Beams and columns. 1926.858 Removal of steel construction.
1926.757 Open web steel joists. 1926.859 Mechanical demolition.
1926.758 Systems-engineered metal build- 1926.860 Selective demolition by explosives.
ings.
1926.759 Falling object protection. Subpart UBlasting and the Use of
1926.760 Fall protection. Explosives
1926.761 Training.
APPENDIX A TO SUBPART RGUIDELINES FOR 1926.900 General provisions.
ESTABLISHING THE COMPONENTS OF A SITE- 1926.901 Blaster qualifications.
SPECIFIC ERECTION PLAN: NON-MANDATORY 1926.902 Surface transportation of explo-
GUIDELINES FOR COMPLYING WITH sives.
1926.752(E) 1926.903 Underground transportation of ex-
APPENDIX B TO SUBPART R [RESERVED] plosives.
APPENDIX C TO SUBPART RILLUSTRATIONS 1926.904 Storage of explosives and blasting
OF BRIDGING TERMINUS POINTS: NON-MAN- agents.
DATORY GUIDELINES FOR COMPLYING WITH 1926.905 Loading of explosives or blasting
1926.757(A)(10) AND 1926.757(C)(5) agents.
APPENDIX D TO SUBPART RILLUSTRATION OF 1926.906 Initiation of explosive charges
THE USE OF CONTROL LINES TO DEMARCATE electric blasting.
CONTROLLED DECKING ZONES (CDZS): NON- 1926.907 Use of safety fuse.
MANDATORY GUIDELINES FOR COMPLYING 1926.908 Use of detonating cord.
WITH 1926.760(C)(3) 1926.909 Firing the blast.
APPENDIX E TO SUBPART RTRAINING: NON- 1926.910 Inspection after blasting.
MANDATORY GUIDELINES FOR COMPLYING 1926.911 Misfires.
WITH 1926.761 1926.912 Underwater blasting.
APPENDIX F TO SUBPART RPERIMETER COL- 1926.913 Blasting in excavation work under
UMNS: NON-MANDATORY GUIDELINES FOR compressed air.
COMPLYING WITH 1926.756(E) TO PROTECT 1926.914 Definitions applicable to this sub-
THE UNPROTECTED SIDE OR EDGE OF A part.
WALKING/WORKING SURFACE
APPENDIX G TO SUBPART RFALL PROTECTION Subpart VPower Transmission and
SYSTEMS CRITERIA AND PRACTICES FROM Distribution
1926.502: NON-MANDATORY GUIDELINES
FOR COMPLYING WITH COMPLYING WITH 1926.950 General requirements.
1926.760(D) 1926.951 Tools and protective equipment.
APPENDIX H TO SUBPART RDOUBLE CONNEC- 1926.952 Mechanical equipment.
TIONS: ILLUSTRATION OF A CLIPPED END 1926.953 Material handling.

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Pt. 1926 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)
1926.954 Grounding for protection of em- RECORDKEEPING
ployees.
1926.1091 Recordkeeping requirements.
1926.955 Overhead lines.
1926.956 Underground lines. APPENDIX A TO SUBPART YEXAMPLES OF
1926.957 Construction in energized sub- CONDITIONS WHICH MAY RESTRICT OR
stations. LIMIT EXPOSURE TO HYPERBARIC CONDI-
1926.958 External load helicopters. TIONS
1926.959 Linemans body belts, safety straps, APPENDIX B TO SUBPART YGUIDELINES FOR
and lanyards. SCIENTIFIC DIVING
1926.960 Definitions applicable to this sub-
part. Subpart ZToxic and Hazardous
Substances
Subpart WRollover Protective Structures; 1926.1100 [Reserved]
Overhead Protection 1926.1101 Asbestos.
1926.1102 Coal tar pitch volatiles; interpre-
1926.1000 Rollover protective structures
tation of term.
(ROPS) for material handling equipment.
1926.1103 13 carcinogens (4-Nitrobiphenyl,
1926.1001 Minimum performance criteria for
etc.).
rollover protective structures for des-
1926.1104 alpha-Naphthylamine.
ignated scrapers, loaders, dozers, graders,
1926.1105 [Reserved]
and crawler tractors. 1926.1106 Methyl chloromethyl ether.
1926.1002 Protective frames (roll-over pro- 1926.1107 3,3-Dichlorobenzidiene (and its
tective structures, known as ROPS) for salts).
wheel-type agricultural and industrial 1926.1108 bis-Chloromethyl ether.
tractors used in construction. 1926.1109 beta-Naphthylamine.
1926.1003 Overhead protection for operators 1926.1110 Benzidine.
of agricultural and industrial tractors 1926.1111 4-Aminodiphenyl.
used in construction. 1926.1112 Ethyleneimine.
APPENDIX A TO SUBPART WFIGURES W14 1926.1113 beta-Propiolactone.
THROUGH W28 1926.1114 2-Acetylaminofluorene.
1926.1115 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene.
Subpart XStairways and Ladders 1926.1116 N-Nitrosodimethylamine.
1926.1117 Vinyl chloride.
1926.1050 Scope, application, and definitions 1926.1118 Inorganic arsenic.
applicable to this subpart. 1926.1126 Chromium (VI).
1926.1051 General requirements. 1926.1127 Cadmium.
1926.1052 Stairways. 1926.1128 Benzene.
1926.1053 Ladders. 1926.1129 Coke oven emissions.
1926.10541926.1059 [Reserved] 1926.1144 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane.
1926.1060 Training requirements. 1926.1145 Acrylonitrile.
APPENDIX A TO SUBPART XLADDERS 1926.1147 Ethylene oxide.
1926.1148 Formaldehyde.
Subpart YDiving 1926.1152 Methylene chloride.

GENERAL Subparts AABB [Reserved]


1926.1071 Scope and application. Subpart CCCranes and Derricks in
1926.1072 Definitions.
Construction
PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS
1926.1400 Scope.
1926.1076 Qualifications of dive team. 1926.1401 Definitions.
1926.1402 Ground conditions.
GENERAL OPERATIONS PROCEDURES 1926.1403 Assembly/Disassemblyselection
1926.1080 Safe practices manual. of manufacturer or employer procedures.
1926.1081 Pre-dive procedures. 1926.1404 Assembly/Disassemblygeneral re-
1926.1082 Procedures during dive. quirements (applies to all assembly and
1926.1083 Post-dive procedures. disassembly operations).
1926.1405 Disassemblyadditional require-
SPECIFIC OPERATIONS PROCEDURES ments for dismantling of booms and jibs
(applies to both the use of manufacturer
1926.1084 SCUBA diving. procedures and employer procedures).
1926.1085 Surface-supplied air diving. 1926.1406 Assembly/Disassemblyemployer
1926.1086 Mixed-gas diving. proceduresgeneral requirements.
1926.1087 Liveboating. 1926.1407 Power line safety (up to 350 kV)
assembly and disassembly.
EQUIPMENT PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS
1926.1408 Power line safety (up to 350 kV)
1926.1090 Equipment. equipment operations.

10

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.2
1926.1409 Power line safety (over 350 kV). SOURCE: 44 FR 8577, Feb. 9, 1979; 44 FR
1926.1410 Power line safety (all voltages) 20940, Apr. 6, 1979, unless otherwise noted.
equipment operations closer than the
EDITORIAL NOTE: At 44 FR 8577, Feb. 9, 1979,
Table A zone.
and corrected at 44 FR 20940, Apr. 6, 1979,
1926.1411 Power line safetywhile traveling.
OSHA reprinted without change the entire
1926.1412 Inspections.
text of 29 CFR part 1926 together with cer-
1926.1413 Wire ropeinspection. tain General Industry Occupational Safety
1926.1414 Wire ropeselection and installa- and Health Standards contained in 29 CFR
tion criteria. part 1910, which have been identified as also
1926.1415 Safety devices. applicable to construction work. This repub-
1926.1416 Operational aids. lication developed a single set of OSHA regu-
1926.1417 Operation. lations for both labor and management
1926.1418 Authority to stop operation. forces within the construction industry.
1926.1419 Signalsgeneral requirements.
1926.1420 Signalsradio, telephone or other
electronic transmission of signals. Subpart AGeneral
1926.1421 Signalsvoice signalsadditional
requirements. AUTHORITY: Sec. 3704, Contract Work Hours
1926.1422 Signalshand signal chart. and Safety Standards Act (40 U.S.C. 3701 et
1926.1423 Fall protection. al.); secs. 4, 6, and 8, Occupational Safety and
1926.1424 Work area control. Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657);
1926.1425 Keeping clear of the load. Secretary of Labors Order No. 1271 (36 FR
1926.1426 Free fall and controlled load low- 8754), 876 (41 FR 25059), 983 (48 FR 35736), 6
ering. 96 (62 FR 111), 52007 (72 FR 31160), and 42010
1926.1427 Operator qualification and certifi- (75 FR 55355), as applicable; and 29 CFR part
cation. 1911.
1926.1428 Signal person qualifications.
EFFECTIVE DATE NOTE: At 77 FR 37600, June
1926.1429 Qualifications of maintenance &
22, 2012, the authority citation for subpart A
repair employees.
was revised, effective Sep. 20, 2012. For the
1926.1430 Training.
convenience of the user, the revised text is
1926.1431 Hoisting personnel.
set forth as follows:
1926.1432 Multiple-crane/derrick liftssup-
AUTHORITY: 40 U.S.C. 333; 29 U.S.C. 653, 655,
plemental requirements.
657; Secretary of Labors Order No. 1271 (36
1926.1433 Design, construction and testing.
FR 8754), 876 (41 FR 25059), 983 (48 FR 35736),
1926.1434 Equipment modifications.
696 (62 FR 111), 52007 (72 FR 31160), 42010 (75
1926.1435 Tower cranes. FR 55355), or 12012 (77 FR 3912), as applica-
1926.1436 Derricks. ble; and 29 CFR part 1911.
1926.1437 Floating cranes/derricks and land
cranes/derricks on barges. 1926.1 Purpose and scope.
1926.1438 Overhead & gantry cranes.
1926.1439 Dedicated pile drivers. (a) This part sets forth the safety and
1926.1440 Sideboom cranes. health standards promulgated by the
1926.1441 Equipment with a rated hoisting/ Secretary of Labor under section 107 of
lifting capacity of 2,000 pounds or less. the Contract Work Hours and Safety
1926.1442 Severability. Standards Act. The standards are pub-
APPENDIX A TO SUBPART CC OF PART 1926 lished in subpart C of this part and fol-
STANDARD HAND SIGNALS lowing subparts.
APPENDIX B TO SUBPART CC OF PART 1926 (b) Subpart B of this part contains
ASSEMBLY/DISASSEMBLYSAMPLE PROCE-
statements of general policy and inter-
DURES FOR MINIMIZING THE RISK OF UNIN-
TENDED DANGEROUS BOOM MOVEMENT
pretations of section 107 of the Con-
APPENDIX C TO SUBPART CC OF PART 1926 tract Work Hours and Safety Stand-
OPERATOR CERTIFICATIONWRITTEN EX- ards Act having general applicability.
AMINATIONTECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE CRI-
TERIA 1926.2 Variances from safety and
health standards.
Subpart DDCranes and Derricks Used in (a) Variances from standards which
Demolition and Underground Construction are, or may be, published in this part
1926.1500 Scope. may be granted under the same cir-
1926.1501 Cranes and derricks. cumstances whereunder variances may
APPENDIX A TO PART 1926DESIGNATIONS FOR be granted under section 6(b)(A) or 6(d)
GENERAL INDUSTRY STANDARDS INCOR- of the Williams-Steiger Occupational
PORATED INTO BODY OF CONSTRUCTION Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C.
STANDARDS 65). The procedures for the granting of

11

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1926.3 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

variances and for related relief under and the following subparts shall be the
this part are those published in part same as those published in part 6 of
1905 of this title. this title with respect to safety and
(b) Any requests for variances under health violations of the Service Con-
this section shall also be considered re- tract Act of 1965 (69 Stat. 1035), except
quests for variances under the Wil- as provided in paragraph (b) of this sec-
liams-Steiger Occupational Safety and tion.
Health Act of 1970, and any requests for (b) In the case of debarment, the find-
variances under Williams-Steiger Occu- ings required by section 107(d) of the
pational Safety and Health Act with Act shall be made by the hearing exam-
respect to construction safety or iner or the Assistant Secretary of
health standards shall be considered to Labor for Occupational Safety and
be also variances under the Construc- Health, as the case may be. Whenever,
tion Safety Act. Any variance from a as provided in section 107(d)(2), a con-
construction safety or health standard tractor requests termination of debar-
which is contained in this part and ment before the end of the 3-year pe-
which is incorporated by reference in riod prescribed in that section, the re-
part 1910 of this title shall be deemed a quest shall be filed in writing with the
variance from the standard under both Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occu-
the Construction Safety Act and the pational Safety and Health who shall
Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety publish a notice in the FEDERAL REG-
and Health Act of 1970. ISTER that the request has been re-
ceived and afford interested persons an
1926.3 Inspectionsright of entry. opportunity to be heard upon the re-
(a) It shall be a condition of each quest, and thereafter the provisions of
contract which is subject to section 107 part 6 of this title shall apply with re-
of the Contract Work Hours and Safety spect to prehearing conferences, hear-
Standards Act that the Secretary of ings and related matters, and decisions
Labor or any authorized representative and orders.
shall have a right of entry to any site
1926.5 OMB control numbers under
of contract performance for the fol- the Paperwork Reduction Act.
lowing purposes:
(1) To inspect or investigate the mat- The following sections or paragraphs
ter of compliance with the safety and each contain a collection of informa-
health standards contained in subpart tion requirement which has been ap-
C of this part and following subparts; proved by the Office of Management
and and Budget under the control number
(2) To carry out the duties of the Sec- listed.
retary under section 107(b) of the Act. OMB con-
29 CFR citation
(b) For the purpose of carrying out trol No.
his investigative duties under the Act, 1926.33 ................................................................ 12180065
the Secretary of Labor may, by agree- 1926.50 ................................................................ 12180093
ment, use with or without reimburse- 1926.52 ................................................................ 12180048
1926.53 ................................................................ 12180103
ment the services, personnel, and fa- 1926.59 ................................................................ 12180072
cilities of any State or Federal agency. 1926.60 ................................................................ 12180183
Any agreements with States under this 1926.62 ................................................................ 12180189
section shall be similar to those pro- 1926.64 ................................................................ 12180200
1926.65 ................................................................ 12180202
vided for under the Walsh-Healey Pub- 1926.103 .............................................................. 12180099
lic Contracts Act under 41 CFR part 50 1926.200 .............................................................. 12180132
205. 1926.250 .............................................................. 12180093
1926.251 .............................................................. 12180233
1926.403 .............................................................. 12180130
1926.4 Rules of practice for adminis- 1926.404 .............................................................. 12180130
trative adjudications for enforce- 1926.405 .............................................................. 12180130
ment of safety and health stand- 1926.407 .............................................................. 12180130
ards. 1926.408 .............................................................. 12180130
1926.453(a)(2) ..................................................... 12180216
(a) The rules of practice for adminis- 1926.502 .............................................................. 12180197
trative adjudications for the enforce- 1926.503 .............................................................. 12180197
1926.550(a)(1) ..................................................... 12180115
ment of the safety and health stand- 1926.550(a)(2) ..................................................... 12180115
ards contained in subpart C of this part 1926.550(a)(4) ..................................................... 12180115

12

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.6

29 CFR citation OMB con- 1926.6 Incorporation by reference.


trol No.
(a) The standards of agencies of the
1926.550(a)(6) ..................................................... 12180113 U.S. Government, and organizations
1926.550(a)(11) ................................................... 12180054
1926.550(a)(16) ................................................... 12180115 which are not agencies of the U.S. Gov-
1926.550(b)(2) ..................................................... 12180232 ernment which are incorporated by ref-
1926.550(g) ......................................................... 12180151 erence in this part, have the same force
1926.552 .............................................................. 12180231 and effect as other standards in this
1926.652 .............................................................. 12180137
1926.703 .............................................................. 12180095 part. Only the mandatory provisions
1926.800 .............................................................. 12180067 (i.e., provisions containing the word
1926.803 .............................................................. 12180067 shall or other mandatory language)
1926.900 .............................................................. 12180217 of standards incorporated by reference
1926.903 .............................................................. 12180227
1926.1080 ............................................................ 12180069 are adopted as standards under the Oc-
1926.1081 ............................................................ 12180069 cupational Safety and Health Act. The
1926.1083 ............................................................ 12180069 locations where these standards may
1926.1090 ............................................................ 12180069 be examined are as follows:
1926.1091 ............................................................ 12180069
1926.1101 ............................................................ 12180134 (1) Offices of the Occupational Safety
1926.1103 ............................................................ 12180085 and Health Administration, U.S. De-
1926.1104 ............................................................ 12180084 partment of Labor, Frances Perkins
1926.1106 ............................................................ 12180086 Building, Washington, DC 20210.
1926.1107 ............................................................ 12180083
1926.1108 ............................................................ 12180087 (2) The Regional and Field Offices of
1926.1109 ............................................................ 12180089 the Occupational Safety and Health
1926.1110 ............................................................ 12180082 Administration, which are listed in the
1926.1111 ............................................................ 12180090
1926.1112 ............................................................ 12180080
U.S. Government Manual.
1926.1113 ............................................................ 12180079 (b) The materials listed in para-
1926.1114 ............................................................ 12180088 graphs (g) through (ff) of this section
1926.1115 ............................................................ 12180044 are incorporated by reference in the
1926.1116 ............................................................ 12180081
1926.1117 ............................................................ 12180010
corresponding sections noted as they
1926.1118 ............................................................ 12180104 exist on the date of the approval, and a
1926.1126 ............................................................ 12180252 notice of any change in these materials
1926.1127 ............................................................ 12180186 will be published in the FEDERAL REG-
1926.1128 ............................................................ 12180129
1926.1129 ............................................................ 12180128 ISTER. These incorporations by ref-
1926.1144 ............................................................ 12180101 erence were approved by the Director
1926.1145 ............................................................ 12180126 of the Federal Register in accordance
1926.1147 ............................................................ 12180108
1926.1148 ............................................................ 12180145
with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51.
1926.1402 ............................................................ 12180261 (c) Copies of standards listed in this
1926.1403 ............................................................ 12180261 section and issued by private standards
1926.1404 ............................................................ 12180261 organizations are available for pur-
1926.1406 ............................................................ 12180261
1926.1407 ............................................................ 12180261
chase from the issuing organizations at
1926.1408 ............................................................ 12180261 the addresses or through the other con-
1926.1409 ............................................................ 12180261 tact information listed below for these
1926.1410 ............................................................ 12180261 private standards organizations. In ad-
1926.1411 ............................................................ 12180261
1926.1412 ............................................................ 12180261 dition, these standards are available
1926.1413 ............................................................ 12180261 for inspection at the National Archives
1926.1414 ............................................................ 12180261 and Records Administration (NARA).
1926.1417 ............................................................ 12180261
1926.1423 ............................................................ 12180261
For information on the availability of
1926.1424 ............................................................ 12180261 these standards at NARA, telephone:
1926.1427 ............................................................ 12180261 2027416030, or go to http://
1926.1428 ............................................................ 12180261 www.archives.gov/federallregister/
1926.1431 ............................................................ 12180261
1926.1433 ............................................................ 12180261 codeloflfederallregulations/
1926.1434 ............................................................ 12180261 ibrllocations.html. Also, the standards
1926.1435 ............................................................ 12180261 are available for inspection at any Re-
1926.1436 ............................................................ 12180261
1926.1437 ............................................................ 12180261
gional Office of the Occupational Safe-
1926.1441 ............................................................ 12180261 ty and Health Administration (OSHA),
or at the OSHA Docket Office, U.S. De-
[61 FR 5509, Feb. 13, 1996, as amended at 63 partment of Labor, 200 Constitution
FR 3814, Jan. 27, 1998; 63 FR 13340, Mar. 19, Avenue, NW., Room N2625, Wash-
1998; 63 FR 17094, Apr. 8, 1998; 64 FR 18810, ington, DC 20210; telephone: 2026932350
Apr. 16, 1999; 71 FR 38086, July 5, 2006; 75 FR (TTY number: 8778895627).
68430, Nov. 8, 2010] (d) [Reserved.]

13

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1926.6 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

(e) [Reserved.] Manual) Supplement, IBR approved for


(f) [Reserved.] 1926.552(d).
(g) The following material is avail- (12) ANSI A17.2b1967, Practice for
able for purchase from the American the Inspection of Elevators (Inspectors
Conference of Governmental Industrial Manual) Supplement, IBR approved for
Hygienists (ACGIH), 1330 Kemper 1926.552(d).
Meadow Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45240; (13) ANSI A92.21969, Vehicle Mount-
telephone: 5137426163; fax: 513742 ed Elevating and Rotating Work Plat-
3355; e-mail: mail@acgih.org; Web site: forms, IBR approved for 1926.453(a)
http://www.acgih.org: and 1926.453(b).
(1) Threshold Limit Values of Air- (14) ANSI B7.11970, Safety Code for
borne Contaminants for 1970, 1970, IBR the Use, Care, and Protection of Abra-
approved for 1926.55(a) and appendix A sive Wheels, IBR approved for
of 1926.55. 1926.57(g), 1926.303(b), 1926.303(c), and
(h) The following material is avail- 1926.303(d).
able for purchase from the American (15) ANSI B20.11957, Safety Code for
National Standards Institute (ANSI), Conveyors, Cableways, and Related
25 West 43rd Street, Fourth Floor, New Equipment, IBR approved for
York, NY 10036; telephone: 2126424900; 1926.555(a).
fax: 2123021286; e-mail: info@ansi.org; (16) ANSI B56.11969, Safety Stand-
Web site: http://www.ansi.org/. ards for Powered Industrial Trucks,
(1) ANSI A10.31970, Safety Require- IBR approved for 1926.602(c).
ments for Explosive-Actuated Fas- (17) ANSI J6.11950 (R1971), Rubber
tening Tools, IBR approved for Insulating Line Hose, IBR approved for
1926.302(e). 1926.951(a).
(2) ANSI A10.41963, Safety Require- (18) ANSI J6.21950 (R1971), Rubber
ments for Workmens Hoists, IBR ap- Insulating Hoods, IBR approved for
proved for 1926.552(c). 1926.951(a).
(19) ANSI J6.41971, Rubber Insu-
(3) ANSI A10.51969, Safety Require-
lating Blankets, IBR approved for
ments for Material Hoists, IBR ap-
1926.951(a).
proved for 1926.552(b).
(20) ANSI J6.51971, Rubber Insu-
(4) ANSI A11.11965 (R1970), Practice
lating Sleeves, IBR approved for
for Industrial Lighting, IBR approved
1926.951(a).
for 1926.56(b).
(21) ANSI J6.61971, Rubber Insu-
(5) ANSI A17.11965, Elevators, lating Gloves, IBR approved for
Dumbwaiters, Escalators, and Moving 1926.951(a).
Walks, IBR approved for 1926.552(d). (22) ANSI J6.71935 (R1971), Rubber
(6) ANSI A17.1a1967, Elevators, Matting for Use Around Electric Appa-
Dumbwaiters, Escalators, and Moving ratus, IBR approved for 1926.951(a).
Walks Supplement, IBR approved for (23) ANSI O1.11961, Safety Code for
1926.552(d). Woodworking Machinery, IBR approved
(7) ANSI A17.1b1968, Elevators, for 1926.304(f).
Dumbwaiters, Escalators, and Moving (24) ANSI Z35.11968, Specifications
Walks Supplement, IBR approved for for Accident Prevention Signs, IBR ap-
1926.552(d). proved for 1926.200(i).
(8) ANSI A17.1c1969, Elevators, (25) ANSI Z35.21968, Specifications
Dumbwaiters, Escalators, and Moving for Accident Prevention Tags, IBR ap-
Walks Supplement, IBR approved for proved for 1926.200(i).
1926.552(d). (26) ANSI Z49.11967, Safety in Weld-
(9) ANSI A17.1d1970, Elevators, ing and Cutting, IBR approved for
Dumbwaiters, Escalators, and Moving 1926.350(j).
Walks Supplement, IBR approved for (27) ANSI Z87.11968, Practice for Oc-
1926.552(d). cupational and Educational Eye and
(10) ANSI A17.21960, Practice for the Face Protection, IBR approved for
Inspection of Elevators (Inspectors 1926.102(a).
Manual), IBR approved for 1926.552(d). (28) ANSI Z89.11969, Safety Require-
(11) ANSI A17.2a1965, Practice for ments for Industrial Head Protection,
the Inspection of Elevators (Inspectors IBR approved for 1926.100(b).

14

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.6

(29) ANSI Z89.21971, Industrial Pro- (ASME B30.52004), IBR approved for
tective Helmets for Electrical Workers, 1926.1414(b); 1926.1414(e); 1926.1433(b).
Class B, IBR approved for 1926.100(c) (3) ASME B30.72001, Base-Mounted
and 1926.951(a). Drum Hoists, issued Jan. 21, 2002
(i) [Reserved.] (ASME B30.72001), IBR approved for
(j) The following material is avail- 1926.1436(e).
able for purchase from the American (4) ASME B30.142004, Side Boom
Society for Testing and Materials Tractors, issued Sept. 20, 2004 (ASME
(ASTM), ASTM International, 100 Barr B30.142004), IBR approved for
Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West 1926.1440(c).
Conshohocken, PA, 194282959; tele- (5) ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
phone: 6108329585; fax: 6108329555; e- Code, Section VIII, 1968, IBR approved
mail: service@astm.org; Web site: http:// for 1926.152(i), 1926.306(a), and
www.astm.org/: 1926.603(a).
(1) ASTM A3701968, Methods and (6) ASME Power Boilers, Section I,
Definitions for Mechanical Testing and 1968, IBR approved for 1926.603(a).
Steel Products, IBR approved for (m) The following material is avail-
1926.1001(f). able for purchase from the American
(2) ASTM B1171964, 50 Hour Test, Welding Society (AWS), 550 N.W.
IBR approved for 1926.959(a). LeJeune Road, Miami, Florida 33126;
(3) ASTM D561969, Standard Method telephone: 18004439353; Web site:
of Test for Flash Point by the Tag http://www.aws.org/:
Closed Tester, IBR approved for
(1) AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2002, Structural
1926.155(i).
Welding CodeSteel, 18th ed., ANSI ap-
(4) ASTM D931969, Standard Method
proved Aug. 31, 2001 (AWS D1.1/
of Test for Flash Point by the Pensky
D1.1M:2002), IBR approved for
Martens Closed Tester, IBR approved
1926.1436(c).
for 1926.155(i).
(5) ASTM D3231958 (R1968), Standard (2) ANSI/AWS D14.394, Specification
Method of Test for Vapor Pressure of for Welding Earthmoving and Con-
Petroleum Products (Reid Method), struction Equipment, ANSI approved
IBR approved for 1926.155(m). Jun. 11, 1993 (ANSI/AWS D14.394),
(k) The following material is avail- IBR approved for 1926.1436(c).
able for purchase from the American (n) The following material is avail-
Society of Agricultural and Biological able for purchase from the British
Engineers (ASABE), 2950 Niles Road, Standards Institution (BSI), 389
St. Joseph, MI 49085; telephone: 269429 Chiswick High Road, London, W4 4AL,
0300; fax: 2694293852; e-mail: United Kingdom; telephone: +44 20 8996
hq@asabe.org; Web site: http:// 9001; fax: +44 20 8996 7001; e-mail:
www.asabe.org/: cservices@bsigroup.com; Web site: http://
(1) ASAE R313.11971, Soil Cone Pene- www.bsigroup.com/:
trometer, reaffirmed 1975, IBR ap- (1) BS EN 13000:2004, CranesMobile
proved for 1926.1002(e). Cranes, published Jan. 4, 2006 (BS EN
(l) The following material is avail- 13000:2004), IBR approved for
able for purchase from the American 1926.1433(c).
Society of Mechanical Engineers (2) BS EN 14439:2006, CranesSafety
(ASME), Three Park Avenue, New Tower Cranes, published Jan. 31, 2007
York, NY 10016; telephone: 1800843 (BS EN 14439:2006), IBR approved for
2763; fax: 9738821717; e-mail: 1926.1433(c).
infocentral@asme.org; Web site: http:// (o) The following material is avail-
www.asme.org/: able for purchase from the Bureau of
(1) ASME B30.22005, Overhead and Reclamation, United States Depart-
Gantry Cranes (Top Running Bridge, ment of the Interior, 1849 C Street,
Single or Multiple Girder, Top Running NW., Washington DC 20240; telephone:
Trolley Hoist), issued Dec. 30, 2005 2022084501; Web site: http://
(ASME B30.22005), IBR approved for www.usbr.gov/:
1926.1438(b). (1) Safety and Health Regulations for
(2) ASME B30.52004, Mobile and Lo- Construction, Part II, Sept. 1971, IBR
comotive Cranes, issued Sept. 27, 2004 approved for 1926.1000(f).

15

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1926.6 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

(p) The following material is avail- 116601:2008(E)), IBR approved for


able for purchase from the California 1926.1423(c).
Department of Industrial Relations, 455 (2) ISO 116602:1994(E), CranesAc-
Golden Gate Avenue, San Francisco CA cess, guards and restraintsPart 2: Mo-
94102; telephone: (415) 7035070; e-mail: bile cranes, 1994 (ISO 116602:1994(E)),
info@dir.ca.gov; Web site: http:// IBR approved for 1926.1423(c).
www.dir.ca.gov/: (3) ISO 116603:2008(E), CranesAc-
(1) Construction Safety Orders, IBR cess, guards and restraintsPart 3:
approved for 1926.1000(f). Tower cranes, 2d ed., Feb. 15, 2008 (ISO
(q) [Reserved.] 116603:2008(E)), IBR approved for
(r) [Reserved.] 1926.1423(c).
(s) [Reserved.] (y) The following material is avail-
(t) [Reserved.] able for purchase from the National
(u) The following material is avail- Fire Protection Association (NFPA), 1
able for purchase from the Federal Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02169;
Highway Administration, United telephone: 6177703000; fax: 617770
States Department of Transportation, 0700; Web site: http://www.nfpa.org/:
1200 New Jersey Ave., SE., Washington, (1) NFPA 10A1970, Maintenance and
DC 20590; telephone: 2023664000; Web Use of Portable Fire Extinguishers,
site: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/: IBR approved for 1926.150(c).
(1) Manual on Uniform Traffic Con- (2) NFPA 131969, Standard for the In-
trol Devices, Millennium Edition, Dec. stallation of Sprinkler Systems, IBR
2000, IBR approved for 1926.200(g), approved for 1926.152(d).
1926.201(a), and 1926.202. (3) NFPA 301969, The Flammable and
(v) The following material is avail- Combustible Liquids Code, IBR ap-
able for purchase from the General proved for 1926.152(c).
Services Administration (GSA), 1800 F
(4) NFPA 801970, Standard for Fire
Street, NW., Washington, DC 20405;
Doors and Windows, Class E or F Open-
telephone: (202) 5010800; Web site:
ings, IBR approved for 1926.152(b).
http://www.gsa.gov/:
(5) NFPA 2511969, Standard Methods
(1) QQP416, Federal Specification
of Fire Test of Building Construction
Plating Cadmium (Electrodeposited),
and Material, IBR approved for
IBR approved for 1926.104(e).
1926.152(b) and 1926.155(f).
(w) The following material is avail-
able for purchase from the Institute of (6) NFPA 3851966, Standard for Tank
Makers of Explosives (IME), 1120 19th Vehicles for Flammable and Combus-
Street, NW., Suite 310, Washington, DC tible Liquids, IBR approved for
20036; telephone: 2024299280; fax: 202 1926.152(g).
4299280; e-mail: info@ime.org; Web site: (z) [Reserved.]
http://www.ime.org/: (aa) The following material is avail-
(1) IME Pub. No. 2, American Table of able for purchase from the Power Crane
Distances for Storage of Explosives, and Shovel Association (PCSA), 6737 W.
Jun. 5, 1964, IBR approved for Washington Street, Suite 2400, Mil-
1926.914(a). waukee, WI 53214; telephone: 1800369
(2) IME Pub. No. 20, Radio Frequency 2310; fax: 4142721170; Web site: http://
EnergyA Potential Hazard in the Use www.aem.org/CBC/ProdSpec/PCSA/:
of Electric Blasting Caps, Mar. 1968, (1) PCSA Std. No. 1, Mobile Crane
IBR approved for 1926.900(k). and Excavator Standards, 1968, IBR ap-
(x) The following material is avail- proved for 1926.602(b).
able for purchase from the Inter- (2) PCSA Std. No. 2, Mobile Hydraulic
national Organization for Standardiza- Crane Standards, 1968 (PCSA Std. No.
tion (ISO), 1, ch. de la Voie-Creuse, 2 (1968)), IBR approved for
Case postale 56, CH1211 Geneva 20, 1926.602(b), 1926.1433(a), and
Switzerland; telephone: +41 22 749 01 11; 1926.1501(a).
fax: +41 22 733 34 30; Web site: http:// (3) PCSA Std. No. 3, Mobile Hydraulic
www.iso.org/: Excavator Standards, 1969, IBR ap-
(1) ISO 116601:2008(E), CranesAc- proved for 1926.602(b).
cess, guards and restraintsPart 1: (bb) [Reserved.]
General, 2d ed., Feb. 15, 2008 (ISO (cc) [Reserved.]

16

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.6

(dd) The following material is avail- erators of Construction and Industrial


able for purchase from the Society of Machinery, IBR approved for
Automotive Engineers (SAE), 400 Com- 1926.1001(f).
monwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA (16) SAE J743a1964, Tractor Mounted
15096; telephone: 18776067323; fax: 724 Side Boom, 1964 (SAE J743a1964),
7760790; Web site: http://www.sae.org/: IBR approved for 1926.1501(a).
(1) SAE 1970 Handbook, IBR approved (17) SAE J9591966, Lifting Crane
for 1926.602(b). Wire-Rope Strength Factors, 1966
(2) SAE 1971 Handbook, IBR approved (SAE J9591966), IBR approved for
for 1926.1001(h). 1926.1501(a).
(3) SAE J1661971, Trucks and Wag- (18) SAE J987 (rev. Jun. 2003), Lattice
ons, IBR approved for 1926.602(a). Boom CranesMethod of Test, revised
(4) SAE J1681970, Protective Enclo- Jun. 2003 (SAE J987 (Jun. 2003)), IBR
suresTest Procedures and Perform- approved for 1926.1433(c).
ance Requirements, IBR approved for (19) SAE J1063 (rev. Nov. 1993), Canti-
1926.1002(a). levered Boom Crane StructuresMeth-
(5) SAE J185 (reaf. May 2003), Access od of Test, revised Nov. 1993 (SAE
Systems for Off-Road Machines, re- J1063 (Nov. 1993)), IBR approved for
affirmed May 2003 (SAE J185 (May 1926.1433(c).
1993)), IBR approved for 1926.1423(c). (ee) The following material is avail-
(6) SAE J2361971, Self-Propelled able for purchase from the United
Graders, IBR approved for 1926.602(a). States Army Corps of Engineers, 441 G
(7) SAE J2371971, Front End Loaders Street, NW., Washington, DC 20314;
and Dozers, IBR approved for telephone: 2027610011; e-mail: hq-
126.602(a). publicaffairs@usace.army.mil; Web site:
(8) SAE J319b1971, Self-Propelled http://www.usace.army.mil/:
Scrapers, IBR approved for 1926.602(a). (1) EM38511, General Safety Re-
(9) SAE J320a1971, Minimum Per- quirements, Mar. 1967, IBR approved
formance Criteria for Roll-Over Protec- for 1926.1000(f).
tive Structure for Rubber-Tired, Self- (ff) The following material is avail-
Propelled Scrapers, IBR approved for able for purchase from standards re-
1926.1001(h). sellers such as the Document Center
(10) SAE J321a1970, Fenders for Inc., 111 Industrial Road, Suite 9, Bel-
Pneumatic-Tired Earthmoving Haulage mont, CA 94002; telephone: 6505917600;
Equipment, IBR approved for fax: 6505917617; e-mail: info@document-
1926.602(a). center.com; Web site: http://
(11) SAE J333a1970, Operator Protec- www.document-center.com/:
tion for Agricultural and Light Indus- (1) ANSI B15.11953 (R1958), Safety
trial Tractors, IBR approved for Code for Mechanical Power-Trans-
1926.602(a). mission Apparatus, revised 1958, IBR
(11) SAE J3861969, Seat Belts for approved for 1926.300(b)(2) and
Construction Equipment, IBR approved 1926.1501(a).
for 1926.602(a). (2) ANSI B30.2.01967, Safety Code for
(12) SAE J3941971, Minimum Per- Overhead and Gantry Cranes, approved
formance Criteria for Roll-Over Protec- May 4, 1967, IBR approved for
tive Structure for Rubber-Tired Front 1926.1501(d).
End Loaders and Robber-Tired Dozers, (3) ANSI B30.51968, Crawler, Loco-
IBR approved for 1926.1001(h). motive, and Truck Cranes, approved
(13) SAE J3951971, Minimum Per- Dec. 16, 1968, IBR approved for
formance Criteria for Roll-Over Protec- 1926.1433(a), 1926.1501(a), and
tive Structure for Crawler Tractors 1926.1501(b).
and Crawler-Type Loaders, IBR ap- (4) ANSI B30.61969, Safety Code for
proved for 1926.1001(h). Derricks, approved Dec. 18, 1967, IBR
(14) SAE J3961971, Minimum Per- approved for 1926.1501(e).
formance Criteria for Roll-Over Protec- [75 FR 48130, Aug. 9, 2010]
tive Structure for Motor Graders, IBR EFFECTIVE DATE NOTE: At 77 FR 37600, June
approved for 1926.1001(h). 22, 2012, 1926.6 was amended by revising
(15) SAE J3971969, Critical Zone paragraphs (h)(28) and (h)(29) and adding new
Characteristics and Dimensions for Op- paragraph (h)(30), effective Sep. 20, 2012. For

17

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1926.10 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)
the convenience of the user, the added and subcontractor contracting for any part
revised text is set forth as follows: of the contract work shall require any
1926.6 Incorporation by reference. laborer or mechanic employed in the
performance of the contract to work in
surroundings or under working condi-
* * * * *
tions which are unsanitary, hazardous,
(h) * * * or dangerous to his health or safety, as
(28) American National Standards Institute determined under construction safety
(ANSI) Z89.12009, American National Stand-
ard for Industrial Head Protection, approved
and health standards promulgated by
January 26, 2009; IBR approved for the Secretary by regulation.
1926.100(b)(1)(i). Copies of ANSI Z89.12009
are available for purchase only from the 1926.11 Coverage under section 103
International Safety Equipment Association, of the act distinguished.
1901 North Moore Street, Arlington, VA (a) Coverage under section 103. It is im-
222091762; telephone: 7035251695; fax: 703
5282148; Web site: www.safetyequipment.org.
portant to note that the coverage of
(29) American National Standards Institute section 107 differs from that for the
(ANSI) Z89.12003, American National Stand- overtime requirements of the Contract
ard for Industrial Head Protection; IBR ap- Work Hours and Safety Standards Act.
proved for 1926.100(b)(1)(ii). Copies of ANSI The application of the overtime re-
Z89.12003 are available for purchase only quirements is governed by section 103,
from the International Safety Equipment which subject to specific exemptions,
Association, 1901 North Moore Street, Ar-
includes: (1) Federal contracts requir-
lington, VA 222091762; telephone: 703525
1695; fax: 7035282148; Web site: ing or involving the employment of la-
www.safetyequipment.org. borers or mechanics (thus including,
(30) American National Standards Institute but not limited to, contracts for con-
(ANSI) Z89.11997, American National Stand- struction), and (2) contracts assisted in
ard for Personnel ProtectionProtective whole or in part by Federal loans,
Headwear for Industrial WorkersRequire- grants, or guarantees under any stat-
ments; IBR approved for 1926.100(b)(1)(iii).
ute providing wage standards for such
Copies of ANSI Z89.11997 are available for
purchase only from the International Safety work. The statutes providing wage
Equipment Association, 1901 North Moore standards for such work include stat-
Street, Arlington, VA 222091762; telephone: utes for construction which require the
7035251695; fax: 7035282148; Web site: payment of minimum wages in accord-
www.safetyequipment.org. ance with prevailing wage findings by
the Secretary of Labor in accordance
* * * * * with the Davis-Bacon Act. A provision
to section 103 excludes from the over-
Subpart BGeneral time requirements work where the
Interpretations Federal assistance is only in the form
of a loan guarantee or insurance.
(b) Coverage under section 107. To be
AUTHORITY: Sec. 107, Contract Work Hours
and Safety Standards Act (Construction covered by section 107 of the Contract
Safety Act) (40 U.S.C. 333). Work Hours and Safety Standards Act,
a contract must be one which (1) is en-
1926.10 Scope of subpart. tered into under a statute that is sub-
(a) This subpart contains the general ject to Reorganization Plan No. 14 of
rules of the Secretary of Labor inter- 1950 (64 Stat. 1267); and (2) is for con-
preting and applying the construction struction, alteration, and/or repair, in-
safety and health provisions of section cluding painting and decorating.
107 of the Contract Work Hours and
Safety Standards Act (83 Stat. 96). Sec- 1926.12 Reorganization Plan No. 14
of 1950.
tion 107 requires as a condition of each
contract which is entered into under (a) General provisions. Reorganization
legislation subject to Reorganization Plan No. 14 of 1950 relates to the pre-
Plan Number 14 of 1950 (64 Stat. 1267), scribing by the Secretary of Labor of
and which is for construction, alter- appropriate standards, regulations,
ation, and/or repair, including painting and procedures with respect to the en-
and decorating, that no contractor or forcement of labor standards under

18

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.12

Federal and federally assisted con- units as well as supplementary loans


tracts which are subject to various for improvement of repair or resale of
statutes subject to the Plan. The rules memberships.
of the Secretary of Labor imple- (iv) Urban Renewal HousingSection
menting the Plan are published in part 1715k provides mortgage insurance on
5 of this title. Briefly, the statutes sub- single family or multifamily housing
ject to the Plan include the Davis- in approved urban renewal areas.
Bacon Act, including its extension to (v) Low or Moderate Income Hous-
Federal-aid highway legislation subject ingSection 1715L(d) (3) and (4) insures
to 23 U.S.C. 113, and other statutes sub- mortgages on low-cost single family or
ject to the Plan by its original terms, multifamily housing.
statutes by which the Plan is expressly (vi) Housing for ElderlySection
applied, such as the Contract Work 1715v provides mortgage insurance on
Hours Standards Act by virtue of sec- rental housing for elderly or handi-
tion 104(d) thereof. capped persons.
(b) The Plan. (1) The statutes subject (vii) Nursing HomesSection 1715w
to Reorganization Plan No. 14 of 1950 authorizes mortgage insurance on
are cited and briefly described in the nursing home facilities and major
remaining paragraphs of this section. equipment.
These descriptions are general in na- (viii) Experimental HousingSection
ture and not intended to convey the 1715x provides mortgage insurance on
full scope of the work to be performed single family or multifamily housing
under each statute. The individual with experimental design of materials.
statutes should be resorted to for a (ix) War Housing InsuranceSection
more detailed scope of the work. 1743 not active.
(2) Federal-Aid Highway Acts. The pro- (x) Yield InsuranceSection 1747 in-
visions codified in 23 U.S.C. 113 apply sures investment returns on multi-
to the initial construction, reconstruc- family housing.
tion, or improvement work performed (xi) Armed Services HousingSec-
by contractors or subcontractors on tion 1748b to assist in relieving acute
highway projects on the Federal-aid shortage and urgent need for family
systems, the primary and secondary, as housing at or in areas adjacent to mili-
well as their extensions in urban areas, tary installations.
and the Interstate System, authorized (xii) Defense Housing for Impacted
under the highway laws providing for AreasSection 1748h2 provides mort-
the expenditure of Federal funds upon gage insurance on single family or
the Federal-aid system. As cited in 41 multifamily housing for sale or rent
Op. A.G. 488, 496, the Attorney General primarily to military or civilian per-
ruled that the Federal-Aid Highway sonnel of the Armed Services, National
Acts are subject to Reorganization Aeronautics and Space Administration,
Plan No. 14 of 1950. or Atomic Energy Commission.
(3) National Housing Act (12 U.S.C. (xiii) Defense Rental HousingSec-
1713, 1715a, 1715e, 1715k, 1715l(d)(3) and tion 1750g provides for mortgage insur-
(4), 1715v, 1715w, 1715x, 1743, 1747, 1748, ance in critical defense housing areas.
1748h2, 1750g, 1715l(h)(1), 1715z(j)(1), (xiv) RehabilitationSection 1715L
1715z1, 1715y(d), Subchapter 1x-A and (h)(1) provides mortgage insurance for
1x-B, 1715z7). This act covers construc- nonprofit organizations to finance the
tion which is financed with assistance purchase and rehabilitation of deterio-
by the Federal Government through rating or substandard housing for sub-
programs of loan and mortgage insur- sequent resale to low-income home
ance for the following purposes: purchasers. There must be located on
(i) Rental HousingSection 1713 pro- the property five or more single family
vides mortgage and insurance on rental dwellings of detached, semidetached, or
housing of eight or more units and on row construction.
mobile-home courts. (xv) Homeowner AssistanceSection
(ii) Section 1715aRepealed. 1715Z(j)(1) authorizes mortgage insur-
(iii) Cooperative HousingSection ance to nonprofit organizations or pub-
1715e authorizes mortgage insurance on lic bodies or agencies executed to fi-
cooperative housing of five or more nance sale of individual dwellings to

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1926.12 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

lower income individuals or families. (6) Housing Act of 1949 (42 U.S.C. 1459).
Also includes the rehabilitation of such Construction contracts awarded by
housing if it is deteriorating or sub- local authorities financed with the as-
standard for subsequent resale to lower sistance of loans and grants from the
income home purchasers. Federal Government. The construction
(xvi) Rental Housing Assistance programs are for slum clearance and
Section 1715Z1 authorizes mortgage urban renewal which includes rehabili-
insurance and interest reduction pay- tation grants, neighborhood develop-
ments on behalf of owners of rental ment programs, neighborhood renewal
housing projects designed for occu- plans, community renewal, demolition
pancy by lower income families. Pay- projects, and assistance for blighted
ments are also authorized for certain areas. See the Housing Act of 1964,
State or locally aided projects. paragraph (b)(21) of this section, con-
(xvii) Condominium HousingSec- cerning financial assistance for low-
tion 1715y(d) provides mortgage insur- rent housing for domestic farm labor.
ance on property purchased for the de- (7) School Survey and Construction Act
velopment of building sites. This in- of 1950 (20 U.S.C. 636). This act provides
cludes waterlines and water supply in- for a Federal grant-in-aid program to
stallations, sewer lines and sewage dis- assist in the construction of schools in
posal installations, steam, gas, and federally affected areas.
electrical lines and installations, (8) Defense Housing & Community Fa-
roads, streets, curbs, gutters, side- cilities & Services Act of 1951 (42 U.S.C.
walks, storm drainage facilities, and 1592i). Inactive Program.
other installations or work. (9) United States Housing Act of 1937
(42 U.S.C. 1416). This statute covers the
(xviii) Group Medical Practice Facili-
construction of low-rent public housing
tiesSubchapter LX-B authorizes
and slum clearance projects awarded
mortgage insurance for the financing
by local authorities. These projects are
of construction and equipment, of fa-
financed with the assistance of loans
cilities for group practice of medicine,
and grants from the Federal Govern-
optometry, or dentistry.
ment. The slum clearance is the demo-
(xix) Nonprofit Hospitals1715z7 au- lition and removal of buildings from
thorizes mortgage insurance to cover any slum area to be used for a low-rent
new and rehabilitated hospitals, in- housing project.
cluding initial equipment. (10) Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950 (50
(4) Hospital Survey and Construction U.S.C. App. 2281). This act provides for
Act, as amended by the Hospital and Federal assistance to the several
Medical Facilities Amendments of 1964 (42 States and their political subdivisions
U.S.C. 291e). The provisions of this Act in the field of civil defense which in-
cover construction contracts made by cludes procurement, construction, leas-
State or local authorities or private in- ing, or renovating of materials and fa-
stitutions under Federal grant-in-aid cilities.
programs for the construction of hos- (11) Delaware River Basin Compact
pitals and other medical facilities. (sec. 15.1, 75 Stat. 714). This joint resolu-
(5) Federal Airport Act (49 U.S.C. tion creates, by intergovernmental
1114(b)). The act provides grant-in-aid compact between the United States,
funds for airport construction limited Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and
to general site preparation runways, Pennsylvania, a regional agency for
taxiways, aprons, lighting appurtenant planning, conservation, utilization, de-
thereto, and fire, rescue, and mainte- velopment, management and control of
nance buildings. The act excludes con- the water and related sources of the
struction intended for use as a public Delaware River.
parking facility for passenger auto- (12) Cooperative Research Act (20 U.S.C.
mobiles and the cost of construction of 332a(c)). This act provides Federal
any part of an airport building except grants to a university, college, or other
such of those buildings or parts of appropriate public or nonprofit private
buildings to house facilities or activi- agency or institution for part or all of
ties directly related to the safety of the cost of constructing a facility for
persons at the airport. research or for research and related

20

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.12

purposes. Research and related pur- ious States for the construction of pub-
poses means research, research train- lic libraries.
ing, surveys, or demonstrations in the (19) Urban Mass Transportation Act of
field of education, or the dissemination 1954 (49 U.S.C. 1609). This act provides
of information derived therefrom, or for grants and loans to assist States
all of such activities, including (but and local public bodies and agencies
without limitation) experimental thereof in financing the acquisition,
schools, except that such term does not construction, reconstruction, and im-
include research, research training, provement of facilities and equipment
surveys, or demonstrations in the field for use, by operation or lease or other-
of sectarian instruction or the dissemi- wise, in mass transportation service in
nation of information derived there- urban areas and in coordinating such
from. Construction includes new build- service with highway and other trans-
ings, and the acquisition, expansion, portation in such areas.
remodeling, replacement, and alter- (20) Economic Opportunity Act of 1964
ation of existing buildings and the
(42 U.S.C. 2947). This act covers con-
equipping of new buildings and existing
struction which is financed with assist-
buildings.
ance of the Federal Government for the
(13) Health Professions Educational As- following purposes:
sistance Act of 1963 (42 U.S.C. 292d (c)(4),
(i) Authorizes Federal assistance for
293a(c)(5)). The provisions of this act
construction of projects, buildings and
provide for grants to assist public and
works which will provide young men
nonprofit medical, dental, and similar
schools for the construction, expan- and women in rural and urban residen-
sion, or renovation of teaching facili- tial centers with education, vocational
ties. training, and useful work experience
(Title I).
(14) Mental Retardation Facilities Con-
struction Act (42 U.S.C. 295(a)(2)(D), (ii) Authorizes financial assistance
2662(5), 2675(a)(5)). This act authorizes for construction work planned and car-
Federal financial assistance in the con- ried out at the community level for
struction of centers for research on antipoverty programs (Title II):
mental retardation and related aspects (a) Authorizes loans to low income
of human development, of university- rural families by assisting them to ac-
affiliated facilities for the mentally re- quire or improve real estate or reduce
tarded and of facilities for the men- encumbrances or erect improvements
tally retarded. thereon, and to participate in coopera-
(15) Community Mental Health Centers tive associations and/or to finance non-
Act (42 U.S.C. 2685(a)(5)). This act au- agricultural enterprises which will en-
thorizes Federal grants for the con- able such families to supplement their
struction of public and other nonprofit income (Title III);
community mental health centers. (b) Authorizes loans to local coopera-
(16) Higher Education Facilities Act of tive associations furnishing essential
1963 (20 U.S.C. 753). This act authorizes processing, purchasing, or marketing
the grant or loan of Federal funds to services, supplies, or facilities predomi-
assist public and other nonprofit insti- nantly to low-income rural families
tutions of higher education in financ- (Title III);
ing the construction, rehabilitation, or (c) Authorizes financial assistance to
improvement of academic and related States, political subdivisions of States,
facilities in undergraduate and grad- public and nonprofit agencies, institu-
uate schools. tions, organizations, farm associations,
(17) Vocational Educational Act of 1963 or individuals in establishing housing,
(20 U.S.C. 35f). This act provides for sanitation, education, and child day-
Federal grants to the various States care programs for migrants and other
for construction of area vocational seasonally employed agricultural em-
education school facilities. ployees and their families (Title III).
(18) Library Services and Construction (iii) Authorizes loans or guarantees
Act (20 U.S.C. 355e(a)(4)). This act pro- loans to small businesses for construc-
vides for Federal assistance to the var- tion work (Title IV).

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1926.12 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

(iv) Authorizes the payment of the and treatment centers, and other fa-
cost of experimental, pilot, or dem- cilities for health; seal and fill voids in
onstration projects to foster State pro- abandoned mines and to rehabilitate
grams providing construction work ex- strip mine areas; construction of
perience or training for unemployed fa- school facilities for vocational edu-
thers and needy people (Title V). cation; and to assist in construction of
(21) Housing Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. sewage treatment works.
1486(f); 42 U.S.C. 1452b(e)). Provides fi- (27) National Technical Institute for the
nancial assistance for low-rent housing Deaf Act (20 U.S.C. 684(b)(5)). Provides
for domestic farm labor. The Act fur- for financial assistance for institutions
ther provides for loans, through public of higher education for the establish-
or private agencies, where feasible, to ment, construction, including equip-
owners or tenants of property in urban ment and operation, of a National In-
renewal areas to finance rehabilitation stitution for the Deaf.
required to conform the property to ap- (28) Housing Act of 1959 (12 U.S.C.
plicable code requirements or carry out 1701(q)(c)(3)). This act authorizes loans
the objectives of the urban renewal to nonprofit corporations to be used for
plan for the area. the construction of housing and related
(22) The Commercial Fisheries Research facilities for elderly families. Also, the
and Development Act of 1964 (16 U.S.C. provisions of the act provide for reha-
779e(b)). This Act authorizes financial bilitation, alteration, conversion or
assistance to State agencies for con- improvement of existing structures
struction projects designed for the re- which are otherwise inadequate for
search and development of the com- proposed dwellings used by such fami-
mercial fisheries resources of the Na- lies.
tion.
(29) College Housing Act of 1950, as
(23) The Nurse Training Act of 1964 (42
amended (12 U.S.C. 1749a(f)). This act
U.S.C. 296a(b)(5)). This act provides for
provides for Federal loans to assist
grants to assist in the construction of
educational institutions in providing
new facilities for collegiate, associate
housing and other educational facili-
degree, and diploma schools of nursing,
or replacement or rehabilitation of ex- ties for students and faculties.
isting facilities of such schools. (30) Housing and Urban Development
(24) Elementary and Secondary Edu- Act of 1965 (42 U.S.C. 1500c3, 3107). This
cation Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 241i, 848). act provides for Federal assistance for
The purpose of the act is to provide fi- the following purposes:
nancial assistance to local educational (i) Grants to States and local public
agencies serving areas with concentra- bodies to assist in any construction
tions of children from low-income fam- work to be carried out under the open-
ilies for construction in connection space land and urban beautification
with the expansion or improvement of provisions contained therein. It pro-
their educational programs. vides for parks and recreation areas,
(25) Federal Water Pollution Control conservation of land and other natural
Act, as amended by the Water Quality Act resources, and historical and scenic
of 1965 (3 U.S.C. 466e(g)). Provides for fi- purposes.
nancial assistance to States or munici- (ii) Grants to local public bodies and
palities for construction of facilities in agencies to finance specific projects for
connection with the prevention and basic public water facilities (including
control of water pollution. This in- works for the storage, treatment, puri-
cludes projects that will control the fication, and distribution of water),
discharge into any waters of untreated and for basic public sewer facilities
or inadequately treated sewage. (other than treatment works as de-
(26) Appalachian Regional Development fined in the Federal Water Pollution
Act of 1965 (40 U.S.C. App. 402). Author- Control Act).
izes Federal assistance in the construc- (iii) Grants to any local public body
tion of an Appalachian development or agency to assist in financing neigh-
highway system; construction of multi- borhood facilities. These facilities
county demonstration health facilities, must be necessary for carrying out a
hospitals, regional health, diagnostic program of health, recreational, social,

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.12

or similar community service and lo- ical schools, research, institutions,


cated so as to be available for the use hospitals, and other public and non-
of the areas low or moderate income profit agencies and institutions, or as-
residents. sociations thereof to assist in construc-
(31) National Foundation on the Arts tion and equipment of facilities in con-
and the Humanities Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. nection with research, training, dem-
954(k)). The act establishes the Na- onstration of patient care, diagnostic
tional Foundation on the Arts and the and treatment related to heart disease,
Humanities which may provide cancer, stroke, and other major dis-
matching grants to groups (nonprofit eases.
organizations and State and other pub- (35) Mental Retardation Facilities and
lic organizations) and to individuals Community Mental Health Centers Con-
engaged in creative and performing struction Act Amendments of 1965 (20
arts for the entire range of artistic ac- U.S.C. 618(g)). These provisions provide
tivity, including construction of nec- for grants to institutions of higher edu-
essary facilities. cation for construction of facilities for
(32) Public Works and Economic Devel- research or for research and related
opment Act of 1965 (42 U.S.C. 3222). This purposes relating to education for men-
act provides for Federal assistance for tally retarded, hard of hearing, deaf,
the following purposes: speech impaired, visually handicapped,
(i) Grants for the acquisition or de- seriously emotionally disturbed, crip-
velopment of land or improvements for pled, or other health impaired children
public works or development facility who by reason thereof require special
usage in redevelopment areas. It au- education.
thorizes loans to assist in financing the (36) Vocational Rehabilitation Act
purchase or development of land for Amendments of 1965 (29 U.S.C. 41a(b)(4)).
public works which will assist in the This act authorizes grants to assist in
creation of long-term employment op- meeting the costs of construction of
portunities in the area. public or other nonprofit workshops
(ii) Loans for the purchase or devel- and rehabilitation facilities.
opment of land and facilities (including (37) Clean Air and Solid Waste Disposal
machinery and equipment) for indus- Acts (42 U.S.C. 3256). This act provides
trial or commercial usage within rede- for financial assistance to public (Fed-
velopment areas; guarantee of loans for eral, State, interstate, or local) au-
working capital made to private bor- thorities, agencies, and institutions,
rowers by private lending institutions private agencies and institutions, and
in connection with direct loan projects; individuals in the construction of fa-
and to contract to pay to, or on behalf cilities for solid-waste disposal. The
of, business entities locating in rede- term construction includes the instal-
velopment areas, a portion of the inter- lation of initial equipment.
est costs which they incur in financing (38) Medical Library Assistance Act of
their expansions from private sources. 1965 (42 U.S.C. 280b3(b)(3)). This act
(iii) Loans and grants to create eco- provides for grants to public or private
nomic development centers within des- non-profit agencies or institutions for
ignated county economic development the cost of construction of medical li-
districts. brary facilities.
(33) High-Speed Ground Transportation (39) Veterans Nursing Home Care Act
Study (40 U.S.C. 1636(b)). This act pro- (38 U.S.C. 5035(a)(8)). The construction
vides for financial assistance for con- industry health and safety standards
struction activities in connection with do not apply to this act since it is not
research and development of different subject to Reorganization Plan No. 14
forms of high-speed ground transpor- of 1950.
tation and demonstration projects re- (40) National Capital Transportation
lating to intercity rail passenger serv- Act of 1965 (40 U.S.C. 682(b)(4)). This act
ice. provides for Federal assistance to the
(34) Heart Disease, Cancer and Stroke National Capital Transportation Agen-
Amendments of 1965 (42 U.S.C. 299(b)(4)). cy for construction of a rail rapid tran-
This act provides for grants to public sit system and related facilities for the
or nonprofit private universities, med- Nations Capital.

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1926.12 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

(41) Alaska Centennial1967 (80 Stat. education programs to meet the special
82). The program under this legislation needs of children with limited English-
has expired. speaking ability in the United States.
(42) Model Secondary School for the (47) Vocational Rehabilitation Amend-
Deaf Act (80 Stat. 1028). This act pro- ments of 1967 (29 U.S.C. 42a(c)(3)). This
vides for funds to establish and oper- act authorizes Federal assistance to
ate, including construction and initial any public or nonprofit private agency
equipment of new buildings, expansion, or organization for the construction of
remodeling, and alteration of existing a center for vocational rehabilitation
buildings and equipment thereof, a of handicapped individuals who are
model secondary school for the deaf to both deaf and blind which shall be
serve the residents of the District of known as the National Center for Deaf-
Columbia and nearby States. Blind Youths and Adults. Construction
(43) Allied Health Professions Personnel includes new buildings and expansion,
Training Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. remodeling, alteration and renovation
295h(b)(2)(E)). This act provides for of existing buildings, and initial equip-
grants to assist in the construction of ment of such new, newly acquired, ex-
new facilities for training centers for panded, remodeled, altered, or ren-
allied health professions, or replace- ovated buildings.
ment or rehabilitation of existing fa- (48) National Visitor Center Facilities
cilities for such centers. Act of 1968 (40 U.S.C. 808). This act au-
(44) Demonstration Cities and Metro- thorizes agreements and leases with
politan Development Act of 1966 (42 the owner of property in the District of
U.S.C. 3310; 12 U.S.C. 1715c; 42 U.S.C. Columbia known as Union Station for
1416). This act provides for Federal as- the use of all or a part of such property
sistance for the following purposes: for a national visitor center to be
(i) Grants to assist in the construc- known as the National Visitor Center.
tion, rehabilitation, alteration, or re- The agreements and leases shall pro-
pair of residential property only if such vide for such alterations of the Union
residential property is designed for res- Station Building as necessary to pro-
idential use for eight or more families vide adequate facilities for visitors.
to enable city demonstration agencies They also provide for the construction
to carry out comprehensive city dem- of a parking facility, including nec-
onstration programs (42 U.S.C. 3310). essary approaches and ramps.
(ii) Amends the National Housing Act (49) Juvenile Delinquency Prevention
(12 U.S.C. 1715c) and the Housing Act of and Control Act of 1968 (42 U.S.C. 3843).
1937 (42 U.S.C. 1416). See these acts for This act provides for Federal grants to
coverage. State, county, municipal, or other pub-
(45) Air Quality Act of 1967 (42 U.S.C. lic agency or combination thereof for
1857j3). This act provides for Federal the construction of facilities to be used
assistance to public or nonprofit agen- in connection with rehabilitation serv-
cies, institutions, and organizations ices for the diagnosis, treatment, and
and to individuals, and contracts with rehabilitation of delinquent youths and
public or private agencies, institutions, youths in danger of becoming delin-
or persons for construction of research quent.
and development facilities and dem- (50) Housing and Urban Development
onstration plants relating to the appli- Act of 1968 (including New Communities
cation of preventing or controlling dis- Act of 1968) (42 U.S.C. 3909). This act
charges into the air of various types of provides for Federal assistance for the
pollutants. following purposes:
(46) Elementary and Secondary Edu- (i) Guarantees, and commitments to
cation Amendments of 1967 (Title VIIBi- guarantee, the bonds, debentures,
lingual Education Act) (20 U.S.C. 880b6). notes, and other obligations issued by
This act provides for Federal assist- new community developers to help fi-
ance to local educational agencies or nance new community development
to an institution of higher education projects.
applying jointly with a local edu- (ii) Amends section 212(a) of the Na-
cational agency for minor remodeling tional Housing Act, adding section 236
projects in connection with bilingual for Rental Housing for Lower Income

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.13

Families and section 242 Mortgage the preschool, elementary school, and
Insurance for Nonprofit Hospitals secondary school levels.
thereto. (56) Housing and Urban Development
(51) Public Health Service Act Amend- Act of 1970 (Pub. L. 91609, section
ment (Alcoholic and Narcotic Addict Re- 707(b)). This Act provides for grants to
habilitation Amendments of 1968) (42 States and local public agencies to help
U.S.C. 2681, et seq.). This act provides finance the development of open-space
for grants to a public and nonprofit pri- or other land in urban areas for open-
vate agency or organization for con- space uses. This Act becomes effective
struction projects consisting of any fa- on July 1, 1971.
cilities (including post-hospitalization (57) Developmental Disabilities Services
treatment facilities for the prevention and Facilities Construction Amendments
and treatment of alcoholism or treat- of 1970 (Pub. L. 91517, section 135(a)(5)).
ment of narcotic addicts.) This Act authorizes grants to States
(52) Vocational Education Amendments for construction of facilities for the
of 1968 (20 U.S.C. 1246). This act pro- provision of services to persons with
vides for grants to States for the con- developmental disabilities who are un-
struction of area vocational education able to pay for such services.
school facilities. The act further pro- (58) Rail Passenger Service Act of 1970
vides grants to public educational (Pub. L. 91518, section 405(d)). This stat-
agencies, organizations, or institutions ute provides that the National Rail-
for construction of residential schools road Passenger Corporation may con-
to provide vocational education for the struct physical facilities necessary to
purpose of demonstrating the feasi- intercity rail passenger operations
bility and desirability of such schools. within the basic national rail pas-
The act still further provides grants to senger system designated by the Sec-
State boards, to colleges and univer- retary of Transportation.
(c) VA and FHA housing. In the course
sities, to public educational agencies,
of the legislative development of sec-
organizations or institutions to reduce
tion 107, it was recognized that section
the cost of borrowing funds for the con-
107 would not apply to housing con-
struction of residential schools and
struction for which insurance was
dormitories.
issued by the Federal Housing Author-
(53) Postal Reorganization Act (39 ity and Veterans Administration for
U.S.C. 410(d)(2)). This Act provides for individual home ownership. Concerning
construction, modification, alteration, construction under the National Hous-
repair, and other improvements of ing Act, Reorganization Plan No. 14 of
postal facilities located in leased build- 1950 applies to construction which is
ings. subject to the minimum wage require-
(54) Airport and Airway Development ments of section 212(a) thereof (12
Act of 1970 (Pub. L. 91258, section U.S.C. 1715c).
52(b)(7)). This Act provides for Federal
financial assistance to States and lo- 1926.13 Interpretation of statutory
calities for the construction, improve- terms.
ment, or repair of public airports. (a) The terms construction, alteration,
(55) (i) Public Law 91230. This Act and repair used in section 107 of the Act
provides for federal financial assist- are also used in section 1 of the Davis-
ance to institutions of higher learning Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. 276a), providing
for the construction of a National Cen- minimum wage protection on Federal
ter on Educational Media and Mate- construction contracts, and section 1 of
rials for the Handicapped. The program the Miller Act (40 U.S.C. 270a), pro-
under this statute expires on July 1, viding performance and payment bond
1971. Public Law 91230, section 662(1). protection on Federal construction
(ii) Education of the Handicapped Act contracts. Similarly, the terms con-
(20 U.S.C. 12326, 1404(a)). This Act pro- tractor and subcontractor are used in
vides for financial assistance to States those statutes, as well as in Copeland
for construction, expansion, remod- (Anti-Kickback) Act (40 U.S.C. 276c)
eling, or alteration of facilities for the and the Contract Work Hours and Safe-
education of handicapped children at ty Standards Act itself, which apply

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1926.14 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

concurrently with the Miller Act and considered manufacturing; therefore a


the Davis-Bacon Act on Federal con- supplier of such materials would not be
struction contracts and also apply to considered a subcontractor. An ex-
most federally assisted construction ample of material supplied for the
contracts. The use of the same or iden- specific project on a customized basis
tical terms in these statutes which as that phrase is used in this section
apply concurrently with section 107 of would be ventilating ducts, fabricated
the Act have considerable precedential in a shop away from the construction
value in ascertaining the coverage of job site and specifically cut for the
section 107. project according to design specifica-
(b) It should be noted that section 1 tions. On the other hand, if a con-
of the Davis-Bacon Act limits min- tractor buys standard size nails from a
imum wage protection to laborers and foundry, the foundry would not be a
mechanics employed directly upon covered subcontractor. Ordinarily a
the site of the work. There is no contract for the supplying of construc-
comparable limitation in section 107 of tion equipment to a contractor would
the Act. Section 107 expressly requires not, in and of itself, be considered a
as a self-executing condition of each subcontractor for purposes of this
covered contract that no contractor or part.
subcontractor shall require any la-
borer or mechanic employed in the per- 1926.14 Federal contract for mixed
formance of the contract to work in types of performance.
surroundings or under working condi- (a) It is the intent of the Congress to
tions which are unsanitary, hazardous, provide safety and health protection of
or dangerous to his health or safety as Federal, federally financed, or feder-
these health and safety standards are ally assisted construction. See, for ex-
applied in the rules of the Secretary of ample, H. Report No. 91241, 91st Cong.,
Labor. first session, p. 1 (1969). Thus, it is clear
(c) The term subcontractor under sec- that when a Federal contract calls for
tion 107 is considered to mean a person mixed types of performance, such as
who agrees to perform any part of the both manufacturing and construction,
labor or material requirements of a section 107 would apply to the con-
contract for construction, alteration or struction. By its express terms, section
repair. Cf. MacEvoy Co. v. United 107 applies to a contract which is for
States, 322 U.S. 102, 1089 (1944). A per- construction, alteration, and/or re-
son who undertakes to perform a por- pair. Such a contract is not required
tion of a contract involving the fur- to be exclusively for such services. The
nishing of supplies or materials will be application of the section is not lim-
considered a subcontractor under ited to contracts which permit an over-
this part and section 107 if the work in all characterization as construction
question involves the performance of contracts. The text of section 107 is
construction work and is to be per- not so limited.
formed: (1) Directly on or near the con- (b) When the mixed types of perform-
struction site, or (2) by the employer ances include both construction and
for the specific project on a customized manufacturing, see also 1926.15(b) con-
basis. Thus, a supplier of materials cerning the relationship between the
which will become an integral part of Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act and
the construction is a subcontractor section 107.
if the supplier fabricates or assembles
the goods or materials in question spe- 1926.15 Relationship to the Service
cifically for the construction project Contract Act; Walsh-Healey Public
and the work involved may be said to Contracts Act.
be construction activity. If the goods (a) A contract for construction is
or materials in question are ordinarily one for nonpersonal service. See, e.g.,
sold to other customers from regular 41 CFR 11.208. Section 2(e) of the Serv-
inventory, the supplier is not a sub- ice Contract Act of 1965 requires as a
contractor. Generally, the furnishing condition of every Federal contract
of prestressed concrete beams and (and bid specification therefor) exceed-
prestressed structural steel would be ing $2,500, the principal purpose of

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.16

which is to furnish services to the 1926.16 Rules of construction.


United States through the use of (a) The prime contractor and any
service employees, that certain safe- subcontractors may make their own
ty and health standards be met. See 29 arrangements with respect to obliga-
CFR part 1925, which contains the De- tions which might be more appro-
partment rules concerning these stand- priately treated on a jobsite basis rath-
ards. Section 7 of the Service Contract er than individually. Thus, for exam-
Act provides that the Act shall not ple, the prime contractor and his sub-
apply to any contract of the United contractors may wish to make an ex-
States or District of Columbia for con- press agreement that the prime con-
struction, alteration, and/or repair, in- tractor or one of the subcontractors
cluding painting and decorating of pub- will provide all required first-aid or
lic buildings or public works. It is toilet facilities, thus relieving the sub-
clear from the legislative history of contractors from the actual, but not
section 107 that no gaps in coverage be- any legal, responsibility (or, as the
tween the two statutes are intended. case may be, relieving the other sub-
(b) The Walsh-Healey Public Con- contractors from this responsibility).
In no case shall the prime contractor
tracts Act requires that contracts en-
be relieved of overall responsibility for
tered into by any Federal agency for
compliance with the requirements of
the manufacture or furnishing of mate-
this part for all work to be performed
rials, supplies, articles, and equipment under the contract.
in any amount exceeding $10,000 must (b) By contracting for full perform-
contain, among other provisions, a re- ance of a contract subject to section
quirement that no part of such con- 107 of the Act, the prime contractor as-
tract will be performed nor will any of sumes all obligations prescribed as em-
the materials, supplies, articles or ployer obligations under the standards
equipment to be manufactured or fur- contained in this part, whether or not
nished under said contract be manufac- he subcontracts any part of the work.
tured or fabricated in any plants, fac- (c) To the extent that a subcon-
tories, buildings, or surroundings or tractor of any tier agrees to perform
under working conditions which are any part of the contract, he also as-
unsanitary or hazardous or dangerous sumes responsibility for complying
to the health and safety of employees with the standards in this part with re-
engaged in the performance of said spect to that part. Thus, the prime
contract. The rules of the Secretary contractor assumes the entire responsi-
concerning these standards are pub- bility under the contract and the sub-
lished in 41 CFR part 50204, and ex- contractor assumes responsibility with
press the Secretary of Labors interpre- respect to his portion of the work.
tation and application of section 1(e) of With respect to subcontracted work,
the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act the prime contractor and any subcon-
to certain particular working condi- tractor or subcontractors shall be
tions. None of the described working deemed to have joint responsibility.
(d) Where joint responsibility exists,
conditions are intended to deal with
both the prime contractor and his sub-
construction activities, although such
contractor or subcontractors, regard-
activities may conceivably be a part of
less of tier, shall be considered subject
a contract which is subject to the to the enforcement provisions of the
Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act. Act.
Nevertheless, such activities remain
subject to the general statutory duty
prescribed by section 1(e). Section
Subpart CGeneral Safety and
103(b) of the Contract Work Hours and
Health Provisions
Safety Standards Act provides, among
other things, that the Act shall not AUTHORITY: Sec. 3704, Contract Work Hours
and Safety Standards Act (40 U.S.C. 333);
apply to any work required to be done secs. 4, 6, and 8, Occupational Safety and
in accordance with the provisions of Health Act of 1970 (29 U.S.C. 653, 655, 657);
the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Secretary of Labors Order No. 1271 (36 FR
Act. 8754), 876 (41 FR 25059), 983 (48 FR 35736), 6

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1926.20 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)
96 (62 FR 111), or 52007 (72 FR 31160) as appli- process, it shall prevail over any dif-
cable; and 29 CFR part 1911. ferent general standard which might
otherwise be applicable to the same
1926.20 General safety and health condition, practice, means, method, op-
provisions.
eration, or process.
(a) Contractor requirements. (1) Sec- (2) On the other hand, any standard
tion 107 of the Act requires that it shall apply according to its terms to
shall be a condition of each contract any employment and place of employ-
which is entered into under legislation ment in any industry, even though par-
subject to Reorganization Plan Number ticular standards are also prescribed
14 of 1950 (64 Stat. 1267), as defined in for the industry to the extent that
1926.12, and is for construction, alter- none of such particular standards ap-
ation, and/or repair, including painting plies.
and decorating, that no contractor or
(e) In the event a standard protects
subcontractor for any part of the con-
on its face a class of persons larger
tract work shall require any laborer or
than employees, the standard shall be
mechanic employed in the performance
applicable under this part only to em-
of the contract to work in sur-
ployees and their employment and
roundings or under working conditions
places of employment.
which are unsanitary, hazardous, or
dangerous to his health or safety. (f) Compliance duties owed to each em-
ployee(1) Personal protective equipment.
(b) Accident prevention responsibilities.
Standards in this part requiring the
(1) It shall be the responsibility of the
employer to provide personal protec-
employer to initiate and maintain such
tive equipment (PPE), including res-
programs as may be necessary to com-
pirators and other types of PPE, be-
ply with this part.
cause of hazards to employees impose a
(2) Such programs shall provide for
separate compliance duty with respect
frequent and regular inspections of the
to each employee covered by the re-
job sites, materials, and equipment to
quirement. The employer must provide
be made by competent persons des-
PPE to each employee required to use
ignated by the employers.
the PPE, and each failure to provide
(3) The use of any machinery, tool,
PPE to an employee may be considered
material, or equipment which is not in
a separate violation.
compliance with any applicable re-
quirement of this part is prohibited. (2) Training. Standards in this part
Such machine, tool, material, or equip- requiring training on hazards and re-
ment shall either be identified as un- lated matters, such as standards re-
safe by tagging or locking the controls quiring that employees receive train-
to render them inoperable or shall be ing or that the employer train employ-
physically removed from its place of ees, provide training to employees, or
operation. institute or implement a training pro-
gram, impose a separate compliance
(4) The employer shall permit only
duty with respect to each employee
those employees qualified by training
covered by the requirement. The em-
or experience to operate equipment and
ployer must train each affected em-
machinery.
ployee in the manner required by the
(c) The standards contained in this
standard, and each failure to train an
part shall apply with respect to em-
employee may be considered a separate
ployments performed in a workplace in
violation.
a State, the District of Columbia, the
Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the [44 FR 8577, Feb. 9, 1979; 44 FR 20940, Apr. 6,
Virgin Islands, American Samoa, 1979, as amended at 58 FR 35078, June 30, 1993;
Guam, Trust Territory of the Pacific 73 FR 75588, Dec. 12, 2008]
Islands, Wake Island, Outer Conti-
nental Shelf lands defined in the Outer 1926.21 Safety training and edu-
Continental Shelf Lands Act, Johnston cation.
Island, and the Canal Zone. (a) General requirements. The Sec-
(d) (1) If a particular standard is spe- retary shall, pursuant to section 107(f)
cifically applicable to a condition, of the Act, establish and supervise pro-
practice, means, method, operation, or grams for the education and training of

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.26

employers and employees in the rec- more than 4 feet in depth such as pits,
ognition, avoidance and prevention of tubs, vaults, and vessels.
unsafe conditions in employments cov-
ered by the act. 1926.22 Recording and reporting of
(b) Employer responsibility. (1) The em- injuries. [Reserved]
ployer should avail himself of the safe-
1926.23 First aid and medical atten-
ty and health training programs the tion.
Secretary provides.
(2) The employer shall instruct each First aid services and provisions for
employee in the recognition and avoid- medical care shall be made available
ance of unsafe conditions and the regu- by the employer for every employee
lations applicable to his work environ- covered by these regulations. Regula-
ment to control or eliminate any haz- tions prescribing specific requirements
ards or other exposure to illness or in- for first aid, medical attention, and
jury. emergency facilities are contained in
(3) Employees required to handle or subpart D of this part.
use poisons, caustics, and other harm-
1926.24 Fire protection and preven-
ful substances shall be instructed re- tion.
garding the safe handling and use, and
be made aware of the potential haz- The employer shall be responsible for
ards, personal hygiene, and personal the development and maintenance of
protective measures required. an effective fire protection and preven-
(4) In job site areas where harmful tion program at the job site through-
plants or animals are present, employ- out all phases of the construction, re-
ees who may be exposed shall be in- pair, alteration, or demolition work.
structed regarding the potential haz- The employer shall ensure the avail-
ards, and how to avoid injury, and the ability of the fire protection and sup-
first aid procedures to be used in the pression equipment required by subpart
event of injury. F of this part.
(5) Employees required to handle or
1926.25 Housekeeping.
use flammable liquids, gases, or toxic
materials shall be instructed in the (a) During the course of construction,
safe handling and use of these mate- alteration, or repairs, form and scrap
rials and made aware of the specific re- lumber with protruding nails, and all
quirements contained in subparts D, F, other debris, shall be kept cleared from
and other applicable subparts of this work areas, passageways, and stairs, in
part. and around buildings or other struc-
(6)(i) All employees required to enter tures.
into confined or enclosed spaces shall (b) Combustible scrap and debris
be instructed as to the nature of the shall be removed at regular intervals
hazards involved, the necessary pre- during the course of construction. Safe
cautions to be taken, and in the use of means shall be provided to facilitate
protective and emergency equipment such removal.
required. The employer shall comply (c) Containers shall be provided for
with any specific regulations that the collection and separation of waste,
apply to work in dangerous or poten- trash, oily and used rags, and other
tially dangerous areas. refuse. Containers used for garbage and
(ii) For purposes of paragraph (b)(6)(i) other oily, flammable, or hazardous
of this section, confined or enclosed wastes, such as caustics, acids, harmful
space means any space having a limited dusts, etc. shall be equipped with cov-
means of egress, which is subject to the ers. Garbage and other waste shall be
accumulation of toxic or flammable disposed of at frequent and regular in-
contaminants or has an oxygen defi- tervals.
cient atmosphere. Confined or enclosed
spaces include, but are not limited to, 1926.26 Illumination.
storage tanks, process vessels, bins, Construction areas, aisles, stairs,
boilers, ventilation or exhaust ducts, ramps, runways, corridors, offices,
sewers, underground utility vaults, shops, and storage areas where work is
tunnels, pipelines, and open top spaces in progress shall be lighted with either

29

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1926.27 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

natural or artificial illumination. The title, Shipyard Employment, shall


minimum illumination requirements apply.
for work areas are contained in subpart [44 FR 8577, Feb. 9, 1979; 44 FR 20940, Apr. 6,
D of this part. 1979, as amended at 61 FR 9249, Mar. 7, 1996]
1926.27 Sanitation. 1926.32 Definitions.
Health and sanitation requirements The following definitions shall apply
for drinking water are contained in in the application of the regulations in
subpart D of this part. this part:
(a) Act means section 107 of the Con-
1926.28 Personal protective equip-
ment. tract Work Hours and Safety Stand-
ards Act, commonly known as the Con-
(a) The employer is responsible for struction Safety Act (86 Stat. 96; 40
requiring the wearing of appropriate U.S.C. 333).
personal protective equipment in all (b) ANSI means American National
operations where there is an exposure Standards Institute.
to hazardous conditions or where this (c) Approved means sanctioned, en-
part indicates the need for using such dorsed, accredited, certified, or accept-
equipment to reduce the hazards to the ed as satisfactory by a duly constituted
employees. and nationally recognized authority or
(b) Regulations governing the use, se- agency.
lection, and maintenance of personal (d) Authorized person means a person
protective and lifesaving equipment approved or assigned by the employer
are described under subpart E of this to perform a specific type of duty or
part. duties or to be at a specific location or
locations at the jobsite.
1926.29 Acceptable certifications. (e) Administration means the Occupa-
(a) Pressure vessels. Current and valid tional Safety and Health Administra-
certification by an insurance company tion.
or regulatory authority shall be (f) Competent person means one who is
deemed as acceptable evidence of safe capable of identifying existing and pre-
installation, inspection, and testing of dictable hazards in the surroundings or
pressure vessels provided by the em- working conditions which are unsani-
ployer. tary, hazardous, or dangerous to em-
(b) Boilers. Boilers provided by the ployees, and who has authorization to
employer shall be deemed to be in com- take prompt corrective measures to
pliance with the requirements of this eliminate them.
part when evidence of current and valid (g) Construction work. For purposes of
certification by an insurance company this section, Construction work means
or regulatory authority attesting to work for construction, alteration, and/
the safe installation, inspection, and or repair, including painting and deco-
testing is presented. rating.
(c) Other requirements. Regulations (h) Defect means any characteristic
prescribing specific requirements for or condition which tends to weaken or
other types of pressure vessels and reduce the strength of the tool, object,
similar equipment are contained in or structure of which it is a part.
subparts F and O of this part. (i) Designated person means author-
ized person as defined in paragraph (d)
1926.30 Shipbuilding and ship repair- of this section.
ing. (j) Employee means every laborer or
(a) General. Shipbuilding, ship repair- mechanic under the Act regardless of
ing, alterations, and maintenance per- the contractual relationship which
formed on ships under Government may be alleged to exist between the la-
contract, except naval ship construc- borer and mechanic and the contractor
tion, is work subject to the Act. or subcontractor who engaged him.
(b) Applicable safety and health stand- Laborer and mechanic are not de-
ards. For the purpose of work carried fined in the Act, but the identical
out under this section, the safety and terms are used in the Davis-Bacon Act
health regulations in part 1915 of this (40 U.S.C. 276a), which provides for

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.35

minimum wage protection on Federal 1926.34 Means of egress.


and federally assisted construction
(a) General. In every building or
contracts. The use of the same term in
structure exits shall be so arranged and
a statute which often applies concur-
maintained as to provide free and un-
rently with section 107 of the Act has
obstructed egress from all parts of the
considerable precedential value in
building or structure at all times when
ascertaining the meaning of laborer
it is occupied. No lock or fastening to
and mechanic as used in the Act. La-
prevent free escape from the inside of
borer generally means one who per-
any building shall be installed except
forms manual labor or who labors at an
in mental, penal, or corrective institu-
occupation requiring physical strength;
tions where supervisory personnel is
mechanic generally means a worker
continually on duty and effective pro-
skilled with tools. See 18 Comp. Gen.
visions are made to remove occupants
341.
in case of fire or other emergency.
(k) Employer means contractor or
(b) Exit marking. Exits shall be
subcontractor within the meaning of
marked by a readily visible sign. Ac-
the Act and of this part.
cess to exits shall be marked by readily
(l) Hazardous substance means a sub-
visible signs in all cases where the exit
stance which, by reason of being explo-
or way to reach it is not immediately
sive, flammable, poisonous, corrosive,
visible to the occupants.
oxidizing, irritating, or otherwise
(c) Maintenance and workmanship.
harmful, is likely to cause death or in-
Means of egress shall be continually
jury.
maintained free of all obstructions or
(m) Qualified means one who, by pos-
impediments to full instant use in the
session of a recognized degree, certifi-
case of fire or other emergency.
cate, or professional standing, or who
by extensive knowledge, training, and [58 FR 35083, June 30, 1993]
experience, has successfully dem-
onstrated his ability to solve or resolve 1926.35 Employee emergency action
problems relating to the subject mat- plans.
ter, the work, or the project. (a) Scope and application. This section
(n) Safety factor means the ratio of applies to all emergency action plans
the ultimate breaking strength of a required by a particular OSHA stand-
member or piece of material or equip- ard. The emergency action plan shall
ment to the actual working stress or be in writing (except as provided in the
safe load when in use. last sentence of paragraph (e)(3) of this
(o) Secretary means the Secretary of section) and shall cover those des-
Labor. ignated actions employers and employ-
(p) SAE means Society of Automotive ees must take to ensure employee safe-
Engineers. ty from fire and other emergencies.
(q) Shall means mandatory. (b) Elements. The following elements,
(r) Should means recommended. at a minimum, shall be included in the
(s) Suitable means that which fits, plan:
and has the qualities or qualifications (1) Emergency escape procedures and
to meet a given purpose, occasion, con- emergency escape route assignments;
dition, function, or circumstance. (2) Procedures to be followed by em-
[44 FR 8577, Feb. 9, 1979; 44 FR 20940, Apr. 6,
ployees who remain to operate critical
1979, as amended at 58 FR 35078, June 30, 1993] plant operations before they evacuate;
(3) Procedures to account for all em-
1926.33 Access to employee exposure ployees after emergency evacuation
and medical records. has been completed;
NOTE: The requirements applicable to con- (4) Rescue and medical duties for
struction work under this section are iden- those employees who are to perform
tical to those set forth at 1910.1020 of this them;
chapter. (5) The preferred means of reporting
[61 FR 31431, June 20, 1996] fires and other emergencies; and

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1926.50 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

(6) Names or regular job titles of per- Sections 1926.58, 1926.59, 1926.60, and 1926.65
sons or departments who can be con- also issued under 5 U.S.C. 553 and 29 CFR
tacted for further information or expla- part 1911.
Section 1926.61 also issued under 49 U.S.C.
nation of duties under the plan. 18011819 and 6 U.S.C. 553.
(c) Alarm system. (1) The employer Section 1926.62 also issued under section
shall establish an employee alarm sys- 1031 of the Housing and Community Develop-
tem which complies with 1926.159. ment Act of 1992 (42 U.S.C. 4853).
(2) If the employee alarm system is Section 1926.65 also issued under section
126 of the Superfund Amendments and Reau-
used for alerting fire brigade members, thorization Act of 1986, as amended (re-
or for other purposes, a distinctive sig- printed at 29 U.S.C.A. 655 Note), and 5 U.S.C.
nal for each purpose shall be used. 553.
(d) Evacuation. The employer shall
establish in the emergency action plan 1926.50 Medical services and first
the types of evacuation to be used in aid.
emergency circumstances. (a) The employer shall insure the
(e) Training. (1) Before implementing availability of medical personnel for
the emergency action plan, the em- advice and consultation on matters of
ployer shall designate and train a suffi- occupational health.
cient number of persons to assist in the (b) Provisions shall be made prior to
safe and orderly emergency evacuation commencement of the project for
of employees. prompt medical attention in case of se-
(2) The employer shall review the rious injury.
plan with each employee covered by (c) In the absence of an infirmary,
the plan at the following times: clinic, hospital, or physician, that is
(i) Initially when the plan is devel- reasonably accessible in terms of time
oped, and distance to the worksite, which is
available for the treatment of injured
(ii) Whenever the employees respon-
employees, a person who has a valid
sibilities or designated actions under
certificate in first-aid training from
the plan change, and
the U.S. Bureau of Mines, the Amer-
(iii) Whenever the plan is changed. ican Red Cross, or equivalent training
(3) The employer shall review with that can be verified by documentary
each employee upon initial assignment evidence, shall be available at the
those parts of the plan which the em- worksite to render first aid.
ployee must know to protect the em- (d)(1) First aid supplies shall be eas-
ployee in the event of an emergency. ily accessible when required.
The written plan shall be kept at the (2) The contents of the first aid kit
workplace and made available for em- shall be placed in a weatherproof con-
ployee review. For those employers tainer with individual sealed packages
with 10 or fewer employees the plan for each type of item, and shall be
may be communicated orally to em- checked by the employer before being
ployees and the employer need not sent out on each job and at least week-
maintain a written plan. ly on each job to ensure that the ex-
[58 FR 35083, June 30, 1993] pended items are replaced.
(e) Proper equipment for prompt
transportation of the injured person to
Subpart DOccupational Health a physician or hospital, or a commu-
and Environmental Controls nication system for contacting nec-
essary ambulance service, shall be pro-
AUTHORITY: Section 107 of the Contract vided.
Work Hours and Safety Standards Act (40 (f) In areas where 911 is not available,
U.S.C. 3704); Sections 4, 6, and 8 of the Occu- the telephone numbers of the physi-
pational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (29 cians, hospitals, or ambulances shall be
U.S.C. 653, 655, and 657); and Secretary of La- conspicuously posted.
bors Order No. 1271 (36 FR 8754), 876 (41 FR
(g) Where the eyes or body of any
25059), 983 (48 FR 35736), 190 (55 FR 9033), 6
96 (62 FR 111), 32000 (65 FR 50017), 52002 (67 person may be exposed to injurious cor-
FR 65008), 52007 (72 FR 31159), 42010 (75 FR rosive materials, suitable facilities for
55355), or 12012 (77 FR 3912) as applicable; quick drenching or flushing of the eyes
and 29 CFR part 1911. and body shall be provided within the

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.51

work area for immediate emergency (4) The common drinking cup is pro-
use. hibited.
(5) Where single service cups (to be
APPENDIX A TO 1926.50FIRST AID KITS
(NON-MANDATORY) used but once) are supplied, both a san-
itary container for the unused cups and
First aid supplies are required to be easily a receptacle for disposing of the used
accessible under paragraph 1926.50(d)(1). An
example of the minimal contents of a generic
cups shall be provided.
first aid kit is described in American Na- (6) Potable water means water that
tional Standard (ANSI) Z308.11978 Min- meets the standards for drinking pur-
imum Requirements for Industrial Unit-Type poses of the State or local authority
First-aid Kits. The contents of the kit list- having jurisdiction, or water that
ed in the ANSI standard should be adequate meets the quality standards prescribed
for small work sites. When larger operations by the U.S. Environmental Protection
or multiple operations are being conducted
at the same location, employers should de- Agencys National Primary Drinking
termine the need for additional first aid kits Water Regulations (40 CFR part 141).
at the worksite, additional types of first aid (b) Nonpotable water. (1) Outlets for
equipment and supplies and additional quan- nonpotable water, such as water for in-
tities and types of supplies and equipment in dustrial or firefighting purposes only,
the first aid kits. shall be identified by signs meeting the
In a similar fashion, employers who have
requirements of subpart G of this part,
unique or changing first-aid needs in their
workplace may need to enhance their first- to indicate clearly that the water is
aid kits. The employer can use the OSHA 300 unsafe and is not to be used for drink-
log, OSHA 301 log, or other reports to iden- ing, washing, or cooking purposes.
tify these unique problems. Consultation (2) There shall be no cross-connec-
from the local fire/rescue department, appro- tion, open or potential, between a sys-
priate medical professional, or local emer- tem furnishing potable water and a
gency room may be helpful to employers in
system furnishing nonpotable water.
these circumstances. By assessing the spe-
cific needs of their workplace, employers can (c) Toilets at construction jobsites. (1)
ensure that reasonably anticipated supplies Toilets shall be provided for employees
are available. Employers should assess the according to the following table:
specific needs of their worksite periodically
and augment the first aid kit appropriately. TABLE D1
If it is reasonably anticipated employees
will be exposed to blood or other potentially Number of em- Minimum number of facilities
ployees
infectious materials while using first-aid
supplies, employers should provide personal 20 or less .......... 1.
protective equipment (PPE). Appropriate 20 or more ......... 1 toilet seat and 1 urinal per 40 workers.
PPE includes gloves, gowns, face shields, 200 or more ....... 1 toilet seat and 1 urinal per 50 workers.
masks and eye protection (see Occupational
Exposure to Blood borne Pathogens, 29 CFR (2) Under temporary field conditions,
1910.1030(d)(3)) (56 FR 64175).
provisions shall be made to assure not
[44 FR 8577, Feb. 9, 1979; 44 FR 20940, Apr. 6, less than one toilet facility is avail-
1979, as amended at 49 FR 18295, Apr. 30, 1984; able.
58 FR 35084, June 30, 1993; 61 FR 5510, Feb. 13,
(3) Job sites, not provided with a san-
1996; 63 FR 33469, June 18, 1998; 76 FR 80740,
Dec. 27, 2011] itary sewer, shall be provided with one
of the following toilet facilities unless
1926.51 Sanitation. prohibited by local codes:
(a) Potable water. (1) An adequate sup- (i) Privies (where their use will not
ply of potable water shall be provided contaminate ground or surface water);
in all places of employment. (ii) Chemical toilets;
(2) Portable containers used to dis- (iii) Recirculating toilets;
pense drinking water shall be capable (iv) Combustion toilets.
of being tightly closed, and equipped (4) The requirements of this para-
with a tap. Water shall not be dipped graph (c) for sanitation facilities shall
from containers. not apply to mobile crews having
(3) Any container used to distribute transportation readily available to
drinking water shall be clearly marked nearby toilet facilities.
as to the nature of its contents and not (d) Food handling. (1) All employees
used for any other purpose. food service facilities and operations

33

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1926.52 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

shall meet the applicable laws, ordi- (iii) Body soap or other appropriate
nances, and regulations of the jurisdic- cleansing agents convenient to the
tions in which they are located. showers shall be provided as specified
(2) All employee food service facili- in paragraph (f)(3)(iii) of this section.
ties and operations shall be carried out (iv) Showers shall be provided with
in accordance with sound hygienic hot and cold water feeding a common
principles. In all places of employment discharge line.
where all or part of the food service is (v) Employees who use showers shall
provided, the food dispensed shall be be provided with individual clean tow-
wholesome, free from spoilage, and els.
shall be processed, prepared, handled, (g) Eating and drinking areas. No em-
and stored in such a manner as to be ployee shall be allowed to consume
protected against contamination. food or beverages in a toilet room nor
(e) Temporary sleeping quarters. When in any area exposed to a toxic mate-
temporary sleeping quarters are pro- rial.
vided, they shall be heated, ventilated, (h) Vermin control. Every enclosed
and lighted. workplace shall be so constructed,
(f) Washing facilities. (1) The employer equipped, and maintained, so far as
shall provide adequate washing facili- reasonably practicable, as to prevent
ties for employees engaged in the ap- the entrance or harborage of rodents,
plication of paints, coating, herbicides, insects, and other vermin. A con-
or insecticides, or in other operations tinuing and effective extermination
where contaminants may be harmful to program shall be instituted where their
the employees. Such facilities shall be presence is detected.
in near proximity to the worksite and (i) Change rooms. Whenever employ-
shall be so equipped as to enable em- ees are required by a particular stand-
ployees to remove such substances. ard to wear protective clothing because
(2) General. Washing facilities shall of the possibility of contamination
be maintained in a sanitary condition. with toxic materials, change rooms
(3) Lavatories. (i) Lavatories shall be equipped with storage facilities for
made available in all places of employ- street clothes and separate storage fa-
ment. The requirements of this sub- cilities for the protective clothing
division do not apply to mobile crews shall be provided.
or to normally unattended work loca- [44 FR 8577, Feb. 9, 1979; 44 FR 20940, Apr. 6,
tions if employees working at these lo- 1979, as amended at 58 FR 35084, June 30, 1993;
cations have transportation readily 76 FR 33611, June 8, 2011]
available to nearby washing facilities
which meet the other requirements of 1926.52 Occupational noise exposure.
this paragraph. (a) Protection against the effects of
(ii) Each lavatory shall be provided noise exposure shall be provided when
with hot and cold running water, or the sound levels exceed those shown in
tepid running water. Table D2 of this section when meas-
(iii) Hand soap or similar cleansing ured on the A-scale of a standard sound
agents shall be provided. level meter at slow response.
(iv) Individual hand towels or sec- (b) When employees are subjected to
tions thereof, of cloth or paper, air sound levels exceeding those listed in
blowers or clean individual sections of Table D2 of this section, feasible ad-
continuous cloth toweling, convenient ministrative or engineering controls
to the lavatories, shall be provided. shall be utilized. If such controls fail to
(4) Showers. (i) Whenever showers are reduce sound levels within the levels of
required by a particular standard, the the table, personal protective equip-
showers shall be provided in accord- ment as required in subpart E, shall be
ance with paragraphs (f)(4) (ii) through provided and used to reduce sound lev-
(v) of this section. els within the levels of the table.
(ii) One shower shall be provided for (c) If the variations in noise level in-
each 10 employees of each sex, or nu- volve maxima at intervals of 1 second
merical fraction thereof, who are re- or less, it is to be considered contin-
quired to shower during the same shift. uous.

34

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.54

(d)(1) In all cases where the sound 1926.53 Ionizing radiation.


levels exceed the values shown herein, (a) In construction and related ac-
a continuing, effective hearing con- tivities involving the use of sources of
servation program shall be adminis- ionizing radiation, the pertinent provi-
tered. sions of the Nuclear Regulatory Com-
missions Standards for Protection
TABLE D2PERMISSIBLE NOISE EXPOSURES
Against Radiation (10 CFR part 20), re-
Sound level lating to protection against occupa-
Duration per day, hours dBA slow tional radiation exposure, shall apply.
response
(b) Any activity which involves the
8 ......................................................................... 90 use of radioactive materials or X-rays,
6 ......................................................................... 92 whether or not under license from the
4 ......................................................................... 95 Nuclear Regulatory Commission, shall
3 ......................................................................... 97 be performed by competent persons
2 ......................................................................... 100
112 ..................................................................... 102
specially trained in the proper and safe
1 ......................................................................... 105 operation of such equipment. In the
12 ....................................................................... 110 case of materials used under Commis-
14 or less ........................................................... 115 sion license, only persons actually li-
censed, or competent persons under di-
(2)(i) When the daily noise exposure rection and supervision of the licensee,
is composed of two or more periods of shall perform such work.
noise exposure of different levels, their (c)(r) [Reserved]
combined effect should be considered, NOTE: The requirements applicable to con-
rather than the individual effect of struction work under paragraphs (c) through
each. Exposure to different levels for (r) of this section are identical to those set
various periods of time shall be com- forth at paragraphs (a) through (p) of
puted according to the formula set 1910.1096 of this chapter.
forth in paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this sec- [44 FR 8577, Feb. 9, 1979; 44 FR 20940, Apr. 6,
tion. 1979, as amended at 61 FR 5510, Feb. 13, 1996;
(ii) Fe = (T1/L1)+(T2/L2)+ + (Tn/Ln) 61 FR 31431, June 20, 1996]

Where: 1926.54 Nonionizing radiation.


Fe = The equivalent noise exposure factor. (a) Only qualified and trained em-
T = The period of noise exposure at any es- ployees shall be assigned to install, ad-
sentially constant level. just, and operate laser equipment.
L = The duration of the permissible noise ex- (b) Proof of qualification of the laser
posure at the constant level (from Table D
2).
equipment operator shall be available
and in possession of the operator at all
If the value of Fe exceeds unity (1) the times.
exposure exceeds permissible levels. (c) Employees, when working in areas
(iii) A sample computation showing in which a potential exposure to direct
an application of the formula in para- or reflected laser light greater than
graph (d)(2)(ii) of this section is as fol- 0.005 watts (5 milliwatts) exists, shall
lows. An employee is exposed at these be provided with antilaser eye protec-
levels for these periods: tion devices as specified in subpart E of
this part.
110 db A 14 hour. (d) Areas in which lasers are used
100 db A 12 hour. shall be posted with standard laser
90 db A 112 hours. warning placards.
Fe = (14/12)+(12/2)+(112/8) (e) Beam shutters or caps shall be
Fe = 0.500+0.25+0.188 utilized, or the laser turned off, when
Fe = 0.938 laser transmission is not actually re-
quired. When the laser is left unat-
Since the value of Fe does not exceed tended for a substantial period of time,
unity, the exposure is within permis- such as during lunch hour, overnight,
sible limits. or at change of shifts, the laser shall be
(e) Exposure to impulsive or impact turned off.
noise should not exceed 140 dB peak (f) Only mechanical or electronic
sound pressure level. means shall be used as a detector for

35

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1926.55 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

guiding the internal alignment of the American Conference of Governmental


laser. Industrial Hygienists, shall be avoided.
(g) The laser beam shall not be di- See appendix A to this section.
rected at employees. (b) To achieve compliance with para-
(h) When it is raining or snowing, or graph (a) of this section, administra-
when there is dust or fog in the air, the tive or engineering controls must first
operation of laser systems shall be pro- be implemented whenever feasible.
hibited where practicable; in any When such controls are not feasible to
event, employees shall be kept out of achieve full compliance, protective
range of the area of source and target equipment or other protective meas-
during such weather conditions. ures shall be used to keep the exposure
(i) Laser equipment shall bear a label of employees to air contaminants with-
to indicate maximum output. in the limits prescribed in this section.
(j) Employees shall not be exposed to Any equipment and technical measures
light intensities above: used for this purpose must first be ap-
(1) Direct staring: 1 micro-watt per
proved for each particular use by a
square centimeter;
competent industrial hygienist or
(2) Incidental observing: 1 milliwatt
other technically qualified person.
per square centimeter;
(3) Diffused reflected light: 212 watts Whenever respirators are used, their
per square centimeter. use shall comply with 1926.103.
(k) Laser unit in operation should be (c) Paragraphs (a) and (b) of this sec-
set up above the heads of the employ- tion do not apply to the exposure of
ees, when possible. employees to airborne asbestos,
(l) Employees shall not be exposed to tremolite, anthophyllite, or actinolite
microwave power densities in excess of dust. Whenever any employee is ex-
10 milliwatts per square centimeter. posed to airborne asbestos, tremolite,
anthophyllite, or actinolite dust, the
1926.55 Gases, vapors, fumes, dusts, requirements of 1910.1101 or 1926.58 of
and mists. this title shall apply.
(a) Exposure of employees to inhala- (d) Paragraphs (a) and (b) of this sec-
tion, ingestion, skin absorption, or tion do not apply to the exposure of
contact with any material or substance employees to formaldehyde. Whenever
at a concentration above those speci- any employee is exposed to formalde-
fied in the Threshold Limit Values of hyde, the requirements of 1910.1048 of
Airborne Contaminants for 1970 of the this title shall apply.

APPENDIX A TO 1926.551970 AMERICAN CONFERENCE OF GOVERNMENTAL INDUSTRIAL


HYGIENISTS THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUES OF AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS

THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUES OF AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS FOR CONSTRUCTION

Skin Designa-
Substance CAS No. d ppm a mg/m 3,b tion

Abate; see Temephos.


Acetaldehyde ......................................... 75070 200 360
Acetic acid ............................................. 64197 10 25
Acetic anhydride .................................... 108247 5 20
Acetone ................................................. 67641 1000 2400
Acetonitrile ............................................. 75058 40 70
2-Acetylaminofluorine; see 1926.1114 53963
Acetylene ............................................... 74862 E
Acetylene dichloride; see 1,2-
Dichloroethylene.
Acetylene tetrabromide ......................... 79276 1 14
Acrolein ................................................. 107028 0.1 0.25
Acrylamide ............................................. 79061 0.3 X
Acrylonitrile; see 1926.1145 ............... 107131
Aldrin ..................................................... 309002 0.25 X
Allyl alcohol ........................................... 107186 2 5 X

36

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.55

THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUES OF AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS FOR CONSTRUCTIONContinued

Skin Designa-
Substance CAS No. d ppm a mg/m 3,b tion

Allyl chloride .......................................... 107051 1 3


Allyl glycidyl ether (AGE) ...................... 106923 (C)10 (C)45
Allyl propyl disulfide .............................. 2179591 2 12
alpha-Alumina ....................................... 1344281
Total dust .......................................
Respirable fraction .........................
Alundum; see alpha-Alumina.
4-Aminodiphenyl; see 1926.1111 ....... 92671
2-Aminoethanol; see Ethanolamine.
2-Aminopyridine .................................... 504290 0.5 2
Ammonia ............................................... 7664417 50 35
Ammonium sulfamate ........................... 7773060
Total dust ....................................... 15
Respirable fraction ......................... 5
n-Amyl acetate ...................................... 628637 100 525
sec-Amyl acetate ................................... 626380 125 650
Aniline and homologs ............................ 62533 5 19 X
Anisidine (o-, p-isomers) ....................... 29191524 0.5 X
Antimony and compounds (as Sb) ....... 7440360 0.5
ANTU (alpha Naphthylthiourea) ............ 86884 0.3
Argon ..................................................... 7440371 E
Arsenic, inorganic compounds (as As);
see 1926.1118 ................................ 7440382
Arsenic, organic compounds (as As) .... 7440382 0.5
Arsine .................................................... 7784421 0.05 0.2
Asbestos; see 1926.58.
Azinphos-methyl .................................... 86500 0.2 X
Barium, soluble compounds (as Ba) ..... 7440393 0.5
Benzene g; see 1926.1128 ................. 71432
Benzidine; see 1926.1110 .................. 92875
p-Benzoquinone; see Quinone.
Benzo(a)pyrene; see Coal tar pitch
volatiles.
Benzoyl peroxide ................................... 94360 5
Benzyl chloride ...................................... 100447 1 5
Beryllium and beryllium compounds (as
Be) ..................................................... 7440417 0.002
Biphenyl; see Diphenyl.
Bisphenol A; see Diglycidyl ether.
Boron oxide ........................................... 1303862
Total dust ....................................... 15
Boron tribromide .................................... 10294334 1 10
Boron trifluoride ..................................... 7637072 (C)1 (C)3
Bromine ................................................. 7726956 0.1 0.7
Bromine pentafluoride ........................... 7789302 0.1 0.7
Bromoform ............................................. 75252 0.5 5 X
Butadiene (1,3-Butadiene); see 29 CFR
1910.1051; 29 CFR 1910.19(l) .......... 106990 STEL
1 ppm/5 ppm

Butanethiol; see Butyl mercaptan.


2-Butanone (Methyl ethyl ketone) ......... 78933 200 590
2-Butoxyethanol .................................... 111762 50 240 X
n-Butyl-acetate ...................................... 123864 150 710
sec-Butyl acetate ................................... 105464 200 950
tert-Butyl acetate ................................... 540885 200 950
n-Butyl alcohol ....................................... 71363 100 300
sec-Butyl alcohol ................................... 78922 150 450
tert-Butyl alcohol ................................... 75650 100 300
Butylamine ............................................. 109739 (C)5 (C)15 X
tert-Butyl chromate (as CrO3); see
1926.1126 n ........................................ 1189851
n-Butyl glycidyl ether (BGE) .................. 2426086 50 270
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1926.55 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUES OF AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS FOR CONSTRUCTIONContinued

Skin Designa-
Substance CAS No. d ppm a mg/m 3,b tion

Butyl mercaptan .................................... 109795 0.5 1.5


p-tert-Butyltoluene ................................. 98511 10 60
Cadmium (as Cd); see 1926.1127 ........ 7440439
Calcium carbonate ................................ 1317653
Total dust .......................................
Respirable fraction .........................
Calcium oxide ........................................ 1305788 5
Calcium sulfate ...................................... 7778189
Total dust ....................................... 15
Respirable fraction ......................... 5
Camphor, synthetic ............................... 76222 2
Carbaryl (Sevin) .................................... 63252 5
Carbon black ......................................... 1333864 3.5
Carbon dioxide ...................................... 124389 5000 9000
Carbon disulfide .................................... 75150 20 60 X
Carbon monoxide .................................. 630080 50 55
Carbon tetrachloride .............................. 56235 10 65 X
Cellulose ................................................ 9004346
Total dust .......................................
Respirable fraction .........................
Chlordane .............................................. 57749 0.5 X
Chlorinated camphene .......................... 8001352 0.5 X
Chlorinated diphenyl oxide .................... 55720995 0.5
Chlorine ................................................. 7782505 1 3
Chlorine dioxide .................................... 10049044 0.1 0.3
Chlorine trifluoride ................................. 7790912 (C)0.1 (C)0.4
Chloroacetaldehyde .............................. 107200 (C)1 (C)3
a-Chloroacetophenone (Phenacyl chlo-
ride) .................................................... 532274 0.05 0.3
Chlorobenzene ...................................... 108907 75 350
o-Chlorobenzylidene malononitrile ........ 2698411 0.05 0.4
Chlorobromomethane ............................ 74975 200 1050
2-Chloro-1,3-butadiene; see beta-Chlo-
roprene.
Chlorodiphenyl (42% Chlorine) (PCB) .. 53469219 1 X
Chlorodiphenyl (54% Chlorine) (PCB) .. 11097691 0.5 X
1-Chloro,2,3-epoxypropane; see
Epichlorohydrin.
2-Chloroethanol; see Ethylene
chlorohydrin.
Chloroethylene; see Vinyl chloride.
Chloroform (Trichloromethane) ............. 67663 (C)50 (C)240
bis(Chloromethyl) ether; see
1926.1108 ....................................... 542881
Chloromethyl methyl ether; see
1926.1106 ....................................... 107302
1-Chloro-1-nitropropane ........................ 600259 20 100
Chloropicrin ........................................... 76062 0.1 0.7
beta-Chloroprene .................................. 126998 25 90 X
Chromium (II) compounds.
(as Cr) ............................................ 7440473 0.5
Chromium (III) compounds.
(as Cr) ............................................ 7440473 0.5
Chromium (VI) compounds; See
1926.1126 o.
Chromium metal and insol. salts (as
Cr) ...................................................... 7440473 1
Chrysene; see Coal tar pitch volatiles.
Coal tar pitch volatiles (benzene solu-
ble fraction), anthracene, BaP, phen-
anthrene, acridine, chrysene, pyrene 65996932 0.2
Cobalt metal, dust, and fume (as Co) .. 7440484 0.1

38

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.55

THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUES OF AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS FOR CONSTRUCTIONContinued

Skin Designa-
Substance CAS No. d ppm a mg/m 3,b tion

Coke oven emissions; see 1926.1129.


Copper ................................................... 7440508
Fume (as Cu) ................................. 0.1
Dusts and mists (as Cu) ................ 1
Corundum; see Emery.
Cotton dust (raw) .................................. 1
Crag herbicide (Sesone) ....................... 136787
Total dust .......................................
Respirable fraction .........................
Cresol, all isomers ................................ 1319773 5 22 X
Crotonaldehyde ..................................... 123739; 2 6
4170303
Cumene ................................................. 98828 50 245 X
Cyanides (as CN) .................................. Varies with 5 X
Compound
Cyanogen .............................................. 460195 10
Cyclohexane .......................................... 110827 300 1050
Cyclohexanol ......................................... 108930 50 200
Cyclohexanone ...................................... 108941 50 200
Cyclohexene .......................................... 110838 300 1015
Cyclonite ................................................ 121824 1.5 X
Cyclopentadiene .................................... 542927 75 200
DDT, see
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane.
DDVP, see Dichlorvos.
2,4-D (Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) ...... 94757 10
Decaborane ........................................... 17702419 0.05 0.3 X
Demeton (Systox) ................................. 8065483 0.1 X
Diacetone alcohol (4-Hydroxy-4-methyl-
2-pentanone) ..................................... 123422 50 240
1,2-Diaminoethane; see Ethylene-
diamine.
Diazomethane ....................................... 334883 0.2 0.4
Diborane ................................................ 19287457 0.1 0.1
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP);
see 1926.1144 ................................ 96128
1,2-Dibromoethane; see Ethylene
dibromide.
Dibutyl phosphate ................................. 107664 1 5
Dibutyl phthalate ................................... 84742 5
Dichloroacetylene .................................. 7572294 (C)0.1 (C)0.4
o-Dichlorobenzene ................................ 95501 (C)50 (C)300
p-Dichlorobenzene ................................ 106467 75 450
3,3-Dichlorobenzidine; see
1926.1107 ....................................... 91941
Dichlorodifluoromethane ....................... 75718 1000 4950
1,3-Dichloro-5,5-dimethyl hydantoin ..... 118525 0.2
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) 50293 1 X
1,1-Dichloroethane ................................ 75343 100 400
1,2-Dichloroethane; see Ethylene di-
chloride.
1,2-Dichloroethylene ............................. 540590 200 790
Dichloroethyl ether ................................ 111444 (C)15 (C)90 X
Dichloromethane; see Methylene chlo-
ride.
Dichloromonofluoromethane ................. 75434 1000 4200
1,1-Dichloro-1-nitroethane ..................... 594729 (C)10 (C)60
1,2-Dichloropropane; see Propylene di-
chloride.
Dichlorotetrafluoroethane ...................... 76142 1000 7000
Dichlorvos (DDVP) ................................ 62737 1 X
Dieldrin .................................................. 60571 0.25 X

39

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1926.55 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUES OF AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS FOR CONSTRUCTIONContinued

Skin Designa-
Substance CAS No. d ppm a mg/m 3,b tion

Diethylamine .......................................... 109897 25 75


2-Diethylaminoethanol ........................... 100378 10 50 X
Diethylene triamine ............................... 111400 (C)10 (C)42 X
Diethyl ether; see Ethyl ether.
Difluorodibromomethane ....................... 75616 100 860
Diglycidyl ether (DGE) .......................... 2238075 (C)0.5 (C)2.8
Dihydroxybenzene; see Hydroquinone.
Diisobutyl ketone ................................... 108838 50 290
Diisopropylamine ................................... 108189 5 20 X
4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene; see
1926.1115 ....................................... 60117
Dimethoxymethane; see Methylal.
Dimethyl acetamide ............................... 127195 10 35 X
Dimethylamine ....................................... 124403 10 18
Dimethylaminobenzene; see Xylidine.
Dimethylaniline (N,N-Dimethylaniline) ... 121697 5 25 X
Dimethylbenzene; see Xylene.
Dimethyl-1,2-dibromo- 2,2-dichloroethyl
phosphate .......................................... 300765 3
Dimethylformamide ............................... 68122 10 30 X
2,6-Dimethyl-4-heptanone; see
Diisobutyl ketone.
1,1-Dimethylhydrazine ........................... 57147 0.5 1 X
Dimethylphthalate .................................. 131113 5
Dimethyl sulfate ..................................... 77783 1 5 X
Dinitrobenzene (all isomers) ................. 1 X
(ortho) ............................................. 528290
(meta) ............................................. 99650
(para) .............................................. 100254
Dinitro-o-cresol ...................................... 534521 0.2 X
Dinitrotoluene ........................................ 25321146 1.5 X
Dioxane (Diethylene dioxide) ................ 123911 100 360 X
Diphenyl (Biphenyl) ............................... 92524 0.2 1
Diphenylamine ....................................... 122394 10
Diphenylmethane diisocyanate; see
Methylene bisphenyl isocyanate.
Dipropylene glycol methyl ether ............ 34590948 100 600 X
Di-sec octyl phthalate (Di-(2-ethylhexyl)
phthalate) ........................................... 117817 5
Emery .................................................... 12415348
Total dust .......................................
Respirable fraction .........................
Endosulfan ............................................ 115297 0.1 X
Endrin .................................................... 72208 0.1 X
Epichlorohydrin ...................................... 106898 5 19 X
EPN ....................................................... 2104645 0.5 X
1,2-Epoxypropane; see Propylene
oxide.
2,3-Epoxy-1-propanol; see Glycidol.
Ethane ................................................... 74840 E
Ethanethiol; see Ethyl mercaptan.
Ethanolamine ........................................ 141435 3 6
2-Ethoxyethanol (Cellosolve) ................ 110805 200 740 X
2-Ethoxyethyl acetate (Cellosolve ace-
tate) .................................................... 111159 100 540 X
Ethyl acetate ......................................... 141786 400 1400
Ethyl acrylate ......................................... 140885 25 100 X
Ethyl alcohol (Ethanol) .......................... 64175 1000 1900
Ethylamine ............................................. 75047 10 18
Ethyl amyl ketone (5-Methyl-3-
heptanone) ......................................... 541855 25 130
Ethyl benzene ....................................... 100414 100 435

40

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.55

THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUES OF AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS FOR CONSTRUCTIONContinued

Skin Designa-
Substance CAS No. d ppm a mg/m 3,b tion

Ethyl bromide ........................................ 74964 200 890


Ethyl butyl ketone (3-Heptanone) ......... 106354 50 230
Ethyl chloride ......................................... 75003 1000 2600
Ethyl ether ............................................. 60297 400 1200
Ethyl formate ......................................... 109944 100 300
Ethyl mercaptan .................................... 75081 0.5 1
Ethyl silicate .......................................... 78104 100 850
Ethylene ................................................ 74851 E
Ethylene chlorohydrin ............................ 107073 5 16 X
Ethylenediamine .................................... 107153 10 25
Ethylene dibromide ............................... 106934 (C)25 (C)190 X
Ethylene dichloride (1,2-
Dichloroethane) ................................. 107062 50 200
Ethylene glycol dinitrate ........................ 628966 (C)0.2 (C)1 X
Ethylene glycol methyl acetate; see
Methyl cellosolve acetate.
Ethyleneimine; see 1926.1112 ........... 151564
Ethylene oxide; see 1926.1147 .......... 75218
Ethylidene chloride; see 1,1-
Dichloroethane.
N-Ethylmorpholine ................................. 100743 20 94 X
Ferbam .................................................. 14484641
Total dust ....................................... 15
Ferrovanadium dust .............................. 12604589 1
Fibrous Glass.
Total dust .......................................
Respirable fraction .........................
Fluorides (as F) ..................................... Varies with 2.5
compound
Fluorine ................................................. 7782414 0.1 0.2
Fluorotrichloromethane
(Trichlorofluoromethane) ................... 75694 1000 5600
Formaldehyde; see 1926.1148 ........... 50000
Formic acid ............................................ 64186 5 9
Furfural .................................................. 98011 5 20 X
Furfuryl alcohol ...................................... 98000 50 200
Gasoline ................................................ 8006619 A3
Glycerin (mist) ....................................... 56815
Total dust .......................................
Respirable fraction .........................
Glycidol .................................................. 556525 50 150
Glycol monoethyl ether; see 2-
Ethoxyethanol.
Graphite, natural, respirable dust ......... 7782425 ( 2) ( 2) (2)
Graphite, synthetic.
Total dust .......................................
Respirable fraction .........................
Guthion; see Azinphos methyl.
Gypsum ................................................. 13397245
Total dust .......................................
Respirable fraction .........................
Hafnium ................................................. 7440586 0.5
Helium ................................................... 7440597 E
Heptachlor ............................................. 76448 0.5 X
Heptane (n-Heptane) ............................ 142825 500 2000
Hexachloroethane ................................. 67721 1 10 X
Hexachloronaphthalene ........................ 1335871 0.2 X
n-Hexane ............................................... 110543 500 1800
2-Hexanone (Methyl n-butyl ketone) ..... 591786 100 410
Hexone (Methyl isobutyl ketone) .......... 108101 100 410
sec-Hexyl acetate .................................. 108849 50 300
Hydrazine .............................................. 302012 1 1.3 X

41

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1926.55 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUES OF AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS FOR CONSTRUCTIONContinued

Skin Designa-
Substance CAS No. d ppm a mg/m 3,b tion

Hydrogen ............................................... 1333740 E


Hydrogen bromide ................................. 10035106 3 10
Hydrogen chloride ................................. 7647010 (C)5 (C)7
Hydrogen cyanide ................................. 74908 10 11 X
Hydrogen fluoride (as F) ....................... 7664393 3 2
Hydrogen peroxide ................................ 7722841 1 1.4
Hydrogen selenide (as Se) ................... 7783075 0.05 .02
Hydrogen sulfide ................................... 7783064 10 15
Hydroquinone ........................................ 123319 2
Indene ................................................... 95136 10 45
Indium and compounds (as In) ............. 7440746 0.1
Iodine ..................................................... 7553562 (C)0.1 (C)1
Iron oxide fume ..................................... 1309371 10
Iron salts (soluble) (as Fe) .................... Varies with 1
compound
Isoamyl acetate ..................................... 123922 100 525
Isoamyl alcohol (primary and sec-
ondary) ............................................... 123513 100 360
Isobutyl acetate ..................................... 110190 150 700
Isobutyl alcohol ..................................... 78831 100 300
Isophorone ............................................ 78591 25 140
Isopropyl acetate ................................... 108214 250 950
Isopropyl alcohol ................................... 67630 400 980
Isopropylamine ...................................... 75310 5 12
Isopropyl ether ...................................... 108203 500 2100
Isopropyl glycidyl ether (IGE) ................ 4016142 50 240
Kaolin .................................................... 1332587
Total dust .......................................
Respirable fraction .........................
Ketene ................................................... 463514 0.5 0.9
Lead, inorganic (as Pb); see 1926.62 .. 7439921
Limestone .............................................. 1317653
Total dust .......................................
Respirable fraction .........................
Lindane .................................................. 58899 0.5 X
Lithium hydride ...................................... 7580678 0.025
L.P.G. (Liquefied petroleum gas) .......... 68476857 1000 1800
Magnesite .............................................. 546930
Total dust .......................................
Respirable fraction .........................
Magnesium oxide fume ......................... 1309484
Total particulate ............................. 15
Malathion ............................................... 121755
Total dust ....................................... 15 X
Maleic anhydride ................................... 108316 0.25
Manganese compounds (as Mn) .......... 7439965 (C)5
Manganese fume (as Mn) ..................... 7439965 (C)5
Marble ................................................... 1317653
Total dust .......................................
Respirable fraction .........................
Mercury (aryl and inorganic)(as Hg) ..... 7439976 0.1 X
Mercury (organo) alkyl compounds (as
Hg) ..................................................... 7439976 0.01 X
Mercury (vapor) (as Hg) ........................ 7439976 0.1 X
Mesityl oxide ......................................... 141797 25 100
Methane ................................................ 74828 E
Methanethiol; see Methyl mercaptan.
Methoxychlor ......................................... 72435
Total dust ....................................... 15
2-Methoxyethanol (Methyl cellosolve) ... 109864 25 80 X
2-Methoxyethyl acetate (Methyl
cellosolve acetate) ............................. 110496 25 120 X

42

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.55

THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUES OF AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS FOR CONSTRUCTIONContinued

Skin Designa-
Substance CAS No. d ppm a mg/m 3,b tion

Methyl acetate ....................................... 79209 200 610


Methyl acetylene (Propyne) .................. 74997 1000 1650
Methyl acetylene-propadiene mixture
(MAPP) .............................................. 1000 1800
Methyl acrylate ...................................... 96333 10 35 X
Methylal (Dimethoxy-methane) ............. 109875 1000 3100
Methyl alcohol ....................................... 67561 200 260
Methylamine .......................................... 74895 10 12
Methyl amyl alcohol; see Methyl iso-
butyl carbinol.
Methyl n-amyl ketone ............................ 110430 100 465
Methyl bromide ...................................... 74839 (C)20 (C)80 X
Methyl butyl ketone; see 2-Hexanone.
Methyl cellosolve; see 2-
Methoxyethanol.
Methyl cellosolve acetate; see 2-
Methoxyethyl acetate.
Methylene chloride; see 1910.1052.
Methyl chloroform (1,1,1-Trichloro-
ethane) ............................................... 71556 350 1900
Methylcyclohexane ................................ 108872 500 2000
Methylcyclohexanol ............................... 25639423 100 470
o-Methylcyclohexanone ......................... 583608 100 460 X
Methylene chloride ................................ 75092 500 1740
Methylenedianiline (MDA) ..................... 101779
Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK); see 2-Buta-
none.
Methyl formate ...................................... 107313 100 250
Methyl hydrazine (Monomethyl hydra-
zine) ................................................... 60344 (C)0.2 (C)0.35 X
Methyl iodide ......................................... 74884 5 28 X
Methyl isoamyl ketone .......................... 110123 100 475
Methyl isobutyl carbinol ......................... 108112 25 100 X
Methyl isobutyl ketone; see Hexone.
Methyl isocyanate ................................. 624839 0.02 0.05 X
Methyl mercaptan .................................. 74931 0.5 1
Methyl methacrylate .............................. 80626 100 410
Methyl propyl ketone; see 2-Pentanone.
Methyl silicate ........................................ 681845 (C)5 (C)30
alpha-Methyl styrene ............................. 98839 (C)100 (C)480
Methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI) 101688 (C)0.02 (C)0.2
Mica; see Silicates.
Molybdenum (as Mo) ............................ 7439987
Soluble compounds ....................... 5
Insoluble compounds.
Total dust .................................... 15
Monomethyl aniline ............................... 100618 2 9 X
Monomethyl hydrazine; see Methyl hy-
drazine.
Morpholine ............................................. 110918 20 70 X
Naphtha (Coal tar) ................................ 8030306 100 400
Naphthalene .......................................... 91203 10 50
alpha-Naphthylamine; see 1926.1104 134327
beta-Naphthylamine; see 1926.1109 91598
Neon ...................................................... 7440019 E
Nickel carbonyl (as Ni) .......................... 13463393 0.001 0.007
Nickel, metal and insoluble compounds
(as Ni) ................................................ 7440020 1
Nickel, soluble compounds (as Ni) ....... 7440020 1
Nicotine ................................................. 54115 0.5 X
Nitric acid .............................................. 7697372 2 5
Nitric oxide ............................................ 10102439 25 30

43

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1926.55 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUES OF AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS FOR CONSTRUCTIONContinued

Skin Designa-
Substance CAS No. d ppm a mg/m 3,b tion

p-Nitroaniline ......................................... 100016 1 6 X


Nitrobenzene ......................................... 98953 1 5 X
p-Nitrochlorobenzene ............................ 100005 1 X
4-Nitrodiphenyl; see 1926.1103 ......... 92933
Nitroethane ............................................ 79243 100 310
Nitrogen ................................................. 7727379 E
Nitrogen dioxide .................................... 10102440 (C)5 (C)9
Nitrogen trifluoride ................................. 7783542 10 29
Nitroglycerin .......................................... 55630 (C)0.2 (C)2 X
Nitromethane ......................................... 75525 100 250
1-Nitropropane ...................................... 108032 25 90
2-Nitropropane ...................................... 79469 25 90
N-Nitrosodimethylamine; see
1926.1116 ....................................... 62799
Nitrotoluene (all isomers) ...................... 5 30 X
o-isomer ......................................... 88722;
m-isomer ........................................ 99081;
p-isomer ......................................... 99990
Nitrotrichloromethane; see Chloropicrin.
Nitrous oxide ......................................... 10024972 E
Octachloronaphthalene ......................... 2234131 0.1 X
Octane ................................................... 111659 400 1900
Oil mist, mineral .................................... 8012951 5
Osmium tetroxide (as Os) ..................... 20816120 0.002
Oxalic acid ............................................. 144627 1
Oxygen difluoride .................................. 7783417 0.05 0.1
Ozone .................................................... 10028156 0.1 0.2
Paraquat, respirable dust ...................... 4685147; 0.5 X
1910425;
2074502
Parathion ............................................... 56382 0.1 X
Particulates not otherwise regulated.
Total dust organic and inorganic ... 15
PCB; see Chlorodiphenyl (42% and
54% chlorine).
Pentaborane .......................................... 19624227 0.005 0.01
Pentachloronaphthalene ....................... 1321648 0.5 X
Pentachlorophenol ................................ 87865 0.5 X
Pentaerythritol ....................................... 115775
Total dust .......................................
Respirable fraction .........................
Pentane ................................................. 109660 500 1500
2-Pentanone (Methyl propyl ketone) ..... 107879 200 700
Perchloroethylene
(Tetrachloroethylene) ......................... 127184 100 670
Perchloromethyl mercaptan .................. 594423 0.1 0.8
Perchloryl fluoride ................................. 7616946 3 13.5
Petroleum distillates (Naphtha)(Rubber
Solvent) .............................................. A3
Phenol ................................................... 108952 5 19 X
p-Phenylene diamine ............................ 106503 0.1 X
Phenyl ether, vapor ............................... 101848 1 7
Phenyl ether-biphenyl mixture, vapor ... 1 7
Phenylethylene; see Styrene.
Phenyl glycidyl ether (PGE) .................. 122601 10 60
Phenylhydrazine .................................... 100630 5 22 X
Phosdrin (Mevinphos) ........................... 7786347 0.1 X
Phosgene (Carbonyl chloride) .............. 75445 0.1 0.4
Phosphine ............................................. 7803512 0.3 0.4
Phosphoric acid ..................................... 7664382 1
Phosphorus (yellow) .............................. 7723140 0.1
Phosphorus pentachloride .................... 10026138 1

44

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.55

THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUES OF AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS FOR CONSTRUCTIONContinued

Skin Designa-
Substance CAS No. d ppm a mg/m 3,b tion

Phosphorus pentasulfide ....................... 1314803 1


Phosphorus trichloride .......................... 7719122 0.5 3
Phthalic anhydride ................................. 85449 2 12
Picric acid .............................................. 88891 0.1 X
Pindone (2-Pivalyl-1,3-indandione) ....... 83261 0.1
Plaster of Paris ...................................... 26499650
Total dust .......................................
Respirable fraction .........................
Platinum (as Pt) .................................... 7440064
Metal ..............................................
Soluble salts ................................... 0.002
Polytetrafluoroethylene decomposition
products ............................................. A2
Portland cement .................................... 65997151
Total dust ....................................... 15
Respirable fraction ......................... 5
Propane ................................................. 74986 E
Propargyl alcohol .................................. 107197 1 X
beta-Propriolactone; see 1926.1113 .. 57578
n-Propyl acetate .................................... 109604 200 840
n-Propyl alcohol .................................... 71238 200 500
n-Propyl nitrate ...................................... 627134 25 110
Propylene dichloride .............................. 78875 75 350
Propylene imine .................................... 75558 2 5 X
Propylene oxide .................................... 75569 100 240
Propyne; see Methyl acetylene.
Pyrethrum .............................................. 8003347 5
Pyridine ................................................. 110861 5 15
Quinone ................................................. 106514 0.1 0.4
RDX; see Cyclonite.
Rhodium (as Rh), metal fume and in-
soluble compounds ............................ 7440166 0.1
Rhodium (as Rh), soluble compounds 7440166 0.001
Ronnel ................................................... 299843 10
Rotenone ............................................... 83794 5
Rouge.
Total dust .......................................
Respirable fraction .........................
Selenium compounds (as Se) ............... 7782492 0.2
Selenium hexafluoride (as Se) .............. 7783791 0.05 0.4
Silica, amorphous, precipitated and gel 112926008 ( 2) ( 2) (2)
Silica, amorphous, diatomaceous earth,
containing less than 1% crystalline
silica ................................................... 61790532 ( 2) (2) ( 2)
Silica, crystalline cristobalite, respirable
dust .................................................... 14464461 ( 2) ( 2) (2)
Silica, crystalline quartz, respirable dust 14808607 ( 2) ( 2) (2)
Silica, crystalline tripoli (as quartz), res-
pirable dust ........................................ 1317959 ( 2) (2) ( 2)
Silica, crystalline tridymite, respirable
dust .................................................... 15468323 ( 2) (2) (2)
Silica, fused, respirable dust ................. 60676860 ( 2) (2) (2)
Silicates (less than 1% crystalline sili-
ca).
Mica (respirable dust) .................... 12001262 ( 2) (2) ( 2)
Soapstone, total dust ..................... ( 2) ( 2) (2)
Soapstone, respirable dust ............ ( 2) ( 2) (2)
Talc (containing asbestos); use as-
bestos limit; see 1926.58.
Talc (containing no asbestos), res-
pirable dust ................................. 14807966 ( 2) (2) ( 2)

45

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1926.55 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUES OF AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS FOR CONSTRUCTIONContinued

Skin Designa-
Substance CAS No. d ppm a mg/m 3,b tion

Tremolite, asbestiform; see


1926.58.
Silicon carbide ....................................... 409212
Total dust .......................................
Respirable fraction .........................
Silver, metal and soluble compounds
(as Ag) ............................................... 7440224 0.01
Soapstone; see Silicates.
Sodium fluoroacetate ............................ 62748 0.05 X
Sodium hydroxide ................................. 1310732 2
Starch .................................................... 9005258
Total dust .......................................
Respirable fraction .........................
Stibine ................................................... 7803523 0.1 0.5
Stoddard solvent ................................... 8052413 200 1150
Strychnine ............................................. 57249 0.15
Styrene .................................................. 100425 (C)100 (C)420
Sucrose ................................................. 57501
Total dust .......................................
Respirable fraction .........................
Sulfur dioxide ........................................ 7446095 5 13
Sulfur hexafluoride ................................ 2551624 1000 6000
Sulfuric acid ........................................... 7664939 1
Sulfur monochloride .............................. 10025679 1 6
Sulfur pentafluoride ............................... 5714227 0.025 0.25
Sulfuryl fluoride ..................................... 2699798 5 20
Systox, see Demeton.
2,4,5-T (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic
acid) ................................................... 93765 10
Talc; see Silicates.
Tantalum, metal and oxide dust ........... 7440257 5
TEDP (Sulfotep) .................................... 3689245 0.2 X
Teflon decomposition products ............. A2
Tellurium and compounds (as Te) ........ 13494809 0.1
Tellurium hexafluoride (as Te) .............. 7783804 0.02 0.2
Temephos ............................................. 3383968
Total dust .......................................
Respirable fraction .........................
TEPP (Tetraethyl pyrophosphate) ........ 107493 0.05 X
Terphenyls ............................................. 26140603 (C)1 (C)9
1,1,1,2-Tetrachloro-2,2-difluoroethane .. 76119 500 4170
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloro-1,2-difluoroethane .. 76120 500 4170
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane ..................... 79345 5 35 X
Tetrachloroethylene; see
Perchloroethylene.
Tetrachloromethane; see Carbon tetra-
chloride.
Tetrachloronaphthalene ........................ 1335882 2 X
Tetraethyl lead (as Pb) ......................... 78002 0.1 X
Tetrahydrofuran ..................................... 109999 200 590
Tetramethyl lead, (as Pb) ..................... 75741 0.15 X
Tetramethyl succinonitrile ..................... 3333526 0.5 3 X
Tetranitromethane ................................. 509148 1 8
Tetryl (2,4,6-
Trinitrophenylmethylnitramine) .......... 479458 1.5 X
Thallium, soluble compounds (as Tl) .... 7440280 0.1 X
Thiram ................................................... 137268 5
Tin, inorganic compounds (except ox-
ides) (as Sn) ...................................... 7440315 2
Tin, organic compounds (as Sn) ........... 7440315 0.1
Tin oxide (as Sn) ................................... 21651194
Total dust .......................................

46

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.55

THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUES OF AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS FOR CONSTRUCTIONContinued

Skin Designa-
Substance CAS No. d ppm a mg/m 3,b tion

Respirable fraction .........................


Titanium dioxide .................................... 13463677
Total dust .......................................
Toluene ................................................. 108883 200 750
Toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) ............. 584849 (C)0.02 (C)0.14
o-Toluidine ............................................. 95534 5 22 X
Toxaphene; see Chlorinated camphene.
Tremolite; see Silicates.
Tributyl phosphate ................................. 126738 5
1,1,1-Trichloroethane; see Methyl chlo-
roform.
1,1,2-Trichloroethane ............................ 79005 10 45 X
Trichloroethylene ................................... 79016 100 535
Trichloromethane; see Chloroform.
Trichloronaphthalene ............................. 1321659 5 X
1,2,3-Trichloropropane .......................... 96184 50 300
1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane ...... 76131 1000 7600
Triethylamine ......................................... 121448 25 100
Trifluorobromomethane ......................... 75638 1000 6100
Trimethyl benzene ................................. 25551137 25 120
2,4,6-Trinitrophenol; see Picric acid.
2,4,6-Trinitrophenylmethylnitramine;
see Tetryl.
2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) .................... 118967 1.5 X
Triorthocresyl phosphate ....................... 78308 0.1
Triphenyl phosphate .............................. 115866 3
Tungsten (as W) ................................... 7440337
Insoluble compounds ..................... 5
Soluble compounds ....................... 1
Turpentine ............................................. 8006642 100 560
Uranium (as U) ...................................... 7440611
Soluble compounds ....................... 0.2
Insoluble compounds ..................... 0.2
Vanadium .............................................. 1314621
Respirable dust (as V2 O5) ............ (C)0.5
Fume (as V2 O5) ............................ (C)0.1
Vegetable oil mist.
Total dust .......................................
Respirable fraction .........................
Vinyl benzene; see Styrene.
Vinyl chloride; see 1926.1117 ............ 75014
Vinyl cyanide; see Acrylonitrile.
Vinyl toluene .......................................... 25013154 100 480
Warfarin ................................................. 81812 0.1
Xylenes (o-, m-, p-isomers) .................. 1330207 100 435
Xylidine .................................................. 1300738 5 25 X
Yttrium ................................................... 7440655 1
Zinc chloride fume ................................. 7646857 1
Zinc oxide fume ..................................... 1314132 5
Zinc oxide .............................................. 1314132
Total dust ....................................... 15
Respirable fraction ......................... 5
Zirconium compounds (as Zr) ............... 7440677 5

MINERAL DUSTS
SILICA:
Crystalline
Quartz. Threshold Limit calculated from the formula .......... 250 (k)

%SiO2+5

47

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1926.56 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

MINERAL DUSTSContinued
Cristobalite.
Amorphous, including natural diatomaceous earth ...... 20
SILICATES (less than 1% crystalline silica)
Mica .............................................................................. 20
Portland cement ............................................................ 50
Soapstone ..................................................................... 20
Talc (non-asbestiform) .................................................. 20
Talc (fibrous), use asbestos limit .................................. --
Graphite (natural) ................................................................. 15

Inert or Nuisance Particulates: (m) 50 (or 15 mg/m3 whichever is the smaller) of total
dust <1% SiO2
[Inert or Nuisance Dusts includes all mineral, inorganic,
and organic dusts as indicated by examples in TLVs
appendix D]
Conversion factors.
mppcf 35.3 = million particles per cubic meter = particles
per c.c.
Footnotes
1 [Reserved]
2 See Mineral Dusts Table.
3 Use Asbestos Limit 1926.58.
4 See 1926.58.
* The PELs are 8-hour TWAs unless otherwise noted; a (C) designation denotes a ceiling limit.
** As determined from breathing-zone air samples.
a Parts of vapor or gas per million parts of contaminated air by volume at 25 C and 760 torr.
b Milligrams of substance per cubic meter of air. When entry is in this column only, the value is exact; when listed with a
ppm entry, it is approximate.
c [Reserved]
d The CAS number is for information only. Enforcement is based on the substance name. For an entry covering more than
one metal compound, measured as the metal, the CAS number for the metal is givennot CAS numbers for the individual
compounds.
e f [Reserved]
g For sectors excluded from 1926.1128 the limit is 10 ppm TWA.
h i [Reserved]
j Millions of particles per cubic foot of air, based on impinger samples counted by light-field techniques.
k The percentage of crystalline silica in the formula is the amount determined from airborne samples, except in those in-
stances in which other methods have been shown to be applicable.
l [Reserved]
m Covers all organic and inorganic particulates not otherwise regulated. Same as Particulates Not Otherwise Regulated.
n If the exposure limit in 1926.1126 is stayed or is otherwise not in effect, the exposure limit is a ceiling of 0.1 mg/m3.
o If the exposure limit in 1926.1126 is stayed or is otherwise not in effect, the exposure limit is 0.1 mg/m3 (as CrO ) as an
3
8-hour TWA.
The 1970 TLV uses letter designations instead of a numerical value as follows:
A 1 [Reserved]
A 2 Polytetrafluoroethylene decomposition products. Because these products decompose in part by hydrolysis in alkaline solu-
tion, they can be quantitatively determined in air as fluoride to provide an index of exposure. No TLV is recommended pending
determination of the toxicity of the products, but air concentrations should be minimal.
A 3 Gasoline and/or Petroleum Distillates. The composition of these materials varies greatly and thus a single TLV for all
types of these materials is no longer applicable. The content of benzene, other aromatics and additives should be determined
to arrive at the appropriate TLV.
E Simple asphyxiants. The limiting factor is the available oxygen which shall be at least 19.5% and be within the require-
ments addressing explosion in part 1926.

[39 FR 22801, June 24, 1974, as amended at 51 FR 37007, Oct. 17, 1986; 52 FR 46312, Dec. 4, 1987;
58 FR 35089, June 30, 1993; 61 FR 9249, 9250, Mar. 7, 1996; 61 FR 56856, Nov. 4, 1996; 62 FR 1619,
Jan. 10, 1997; 71 FR 10381, Feb. 28, 2006; 71 FR 36009, June 23, 2006]

1926.56 Illumination. TABLE D3MINIMUM ILLUMINATION INTENSITIES


IN FOOT-CANDLES
(a) General. Construction areas,
ramps, runways, corridors, offices, Foot-candles Area or operation
shops, and storage areas shall be light-
5 ........................ General construction area lighting.
ed to not less than the minimum illu- 3 ........................ General construction areas, concrete
mination intensities listed in Table D placement, excavation and waste areas,
3 while any work is in progress: accessways, active storage areas, load-
ing platforms, refueling, and field main-
tenance areas.
5 ........................ Indoors: warehouses, corridors, hallways,
and exitways.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.57

TABLE D3MINIMUM ILLUMINATION INTENSITIES sion in harmful quantities into the at-
IN FOOT-CANDLESContinued mosphere where employees work.
(d) Duration of operations. (1) The ex-
Foot-candles Area or operation
haust system shall be in operation con-
5 ........................ Tunnels, shafts, and general underground tinually during all operations which it
work areas: (Exception: minimum of 10 is designed to serve. If the employee re-
foot-candles is required at tunnel and mains in the contaminated zone, the
shaft heading during drilling, mucking,
and scaling. Bureau of Mines approved system shall continue to operate after
cap lights shall be acceptable for use in the cessation of said operations, the
the tunnel heading.) length of time to depend upon the indi-
10 ...................... General construction plant and shops
vidual circumstances and effectiveness
(e.g., batch plants, screening plants,
mechanical and electrical equipment of the general ventilation system.
rooms, carpenter shops, rigging lofts (2) Since dust capable of causing dis-
and active storerooms, barracks or liv- ability is, according to the best med-
ing quarters, locker or dressing rooms,
mess halls, and indoor toilets and work-
ical opinion, of microscopic size, tend-
rooms). ing to remain for hours in suspension
30 ...................... First aid stations, infirmaries, and offices. in still air, it is essential that the ex-
haust system be continued in operation
(b) Other areas. For areas or oper- for a time after the work process or
ations not covered above, refer to the equipment served by the same shall
American National Standard A11.1 have ceased, in order to ensure the re-
1965, R1970, Practice for Industrial moval of the harmful elements to the
Lighting, for recommended values of il- required extent. For the same reason,
lumination. employees wearing respiratory equip-
ment should not remove same imme-
1926.57 Ventilation. diately until the atmosphere seems
(a) General. Whenever hazardous sub- clear.
stances such as dusts, fumes, mists, va- (e) Disposal of exhaust materials. The
pors, or gases exist or are produced in air outlet from every dust separator,
and the dusts, fumes, mists, vapors, or
the course of construction work, their
gases collected by an exhaust or ven-
concentrations shall not exceed the
tilating system shall discharge to the
limits specified in 1926.55(a). When
outside atmosphere. Collecting sys-
ventilation is used as an engineering
tems which return air to work area
control method, the system shall be in-
may be used if concentrations which
stalled and operated according to the
accumulate in the work area air do not
requirements of this section. result in harmful exposure to employ-
(b) Local exhaust ventilation. Local ex- ees. Dust and refuse discharged from an
haust ventilation when used as de- exhaust system shall be disposed of in
scribed in (a) shall be designed to pre- such a manner that it will not result in
vent dispersion into the air of dusts, harmful exposure to employees.
fumes, mists, vapors, and gases in con- (f) Abrasive blasting(1) Definitions
centrations causing harmful exposure. applicable to this paragraph(i) Abra-
Such exhaust systems shall be so de- sive. A solid substance used in an abra-
signed that dusts, fumes, mists, vapors, sive blasting operation.
or gases are not drawn through the (ii) Abrasive-blasting respirator. A res-
work area of employees. pirator constructed so that it covers
(c) Design and operation. Exhaust the wearers head, neck, and shoulders
fans, jets, ducts, hoods, separators, and to protect the wearer from rebounding
all necessary appurtenances, including abrasive.
refuse receptacles, shall be so designed, (iii) Blast cleaning barrel. A complete
constructed, maintained and operated enclosure which rotates on an axis, or
as to ensure the required protection by which has an internal moving tread to
maintaining a volume and velocity of tumble the parts, in order to expose
exhaust air sufficient to gather dusts, various surfaces of the parts to the ac-
fumes, vapors, or gases from said tion of an automatic blast spray.
equipment or process, and to convey (iv) Blast cleaning room. A complete
them to suitable points of safe dis- enclosure in which blasting operations
posal, thereby preventing their disper- are performed and where the operator

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1926.57 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

works inside of the room to operate the matic systems. Where flammable or ex-
blasting nozzle and direct the flow of plosive dust mixtures may be present,
the abrasive material. the construction of the equipment, in-
(v) Blasting cabinet. An enclosure cluding the exhaust system and all
where the operator stands outside and electric wiring, shall conform to the
operates the blasting nozzle through an requirements of American National
opening or openings in the enclosure. Standard Installation of Blower and
(vi) Clean air. Air of such purity that Exhaust Systems for Dust, Stock, and
it will not cause harm or discomfort to Vapor Removal or Conveying, Z33.1
an individual if it is inhaled for ex- 1961 (NFPA 911961), and subpart S of
tended periods of time. this part. The blast nozzle shall be
(vii) Dust collector. A device or com- bonded and grounded to prevent the
bination of devices for separating dust build up of static charges. Where flam-
from the air handled by an exhaust mable or explosive dust mixtures may
ventilation system. be present, the abrasive blasting enclo-
(viii) Exhaust ventilation system. A sure, the ducts, and the dust collector
system for removing contaminated air shall be constructed with loose panels
from a space, comprising two or more or explosion venting areas, located on
of the following elements (A) enclosure sides away from any occupied area, to
or hood, (B) duct work, (C) dust col- provide for pressure relief in case of ex-
lecting equipment, (D) exhauster, and plosion, following the principles set
(E) discharge stack. forth in the National Fire Protection
(ix) Particulate-filter respirator. An air Association Explosion Venting Guide.
purifying respirator, commonly re- NFPA 681954.
ferred to as a dust or a fume respirator, (3) Blast-cleaning enclosures. (i) Blast-
which removes most of the dust or cleaning enclosures shall be exhaust
fume from the air passing through the ventilated in such a way that a contin-
device. uous inward flow of air will be main-
(x) Respirable dust. Airborne dust in tained at all openings in the enclosure
sizes capable of passing through the during the blasting operation.
upper respiratory system to reach the (A) All air inlets and access openings
lower lung passages. shall be baffled or so arranged that by
(xi) Rotary blast cleaning table. An en- the combination of inward air flow and
closure where the pieces to be cleaned baffling the escape of abrasive or dust
are positioned on a rotating table and particles into an adjacent work area
are passed automatically through a se- will be minimized and visible spurts of
ries of blast sprays. dust will not be observed.
(xii) Abrasive blasting. The forcible (B) The rate of exhaust shall be suffi-
application of an abrasive to a surface cient to provide prompt clearance of
by pneumatic pressure, hydraulic pres- the dust-laden air within the enclosure
sure, or centrifugal force. after the cessation of blasting.
(2) Dust hazards from abrasive blasting. (C) Before the enclosure is opened,
(i) Abrasives and the surface coatings the blast shall be turned off and the ex-
on the materials blasted are shattered haust system shall be run for a suffi-
and pulverized during blasting oper- cient period of time to remove the
ations and the dust formed will contain dusty air within the enclosure.
particles of respirable size. The com- (D) Safety glass protected by screen-
position and toxicity of the dust from ing shall be used in observation win-
these sources shall be considered in dows, where hard deep-cutting abra-
making an evaluation of the potential sives are used.
health hazards. (E) Slit abrasive-resistant baffles
(ii) The concentration of respirable shall be installed in multiple sets at all
dust or fume in the breathing zone of small access openings where dust
the abrasive-blasting operator or any might escape, and shall be inspected
other worker shall be kept below the regularly and replaced when needed.
levels specified in 1926.55 or other per- (1) Doors shall be flanged and tight
tinent sections of this part. when closed.
(iii) Organic abrasives which are (2) Doors on blast-cleaning rooms
combustible shall be used only in auto- shall be operable from both inside and

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.57

outside, except that where there is a other pertinent sections of this part
small operator access door, the large and the nozzle and blast are not phys-
work access door may be closed or ically separated from the operator in
opened from the outside only. an exhaust-ventilated enclosure.
(4) Exhaust ventilation systems. (i) The (iii) Properly fitted particulate-filter
construction, installation, inspection, respirators, commonly referred to as
and maintenance of exhaust systems dust-filter respirators, may be used for
shall conform to the principles and re- short, intermittent, or occasional dust
quirements set forth in American Na- exposures such as cleanup, dumping of
tional Standard Fundamentals Gov- dust collectors, or unloading shipments
erning the Design and Operation of of sand at a receiving point when it is
Local Exhaust Systems, Z9.21960, and not feasible to control the dust by en-
ANSI Z33.11961. closure, exhaust ventilation, or other
(a) When dust leaks are noted, re- means. The respirators used must be
pairs shall be made as soon as possible. approved by NIOSH under 42 CFR part
(b) The static pressure drop at the ex- 84 for protection against the specific
haust ducts leading from the equip- type of dust encountered.
ment shall be checked when the instal- (iv) A respiratory protection program
lation is completed and periodically as defined and described in 1926.103,
thereafter to assure continued satisfac- shall be established wherever it is nec-
tory operation. Whenever an appre- essary to use respiratory protective
ciable change in the pressure drop indi- equipment.
cates a partial blockage, the system (v) Operators shall be equipped with
shall be cleaned and returned to nor- heavy canvas or leather gloves and
mal operating condition. aprons or equivalent protection to pro-
(ii) In installations where the abra- tect them from the impact of abra-
sive is recirculated, the exhaust ven- sives. Safety shoes shall be worn to
tilation system for the blasting enclo- protect against foot injury where
sure shall not be relied upon for the re- heavy pieces of work are handled.
moval of fines from the spent abrasive (A) Safety shoes shall conform to the
instead of an abrasive separator. An requirements of American National
abrasive separator shall be provided for Standard for Mens Safety-Toe Foot-
the purpose. wear, Z41.11967.
(iii) The air exhausted from blast- (B) Equipment for protection of the
cleaning equipment shall be discharged eyes and face shall be supplied to the
through dust collecting equipment. operator when the respirator design
Dust collectors shall be set up so that does not provide such protection and to
the accumulated dust can be emptied any other personnel working in the vi-
and removed without contaminating cinity of abrasive blasting operations.
other working areas. This equipment shall conform to the
(5) Personal protective equipment. (i) requirements of 1926.102.
Employers must use only respirators (6) Air supply and air compressors. Air
approved by NIOSH under 42 CFR part for abrasive-blasting respirators must
84 for protecting employees from dusts be free of harmful quantities of dusts,
produced during abrasive-blasting op- mists, or noxious gases, and must meet
erations. the requirements for supplied-air qual-
(ii) Abrasive-blasting respirators ity and use specified in 29 CFR
shall be worn by all abrasive-blasting 1910.134(i).
operators: (7) Operational procedures and general
(A) When working inside of blast- safety. Dust shall not be permitted to
cleaning rooms, or accumulate on the floor or on ledges
(B) When using silica sand in manual outside of an abrasive-blasting enclo-
blasting operations where the nozzle sure, and dust spills shall be cleaned up
and blast are not physically separated promptly. Aisles and walkways shall be
from the operator in an exhaust venti- kept clear of steel shot or similar abra-
lated enclosure, or sive which may create a slipping haz-
(C) Where concentrations of toxic ard.
dust dispersed by the abrasive blasting (8) Scope. This paragraph applies to
may exceed the limits set in 1926.55 or all operations where an abrasive is

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1926.57 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

forcibly applied to a surface by pneu- this standard, consisting of abrasive


matic or hydraulic pressure, or by cen- particles held together by artificial or
trifugal force. It does not apply to natural bonds and used for peripheral
steam blasting, or steam cleaning, or grinding.
hydraulic cleaning methods where (ix) Header pipe (main pipe). A pipe
work is done without the aid of abra- into which one or more branch pipes
sives. enter and which connects such branch
(g) Grinding, polishing, and buffing op- pipes to the remainder of the exhaust
erations(1) Definitions applicable to system.
this paragraph
(x) Hoods and enclosures. The partial
(i) Abrasive cutting-off wheels. Or-
or complete enclosure around the
ganic-bonded wheels, the thickness of
which is not more than one forty- wheel or disc through which air enters
eighth of their diameter for those up an exhaust system during operation.
to, and including, 20 inches (50.8 cm) in (xi) Horizontal double-spindle disc
diameter, and not more than one-six- grinder. A grinding machine carrying
tieth of their diameter for those larger two power-driven, rotatable, coaxial,
than 20 inches (50.8 cm) in diameter, horizontal spindles upon the inside
used for a multitude of operations var- ends of which are mounted abrasive
iously known as cutting, cutting off, disc wheels used for grinding two sur-
grooving, slotting, coping, and joint- faces simultaneously.
ing, and the like. The wheels may be (xii) Horizontal single-spindle disc
solid consisting of organic-bonded grinder. A grinding machine carrying
abrasive material throughout, steel an abrasive disc wheel upon one or
centered consisting of a steel disc both ends of a power-driven, rotatable
with a rim of organic-bonded material single horizontal spindle.
moulded around the periphery, or of (xiii) Polishing and buffing wheels. All
the inserted tooth type consisting of power-driven rotatable wheels com-
a steel disc with organic-bonded abra- posed all or in part of textile fabrics,
sive teeth or inserts mechanically se-
wood, felt, leather, paper, and may be
cured around the periphery.
coated with abrasives on the periphery
(ii) Belts. All power-driven, flexible,
coated bands used for grinding, of the wheel for purposes of polishing,
polishing, or buffing purposes. buffing, and light grinding.
(iii) Branch pipe. The part of an ex- (xiv) Portable grinder. Any power-driv-
haust system piping that is connected en rotatable grinding, polishing, or
directly to the hood or enclosure. buffing wheel mounted in such manner
(iv) Cradle. A movable fixture, upon that it may be manually manipulated.
which the part to be ground or polished (xv) Scratch brush wheels. All power-
is placed. driven rotatable wheels made from
(v) Disc wheels. All power-driven ro- wire or bristles, and used for scratch
tatable discs faced with abrasive mate- cleaning and brushing purposes.
rials, artificial or natural, and used for (xvi) Swing-frame grinder. Any power-
grinding or polishing on the side of the driven rotatable grinding, polishing, or
assembled disc. buffing wheel mounted in such a man-
(vi) Entry loss. The loss in static pres- ner that the wheel with its supporting
sure caused by air flowing into a duct framework can be manipulated over
or hood. It is usually expressed in stationary objects.
inches of water gauge. (xvii) Velocity pressure (vp). The ki-
(vii) Exhaust system. A system con-
netic pressure in the direction of flow
sisting of branch pipes connected to
necessary to cause a fluid at rest to
hoods or enclosures, one or more head-
er pipes, an exhaust fan, means for sep- flow at a given velocity. It is usually
arating solid contaminants from the expressed in inches of water gauge.
air flowing in the system, and a dis- (xviii) Vertical spindle disc grinder. A
charge stack to outside. grinding machine having a vertical, ro-
(viii) Grinding wheels. All power-driv- tatable power-driven spindle carrying a
en rotatable grinding or abrasive horizontal abrasive disc wheel.
wheels, except disc wheels as defined in

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.57

(2) Application. Wherever dry grind- (iii) Scratch-brush wheels and all
ing, dry polishing or buffing is per- buffing and polishing wheels mounted
formed, and employee exposure, with- on floor stands, pedestals, benches, or
out regard to the use of respirators, ex- special-purpose machines shall have
ceeds the permissible exposure limits not less than the minimum exhaust
prescribed in 1926.55 or other perti- volume shown in Table D57.2.
nent sections of this part, a local ex-
haust ventilation system shall be pro- TABLE D57.2BUFFING AND POLISHING
vided and used to maintain employee WHEELS
exposures within the prescribed limits. Minimum
Wheel
(3) Hood and branch pipe requirements. Wheel diameter, inches (cm) width, exhaust
volume
(i) Hoods connected to exhaust systems inches cm) (feet3/min.)
shall be used, and such hoods shall be
designed, located, and placed so that To 9 (22.86) ................................... 2 (5.08) 300
Over 9 to 16 (22.86 to 40.64) ....... 3 (7.62) 500
the dust or dirt particles shall fall or Over 16 to 19 (40.64 to 48.26) ..... 4 (10.16) 610
be projected into the hoods in the di- Over 19 to 24 (48.26 to 60.96) ..... 5 (12.7) 740
rection of the air flow. No wheels, Over 24 to 30 (60.96 to 76.2) ....... 6 (15.24) 1,040
Over 30 to 36 (76.2 to 91.44) ....... 6 (15.24) 1,200
discs, straps, or belts shall be operated
in such manner and in such direction
(iv) Grinding wheels or discs for hori-
as to cause the dust and dirt particles
zontal single-spindle disc grinders shall
to be thrown into the operators
be hooded to collect the dust or dirt
breathing zone.
generated by the grinding operation
(ii) Grinding wheels on floor stands,
and the hoods shall be connected to
pedestals, benches, and special-purpose
branch pipes having exhaust volumes
grinding machines and abrasive cut-
as shown in Table D57.3.
ting-off wheels shall have not less than
the minimum exhaust volumes shown TABLE D57.3HORIZONTAL SINGLE-SPINDLE
in Table D57.1 with a recommended DISC GRINDER
minimum duct velocity of 4,500 feet per
minute in the branch and 3,500 feet per Exhaust
Disc diameter, inches (cm) volume
minute in the main. The entry losses (ft.3/min.)
from all hoods except the vertical-spin-
Up to 12 (30.48) .................................................. 220
dle disc grinder hood, shall equal 0.65 Over 12 to 19 (30.48 to 48.26) ........................... 390
velocity pressure for a straight takeoff Over 19 to 30 (48.26 to 76.2) ............................. 610
and 0.45 velocity pressure for a tapered Over 30 to 36 (76.2 to 91.44) ............................. 880
takeoff. The entry loss for the vertical-
spindle disc grinder hood is shown in (v) Grinding wheels or discs for hori-
figure D57.1 (following paragraph (g) zontal double-spindle disc grinders
of this section). shall have a hood enclosing the grind-
ing chamber and the hood shall be con-
TABLE D57.1GRINDING AND ABRASIVE nected to one or more branch pipes
CUTTING-OFF WHEELS having exhaust volumes as shown in
Table D57.4.
Wheel Minimum
width, exhaust
Wheel diameter, inches (cm) TABLE D57.4HORIZONTAL DOUBLE-SPINDLE
inches volume
(cm) (feet3/min.) DISC GRINDER
To 9 (22.86) ................................... 112 (3.81) 220
Exhaust
Over 9 to 16 (22.86 to 40.64) ....... 2 (5.08) 390 Disc diameter, inches (cm) volume
Over 16 to 19 (40.64 to 48.26) ..... 3 (7.62) 500 (ft.3/min.)
Over 19 to 24 (48.26 to 60.96) ..... 4 (10.16) 610
Over 24 to 30 (60.96 to 76.2) ....... 5 (12.7) 880 Up to 19 (48.26) .................................................. 610
Over 30 to 36 (76.2 to 91.44) ....... 6 (15.24) 1,200 Over 19 to 25 (48.26 to 63.5) ............................. 880
Over 25 to 30 (63.5 to 76.2) ............................... 1,200
Over 30 to 53 (76.2 to 134.62) ........................... 1,770
For any wheel wider than wheel diame- Over 53 to 72 (134.62 to 182.88) ....................... 6,280
ters shown in Table D57.1, increase the
exhaust volume by the ratio of the new (vi) Grinding wheels or discs for
width to the width shown. vertical single-spindle disc grinders
Example: If wheel width = 412 inches (11.43 shall be encircled with hoods to remove
cm), the dust generated in the operation.
then 4.54 610 = 686 (rounded to 690). The hoods shall be connected to one or

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1926.57 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

more branch pipes having exhaust vol- and Operation of Local Exhaust Sys-
umes as shown in Table D57.5. tems, Z9.21960.
(ii) Exhaust systems for grinding,
TABLE D57.5VERTICAL SPINDLE DISC polishing, and buffing operations shall
GRINDER be tested in the manner described in
One-half or more Disc not cov-
American Standard Fundamentals
of disc covered ered Governing the Design and Operation of
Disc diameter, inches Ex- Ex-
Local Exhaust Systems, Z9.21960.
(cm) (iii) All exhaust systems shall be pro-
Num- haust Num- haust
ber 1 foot 3/ ber 1 foot3/ vided with suitable dust collectors.
min. min.
(5) Hood and enclosure design. (i) (A) It
Up to 20 (50.8) .......... 1 500 2 780 is the dual function of grinding and ab-
Over 20 to 30 (50.8 to
76.2) ....................... 2 780 2 1,480
rasive cutting-off wheel hoods to pro-
Over 30 to 53 (76.2 to tect the operator from the hazards of
134.62) ................... 2 1,770 4 3,530 bursting wheels as well as to provide a
Over 53 to 72 (134.62 means for the removal of dust and dirt
to 182.88) ............... 2 3,140 5 6,010
generated. All hoods shall be not less
1 Number of exhaust outlets around periphery of hood, or in structural strength than specified in
equal distribution provided by other means.
the American National Standard Safe-
(vii) Grinding and polishing belts ty Code for the Use, Care, and Protec-
shall be provided with hoods to remove tion of Abrasive Wheels, B7.11970.
dust and dirt generated in the oper- (B) Due to the variety of work and
ations and the hoods shall be connected types of grinding machines employed,
to branch pipes having exhaust vol- it is necessary to develop hoods adapt-
umes as shown in Table D57.6. able to the particular machine in ques-
tion, and such hoods shall be located as
TABLE D57.6GRINDING AND POLISHING close as possible to the operation.
BELTS (ii) Exhaust hoods for floor stands,
Exhaust pedestals, and bench grinders shall be
Belts width, inches (cm) volume designed in accordance with figure D
(ft.3/min.)
57.2. The adjustable tongue shown in
Up to 3 (7.62) ...................................................... 220 the figure shall be kept in working
Over 3 to 5 (7.62 to 12.7) ................................... 300 order and shall be adjusted within one-
Over 5 to 7 (12.7 to 17.78) ................................. 390 fourth inch (0.635 cm) of the wheel pe-
Over 7 to 9 (17.78 to 22.86) ............................... 500
Over 9 to 11 (22.86 to 27.94) ............................. 610 riphery at all times.
Over 11 to 13 (27.94 to 33.02) ........................... 740 (iii) Swing-frame grinders shall be
provided with exhaust booths as indi-
(viii) Cradles and swing-frame grind- cated in figure D57.3.
ers. Where cradles are used for han- (iv) Portable grinding operations,
dling the parts to be ground, polished, whenever the nature of the work per-
or buffed, requiring large partial enclo- mits, shall be conducted within a par-
sures to house the complete operation, tial enclosure. The opening in the en-
a minimum average air velocity of 150 closure shall be no larger than is actu-
feet per minute shall be maintained ally required in the operation and an
over the entire opening of the enclo- average face air velocity of not less
sure. Swing-frame grinders shall also than 200 feet per minute shall be main-
be exhausted in the same manner as tained.
provided for cradles. (See fig. D57.3) (v) Hoods for polishing and buffing
(ix) Where the work is outside the and scratch-brush wheels shall be con-
hood, air volumes must be increased as structed to conform as closely to figure
shown in American Standard Fun- D57.4 as the nature of the work will
damentals Governing the Design and permit.
Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, (vi) Cradle grinding and polishing op-
Z9.21960 (section 4, exhaust hoods). erations shall be performed within a
(4) Exhaust systems. (i) Exhaust sys- partial enclosure similar to figure D
tems for grinding, polishing, and buff- 57.5. The operator shall be positioned
ing operations should be designed in outside the working face of the opening
accordance with American Standard of the enclosure. The face opening of
Fundamentals Governing the Design the enclosure should not be any greater

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.57

in area than that actually required for lar to that illustrated in figure D57.7.
the performance of the operation and The openings for passing the work into
the average air velocity into the work- the grinding chamber should be kept as
ing face of the enclosure shall not be small as possible, but must never be
less than 150 feet per minute. less than twice the area of the branch
(vii) Hoods for horizontal single-spin- outlets.
dle disc grinders shall be constructed (ix) Vertical-spindle disc grinders
to conform as closely as possible to the shall be encircled with a hood so con-
hood shown in figure D57.6. It is essen- structed that the heavy dust is drawn
tial that there be a space between the
off a surface of the disc and the lighter
back of the wheel and the hood, and a
dust exhausted through a continuous
space around the periphery of the
wheel of at least 1 inch (2.54 cm) in slot at the top of the hood as shown in
order to permit the suction to act figure D57.1.
around the wheel periphery. The open- (x) Grinding and polishing belt hoods
ing on the side of the disc shall be no shall be constructed as close to the op-
larger than is required for the grinding eration as possible. The hood should
operation, but must never be less than extend almost to the belt, and 1-inch
twice the area of the branch outlet. (2.54 cm) wide openings should be pro-
(viii) Horizontal double-spindle disc vided on either side. Figure D57.8
grinders shall have a hood encircling shows a typical hood for a belt oper-
the wheels and grinding chamber simi- ation.

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1926.57 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

Dia. D inches (cm) Exhaust E Volume Ex-


hausted at Note
4,500 ft/min
Min. Max. No Pipes Dia. ft3/min

.................................... 20 (50.8) 1 414 (10.795) 500 When one-half or more of the disc
can be hooded, use exhaust
ducts as shown at the left.
Over 20 (50.8) ........... 30 (76.2) 2 4 (10.16) 780
Over 30 (76.2) ........... 72 (182.88) 2 6 (15.24) 1,770
Over 53 (134.62) ....... 72 (182.88) 2 8 (20.32) 3,140

.................................... 20 (50.8) 2 4 (10.16) 780 When no hood can be used over


disc, use exhaust ducts as
shown at left.
Over 20 (50.8) ........... 20 (50.8) 2 4 (10.16) 780
Over 30 (76.2) ........... 30 (76.2) 2 512 (13.97) 1,480
Over 53 (134.62) ....... 53 (134.62) 4 6 (15.24) 3,530
72 (182.88) 5 7 (17.78) 6,010
Entry loss=1.0 slot velocity pressure + 0.5 branch velocity pressure.
Minimum slot velocity=2,000 ft/min12-inch (1.27 cm) slot width.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.57

Wheel dimension, inches (centimeters) Volume of


Exhaust outlet, air at
Diameter inches (centi- 4,500 ft/
Width, Max meters) E min
Min= d Max= D

9 (22.86) 112 (3.81) 3 220


Over 9 (22.86) ............................................................................. 16 (40.64) 2 (5.08) 4 390
Over 16 (40.64) ........................................................................... 19 (48.26) 3 (7.62) 412 500
Over 19 (48.26) ........................................................................... 24 (60.96) 4 (10.16) 5 610
Over 24 (60.96) ........................................................................... 30 (76.2) 5 (12.7) 6 880
Over 30 (76.2) ............................................................................. 36 (91.44) 6 (15.24) 7 1,200
Entry loss = 0.45 velocity pressure for tapered takeoff 0.65 velocity pressure for straight takeoff.

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1926.57 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

FIGURE D57.3A METHOD OF APPLYING AN EXHAUST ENCLOSURE TO SWING-FRAME GRINDERS

NOTE: Baffle to reduce front opening as


much as possible

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.57

STANDARD BUFFING AND POLISHING HOOD


Wheel dimension, inches (centimeters) Volume of
Exhaust outlet, air at
Diameter inches E 4,500 ft/
Width, Max min
Min= d Max= D

9 (22.86) 2 (5.08) 312 (3.81) 300


Over 9 (22.86) ............................................................................. 16 (40.64) 3 (5.08) 4 500
Over 16 (40.64) ........................................................................... 19 (48.26) 4 (11.43) 5 610
Over 19 (48.26) ........................................................................... 24 (60.96) 5 (12.7) 512 740
Over 24 (60.96) ........................................................................... 30 (76.2) 6 (15.24) 612 1.040
Over 30 (76.2) ............................................................................. 36 (91.44) 6 (15.24) 7 1.200
Entry loss = 0.15 velocity pressure for tapered takeoff; 0.65 velocity pressure for straight takeoff.

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1926.57 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

FIGURE D57.5CRADLE POLISHING OR GRINDING ENCLOSURE

Entry loss = 0.45 velocity pressure for


tapered takeoff

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.57

Dia D, inches (centimeters) Volume ex-


Exhaust E, hausted at
dia. inches 4,500 ft/min
Min. Max. (cm) ft3/min

12 (30.48) 3 (7.6) 220


Over 12 (30.48) ........................................................................................................... 19 (48.26) 4 (10.16) 390
Over 19 (48.26) ........................................................................................................... 30 (76.2) 5 (12.7) 610
Over 30 (76.2) ............................................................................................................. 36 (91.44) 6 (15.24) 880
NOTE: If grinding wheels are used for disc grinding purposes, hoods must conform to structural strength and materials as de-
scribed in 9.1.
Entry loss = 0.45 velocity pressure for tapered takeoff.

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1926.57 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

Disc dia. inches (centimeters) Exhaust E Volume


exhaust at
4,500 ft/ Note
Min. Max. No Pipes Dia. min. ft3/
min

19 (48.26) 1 5 610
Over 19 (48.26) ................. 25 (63.5) 1 6 880 When width W permits, exhaust
ducts should be as near heaviest
grinding as possible.
Over 25 (63.5) ................... 30 (76.2) 1 7 1,200
Over 30 (76.2) ................... 53 (134.62) 2 6 1,770
Over 53 (134.62) ............... 72 (182.88) 4 8 6,280
Entry loss = 0.45 velocity pressure for tapered takeoff.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.57

FIGURE D57.8A TYPICAL HOOD FOR A BELT OPERATION

Entry loss = 0.45 velocity pressure for mable and Combustible Materials,
tapered takeoff NFPA No. 331969).
(iii) Spray room. A spray room is a
Exhaust room in which spray-finishing oper-
Belt width W. inches (centimeters) volume.
ft.1/min ations not conducted in a spray booth
are performed separately from other
Up to 3 (7.62) ...................................................... 220
3 to 5 (7.62 to 12.7) ............................................ 300
areas.
5 to 7 (12.7 to 17.78) .......................................... 390 (iv) Minimum maintained velocity. Min-
7 to 9 (17.78 to 22.86) ........................................ 500 imum maintained velocity is the veloc-
9 to 11 (22.86 to 27.94) ...................................... 610 ity of air movement which must be
11 to 13 (27.94 to 33.02) .................................... 740 maintained in order to meet minimum
Minimum duct velocity = 4,500 ft/min branch, 3,500 ft/min specified requirements for health and
main. safety.
Entry loss = 0.45 velocity pressure for tapered takeoff; 0.65
velocity pressure for straight takeoff. (2) Location and application. Spray
booths or spray rooms are to be used to
(6) Scope. This paragraph (g), pre- enclose or confine all operations.
scribes the use of exhaust hood enclo- Spray-finishing operations shall be lo-
sures and systems in removing dust, cated as provided in sections 201
dirt, fumes, and gases generated through 206 of the Standard for Spray
through the grinding, polishing, or Finishing Using Flammable and Com-
buffing of ferrous and nonferrous met- bustible Materials, NFPA No. 331969.
als. (3) Design and construction of spray
(h) Spray finishing operations(1) Defi- booths. (i) Spray booths shall be de-
nitions applicable to this paragraph(i) signed and constructed in accordance
Spray-finishing operations. Spray-fin- with 1926.66(b) (1) through (4) and (6)
ishing operations are employment of through (10) (see sections 301304 and
methods wherein organic or inorganic 306310 of the Standard for Spray Fin-
materials are utilized in dispersed form ishing Using Flammable and Combus-
for deposit on surfaces to be coated, tible Materials, NFPA No. 331969), for
treated, or cleaned. Such methods of general construction specifications.
deposit may involve either automatic, For a more detailed discussion of fun-
manual, or electrostatic deposition but damentals relating to this subject, see
do not include metal spraying or met- ANSI Z9.21960
allizing, dipping, flow coating, roller (A) Lights, motors, electrical equip-
coating, tumbling, centrifuging, or ment, and other sources of ignition
spray washing and degreasing as con- shall conform to the requirements of
ducted in self-contained washing and 1926.66(b)(10) and (c). (See section 310
degreasing machines or systems. and chapter 4 of the Standard for Spray
(ii) Spray booth. Spray booths are de- Finishing Using Flammable and Com-
fined and described in 1926.66(a). (See bustible Materials NFPA No. 331969.)
sections 103, 104, and 105 of the Stand- (B) In no case shall combustible ma-
ard for Spray Finishing Using Flam- terial be used in the construction of a

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1926.57 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

spray booth and supply or exhaust duct concrete, masonry, or other material
connected to it. having similar properties.
(ii) Unobstructed walkways shall not (A) Tanks shall be provided with
be less than 612 feet (1.976 m) high and weirs, skimmer plates, or screens to
shall be maintained clear of obstruc- prevent sludge and floating paint from
tion from any work location in the entering the pump suction box. Means
booth to a booth exit or open booth for automatically maintaining the
front. In booths where the open front is proper water level shall also be pro-
the only exit, such exits shall be not vided. Fresh water inlets shall not be
less than 3 feet (0.912 m) wide. In submerged. They shall terminate at
booths having multiple exits, such least one pipe diameter above the safe-
exits shall not be less than 2 feet (0.608 ty overflow level of the tank.
m) wide, provided that the maximum (B) Tanks shall be so constructed as
distance from the work location to the to discourage accumulation of haz-
exit is 25 feet (7.6 m) or less. Where ardous deposits.
booth exits are provided with doors, (vi) Pump manifolds, risers, and
such doors shall open outward from the headers shall be adequately sized to in-
booth. sure sufficient water flow to provide ef-
(iii) Baffles, distribution plates, and ficient operation of the water chamber.
dry-type overspray collectors shall (4) Design and construction of spray
conform to the requirements of rooms. (i) Spray rooms, including
1926.66(b) (4) and (5). (See sections 304 floors, shall be constructed of masonry,
and 305 of the Standard for Spray Fin- concrete, or other noncombustible ma-
ishing Using Flammable and Combus- terial.
tible Materials, NFPA No. 331969.) (ii) Spray rooms shall have non-
(A) Overspray filters shall be in- combustible fire doors and shutters.
stalled and maintained in accordance (iii) Spray rooms shall be adequately
with the requirements of 1926.66(b)(5), ventilated so that the atmosphere in
(see section 305 of the Standard for the breathing zone of the operator
Spray Finishing Using Flammable and shall be maintained in accordance with
Combustible Materials, NFPA No. 33 the requirements of paragraph (h)(6)(ii)
1969), and shall only be in a location of this section.
easily accessible for inspection, clean- (iv) Spray rooms used for production
ing, or replacement. spray-finishing operations shall con-
(B) Where effective means, inde- form to the requirements for spray
pendent of the overspray filters, are in- booths.
stalled which will result in design air (5) Ventilation. (i) Ventilation shall be
distribution across the booth cross sec- provided in accordance with provisions
tion, it is permissible to operate the of 1926.66(d) (see chapter 5 of the
booth without the filters in place. Standard for Spray Finishing Using
(iv) (A) For wet or water-wash spray Flammable or Combustible Materials,
booths, the water-chamber enclosure, NFPA No. 331969), and in accordance
within which intimate contact of con- with the following:
taminated air and cleaning water or (A) Where a fan plenum is used to
other cleaning medium is maintained, equalize or control the distribution of
if made of steel, shall be 18 gage or exhaust air movement through the
heavier and adequately protected booth, it shall be of sufficient strength
against corrosion. or rigidity to withstand the differential
(B) Chambers may include scrubber air pressure or other superficially im-
spray nozzles, headers, troughs, or posed loads for which the equipment is
other devices. Chambers shall be pro- designed and also to facilitate clean-
vided with adequate means for creating ing. Construction specifications shall
and maintaining scrubbing action for be at least equivalent to those of para-
removal of particulate matter from the graph (h)(5)(iii) of this section.
exhaust air stream. (B) [Reserved]
(v) Collecting tanks shall be of weld- (ii) Inlet or supply ductwork used to
ed steel construction or other suitable transport makeup air to spray booths
non-combustible material. If pits are or surrounding areas shall be con-
used as collecting tanks, they shall be structed of noncombustible materials.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.57

(A) If negative pressure exists within (E) Inspection or clean-out doors


inlet ductwork, all seams and joints shall be provided for every 9 to 12 feet
shall be sealed if there is a possibility (2.736 to 3.648 m) of running length for
of infiltration of harmful quantities of ducts up to 12 inches (0.304 m) in di-
noxious gases, fumes, or mists from ameter, but the distance between
areas through which ductwork passes. cleanout doors may be greater for larg-
(B) Inlet ductwork shall be sized in er pipes. (See 8.3.21 of American Na-
accordance with volume flow require- tional Standard Z9.11951.) A clean-out
ments and provide design air require- door or doors shall be provided for serv-
ments at the spray booth. icing the fan, and where necessary, a
(C) Inlet ductwork shall be ade- drain shall be provided.
quately supported throughout its (F) Where ductwork passes through a
length to sustain at least its own combustible roof or wall, the roof or
weight plus any negative pressure wall shall be protected at the point of
which is exerted upon it under normal penetration by open space or fire-resis-
operating conditions. tive material between the duct and the
(iii) [Reserved] roof or wall. When ducts pass through
(A) Exhaust ductwork shall be ade- firewalls, they shall be provided with
quately supported throughout its automatic fire dampers on both sides of
length to sustain its weight plus any the wall, except that three-eighth-inch
normal accumulation in interior dur- steel plates may be used in lieu of
ing normal operating conditions and automatic fire dampers for ducts not
any negative pressure exerted upon it. exceeding 18 inches (45.72 cm) in diame-
(B) Exhaust ductwork shall be sized ter.
in accordance with good design prac- (G) Ductwork used for ventilating
tice which shall include consideration any process covered in this standard
of fan capacity, length of duct, number shall not be connected to ducts ven-
of turns and elbows, variation in size, tilating any other process or any chim-
volume, and character of materials ney or flue used for conveying any
being exhausted. See American Na- products of combustion.
tional Standard Z9.21960 for further (6) Velocity and air flow requirements.
details and explanation concerning ele- (i) Except where a spray booth has an
ments of design. adequate air replacement system, the
(C) Longitudinal joints in sheet steel velocity of air into all openings of a
ductwork shall be either lock-seamed, spray booth shall be not less than that
riveted, or welded. For other than steel specified in Table D57.7 for the oper-
construction, equivalent securing of ating conditions specified. An adequate
joints shall be provided. air replacement system is one which
(D) Circumferential joints in duct- introduces replacement air upstream
work shall be substantially fastened or above the object being sprayed and
together and lapped in the direction of is so designed that the velocity of air
airflow. At least every fourth joint in the booth cross section is not less
shall be provided with connecting than that specified in Table D57.7
flanges, bolted together, or of equiva- when measured upstream or above the
lent fastening security. object being sprayed.
TABLE D57.7MINIMUM MAINTAINED VELOCITIES INTO SPRAY BOOTHS
Airflow velocities, f.p.m.
Crossdraft,
Operating conditions for objects completely inside booth f.p.m. Design Range

Electrostatic and automatic airless operation contained in booth Negligible .... 50 large booth ...................... 5075
without operator.
................. 100 small booth .................... 75125
Air-operated guns, manual or automatic ............................................ Up to 50 ...... 100 large booth .................... 75125

................. 150 small booth .................... 125175


Air-operated guns, manual or automatic ............................................ Up to 100 .... 150 large booth .................... 125175

................. 200 small booth .................... 150250


NOTES:

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1926.57 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)
(1) Attention is invited to the fact that the effectiveness of the spray booth is dependent upon the relationship of the depth of
the booth to its height and width.
(2) Crossdrafts can be eliminated through proper design and such design should be sought. Crossdrafts in excess of
100fpm (feet per minute) should not be permitted.
(3) Excessive air pressures result in loss of both efficiency and material waste in addition to creating a backlash that may
carry overspray and fumes into adjacent work areas.
(4) Booths should be designed with velocities shown in the column headed Design. However, booths operating with veloci-
ties shown in the column headed Range are in compliance with this standard.

(ii) In addition to the requirements TABLE D57.8LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT OF


in paragraph (h)(6)(i) of this section the SOME COMMONLY USED SOLVENTSContinued
total air volume exhausted through a
Lower ex-
spray booth shall be such as to dilute Cubic feet plosive
per gallon
solvent vapor to at least 25 percent of of vapor of limit in per-
Solvent cent by
the lower explosive limit of the solvent liquid at 70 volume of
F (21.11
being sprayed. An example of the meth- air at 70 F
C). (21.11 C)
od of calculating this volume is given
below. Benzene ........................................ 36.8 1 1.4

Butyl Acetate (n) ............................ 24.8 1.7


Example: To determine the lower explosive Butyl Alcohol (n) ............................ 35.2 1.4
limits of the most common solvents used in Butyl Cellosolve ............................. 24.8 1.1
spray finishing, see Table D57.8. Column 1 Cellosolve ...................................... 33.6 1.8
gives the number of cubic feet of vapor per Cellosolve Acetate ......................... 23.2 1.7
Cyclohexanone .............................. 31.2 1 1.1
gallon of solvent and column 2 gives the
1,1 Dichloroethylene ...................... 42.4 5.9
lower explosive limit (LEL) in percentage by 1,2 Dichloroethylene ...................... 42.4 9.7
volume of air. Note that the quantity of sol- Ethyl Acetate ................................. 32.8 2.5
vent will be diminished by the quantity of Ethyl Alcohol .................................. 55.2 4.3
solids and nonflammables contained in the Ethyl Lactate .................................. 28.0 1 1.5

finish. Methyl Acetate ............................... 40.0 3.1


To determine the volume of air in cubic Methyl Alcohol ............................... 80.8 7.3
Methyl Cellosolve .......................... 40.8 2.5
feet necessary to dilute the vapor from 1 gal- Methyl Ethyl Ketone ...................... 36.0 1.8
lon of solvent to 25 percent of the lower ex- Methyl n-Propyl Ketone ................. 30.4 1.5
plosive limit, apply the following formula: Naphtha (VM&P) (76Naphtha) ..... 22.4 0.9
Naphtha (100Flash) Safety Sol-
Dilution volume required per gallon of ventStoddard Solvent ............. 23.2 1.0
solvent=4 (100LEL) (cubic feet of Propyl Acetate (n) ......................... 27.2 2.8
vapor per gallon) LEL Propyl Acetate (iso) ....................... 28.0 1.1
Propyl Alcohol (n) .......................... 44.8 2.1
Using toluene as the solvent. Propyl Alcohol (iso) ....................... 44.0 2.0
(1) LEL of toluene from Table D57.8, col- Toluene .......................................... 30.4 1.4
Turpentine ..................................... 20.8 0.8
umn 2, is 1.4 percent.
Xylene (o) ...................................... 26.4 1.0
(2) Cubic feet of vapor per gallon from
Table D57.8, column 1, is 30.4 cubic feet per 1 At 212 F (100 C).
gallon.
(3) Dilution volume required =
(iii)(A) When an operator is in a
booth downstream of the object being
4 (1001.4) 30.4 1.4=8,564 cubic feet. sprayed, an air-supplied respirator or
(4) To convert to cubic feet per minute of other type of respirator approved by
required ventilation, multiply the dilution NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84 for the
volume required per gallon of solvent by the material being sprayed should be used
number of gallons of solvent evaporated per by the operator.
minute. (B) Where downdraft booths are pro-
vided with doors, such doors shall be
TABLE D57.8LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT OF closed when spray painting.
SOME COMMONLY USED SOLVENTS (7) Make-up air. (i) Clean fresh air,
Lower ex- free of contamination from adjacent
Cubic feet
per gallon plosive industrial exhaust systems, chimneys,
limit in per-
Solvent of vapor of cent by stacks, or vents, shall be supplied to a
liquid at 70
F (21.11 volume of spray booth or room in quantities
air at 70 F
C). equal to the volume of air exhausted
(21.11 C)
through the spray booth.
Column 1 Column 2 (ii) Where a spray booth or room re-
Acetone ......................................... 44.0 2.6 ceives make-up air through self-closing
Amyl Acetate (iso) ......................... 21.6 1 1.0

Amyl Alcohol (n) ............................ 29.6 1.2 doors, dampers, or louvers, they shall
Amyl Alcohol (iso) ......................... 29.6 1.2 be fully open at all times when the

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.57

booth or room is in use for spraying. sources of heat may be employed to


The velocity of air through such doors, meet this requirement.
dampers, or louvers shall not exceed (C) No means of heating make-up air
200 feet per minute. If the fan charac- shall be located in a spray booth.
teristics are such that the required air (D) Where make-up air is heated by
flow through the booth will be pro- coal or oil, the products of combustion
vided, higher velocities through the shall not be allowed to mix with the
doors, dampers, or louvers may be make-up air, and the products of com-
used. bustion shall be conducted outside the
(iii) (A) Where the air supply to a building through a flue terminating at
spray booth or room is filtered, the fan a point remote from all points where
static pressure shall be calculated on make-up air enters the building.
the assumption that the filters are (E) Where make-up air is heated by
dirty to the extent that they require gas, and the products of combustion
cleaning or replacement. are not mixed with the make-up air but
(B) The rating of filters shall be gov- are conducted through an independent
erned by test data supplied by the man- flue to a point outside the building re-
ufacturer of the filter. A pressure gage mote from all points where make-up
shall be installed to show the pressure air enters the building, it is not nec-
drop across the filters. This gage shall essary to comply with paragraph
be marked to show the pressure drop at (h)(7)(iv)(F) of this section.
which the filters require cleaning or re- (F) Where make-up air to any manu-
placement. Filters shall be replaced or ally operated spray booth or room is
cleaned whenever the pressure drop heated by gas and the products of com-
across them becomes excessive or bustion are allowed to mix with the
whenever the air flow through the face supply air, the following precautions
of the booth falls below that specified must be taken:
in Table D57.7. (1) The gas must have a distinctive
(iv) (A) Means for heating make-up and strong enough odor to warn work-
air to any spray booth or room, before men in a spray booth or room of its
or at the time spraying is normally presence if in an unburned state in the
performed, shall be provided in all make-up air.
places where the outdoor temperature (2) The maximum rate of gas supply
may be expected to remain below 55 F. to the make-up air heater burners
(12.77 C.) for appreciable periods of must not exceed that which would
time during the operation of the booth yield in excess of 200 p.p.m. (parts per
except where adequate and safe means million) of carbon monoxide or 2,000
of radiant heating for all operating per- p.p.m. of total combustible gases in the
sonnel affected is provided. The re- mixture if the unburned gas upon the
placement air during the heating sea- occurrence of flame failure were mixed
sons shall be maintained at not less with all of the make-up air supplied.
than 65 F. (18.33 C.) at the point of (3) A fan must be provided to deliver
entry into the spray booth or spray the mixture of heated air and products
room. When otherwise unheated make- of combustion from the plenum cham-
up air would be at a temperature of ber housing the gas burners to the
more than 10 F. below room tempera- spray booth or room.
ture, its temperature shall be regulated (8) Scope. Spray booths or spray
as provided in section 3.6.3 of ANSI rooms are to be used to enclose or con-
Z9.21960. fine all spray finishing operations cov-
(B) As an alternative to an air re- ered by this paragraph (h). This para-
placement system complying with the graph does not apply to the spraying of
preceding section, general heating of the exteriors of buildings, fixed tanks,
the building in which the spray room or similar structures, nor to small
or booth is located may be employed portable spraying apparatus not used
provided that all occupied parts of the repeatedly in the same location.
building are maintained at not less (i) Open surface tanks(1) General. (i)
than 65 F. (18.33 C.) when the exhaust This paragraph applies to all oper-
system is in operation or the general ations involving the immersion of ma-
heating system supplemented by other terials in liquids, or in the vapors of

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1926.57 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

such liquids, for the purpose of clean- Combustible Liquids, NFPA No. 34
ing or altering the surface or adding to 1966, National Fire Protection Associa-
or imparting a finish thereto or chang- tion. Where the tank contains a mix-
ing the character of the materials, and ture of liquids, other than organic sol-
their subsequent removal from the liq- vents, whose effects are additive, the
uid or vapor, draining, and drying. hygienic standard of the most toxic
These operations include washing, elec- component (for example, the one hav-
troplating, anodizing, pickling, ing the lowest p.p.m. or mg./m.3) shall
quenching, dying, dipping, tanning, be used, except where such substance
dressing, bleaching, degreasing, alka- constitutes an insignificantly small
line cleaning, stripping, rinsing, digest- fraction of the mixture. For mixtures
ing, and other similar operations. of organic solvents, their combined ef-
(ii) Except where specific construc- fect, rather than that of either individ-
tion specifications are prescribed in ually, shall determine the hazard po-
this section, hoods, ducts, elbows, fans, tential. In the absence of information
blowers, and all other exhaust system to the contrary, the effects shall be
parts, components, and supports there- considered as additive. If the sum of
of shall be so constructed as to meet the ratios of the airborne concentra-
conditions of service and to facilitate tion of each contaminant to the toxic
maintenance and shall conform in con- concentration of that contaminant ex-
struction to the specifications con- ceeds unity, the toxic concentration
tained in American National Standard shall be considered to have been ex-
Fundamentals Governing the Design ceeded. (See Note A to paragraph
and Operation of Local Exhaust Sys- (i)(2)(v) of this section.)
tems, Z9.21960. (v) Hazard potential shall be deter-
(2) Classification of open-surface tank mined from Table D57.9, with the
operations. (i) Open-surface tank oper- value indicating greater hazard being
ations shall be classified into 16 class- used. When the hazardous material
es, numbered A1 to D4, inclusive. may be either a vapor with a
(ii) Determination of class. Class is de- threshhold limit value (TLV) in p.p.m.
termined by two factors, hazard poten- or a mist with a TLV in mg./m.3, the
tial designated by a letter from A to D, TLV indicating the greater hazard shall
inclusive, and rate of gas, vapor, or be used (for example, A takes prece-
mist evolution designated by a number dence over B or C; B over C; C over D).
from 1 to 4, inclusive (for example, B.3). NOTE A:
(iii) Hazard potential is an index, on (c1TLV1)+(c2TLV2)+(c3TLV3)+; . .
a scale of from A to D, inclusive, of the .(cNTLVN)1
severity of the hazard associated with Where:
the substance contained in the tank be- c = Concentration measured at the operation
cause of the toxic, flammable, or explo- in p.p.m.
sive nature of the vapor, gas, or mist
produced therefrom. The toxic hazard TABLE D57.9DETERMINATION OF HAZARD
is determined from the concentration, POTENTIAL
measured in parts by volume of a gas Toxicity group
or vapor, per million parts by volume
of contaminated air (p.p.m.), or in mil- Hazard potential Gas or Mist (mg./ Flash point in
vapor
ligrams of mist per cubic meter of air m3) degrees F. (C.)
(p.p.m.)
(mg./m.3), below which ill effects are
A .......................... 010 00.1 ..........................
unlikely to occur to the exposed work- B .......................... 11100 0.111.0 Under 100
er. The concentrations shall be those in (37.77)
1926.55 or other pertinent sections of C .......................... 101500 1.110 100 200
(37.7793.33)
this part. D .......................... Over 500 Over 10 Over 200
(iv) The relative fire or explosion (93.33)
hazard is measured in degrees Fahr-
enheit in terms of the closed-cup flash (vi) Rate of gas, vapor, or mist evo-
point of the substance in the tank. De- lution is a numerical index, on a scale
tailed information on the prevention of of from 1 to 4, inclusive, both of the
fire hazards in dip tanks may be found relative capacity of the tank to
in Dip Tanks Containing Flammable or produce gas, vapor, or mist and of the

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.57

relative energy with which it is pro- (D) The extent that the tank gases or
jected or carried upwards from the produces mist in an arbitrary scale
tank. Rate is evaluated in terms of high, medium, low, and nil. (See Table
(A) The temperature of the liquid in D57.10, Note 2.) Gassing depends upon
the tank in degrees Fahrenheit; electrochemical or mechanical proc-
(B) The number of degrees Fahr- esses, the effects of which have to be
enheit that this temperature is below individually evaluated for each instal-
the boiling point of the liquid in de- lation (see Table D57.10, Note 3).
grees Fahrenheit; (vii) Rate of evolution shall be deter-
(C) The relative evaporation of the mined from Table D57.10. When evapo-
liquid in still air at room temperature ration and gassing yield different rates,
in an arbitrary scalefast, medium, the lowest numerical value shall be
slow, or nil; and used.
TABLE D57.10DETERMINATION OF RATE OF GAS, VAPOR, OR MIST EVOLUTION 1
Liquid temperature, Degrees below boil-
Rate Relative evaporation 2 Gassing 3
F. (C.) ing point

1 ................................ Over 200 (93.33) 020 Fast ...................................... High.


2 ................................ 150200 (65.55 2150 Medium ................................ Medium.
93.33)
3 ................................ 94149 (34.4465) 51100 Slow ..................................... Low.
4 ................................ Under 94 (34.44) Over 100 Nil ........................................ Nil.
1 In certain classes of equipment, specifically vapor degreasers, an internal condenser or vapor level thermostat is used to pre-
vent the vapor from leaving the tank during normal operation. In such cases, rate of vapor evolution from the tank into the work-
room is not dependent upon the factors listed in the table, but rather upon abnormalities of operating procedure, such as carry-
out of vapors from excessively fast action, dragout of liquid by entrainment in parts, contamination of solvent by water and other
materials, or improper heat balance. When operating procedure is excellent, effective rate of evolution may be taken as 4. When
operating procedure is average, the effective rate of evolution may be taken as 3. When operation is poor, a rate of 2 or 1 is in-
dicated, depending upon observed conditions.
2 Relative evaporation rate is determined according to the methods described by A. K. Doolittle in Industrial and Engineering
Chemistry, vol. 27, p. 1169, (3) where time for 100-percent evaporation is as follows: Fast: 03 hours; Medium: 312 hours;
Slow: 1250 hours; Nil: more than 50 hours.
3 Gassing means the formation by chemical or electrochemical action of minute bubbles of gas under the surface of the liquid
in the tank and is generally limited to aqueous solutions.

(3) Ventilation. Where ventilation is (ii) All tanks exhausted by means of


used to control potential exposures to hoods which
workers as defined in paragraph (A) Project over the entire tank;
(i)(2)(iii) of this section, it shall be ade- (B) Are fixed in position in such a lo-
quate to reduce the concentration of cation that the head of the workman,
the air contaminant to the degree that in all his normal operating positions
a hazard to the worker does not exist. while working at the tank, is in front
Methods of ventilation are discussed in
of all hood openings; and
American National Standard Fun-
damentals Governing the Design and (C) Are completely enclosed on at
Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, least two sides, shall be considered to
Z9.21960. be exhausted through an enclosing
(4) Control requirements. (i) Control hood.
velocities shall conform to Table D (D) The quantity of air in cubic feet
57.11 in all cases where the flow of air per minute necessary to be exhausted
past the breathing or working zone of through an enclosing hood shall be not
the operator and into the hoods is un- less than the product of the control ve-
disturbed by local environmental con- locity times the net area of all open-
ditions, such as open windows, wall ings in the enclosure through which air
fans, unit heaters, or moving machin- can flow into the hood.
ery.

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1926.57 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

TABLE D57.11CONTROL VELOCITIES IN FEET PER MINUTE (F.P.M.) FOR UNDISTURBED LOCATIONS
Enclosing hood Canopy hood 2
Lateral ex-
Class One open Two open haust 1 Three Four open
side sides open sides sides

B1 and A2 ........................................................................... 100 150 150 Do not use Do not use


A3 2, B1, B2, and C1 ....................................................... 75 100 100 125 175
A3, C2, and D1 3 ............................................................... 65 90 75 100 150
B4 2, C3, and D2 3 ............................................................. 50 75 50 75 125
A4, C4, D3 3, and D4 4 .................................................... .................. .................. .................. .................. ..................
1 See Table D57.12 for computation of ventilation rate.
2 Do not use canopy hood for Hazard Potential A processes.
3 Where complete control of hot water is desired, design as next highest class.
4 General room ventilation required.

(iii) All tanks exhausted by means of (A) For lateral exhaust hoods over 42
hoods which do not project over the en- inches (1.06 m) wide, or where it is de-
tire tank, and in which the direction of sirable to reduce the amount of air re-
air movement into the hood or hoods is moved from the workroom, air supply
substantially horizontal, shall be con- slots or orifices shall be provided along
sidered to be laterally exhausted. The the side or the center of the tank oppo-
quantity of air in cubic feet per minute site from the exhaust slots. The design
necessary to be laterally exhausted per of such systems shall meet the fol-
square foot of tank area in order to
lowing criteria:
maintain the required control velocity
shall be determined from Table D57.12 (1) The supply air volume plus the en-
for all variations in ratio of tank width trained air shall not exceed 50 percent
(W) to tank length $(L). The total of the exhaust volume.
quantity of air in cubic feet per minute (2) The velocity of the supply air-
required to be exhausted per tank shall stream as it reaches the effective con-
be not less than the product of the area trol area of the exhaust slot shall be
of tank surface times the cubic feet per less than the effective velocity over
minute per square foot of tank area, the exhaust slot area.
determined from Table D57.12.
TABLE D57.12MINIMUM VENTILATION RATE IN CUBIC FEET OF AIR PER MINUTE PER SQUARE
FOOT OF TANK AREA FOR LATERAL EXHAUST
C.f.m. per sq. ft. to maintain required minimum velocities at fol-
Required minimum control velocity, f.p.m. (from Table D lowing ratios (tank width (W)/tank length (L)). 1,2
57.11)
0.00.09 0.10.24 0.250.49 0.50.99 1.02.0

Hood along one side or two parallel sides of tank when one hood is against a wall or baffle. 2
Also for a manifold along tank centerline. 3

50 ............................................................................................ 50 60 75 90 100
75 ............................................................................................ 75 90 110 130 150
100 .......................................................................................... 100 125 150 175 200
150 .......................................................................................... 150 190 225 260 300

Hood along one side or two parallel sides of free standing tank not against wall or baffle.

50 ............................................................................................ 75 90 100 110 125


75 ............................................................................................ 110 130 150 170 190
100 .......................................................................................... 150 175 200 225 250
150 .......................................................................................... 225 260 300 340 375
1 Itis not practicable to ventilate across the long dimension of a tank whose ratio W/L exceeds 2.0.
It is undesirable to do so when W/L exceeds 1.0. For circular tanks with lateral exhaust along up to 1/2 the circumference, use
W/L=1.0; for over one-half the circumference use W/L=0.5.
2 Baffle is a vertical plate the same length as the tank, and with the top of the plate as high as the tank is wide. If the exhaust
hood is on the side of a tank against a building wall or close to it, it is perfectly baffled.
3 Use W/2 as tank width in computing when manifold is along centerline, or when hoods are used on two parallel sides of a
tank.
Tank Width (W) means the effective width over which the hood must pull air to operate (for example, where the hood face is
set back from the edge of the tank, this set back must be added in measuring tank width). The surface area of tanks can fre-
quently be reduced and better control obtained (particularly on conveyorized systems) by using covers extending from the upper
edges of the slots toward the center of the tank.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.57

(3) The vertical height of the receiv- the liquid in the tank to minimize mist
ing exhaust hood, including any baffle, formation, or any combination thereof,
shall not be less than one-quarter the may all be used as gas, mist, or vapor
width of the tank. control means for open-surface tank
(4) The supply airstream shall not be operations, provided that they effec-
allowed to impinge on obstructions be- tively reduce the concentrations of
tween it and the exhaust slot in such a hazardous materials in the vicinity of
manner as to significantly interfere the worker below the limits set in ac-
with the performance of the exhaust cordance with paragraph (i)(2) of this
hood. section.
(5) Since most failure of push-pull (7) System design. (i) The equipment
systems result from excessive supply for exhausting air shall have sufficient
air volumes and pressures, methods of capacity to produce the flow of air re-
measuring and adjusting the supply air quired in each of the hoods and open-
shall be provided. When satisfactory ings of the system.
control has been achieved, the adjust- (ii) The capacity required in para-
able features of the hood shall be fixed graph (i)(7)(i) of this section shall be
so that they will not be altered. obtained when the airflow producing
(iv) All tanks exhausted by means of equipment is operating against the fol-
hoods which project over the entire lowing pressure losses, the sum of
tank, and which do not conform to the which is the static pressure:
definition of enclosing hoods, shall be (A) Entrance losses into the hood.
considered to be overhead canopy (B) Resistance to airflow in branch
hoods. The quantity of air in cubic feet pipe including bends and trans-
per minute necessary to be exhausted formations.
through a canopy hood shall be not less (C) Entrance loss into the main pipe.
than the product of the control veloc- (D) Resistance to airflow in main
ity times the net area of all openings pipe including bends and trans-
between the bottom edges of the hood formations.
and the top edges of the tank. (E) Resistance of mechanical equip-
(v) The rate of vapor evolution (in- ment; that is, filters, washers, con-
cluding steam or products of combus- densers, absorbers, etc., plus their en-
tion) from the process shall be esti- trance and exit losses.
mated. If the rate of vapor evolution is (F) Resistance in outlet duct and dis-
equal to or greater than 10 percent of charge stack.
the calculated exhaust volume re- (iii) Two or more operations shall not
quired, the exhaust volume shall be in- be connected to the same exhaust sys-
creased in equal amount. tem where either one or the combina-
(5) Spray cleaning and degreasing. tion of the substances removed may
Wherever spraying or other mechanical constitute a fire, explosion, or chem-
means are used to disperse a liquid ical reaction hazard in the duct sys-
above an open-surface tank, control tem. Traps or other devices shall be
must be provided for the airborne provided to insure that condensate in
spray. Such operations shall be en- ducts does not drain back into any
closed as completely as possible. The tank.
inward air velocity into the enclosure (iv) The exhaust system, consisting
shall be sufficient to prevent the dis- of hoods, ducts, air mover, and dis-
charge of spray into the workroom. charge outlet, shall be designed in ac-
Mechanical baffles may be used to help cordance with American National
prevent the discharge of spray. Spray Standard Fundamentals Governing the
painting operations are covered by Design and Operation of Local Exhaust
paragraph (h) of this section. Systems, Z9.21960, or the manual, In-
(6) Control means other than ventila- dustrial Ventilation, published by the
tion. Tank covers, foams, beads, chips, American Conference of Governmental
or other materials floating on the tank Industrial Hygienists 1970. Airflow and
surface so as to confine gases, mists, or pressure loss data provided by the man-
vapors to the area under the cover or ufacturer of any air cleaning device
to the foam, bead, or chip layer; or sur- shall be included in the design calcula-
face tension depressive agents added to tions.

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1926.57 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

(8) Operation. (i) The required airflow (ii) All persons required to work in
shall be maintained at all times during such a manner that their feet may be-
which gas, mist, or vapor is emitted come wet shall be provided with rubber
from the tank, and at all times the or other impervious boots or shoes,
tank, the draining, or the drying area rubbers, or wooden-soled shoes suffi-
is in operation or use. When the system cient to keep feet dry.
is first installed, the airflow from each (iii) All persons required to handle
hood shall be measured by means of a work wet with a liquid other than
pitot traverse in the exhaust duct and water shall be provided with gloves im-
corrective action taken if the flow is pervious to such a liquid and of a
less than that required. When the prop- length sufficient to prevent entrance of
er flow is obtained, the hood static liquid into the tops of the gloves. The
pressure shall be measured and re- interior of gloves shall be kept free
corded. At intervals of not more than 3 from corrosive or irritating contami-
months operation, or after a prolonged nants.
shutdown period, the hoods and duct (iv) All persons required to work in
system shall be inspected for evidence such a manner that their clothing may
of corrosion or damage. In any case become wet shall be provided with such
where the airflow is found to be less aprons, coats, jackets, sleeves, or other
than required, it shall be increased to garments made of rubber, or of other
the required value. (Information on air- materials impervious to liquids other
flow and static pressure measurement than water, as are required to keep
and calculations may be found in their clothing dry. Aprons shall extend
American National Standard Funda- well below the top of boots to prevent
mental Governing the Design and Oper- liquid splashing into the boots. Provi-
ation of Local Exhaust Systems, Z9.2 sion of dry, clean, cotton clothing
1960, or in the manual, Industrial Ven- along with rubber shoes or short boots
tilation, published by the American and an apron impervious to liquids
Conference of Governmental Industrial other than water shall be considered a
satisfactory substitute where small
Hygienists.)
parts are cleaned, plated, or acid
(ii) The exhaust system shall dis-
dipped in open tanks and rapid work is
charge to the outer air in such a man-
required.
ner that the possibility of its effluent (v) Whenever there is a danger of
entering any building is at a minimum. splashing, for example, when additions
Recirculation shall only be through a are made manually to the tanks, or
device for contaminant removal which when acids and chemicals are removed
will prevent the creation of a health from the tanks, the employees so en-
hazard in the room or area to which gaged shall be required to wear either
the air is recirculated. tight-fitting chemical goggles or an ef-
(iii) A volume of outside air in the fective face shield. See 1926.102.
range of 90 percent to 110 percent of the (vi) When, during the emergencies
exhaust volume shall be provided to specified in paragraph (i)(11)(v) of this
each room having exhaust hoods. The section, employees must be in areas
outside air supply shall enter the work- where concentrations of air contami-
room in such a manner as not to be nants are greater than the limits set
detrimental to any exhaust hood. The by paragraph (i)(2)(iii) of this section
airflow of the makeup air system shall or oxygen concentrations are less than
be measured on installation. Corrective 19.5 percent, they must use respirators
action shall be taken when the airflow that reduce their exposure to a level
is below that required. The makeup air below these limits or that provide ade-
shall be uncontaminated. quate oxygen. Such respirators must
(9) Personal protection. (i) All employ- also be provided in marked, quickly-ac-
ees working in and around open-surface cessible storage compartments built
tank operations must be instructed as for this purpose when the possibility
to the hazards of their respective jobs, exists of accidental release of haz-
and in the personal protection and first ardous concentrations of air contami-
aid procedures applicable to these haz- nants. Respirators must be approved by
ards. NIOSH under 42 CFR part 84, selected

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.57

by a competent industrial hygienist or type of construction and by frequent


other technically-qualified source, and flushing. They shall be firm, sound, and
used in accordance with 29 CFR of the design and construction to mini-
1926.103. mize the possibility of tripping.
(vii) Near each tank containing a liq- (ii) Before cleaning the interior of
uid which may burn, irritate, or other- any tank, the contents shall be drained
wise be harmful to the skin if splashed off, and the cleanout doors shall be
upon the workers body, there shall be opened where provided. All pockets in
a supply of clean cold water. The water tanks or pits, where it is possible for
pipe (carrying a pressure not exceeding hazardous vapors to collect, shall be
25 pounds (11.325 kg)) shall be provided ventilated and cleared of such vapors.
with a quick opening valve and at least (iii) Tanks which have been drained
48 inches (1.216 m) of hose not smaller to permit employees to enter for the
than three-fourths inch, so that no purposes of cleaning, inspection, or
time may be lost in washing off liquids maintenance may contain atmospheres
from the skin or clothing. Alter- which are hazardous to life or health,
natively, deluge showers and eye through the presence of flammable or
flushes shall be provided in cases where toxic air contaminants, or through the
harmful chemicals may be splashed on absence of sufficient oxygen. Before
parts of the body. employees shall be permitted to enter
(viii) Operators with sores, burns, or any such tank, appropriate tests of the
other skin lesions requiring medical atmosphere shall be made to determine
treatment shall not be allowed to work
if the limits set by paragraph (i)(2)(iii)
at their regular operations until so au-
of this section are exceeded, or if the
thorized by a physician. Any small
oxygen concentration is less than 19.5
skin abrasions, cuts, rash, or open
percent.
sores which are found or reported shall
be treated by a properly designated (iv) If the tests made in accordance
person so that chances of exposures to with paragraph (i)(11)(iii) of this sec-
the chemicals are removed. Workers tion indicate that the atmosphere in
exposed to chromic acids shall have a the tank is unsafe, before any em-
periodic examination made of the nos- ployee is permitted to enter the tank,
trils and other parts of the body, to de- the tank shall be ventilated until the
tect incipient ulceration. hazardous atmosphere is removed, and
(ix) Sufficient washing facilities, in- ventilation shall be continued so as to
cluding soap, individual towels, and prevent the occurrence of a hazardous
hot water, shall be provided for all per- atmosphere as long as an employee is
sons required to use or handle any liq- in the tank.
uids which may burn, irritate, or oth- (v) If, in emergencies, such as rescue
erwise be harmful to the skin, on the work, it is necessary to enter a tank
basis of at least one basin (or its equiv- which may contain a hazardous atmos-
alent) with a hot water faucet for every phere, suitable respirators, such as
10 employees. See 1926.51(f). self-contained breathing apparatus;
(x) Locker space or equivalent cloth- hose mask with blower, if there is a
ing storage facilities shall be provided possibility of oxygen deficiency; or a
to prevent contamination of street gas mask, selected and operated in ac-
clothing. cordance with paragraph (i)(9)(vi) of
(xi) First aid facilities specific to the this section, shall be used. If a con-
hazards of the operations conducted taminant in the tank can cause derma-
shall be readily available. titis, or be absorbed through the skin,
(10) Special precautions for cyanide. the employee entering the tank shall
Dikes or other arrangements shall be also wear protective clothing. At least
provided to prevent the possibility of one trained standby employee, with
intermixing of cyanide and acid in the suitable respirator, shall be present in
event of tank rupture. the nearest uncontaminated area. The
(11) Inspection, maintenance, and in- standby employee must be able to com-
stallation. (i) Floors and platforms municate with the employee in the
around tanks shall be prevented from tank and be able to haul him out of the
becoming slippery both by original tank with a lifeline if necessary.

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1926.58 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

(vi) Maintenance work requiring the vapors of such liquids, for the pur-
welding or open flame, where toxic pose of cleaning or altering their sur-
metal fumes such as cadmium, chro- faces, or adding or imparting a finish
mium, or lead may be evolved, shall be thereto, or changing the character of
done only with sufficient local exhaust the materials, and their subsequent re-
ventilation to prevent the creation of a moval from the liquids or vapors,
health hazard, or be done with res- draining, and drying. Such operations
pirators selected and used in accord- include washing, electroplating, anod-
ance with paragraph (i)(9)(vi) of this izing, pickling, quenching, dyeing, dip-
section. Welding, or the use of open ping, tanning, dressing, bleaching,
flames near any solvent cleaning degreasing, alkaline cleaning, strip-
equipment shall be permitted only ping, rinsing, digesting, and other simi-
after such equipment has first been lar operations, but do not include mol-
thoroughly cleared of solvents and va- ten materials handling operations, or
pors. surface coating operations.
(12) Vapor degreasing tanks. (i) In any (ii) Molten materials handling oper-
vapor degreasing tank equipped with a ations means all operations, other than
condenser or vapor level thermostat, welding, burning, and soldering oper-
the condenser or thermostat shall keep ations, involving the use, melting,
the level of vapors below the top edge smelting, or pouring of metals, alloys,
of the tank by a distance at least equal salts, or other similar substances in
to one-half the tank width, or at least the molten state. Such operations also
36 inches (0.912 m), whichever is short- include heat treating baths, descaling
er. baths, die casting stereotyping, gal-
(ii) Where gas is used as a fuel for vanizing, tinning, and similar oper-
heating vapor degreasing tanks, the ations.
combustion chamber shall be of tight (iii) Surface coating operations means
construction, except for such openings all operations involving the applica-
as the exhaust flue, and those that are tion of protective, decorative, adhe-
necessary for supplying air for combus- sive, or strengthening coating or im-
tion. Flues shall be of corrosion-resist- pregnation to one or more surfaces, or
ant construction and shall extend to into the interstices of any object or
the outer air. If mechanical exhaust is material, by means of spraying, spread-
used on this flue, a draft diverter shall ing, flowing, brushing, roll coating,
be used. Special precautions must be pouring, cementing, or similar means;
taken to prevent solvent fumes from and any subsequent draining or drying
entering the combustion air of this or operations, excluding open-tank oper-
any other heater when chlorinated or ations.
fluorinated hydrocarbon solvents (for
example, trichloroethylene, Freon) are [44 FR 8577, Feb. 9, 1979; 44 FR 20940, Apr. 6,
used. 1979, as amended at 58 FR 35099, June 30, 1993;
61 FR 9250, Mar. 3, 1996; 63 FR 1295, Jan. 8,
(iii) Heating elements shall be so de-
1998]
signed and maintained that their sur-
face temperature will not cause the 1926.58 [Reserved]
solvent or mixture to decompose, break
down, or be converted into an excessive 1926.59 Hazard communication.
quantity of vapor.
(iv) Tanks or machines of more than NOTE: The requirements applicable to con-
struction work under this section are iden-
4 square feet (0.368 m2) of vapor area, tical to those set forth at 1910.1200 of this
used for solvent cleaning or vapor chapter.
degreasing, shall be equipped with suit-
able cleanout or sludge doors located [61 FR 31431, June 20, 1996]
near the bottom of each tank or still.
These doors shall be so designed and 1926.60 Methylenedianiline.
gasketed that there will be no leakage (a) Scope and application. (1) This sec-
of solvent when they are closed. tion applies to all construction work as
(13) Scope. (i) This paragraph (i) ap- defined in 29 CFR 1910.12(b), in which
plies to all operations involving the there is exposure to MDA, including
immersion of materials in liquids, or in but not limited to the following:

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.60

(i) Construction, alteration, repair, ployer shall maintain records of the


maintenance, or renovation of struc- initial monitoring results or objective
tures, substrates, or portions thereof, data supporting that exemption and
that contain MDA; the basis for the employers reliance on
(ii) Installation or the finishing of the data, as provided in the record-
surfaces with products containing keeping provision of paragraph (o) of
MDA; this section.
(iii) MDA spill/emergency cleanup at (b) Definitions. For the purpose of this
construction sites; and section, the following definitions shall
(iv) Transportation, disposal, stor- apply:
age, or containment of MDA or prod- Action level means a concentration of
ucts containing MDA on the site or lo- airborne MDA of 5 ppb as an eight (8)-
cation at which construction activities hour time-weighted average.
are performed. Assistant Secretary means the Assist-
(2) Except as provided in paragraphs ant Secretary of Labor for Occupa-
(a)(7) and (f)(5) of this section, this sec- tional Safety and Health, U.S. Depart-
tion does not apply to the processing, ment of Labor, or designee.
use, and handling of products con-
Authorized person means any person
taining MDA where initial monitoring
specifically authorized by the employer
indicates that the product is not capa-
whose duties require the person to
ble of releasing MDA in excess of the
enter a regulated area, or any person
action level under the expected condi-
entering such an area as a designated
tions of processing, use, and handling
representative of employees for the
which will cause the greatest possible
purpose of exercising the right to ob-
release; and where no dermal exposure
serve monitoring and measuring proce-
to MDA can occur.
dures under paragraph (p) of this sec-
(3) Except as provided in paragraph
tion, or any other person authorized by
(a)(7) of this section, this section does
the Act or regulations issued under the
not apply to the processing, use, and
Act.
handling of products containing MDA
Container means any barrel, bottle,
where objective data are reasonably re-
can, cylinder, drum, reaction vessel,
lied upon which demonstrate the prod-
storage tank, commercial packaging or
uct is not capable of releasing MDA
the like, but does not include piping
under the expected conditions of proc-
systems.
essing, use, and handling which will
cause the greatest possible release; and Decontamination area means an area
where no dermal exposure to MDA outside of but as near as practical to
can occur. the regulated area, consisting of an
(4) Except as provided in paragraph equipment storage area, wash area, and
(a)(7) of this section, this section does clean change area, which is used for
not apply to the storage, transpor- the decontamination of workers, mate-
tation, distribution or sale of MDA in rials, and equipment contaminated
intact containers sealed in such a man- with MDA.
ner as to contain the MDA dusts, va- Dermal exposure to MDA occurs where
pors, or liquids, except for the provi- employees are engaged in the handling,
sions of 29 CFR 1910.1200 and paragraph application or use of mixtures or mate-
(e) of this section. rials containing MDA, with any of the
(5) Except as provided in paragraph following non-airborne forms of MDA:
(a)(7) of this section, this section does (i) Liquid, powdered, granular, or
not apply to materials in any form flaked mixtures containing MDA in
which contain less than 0.1% MDA by concentrations greater than 0.1% by
weight or volume. weight or volume; and
(6) Except as provided in paragraph (ii) Materials other than finished ar-
(a)(7) of this section, this section does ticles containing MDA in concentra-
not apply to finished articles con- tions greater than 0.1% by weight or
taining MDA. volume.
(7) Where products containing MDA Director means the Director of the
are exempted under paragraphs (a)(2) National Institute for Occupational
through (a)(6) of this section, the em- Safety and Health, U.S. Department of

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1926.60 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

Health and Human Services, or des- diaminodiphenylmethane, Chemical


ignee. Abstract Service Registry number 101
Emergency means any occurrence 779, in the form of a vapor, liquid, or
such as, but not limited to, equipment solid. The definition also includes the
failure, rupture of containers, or fail- salts of MDA.
ure of control equipment which results Regulated Areas means areas where
in an unexpected and potentially haz- airborne concentrations of MDA exceed
ardous release of MDA. or can reasonably be expected to ex-
Employee exposure means exposure to ceed, the permissible exposure limits,
MDA which would occur if the em- or where dermal exposure to MDA
ployee were not using respirators or can occur.
protective work clothing and equip- STEL means short term exposure
ment. limit as determined by any 15-minute
Finished article containing MDA is de- sample period.
fined as a manufactured item: (c) Permissible exposure limits. The em-
(i) Which is formed to a specific ployer shall assure that no employee is
shape or design during manufacture; exposed to an airborne concentration
(ii) Which has end use function(s) de- of MDA in excess of ten parts per bil-
pendent in whole or part upon its shape lion (10 ppb) as an 8-hour time-weight-
or design during end use; and ed average and a STEL of one hundred
(iii) Where applicable, is an item
parts per billion (100 ppb).
which is fully cured by virtue of having
(d) Communication among employers.
been subjected to the conditions (tem-
On multi-employer worksites, an em-
perature, time) necessary to complete
the desired chemical reaction. ployer performing work involving the
Historical monitoring data means mon- application of MDA or materials con-
itoring data for construction jobs that taining MDA for which establishment
meet the following conditions: of one or more regulated areas is re-
(i) The data upon which judgments quired shall inform other employers on
are based are scientifically sound and the site of the nature of the employers
were collected using methods that are work with MDA and of the existence of,
sufficiently accurate and precise; and requirements pertaining to, regu-
(ii) The processes and work practices lated areas.
that were in use when the historical (e) Emergency situations(1) Written
monitoring data were obtained are es- plan. (i) A written plan for emergency
sentially the same as those to be used situations shall be developed for each
during the job for which initial moni- construction operation where there is a
toring will not be performed; possibility of an emergency. The plan
(iii) The characteristics of the MDA- shall include procedures where the em-
containing material being handled ployer identifies emergency escape
when the historical monitoring data routes for his employees at each con-
were obtained are the same as those on struction site before the construction
the job for which initial monitoring operation begins. Appropriate portions
will not be performed; of the plan shall be implemented in the
(iv) Environmental conditions pre- event of an emergency.
vailing when the historical monitoring (ii) The plan shall specifically pro-
data were obtained are the same as vide that employees engaged in cor-
those on the job for which initial moni- recting emergency conditions shall be
toring will not be performed; and equipped with the appropriate personal
(v) Other data relevant to the oper- protective equipment and clothing as
ations, materials, processing, or em- required in paragraphs (i) and (j) of this
ployee exposures covered by the excep- section until the emergency is abated.
tion are substantially similar. The (iii) The plan shall specifically in-
data must be scientifically sound, the clude provisions for alerting and evacu-
characteristics of the MDA containing ating affected employees as well as the
material must be similar and the envi- applicable elements prescribed in 29
ronmental conditions comparable. CFR 1910.38 and 29 CFR 1910.39, Emer-
4,4Methylenedianiline or MDA means gency action plans and Fire preven-
the chemical; 4,4- tion plans, respectively.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.60

(2) Alerting employees. Where there is monitoring for each such employee at
the possibility of employee exposure to least every six (6) months.
MDA due to an emergency, means shall (ii) If the monitoring required by
be developed to promptly alert employ- paragraph (f)(2) of this section reveals
ees who have the potential to be di- employee exposure above the PELs, the
rectly exposed. Affected employees not employer shall repeat such monitoring
engaged in correcting emergency con- for each such employee at least every
ditions shall be evacuated immediately three (3) months.
in the event that an emergency occurs. (iii) Employers who are conducting
Means shall also be developed for alert- MDA operations within a regulated
ing other employees who may be ex- area can forego periodic monitoring if
posed as a result of the emergency. the employees are all wearing supplied-
(f) Exposure monitoring(1) General. air respirators while working in the
(i) Determinations of employee expo- regulated area.
sure shall be made from breathing zone (iv) The employer may alter the mon-
air samples that are representative of itoring schedule from every three
each employees exposure to airborne months to every six months for any
MDA over an eight (8) hour period. De- employee for whom two consecutive
termination of employee exposure to measurements taken at least 7 days
the STEL shall be made from breathing apart indicate that the employee expo-
zone air samples collected over a 15 sure has decreased to below the PELs
minute sampling period. but above the action level.
(ii) Representative employee expo- (4) Termination of monitoring. (i) If the
sure shall be determined on the basis of initial monitoring required by para-
one or more samples representing full graph (f)(2) of this section reveals em-
shift exposure for each shift for each ployee exposure to be below the action
job classification in each work area level, the employer may discontinue
the monitoring for that employee, ex-
where exposure to MDA may occur.
cept as otherwise required by para-
(iii) Where the employer can docu-
graph (f)(5) of this section.
ment that exposure levels are equiva-
(ii) If the periodic monitoring re-
lent for similar operations in different quired by paragraph (f)(3) of this sec-
work shifts, the employer shall only be tion reveals that employee exposures,
required to determine representative as indicated by at least two consecu-
employee exposure for that operation tive measurements taken at least 7
during one shift. days apart, are below the action level
(2) Initial monitoring. Each employer the employer may discontinue the
who has a workplace or work operation monitoring for that employee, except
covered by this standard shall perform as otherwise required by paragraph
initial monitoring to determine accu- (f)(5) of this section.
rately the airborne concentrations of (5) Additional monitoring. The em-
MDA to which employees may be ex- ployer shall institute the exposure
posed unless: monitoring required under paragraphs
(i) The employer can demonstrate, on (f)(2) and (f)(3) of this section when
the basis of objective data, that the there has been a change in production
MDA-containing product or material process, chemicals present, control
being handled cannot cause exposures equipment, personnel, or work prac-
above the standards action level, even tices which may result in new or addi-
under worst-case release conditions; or tional exposures to MDA, or when the
(ii) The employer has historical mon- employer has any reason to suspect a
itoring or other data demonstrating change which may result in new or ad-
that exposures on a particular job will ditional exposures.
be below the action level. (6) Accuracy of monitoring. Monitoring
(3) Periodic monitoring and monitoring shall be accurate, to a confidence level
frequency. (i) If the monitoring required of 95 percent, to within plus or minus
by paragraph (f)(2) of this section re- 25 percent for airborne concentrations
veals employee exposure at or above of MDA.
the action level, but at or below the (7) Employee notification of monitoring
PELs, the employer shall repeat such results. (i) The employer must, as soon

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1926.60 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

as possible but no later than 5 working drink, smoke, chew tobacco or gum, or
days after the receipt of the results of apply cosmetics in regulated areas.
any monitoring performed under this (h) Methods of compliance(1) Engi-
section, notify each affected employee neering controls and work practices and
of these results either individually in respirators. (i) The employer shall use
writing or by posting the results in an one or any combination of the fol-
appropriate location that is accessible lowing control methods to achieve
to employees. compliance with the permissible expo-
(ii) The written notification required sure limits prescribed by paragraph (c)
by paragraph (f)(7)(i) of this section of this section:
shall contain the corrective action
(A) Local exhaust ventilation
being taken by the employer or any
other protective measures which have equipped with HEPA filter dust collec-
been implemented to reduce the em- tion systems;
ployee exposure to or below the PELs, (B) General ventilation systems;
wherever the PELs are exceeded. (C) Use of workpractices; or
(8) Visual monitoring. The employer (D) Other engineering controls such
shall make routine inspections of em- as isolation and enclosure that the As-
ployee hands, face and forearms poten- sistant Secretary can show to be fea-
tially exposed to MDA. Other potential sible.
dermal exposures reported by the em- (ii) Wherever the feasible engineering
ployee must be referred to the appro- controls and work practices which
priate medical personnel for observa- can be instituted are not sufficient to
tion. If the employer determines that reduce employee exposure to or below
the employee has been exposed to MDA the PELs, the employer shall use them
the employer shall: to reduce employee exposure to the
(i) Determine the source of exposure; lowest levels achievable by these con-
(ii) Implement protective measures trols and shall supplement them by the
to correct the hazard; and
use of respiratory protective devices
(iii) Maintain records of the correc-
which comply with the requirements of
tive actions in accordance with para-
graph (o) of this section. paragraph (i) of this section.
(g) Regulated areas(1) Establish- (2) Special Provisions. For workers en-
ment(i) Airborne exposures. The em- gaged in spray application methods,
ployer shall establish regulated areas respiratory protection must be used in
where airborne concentrations of MDA addition to feasible engineering con-
exceed or can reasonably be expected trols and work practices to reduce em-
to exceed, the permissible exposure ployee exposure to or below the PELs.
limits. (3) Prohibitions. Compressed air shall
(ii) Dermal exposures. Where employ- not be used to remove MDA, unless the
ees are subject to dermal exposure to compressed air is used in conjunction
MDA the employer shall establish with an enclosed ventilation system
those work areas as regulated areas. designed to capture the dust cloud cre-
(2) Demarcation. Regulated areas shall ated by the compressed air.
be demarcated from the rest of the (4) Employee rotation. The employer
workplace in a manner that minimizes shall not use employee rotation as a
the number of persons potentially ex- means of compliance with the exposure
posed. limits prescribed in paragraph (c) of
(3) Access. Access to regulated areas this section.
shall be limited to authorized persons.
(5) Compliance program. (i) The em-
(4) Personal protective equipment and
clothing. Each person entering a regu- ployer shall establish and implement a
lated area shall be supplied with, and written program to reduce employee
required to use, the appropriate per- exposure to or below the PELs by
sonal protective clothing and equip- means of engineering and work prac-
ment in accordance with paragraphs (i) tice controls, as required by paragraph
and (j) of this section. (h)(1) of this section, and by use of res-
(5) Prohibited activities. The employer piratory protection where permitted
shall ensure that employees do not eat, under this section.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.60

(ii) Upon request this written pro- (ii) An employee who cannot use a
gram shall be furnished for examina- negative-pressure respirator must be
tion and copying to the Assistant Sec- given the option of using a positive-
retary, the Director, affected employ- pressure respirator, or a supplied-air
ees and designated employee represent- respirator operated in the continuous-
atives. The employer shall review and, flow or pressure-demand mode.
as necessary, update such plans at (j) Protective work clothing and equip-
least once every 12 months to make ment(1) Provision and use. Where em-
certain they reflect the current status ployees are subject to dermal exposure
of the program. to MDA, where liquids containing MDA
(i) Respiratory protection(1) General. can be splashed into the eyes, or where
For employees who use respirators re- airborne concentrations of MDA are in
quired by this section, the employer excess of the PEL, the employer shall
must provide each employee an appro- provide, at no cost to the employee,
priate respirator that complies with and ensure that the employee uses, ap-
the requirements of this paragraph. propriate protective work clothing and
Respirators must be used during: equipment which prevent contact with
(i) Periods necessary to install or im- MDA such as, but not limited to:
plement feasible engineering and work- (i) Aprons, coveralls or other full-
practice controls. body work clothing;
(ii) Work operations, such as mainte- (ii) Gloves, head coverings, and foot
nance and repair activities and spray- coverings; and
application processes, for which engi-
(iii) Face shields, chemical goggles;
neering and work-practice controls are
or
not feasible.
(iv) Other appropriate protective
(iii) Work operations for which fea-
equipment which comply with 29 CFR
sible engineering and work-practice
1910.133.
controls are not yet sufficient to re-
duce employee exposure to or below the (2) Removal and storage. (i) The em-
PELs. ployer shall ensure that, at the end of
(iv) Emergencies. their work shift, employees remove
(2) Respirator program. The employer MDA-contaminated protective work
must implement a respiratory protec- clothing and equipment that is not
tion program in accordance with routinely removed throughout the day
1910.134 (b) through (d) (except in change areas provided in accordance
(d)(1)(iii)), and (f) through (m), which with the provisions in paragraph (k) of
covers each employee required by this this section.
section to use a respirator. (ii) The employer shall ensure that,
(3) Respirator selection. (i) Employers during their work shift, employees re-
must: move all other MDA-contaminated pro-
(A) Select, and provide to employees, tective work clothing or equipment be-
the appropriate respirators specified in fore leaving a regulated area.
paragraph (d)(3)(i)(A) of 29 CFR (iii) The employer shall ensure that
1910.134. no employee takes MDA-contaminated
(B) Provide HEPA filters for powered work clothing or equipment out of the
and non-powered air-purifying res- decontamination areas, except those
pirators. employees authorized to do so for the
(C) For escape, provide employees purpose of laundering, maintenance, or
with one of the following respirator op- disposal.
tions: Any self-contained breathing ap- (iv) MDA-contaminated work cloth-
paratus with a full facepiece or hood ing or equipment shall be placed and
operated in the positive-pressure or stored and transported in sealed, im-
continuous-flow mode; or a full face- permeable bags, or other closed imper-
piece air-purifying respirator. meable containers.
(D) Provide a combination HEPA fil- (v) Containers of MDA-contaminated
ter and organic vapor canister or car- protective work clothing or equipment
tridge with air-purifying respirators which are to be taken out of decon-
when MDA is in liquid form or used as tamination areas or the workplace for
part of a process requiring heat. cleaning, maintenance, or disposal,

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1926.60 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

shall bear labels warning of the hazards (iii) Equipment area. The equipment
of MDA. area shall be supplied with imper-
(3) Cleaning and replacement. (i) The meable, labeled bags and containers for
employer shall provide the employee the containment and disposal of con-
with clean protective clothing and taminated protective clothing and
equipment. The employer shall ensure equipment.
that protective work clothing or equip- (2) Shower area. (i) Where feasible,
ment required by this paragraph is shower facilities shall be provided
cleaned, laundered, repaired, or re- which comply with 29 CFR 1910.141(d)(3)
placed at intervals appropriate to wherever the possibility of employee
maintain its effectiveness. exposure to airborne levels of MDA in
(ii) The employer shall prohibit the excess of the permissible exposure
removal of MDA from protective work limit exists.
clothing or equipment by blowing, (ii) Where dermal exposure to MDA
shaking, or any methods which allow occurs, the employer shall ensure that
MDA to re-enter the workplace. materials spilled or deposited on the
(iii) The employer shall ensure that skin are removed as soon as possible by
laundering of MDA-contaminated methods which do not facilitate the
clothing shall be done so as to prevent dermal absorption of MDA.
the release of MDA in the workplace. (3) Lunch Areas. (i) Whenever food or
(iv) Any employer who gives MDA- beverages are consumed at the work-
contaminated clothing to another per- site and employees are exposed to MDA
son for laundering shall inform such the employer shall provide clean lunch
person of the requirement to prevent areas were MDA levels are below the
the release of MDA. action level and where no dermal expo-
(v) The employer shall inform any sure to MDA can occur.
person who launders or cleans protec- (ii) The employer shall ensure that
tive clothing or equipment contami- employees wash their hands and faces
nated with MDA of the potentially with soap and water prior to eating,
harmful effects of exposure. drinking, smoking, or applying cos-
(4) Visual Examination. (i) The em- metics.
ployer shall ensure that employees (iii) The employer shall ensure that
work clothing is examined periodically employees do not enter lunch facilities
for rips or tears that may occur during with contaminated protective work
performance of work. clothing or equipment.
(ii) When rips or tears are detected, (l) Communication of hazards to em-
the protective equipment or clothing ployees(1) Hazard communication. The
shall be repaired and replaced imme- employer shall include
diately. Methylenedianiline (MDA) in the pro-
(k) Hygiene facilities and practices(1) gram established to comply with the
General. (i) The employer shall provide Hazard Communication Standard
decontamination areas for employees (HCS) ( 1910.1200). The employer shall
required to work in regulated areas or ensure that each employee has access
required by paragraph (j)(1) of this sec- to labels on containers of MDA and
tion to wear protective clothing. Excep- safety data sheets, and is trained in ac-
tion: In lieu of the decontamination cordance with the provisions of HCS
area requirement specified in para- and paragraph (l)(3) of this section. The
graph (k)(1)(i) of this section, the em- employer shall ensure that at least the
ployer may permit employees engaged following hazards are addressed: Can-
in small scale, short duration oper- cer; liver effects; and skin sensitiza-
ations, to clean their protective cloth- tion.
ing or dispose of the protective cloth- (2) Signs and labels (i) Signs. (A) The
ing before such employees leave the employer shall post and maintain leg-
area where the work was performed. ible signs demarcating regulated areas
(ii) Change areas. The employer shall and entrances or access-ways to regu-
ensure that change areas are equipped lated areas that bear the following leg-
with separate storage facilities for pro- end:
tective clothing and street clothing, in DANGER
accordance with 29 CFR 1910.141(e). MDA

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.60
MAY CAUSE CANCER pendices A and B of this section, and
CAUSES DAMAGE TO THE LIVER indicate to employees where a copy of
RESPIRATORY PROTECTION AND PRO- the standard is available;
TECTIVE CLOTHING MAY BE REQUIRED
(B) Describe the medical surveillance
IN THIS AREA
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY program required under paragraph (n)
of this section, and explain the infor-
(B) Prior to June 1, 2016, employers mation contained in appendix C of this
may use the following legend in lieu of section; and
that specified in paragraph (l)(2)(i)(A) (C) Describe the medical removal
of this section: provision required under paragraph (n)
DANGER of this section.
MDA (4) Access to training materials. (i) The
MAY CAUSE CANCER employer shall make readily available
LIVER TOXIN to all affected employees, without cost,
AUTHORIZED PERSONNEL ONLY all written materials relating to the
RESPIRATORS AND PROTECTIVE CLOTH- employee training program, including
ING MAY BE REQUIRED TO BE WORN IN
a copy of this regulation.
THIS AREA
(ii) The employer shall provide to the
(ii) Labels. (A) The employer shall en- Assistant Secretary and the Director,
sure that labels or other appropriate upon request, all information and
forms of warning are provided for con- training materials relating to the em-
tainers of MDA within the workplace. ployee information and training pro-
The labels shall comply with the re- gram.
quirements of 1910.1200(f) and shall in- (m) Housekeeping. (1) All surfaces
clude at least the following informa- shall be maintained as free as prac-
tion for pure MDA and mixtures con- ticable of visible accumulations of
taining MDA: MDA.
DANGER (2) The employer shall institute a
CONTAINS MDA program for detecting MDA leaks,
MAY CAUSE CANCER spills, and discharges, including reg-
CAUSES DAMAGE TO THE LIVER ular visual inspections of operations
(B) Prior to June 1, 2015, employers involving liquid or solid MDA.
may include the following information (3) All leaks shall be repaired and liq-
workplace labels in lieu of the labeling uid or dust spills cleaned up promptly.
requirements in paragraph (l)(2)(ii)(A) (4) Surfaces contaminated with MDA
of this section: may not be cleaned by the use of com-
(1) For Pure MDA: pressed air.
(5) Shoveling, dry sweeping, and
DANGER other methods of dry clean-up of MDA
CONTAINS MDA may be used where HEPA filtered
MAY CAUSE CANCER vacuuming and/or wet cleaning are not
LIVER TOXIN
feasible or practical.
(2) For mixtures containing MDA: (6) Waste, scrap, debris, bags, con-
DANGER
tainers, equipment, and clothing con-
CONTAINS MDA taminated with MDA shall be collected
CONTAINS MATERIALS WHICH MAY and disposed of in a manner to prevent
CAUSE CANCER the re-entry of MDA into the work-
LIVER TOXIN place.
(3) Information and training. (i) The (n) Medical surveillance(1) General.
employer shall provide employees with (i) The employer shall make available
information and training on MDA, in a medical surveillance program for em-
accordance with 29 CFR 1910.1200(h), at ployees exposed to MDA under the fol-
the time of initial assignment and at lowing circumstances:
least annually thereafter. (A) Employees exposed at or above
(ii) In addition to the information re- the action level for 30 or more days per
quired under 29 CFR 1910.1200, the em- year;
ployer shall: (B) Employees who are subject to
(A) Provide an explanation of the dermal exposure to MDA for 15 or more
contents of this section, including ap- days per year;

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1926.60 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

(C) Employees who have been exposed intake, and the appearance of physical
in an emergency situation; signs relating to the liver, and the
(D) Employees whom the employer, skin;
based on results from compliance with (B) The appropriate tests and exami-
paragraph (f)(8) of this section, has rea- nations including liver function tests
son to believe are being dermally ex- and skin examinations; and
posed; and (C) Appropriate additional tests or
(E) Employees who show signs or examinations as deemed necessary by
symptoms of MDA exposure. the physician.
(ii) The employer shall ensure that (ii) If in the physicians opinion the
all medical examinations and proce- results of liver function tests indicate
dures are performed by or under the su- an abnormality, the employee shall be
pervision of a licensed physician at a removed from further MDA exposure in
reasonable time and place, and pro- accordance with paragraph (n)(9) of
vided without cost to the employee. this section. Repeat liver function
(2) Initial examinations. (i) Within 150 tests shall be conducted on advice of
days of the effective date of this stand- the physician.
ard, or before the time of initial assign- (4) Emergency examinations. If the em-
ment, the employer shall provide each ployer determines that the employee
employee covered by paragraph (n)(1)(i) has been exposed to a potentially haz-
of this section with a medical examina- ardous amount of MDA in an emer-
tion including the following elements: gency situation under paragraph (e) of
(A) A detailed history which in- this section, the employer shall provide
cludes: medical examinations in accordance
(1) Past work exposure to MDA or with paragraphs (n)(3) (i) and (ii) of
any other toxic substances; this section. If the results of liver func-
(2) A history of drugs, alcohol, to- tion testing indicate an abnormality,
bacco, and medication routinely taken the employee shall be removed in ac-
(duration and quantity); and cordance with paragraph (n)(9) of this
(3) A history of dermatitis, chemical section. Repeat liver function tests
skin sensitization, or previous hepatic shall be conducted on the advice of the
disease. physician. If the results of the tests are
(B) A physical examination which in- normal, tests must be repeated two to
cludes all routine physical examina- three weeks from the initial testing. If
tion parameters, skin examination, and the results of the second set of tests
examination for signs of liver disease. are normal and on the advice of the
(C) Laboratory tests including: physician, no additional testing is re-
(1) Liver function tests and (2) Uri- quired.
nalysis. (5) Additional examinations. Where the
(D) Additional tests as necessary in employee develops signs and symptoms
the opinion of the physician. associated with exposure to MDA, the
(ii) No initial medical examination is employer shall provide the employee
required if adequate records show that with an additional medical examina-
the employee has been examined in ac- tion including liver function tests. Re-
cordance with the requirements of this peat liver function tests shall be con-
section within the previous six months ducted on the advice of the physician.
prior to the effective date of this stand- If the results of the tests are normal,
ard or prior to the date of initial as- tests must be repeated two to three
signment. weeks from the initial testing. If the
(3) Periodic examinations. (i) The em- results of the second set of tests are
ployer shall provide each employee normal and on the advice of the physi-
covered by this section with a medical cian, no additional testing is required.
examination at least annually fol- (6) Multiple physician review mecha-
lowing the initial examination. These nism. (i) If the employer selects the ini-
periodic examinations shall include at tial physician who conducts any med-
least the following elements: ical examination or consultation pro-
(A) A brief history regarding any new vided to an employee under this sec-
exposure to potential liver toxins, tion, and the employee has signs or
changes in drug, tobacco, and alcohol symptoms of occupational exposure to

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.60

MDA (which could include an abnormal recommendations of the second physi-


liver function test), and the employee cian, unless the employer and the em-
disagrees with the opinion of the exam- ployee reach a mutually acceptable
ining physician, and this opinion could agreement.
affect the employees job status, the (7) Information provided to the exam-
employee may designate an appro- ining physician. (i) The employer shall
priate and mutually acceptable second provide the following information to
physician: the examining physician:
(A) To review any findings, deter- (A) A copy of this regulation and its
minations or recommendations of the appendices;
initial physician; and (B) A description of the affected em-
(B) To conduct such examinations, ployees duties as they relate to the
consultations, and laboratory tests as employees potential exposure to MDA;
the second physician deems necessary (C) The employees current actual or
to facilitate this review. representative MDA exposure level;
(ii) The employer shall promptly no- (D) A description of any personal pro-
tify an employee of the right to seek a tective equipment used or to be used;
second medical opinion after each oc- and
casion that an initial physician con- (E) Information from previous em-
ducts a medical examination or con- ployment related medical examina-
sultation pursuant to this section. The tions of the affected employee.
employer may condition its participa- (ii) The employer shall provide the
tion in, and payment for, the multiple foregoing information to a second phy-
physician review mechanism upon the sician under this section upon request
employee doing the following within either by the second physician, or by
fifteen (15) days after receipt of the the employee.
foregoing notification, or receipt of the (8) Physicians written opinion. (i) For
initial physicians written opinion, each examination under this section,
whichever is later: the employer shall obtain, and provide
(A) The employee informing the em- the employee with a copy of, the exam-
ployer that he or she intends to seek a ining physicians written opinion with-
second medical opinion, and in 15 days of its receipt. The written
(B) The employee initiating steps to opinion shall include the following:
make an appointment with a second (A) The occupationally pertinent re-
physician. sults of the medical examination and
(iii) If the findings, determinations, tests;
or recommendations of the second phy- (B) The physicians opinion con-
sician differ from those of the initial cerning whether the employee has any
physician, then the employer and the detected medical conditions which
employee shall assure that efforts are would place the employee at increased
made for the two physicians to resolve risk of material impairment of health
any disagreement. from exposure to MDA;
(iv) If the two physicians have been (C) The physicians recommended
unable to quickly resolve their dis- limitations upon the employees expo-
agreement, then the employer and the sure to MDA or upon the employees
employee through their respective phy- use of protective clothing or equipment
sicians shall designate a third physi- and respirators; and
cian: (D) A statement that the employee
(A) To review any findings, deter- has been informed by the physician of
minations, or recommendations of the the results of the medical examination
prior physicians; and and any medical conditions resulting
(B) To conduct such examinations, from MDA exposure which require fur-
consultations, laboratory tests, and ther explanation or treatment.
discussions with the prior physicians (ii) The written opinion obtained by
as the third physician deems necessary the employer shall not reveal specific
to resolve the disagreement of the findings or diagnoses unrelated to oc-
prior physicians. cupational exposures.
(v) The employer shall act consistent (9) Medical removal(i) Temporary
with the findings, determinations, and medical removal of an employee(A)

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1926.60 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

Temporary removal resulting from occupa- the employee no longer has a detected
tional exposure. The employee shall be medical condition which places the em-
removed from work environments in ployee at increased risk of material
which exposure to MDA is at or above impairment to health from exposure to
the action level or where dermal expo- MDA.
sure to MDA may occur, following an (B) For the purposes of this section,
initial examination (paragraph (n)(2) of the requirement that an employer re-
this section), periodic examinations turn an employee to his or her former
(paragraph (n)(3) of this section), an job status is not intended to expand
emergency situation (paragraph (n)(4) upon or restrict any rights an em-
of this section), or an additional exam- ployee has or would have had, absent
ination (paragraph (n)(5) of this sec- temporary medical removal, to a spe-
tion) in the following circumstances: cific job classification or position
(1) When the employee exhibits signs under the terms of a collective bar-
and/or symptoms indicative of acute gaining agreement.
exposure to MDA; or (iii) Removal of other employee special
(2) When the examining physician de- protective measure or limitations. The
termines that an employees abnormal employer shall remove any limitations
liver function tests are not associated placed on an employee or end any spe-
with MDA exposure but that the abnor- cial protective measures provided to an
malities may be exacerbated as a re- employee pursuant to a final medical
sult of occupational exposure to MDA. determination when a subsequent final
(B) Temporary removal due to a final medical determination indicates that
medical determination. (1) The employer the limitations or special protective
shall remove an employee from work measures are no longer necessary.
having an exposure to MDA at or above (iv) Employer options pending a final
the action level or where the potential medical determination. Where the physi-
for dermal exposure exists on each oc- cian review mechanism used pursuant
casion that a final medical determina- to the medical surveillance provisions
tion results in a medical finding, deter- of this section, has not yet resulted in
mination, or opinion that the employee a final medical determination with re-
has a detected medical condition which spect to an employee, the employer
places the employee at increased risk shall act as follows:
of material impairment to health from (A) Removal. The employer may re-
exposure to MDA. move the employee from exposure to
(2) For the purposes of this section, MDA, provide special protective meas-
the phrase final medical determina- ures to the employee, or place limita-
tion shall mean the outcome of the tions upon the employee, consistent
physician review mechanism used pur- with the medical findings, determina-
suant to the medical surveillance pro- tions, or recommendations of the phy-
visions of this section. sician who has reviewed the employees
(3) Where a final medical determina- health status.
tion results in any recommended spe- (B) Return. The employer may return
cial protective measures for an em- the employee to his or her former job
ployee, or limitations on an employees status, and end any special protective
exposure to MDA, the employer shall measures provided to the employee,
implement and act consistent with the consistent with the medical findings,
recommendation. determinations, or recommendations of
(ii) Return of the employee to former job any of the physicians who have re-
status. (A) The employer shall return viewed the employees health status,
an employee to his or her former job with two exceptions:
status: (1) If the initial removal, special pro-
(1) When the employee no longer tection, or limitation of the employee
shows signs or symptoms of exposure resulted from a final medical deter-
to MDA, or upon the advice of the phy- mination which differed from the find-
sician. ings, determinations, or recommenda-
(2) When a subsequent final medical tions of the initial physician; or
determination results in a medical (2) The employee has been on re-
finding, determination, or opinion that moval status for the preceding six

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.60

months as a result of exposure to MDA, with any employer made possible by


then the employer shall await a final virtue of the employees removal.
medical determination. (F) Employees who do not recover with-
(v) Medical removal protection bene- in the 6 months of removal. The em-
fits(A) Provisions of medical removal ployer shall take the following meas-
protection benefits. The employer shall ures with respect to any employee re-
provide to an employee up to six (6) moved from exposure to MDA:
months of medical removal protection (1) The employer shall make avail-
benefits on each occasion that an em- able to the employee a medical exam-
ployee is removed from exposure to ination pursuant to this section to ob-
MDA or otherwise limited pursuant to tain a final medical determination
this section. with respect to the employee;
(B) Definition of medical removal pro- (2) The employer shall assure that
tection benefits. For the purposes of this the final medical determination ob-
section, the requirement that an em- tained indicates whether or not the
ployer provide medical removal protec- employee may be returned to his or her
tion benefits means that the employer former job status, and, if not, what
shall maintain the earnings, seniority, steps should be taken to protect the
and other employment rights and bene- employees health;
fits of an employee as though the em- (3) Where the final medical deter-
ployee had not been removed from nor- mination has not yet been obtained, or
mal exposure to MDA or otherwise lim- once obtained indicates that the em-
ited. ployee may not yet be returned to his
(C) Follow-up medical surveillance dur- or her former job status, the employer
ing the period of employee removal or lim- shall continue to provide medical re-
itations. During the period of time that moval protection benefits to the em-
an employee is removed from normal ployee until either the employee is re-
exposure to MDA or otherwise limited, turned to former job status, or a final
the employer may condition the provi- medical determination is made that
sion of medical removal protection the employee is incapable of ever safe-
benefits upon the employees participa- ly returning to his or her former job
tion in follow-up medical surveillance status; and
made available pursuant to this sec- (4) Where the employer acts pursuant
tion. to a final medical determination which
(D) Workers compensation claims. If a permits the return of the employee to
removed employee files a claim for his or her former job status despite
workers compensation payments for a what would otherwise be an unaccept-
MDA-related disability, then the em- able liver function test, later questions
ployer shall continue to provide med- concerning removing the employee
ical removal protection benefits pend- again shall be decided by a final med-
ing disposition of the claim. To the ex- ical determination. The employer need
tent that an award is made to the em- not automatically remove such an em-
ployee for earnings lost during the pe- ployee pursuant to the MDA removal
riod of removal, the employers med- criteria provided by this section.
ical removal protection obligation (vi) Voluntary removal or restriction of
shall be reduced by such amount. The an employee. Where an employer, al-
employer shall receive no credit for though not required by this section to
workers compensation payments re- do so, removes an employee from expo-
ceived by the employee for treatment- sure to MDA or otherwise places limi-
related expenses. tations on an employee due to the ef-
(E) Other credits. The employers obli- fects of MDA exposure on the employ-
gation to provide medical removal pro- ees medical condition, the employer
tection benefits to a removed employee shall provide medical removal protec-
shall be reduced to the extent that the tion benefits to the employee equal to
employee receives compensation for that required by paragraph (n)(9)(v) of
earnings lost during the period of re- this section.
moval either from a publicly or em- (o) Recordkeeping(1) Objective data
ployer-funded compensation program, for exempted operations. (i) Where the
or receives income from employment employer has relied on objective data

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1926.60 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

that demonstrate that products made were obtained are the same as those on
from or containing MDA are not capa- the job for which initial monitoring
ble of releasing MDA or do not present will not be performed;
a dermal exposure problem under the (D) Environmental conditions pre-
expected conditions of processing, use, vailing when the historical monitoring
or handling to exempt such operations data were obtained are the same as
from the initial monitoring require- those on the job for which initial moni-
ments under paragraph (f)(2) of this toring will not be performed; and
section, the employer shall establish (E) Other data relevant to the oper-
and maintain an accurate record of ob- ations, materials, processing, or em-
jective data reasonably relied upon in ployee exposures covered by the excep-
support of the exemption. tion.
(ii) The record shall include at least (iii) The employer shall maintain
the following information: this record for the duration of the em-
(A) The product qualifying for ex- ployers reliance upon such historical
emption; monitoring data.
(B) The source of the objective data; (3) The employer may utilize the
(C) The testing protocol, results of services of competent organizations
testing, and/or analysis of the material such as industry trade associations and
for the release of MDA; employee associations to maintain the
(D) A description of the operation ex- records required by this section.
empted and how the data support the (4) Exposure measurements. (i) The em-
exemption; and ployer shall keep an accurate record of
(E) Other data relevant to the oper- all measurements taken to monitor
ations, materials, processing, or em- employee exposure to MDA.
ployee exposures covered by the ex- (ii) This record shall include at least
emption. the following information:
(iii) The employer shall maintain (A) The date of measurement;
this record for the duration of the em- (B) The operation involving exposure
ployers reliance upon such objective to MDA;
data. (C) Sampling and analytical methods
(2) Historical monitoring data. (i) used and evidence of their accuracy;
Where the employer has relied on his- (D) Number, duration, and results of
torical monitoring data that dem- samples taken;
onstrate that exposures on a particular (E) Type of protective devices worn,
job will be below the action level to ex- if any; and
empt such operations from the initial (F) Name, social security number,
monitoring requirements under para- and exposure of the employees whose
graph (f)(2) of this section, the em- exposures are represented.
ployer shall establish and maintain an (iii) The employer shall maintain
accurate record of historical moni- this record for at least thirty (30)
toring data reasonably relied upon in years, in accordance with 29 CFR
support of the exception. 1910.33.
(ii) The record shall include informa- (5) Medical surveillance. (i) The em-
tion that reflect the following condi- ployer shall establish and maintain an
tions: accurate record for each employee sub-
(A) The data upon which judgments ject to medical surveillance by para-
are based are scientifically sound and graph (n) of this section, in accordance
were collected using methods that are with 29 CFR 1910.33.
sufficiently accurate and precise; (ii) The record shall include at least
(B) The processes and work practices the following information:
that were in use when the historical (A) The name and social security
monitoring data were obtained are es- number of the employee;
sentially the same as those to be used (B) A copy of the employees medical
during the job for which initial moni- examination results, including the
toring will not be performed; medical history, questionnaire re-
(C) The characteristics of the MDA- sponses, results of any tests, and physi-
containing material being handled cians recommendations.
when the historical monitoring data (C) Physicians written opinions;

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.60

(D) Any employee medical com- MDA conducted pursuant to paragraph


plaints related to exposure to MDA; (f) of this section.
and (2) Observation procedures. When ob-
(E) A copy of the information pro- servation of the measuring or moni-
vided to the physician as required by toring of employee exposure to MDA
paragraph (n) of this section. requires entry into areas where the use
(iii) The employer shall ensure that of protective clothing and equipment
this record is maintained for the dura- or respirators is required, the employer
tion of employment plus thirty (30) shall provide the observer with per-
years, in accordance with 29 CFR sonal protective clothing and equip-
1910.33. ment or respirators required to be worn
(iv) A copy of the employees medical by employees working in the area, as-
removal and return to work status. sure the use of such clothing and equip-
(6) Training records. The employer ment or respirators, and require the
shall maintain all employee training observer to comply with all other ap-
records for one (1) year beyond the last plicable safety and health procedures.
date of employment. (q) Appendices. The information con-
(7) Availability. (i) The employer, tained in appendices A, B, C, and D of
upon written request, shall make all this section is not intended, by itself,
records required to be maintained by to create any additional obligations
this section available to the Assistant not otherwise imposed by this standard
Secretary and the Director for exam- nor detract from any existing obliga-
ination and copying. tion.
(ii) The employer, upon request, shall
make any exposure records required by APPENDIX A TO 1926.60SUBSTANCE DATA
SHEET, FOR 44 METHYLENEDIANILINE
paragraphs (f) and (n) of this section
available for examination and copying NOTE: The requirements applicable to con-
to affected employees, former employ- struction work under this appendix A are
ees, designated representatives, and identical to those set forth in appendix A to
the Assistant Secretary, in accordance 1910.1050 of this chapter.
with 29 CFR 1910.33(a)(e) and (g)(i). APPENDIX B TO 1926.60SUBSTANCE
(iii) The employer, upon request, TECHNICAL GUIDELINES, MDA
shall make employee medical records
NOTE: The requirements applicable to con-
required by paragraphs (n) and (o) of
struction work under this appendix B are
this section available for examination identical to those set forth in appendix B to
and copying to the subject employee, 1910.1050 of this chapter.
anyone having the specific written con-
sent of the subject employee, and the APPENDIX C TO 1926.60MEDICAL
Assistant Secretary, in accordance SURVEILLANCE GUIDELINES FOR MDA
with 29 CFR 1910.33. NOTE: The requirements applicable to con-
(8) Transfer of records. The employer struction work under this appendix C are
shall comply with the requirements identical to those set forth in appendix C to
concerning transfer of records set forth 1910.1050 of this chapter.
in 29 CFR 1910.1020(h).
APPENDIX D TO 1926.60SAMPLING AND ANA-
(ii) Whenever the employer ceases to LYTICAL METHODS FOR MDA MONITORING
do business and there is no successor AND MEASUREMENT PROCEDURES
employer to receive and retain the
records for the prescribed period, the NOTE: The requirements applicable to con-
struction work under this appendix D are
employer shall notify the Director at
identical to those set forth in appendix D to
least 90 days prior to disposal and, 1910.1050 of this chapter.
upon request, transmit them to the Di-
rector. [57 FR 35681, Aug. 10, 1992, as amended at 57
FR 49649, Nov. 3, 1992; 61 FR 5510, Feb. 13,
(p) Observation of monitoring(1) Em-
1996; 61 FR 31431, June 20, 1996; 63 FR 1296,
ployee observation. The employer shall Jan. 8, 1998; 69 FR 70373, Dec. 6, 2004; 70 FR
provide affected employees, or their 1143, Jan. 5, 2005; 71 FR 16674, Apr. 3, 2006; 71
designated representatives, an oppor- FR 50191, Aug. 24, 2006; 73 FR 75588, Dec. 12,
tunity to observe the measuring or 2008; 76 FR 33611, June 8, 2011; 77 FR 17889,
monitoring of employee exposure to Mar. 26, 2012]

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1926.61 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

1926.61 Retention of DOT markings, Director means the Director, National


placards and labels. Institute for Occupational Safety and
NOTE: The requirements applicable to con- Health (NIOSH), U.S. Department of
struction work under this section are iden- Health and Human Services, or des-
tical to those set forth at 1910.1201 of this ignee.
chapter. Lead means metallic lead, all inor-
[61 FR 31432, June 20, 1996] ganic lead compounds, and organic lead
soaps. Excluded from this definition
1926.62 Lead. are all other organic lead compounds.
(a) Scope. This section applies to all This section means this standard.
construction work where an employee (c) Permissible exposure limit. (1) The
may be occupationally exposed to lead. employer shall assure that no em-
All construction work excluded from ployee is exposed to lead at concentra-
coverage in the general industry stand- tions greater than fifty micrograms per
ard for lead by 29 CFR 1910.1025(a)(2) is cubic meter of air (50 g/m3) averaged
covered by this standard. Construction over an 8-hour period.
work is defined as work for construc- (2) If an employee is exposed to lead
tion, alteration and/or repair, including for more than 8 hours in any work day
painting and decorating. It includes the employees allowable exposure, as a
but is not limited to the following: time weighted average (TWA) for that
(1) Demolition or salvage of struc- day, shall be reduced according to the
tures where lead or materials con- following formula:
taining lead are present; Allowable employee exposure (in g/m3)
(2) Removal or encapsulation of ma- = 400 divided by hours worked in the
terials containing lead; day.
(3) New construction, alteration, re-
pair, or renovation of structures, sub- (3) When respirators are used to limit
strates, or portions thereof, that con- employee exposure as required under
tain lead, or materials containing lead; paragraph (c) of this section and all the
(4) Installation of products con- requirements of paragraphs (e)(1) and
taining lead; (f) of this section have been met, em-
(5) Lead contamination/emergency ployee exposure may be considered to
cleanup; be at the level provided by the protec-
(6) Transportation, disposal, storage, tion factor of the respirator for those
or containment of lead or materials periods the respirator is worn. Those
containing lead on the site or location periods may be averaged with exposure
at which construction activities are levels during periods when respirators
performed, and are not worn to determine the employ-
(7) Maintenance operations associ- ees daily TWA exposure.
ated with the construction activities (d) Exposure assessment(1) General.
described in this paragraph. (i) Each employer who has a workplace
(b) Definitions. or operation covered by this standard
Action level means employee expo- shall initially determine if any em-
sure, without regard to the use of res- ployee may be exposed to lead at or
pirators, to an airborne concentration above the action level.
of lead of 30 micrograms per cubic (ii) For the purposes of paragraph (d)
meter of air (30 g/m3) calculated as an of this section, employee exposure is
8-hour time-weighted average (TWA). that exposure which would occur if the
Assistant Secretary means the Assist- employee were not using a respirator.
ant Secretary of Labor for Occupa- (iii) With the exception of moni-
tional Safety and Health, U.S. Depart- toring under paragraph (d)(3), where
ment of Labor, or designee. monitoring is required under this sec-
Competent person means one who is tion, the employer shall collect per-
capable of identifying existing and pre- sonal samples representative of a full
dictable lead hazards in the sur- shift including at least one sample for
roundings or working conditions and each job classification in each work
who has authorization to take prompt area either for each shift or for the
corrective measures to eliminate them. shift with the highest exposure level.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.62

(iv) Full shift personal samples shall posed to levels of lead below 500 g/m3,
be representative of the monitored em- the employer may provide the exposed
ployees regular, daily exposure to employee with the appropriate res-
lead. pirator prescribed for such use at such
(2) Protection of employees during as- lower exposures, in accordance with
sessment of exposure. (i) With respect to Table 1 of this section. The tasks cov-
the lead related tasks listed in para- ered by this requirement are:
graph (d)(2)(i) of this section, where (A) Using lead containing mortar;
lead is present, until the employer per- lead burning
forms an employee exposure assess- (B) Where lead containing coatings or
ment as required in paragraph (d) of paint are present: rivet busting; power
this section and documents that the tool cleaning without dust collection
employee performing any of the listed systems; cleanup activities where dry
tasks is not exposed above the PEL, expendable abrasives are used; and ab-
the employer shall treat the employee rasive blasting enclosure movement
as if the employee were exposed above and removal.
the PEL, and not in excess of ten (10) (iv) With respect to the tasks listed
times the PEL, and shall implement in paragraph (d)(2)(iv) of this section,
employee protective measures pre- where lead is present, until the em-
scribed in paragraph (d)(2)(v) of this ployer performs an employee exposure
section. The tasks covered by this re-
assessment as required in paragraph (d)
quirement are:
of this section and documents that the
(A) Where lead containing coatings
employee performing any of the listed
or paint are present: Manual demoli-
tasks is not exposed to lead in excess of
tion of structures (e.g, dry wall), man-
2,500 g/m3 (50PEL), the employer
ual scraping, manual sanding, heat gun
shall treat the employee as if the em-
applications, and power tool cleaning
ployee were exposed to lead in excess of
with dust collection systems;
2,500 g/m3 and shall implement em-
(B) Spray painting with lead paint.
ployee protective measures as pre-
(ii) In addition, with regard to tasks
scribed in paragraph (d)(2)(v) of this
not listed in paragraph (d)(2)(i), where
section. Where the employer does es-
the employee has any reason to believe
tablish that the employee is exposed to
that an employee performing the task
levels of lead below 2,500 g/m3, the em-
may be exposed to lead in excess of the
ployer may provide the exposed em-
PEL, until the employer performs an
ployee with the appropriate respirator
employee exposure assessment as re-
prescribed for use at such lower expo-
quired by paragraph (d) of this section
sures, in accordance with Table I of
and documents that the employees
this section. Interim protection as de-
lead exposure is not above the PEL the
scribed in this paragaraph is required
employer shall treat the employee as if
where lead containing coatings or
the employee were exposed above the
paint are present on structures when
PEL and shall implememt employee
performing:
protective measures as prescribed in
(A) Abrasive blasting,
paragraph (d)(2)(v) of this section.
(iii) With respect to the tasks listed (B) Welding,
in paragraph (d)(2)(iii) of this section, (C) Cutting, and
where lead is present, until the em- (D) Torch burning.
ployer performs an employee exposure (v) Until the employer performs an
assessment as required in paragraph (d) employee exposure assessment as re-
of this section, and documents that the quired under paragraph (d) of this sec-
employee performing any of the listed tion and determines actual employee
tasks is not exposed in excess of 500 g/ exposure, the employer shall provide to
m3, the employer shall treat the em- employees performing the tasks de-
ployee as if the employee were exposed scribed in paragraphs (d)(2)(i), (d)(2)(ii),
to lead in excess of 500 g/m3 and shall (d)(2)(iii), and (d)(2)(iv) of this section
implement employee protective meas- with interim protection as follows:
ures as prescribed in paragraph (d)(2)(v) (A) Appropriate respiratory protec-
of this section. Where the employer tion in accordance with paragraph (f)
does establish that the employee is ex- of this section.

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1926.62 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

(B) Appropriate personal protective confidence levels of paragraph (d)(10) of


clothing and equipment in accordance this section.
with paragraph (g) of this section. (iv) Where the employer has objec-
(C) Change areas in accordance with tive data, demonstrating that a par-
paragraph (i)(2) of this section. ticular product or material containing
(D) Hand washing facilities in accord- lead or a specific process, operation or
ance with paragraph (i)(5) of this sec- activity involving lead cannot result in
tion. employee exposure to lead at or above
(E) Biological monitoring in accord- the action level during processing, use,
ance with paragraph (j)(1)(i) of this sec- or handling, the employer may rely
tion, to consist of blood sampling and upon such data instead of imple-
analysis for lead and zinc menting initial monitoring.
protoporphyrin levels, and (A) The employer shall establish and
(F) Training as required under para- maintain an accurate record docu-
graph (l)(1)(i) of this section regarding menting the nature and relevancy of
29 CFR 1926.59, Hazard Communication; objective data as specified in paragraph
training as required under paragraph (n)(4) of this section, where used in as-
(1)(2)(iii) of this section, regarding use sessing employee exposure in lieu of
of respirators; and training in accord- exposure monitoring.
ance with 29 CFR 1926.21, Safety train- (B) Objective data, as described in
ing and education. paragraph (d)(3)(iv) of this section, is
(3) Basis of initial determination. (i) not permitted to be used for exposure
Except as provided under paragraphs assessment in connection with para-
(d)(3)(iii) and (d)(3)(iv) of this section graph (d)(2) of this section.
the employer shall monitor employee (4) Positive initial determination and
exposures and shall base initial deter- initial monitoring. (i) Where a deter-
minations on the employee exposure mination conducted under paragraphs
monitoring results and any of the fol- (d) (1), (2) and (3) of this section shows
lowing, relevant considerations: the possibility of any employee expo-
(A) Any information, observations, or sure at or above the action level the
calculations which would indicate em- employer shall conduct monitoring
ployee exposure to lead; which is representative of the exposure
(B) Any previous measurements of for each employee in the workplace
airborne lead; and who is exposed to lead.
(C) Any employee complaints of (ii) Where the employer has pre-
symptoms which may be attributable viously monitored for lead exposure,
to exposure to lead. and the data were obtained within the
(ii) Monitoring for the initial deter- past 12 months during work operations
mination where performed may be lim- conducted under workplace conditions
ited to a representative sample of the closely resembling the processes, type
exposed employees who the employer of material, control methods, work
reasonably believes are exposed to the practices, and environmental condi-
greatest airborne concentrations of tions used and prevailing in the em-
lead in the workplace. ployers current operations, the em-
(iii) Where the employer has pre- ployer may rely on such earlier moni-
viously monitored for lead exposures, toring results to satisfy the require-
and the data were obtained within the ments of paragraph (d)(4)(i) of this sec-
past 12 months during work operations tion if the sampling and analytical
conducted under workplace conditions methods meet the accuracy and con-
closely resembling the processes, type fidence levels of paragraph (d)(10) of
of material, control methods, work this section.
practices, and environmental condi- (5) Negative initial determination.
tions used and prevailing in the em- Where a determination, conducted
ployers current operations, the em- under paragraphs (d) (1), (2), and (3) of
ployer may rely on such earlier moni- this section is made that no employee
toring results to satisfy the require- is exposed to airborne concentrations
ments of paragraphs (d)(3)(i) and (d)(6) of lead at or above the action level the
of this section if the sampling and ana- employer shall make a written record
lytical methods meet the accuracy and of such determination. The record shall

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.62

include at least the information speci- level being exposed above the PEL, the
fied in paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this sec- employer shall conduct additional
tion and shall also include the date of monitoring in accordance with this
determination, location within the paragraph.
worksite, and the name and social se- (8) Employee notification. (i) The em-
curity number of each employee mon- ployer must, as soon as possible but no
itored. later than 5 working days after the re-
(6) Frequency. (i) If the initial deter- ceipt of the results of any monitoring
mination reveals employee exposure to performed under this section, notify
be below the action level further expo- each affected employee of these results
sure determination need not be re- either individually in writing or by
peated except as otherwise provided in posting the results in an appropriate
paragraph (d)(7) of this section. location that is accessible to employ-
(ii) If the initial determination or ees.
subsequent determination reveals em- (ii) Whenever the results indicate
ployee exposure to be at or above the that the representative employee expo-
action level but at or below the PEL sure, without regard to respirators, is
the employer shall perform monitoring at or above the PEL the employer shall
in accordance with this paragraph at include in the written notice a state-
least every 6 months. The employer ment that the employees exposure was
shall continue monitoring at the re- at or above that level and a description
quired frequency until at least two of the corrective action taken or to be
consecutive measurements, taken at taken to reduce exposure to below that
least 7 days apart, are below the action level.
level at which time the employer may
(9) Accuracy of measurement. The em-
discontinue monitoring for that em-
ployer shall use a method of moni-
ployee except as otherwise provided in
toring and analysis which has an accu-
paragraph (d)(7) of this section.
racy (to a confidence level of 95%) of
(iii) If the initial determination re-
not less than plus or minus 25 percent
veals that employee exposure is above
for airborne concentrations of lead
the PEL the employer shall perform
monitoring quarterly. The employer equal to or greater than 30 g/m3.
shall continue monitoring at the re- (e) Methods of compliance(1) Engi-
quired frequency until at least two neering and work practice controls. The
consecutive measurements, taken at employer shall implement engineering
least 7 days apart, are at or below the and work practice controls, including
PEL but at or above the action level at administrative controls, to reduce and
which time the employer shall repeat maintain employee exposure to lead to
monitoring for that employee at the or below the permissible exposure limit
frequency specified in paragraph to the extent that such controls are
(d)(6)(ii) of this section, except as oth- feasible. Wherever all feasible engi-
erwise provided in paragraph (d)(7) of neering and work practices controls
this section. The employer shall con- that can be instituted are not suffi-
tinue monitoring at the required fre- cient to reduce employee exposure to
quency until at least two consecutive or below the permissible exposure limit
measurements, taken at least 7 days prescribed in paragraph (c) of this sec-
apart, are below the action level at tion, the employer shall nonetheless
which time the employer may dis- use them to reduce employee exposure
continue monitoring for that employee to the lowest feasible level and shall
except as otherwise provided in para- supplement them by the use of res-
graph (d)(7) of this section. piratory protection that complies with
(7) Additional exposure assessments. the requirements of paragraph (f) of
Whenever there has been a change of this section.
equipment, process, control, personnel (2) Compliance program. (i) Prior to
or a new task has been initiated that commencement of the job each em-
may result in additional employees ployer shall establish and implement a
being exposed to lead at or above the written compliance program to achieve
action level or may result in employees compliance with paragraph (c) of this
already exposed at or above the action section.

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1926.62 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

(ii) Written plans for these compli- (3) Mechanical ventilation. When ven-
ance programs shall include at least tilation is used to control lead expo-
the following: sure, the employer shall evaluate the
(A) A description of each activity in mechanical performance of the system
which lead is emitted; e.g. equipment in controlling exposure as necessary to
used, material involved, controls in maintain its effectiveness.
place, crew size, employee job respon- (4) Administrative controls. If adminis-
sibilities, operating procedures and trative controls are used as a means of
maintenance practices; reducing employees TWA exposure to
(B) A description of the specific lead, the employer shall establish and
means that will be employed to achieve implement a job rotation schedule
compliance and, where engineering which includes:
controls are required engineering plans (i) Name or identification number of
and studies used to determine methods each affected employee;
selected for controlling exposure to (ii) Duration and exposure levels at
lead; each job or work station where each af-
(C) A report of the technology consid- fected employee is located; and
ered in meeting the PEL; (iii) Any other information which
(D) Air monitoring data which docu- may be useful in assessing the reli-
ments the source of lead emissions; ability of administrative controls to
(E) A detailed schedule for implemen- reduce exposure to lead.
tation of the program, including docu- (5) The employer shall ensure that, to
mentation such as copies of purchase the extent relevant, employees follow
orders for equipment, construction good work practices such as described
contracts, etc.; in appendix B of this section.
(F) A work practice program which (f) Respiratory protection(1) General.
includes items required under para- For employees who use respirators re-
graphs (g), (h) and (i) of this section quired by this section, the employer
and incorporates other relevant work must provide each employee an appro-
practices such as those specified in priate respirator that complies with
paragraph (e)(5) of this section; the requirements of this paragraph.
(G) An administrative control sched- Respirators must be used during:
ule required by paragraph (e)(4) of this (i) Periods when an employees expo-
section, if applicable; sure to lead exceeds the PEL.
(H) A description of arrangements (ii) Work operations for which engi-
made among contractors on multi-con- neering and work-practice controls are
tractor sites with respect to informing not sufficient to reduce employee expo-
affected employees of potential expo- sures to or below the PEL.
sure to lead and with respect to respon- (iii) Periods when an employee re-
sibility for compliance with this sec- quests a respirator.
tion as set-forth in 1926.16. (iv) Periods when respirators are re-
(I) Other relevant information. quired to provide interim protection of
(iii) The compliance program shall employees while they perform the op-
provide for frequent and regular inspec- erations specified in paragraph (d)(2) of
tions of job sites, materials, and equip- this section.
ment to be made by a competent per- (2) Respirator program. (i) The em-
son. ployer must implement a respiratory
(iv) Written programs shall be sub- protection program in accordance with
mitted upon request to any affected 1910.134(b) through (d) (except
employee or authorized employee rep- (d)(1)(iii)), and (f) through (m), which
resentatives, to the Assistant Sec- covers each employee required by this
retary and the Director, and shall be section to use a respirator.
available at the worksite for examina- (ii) If an employee has breathing dif-
tion and copying by the Assistant Sec- ficulty during fit testing or respirator
retary and the Director. use, the employer must provide the em-
(v) Written programs must be revised ployee with a medical examination in
and updated at least annually to re- accordance with paragraph (j)(3)(i)(B)
flect the current status of the program. of this section to determine whether or

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.62

not the employee can use a respirator required by paragraph (g)(1) of this sec-
while performing the required duty. tion.
(3) Respirator selection. (i) Employers (iii) The employer shall repair or re-
must: place required protective clothing and
(A) Select, and provide to employees, equipment as needed to maintain their
the appropriate respirators specified in effectiveness.
paragraph (d)(3)(i)(A) of 29 CFR (iv) The employer shall assure that
1910.134. all protective clothing is removed at
(B) Provide employees with a full the completion of a work shift only in
facepiece respirator instead of a half change areas provided for that purpose
mask respirator for protection against as prescribed in paragraph (i)(2) of this
lead aerosols that may cause eye or section.
skin irritation at the use concentra- (v) The employer shall assure that
tions. contaminated protective clothing
(C) Provide HEPA filters for powered which is to be cleaned, laundered, or
and non-powered air-purifying res- disposed of, is placed in a closed con-
pirators. tainer in the change area which pre-
(ii) The employer must provide a vents dispersion of lead outside the
powered air-purifying respirator when container.
an employee chooses to use such a res- (vi) The employer shall inform in
pirator and it will provide adequate writing any person who cleans or laun-
protection to the employee. ders protective clothing or equipment
(g) Protective work clothing and equip- of the potentially harmful effects of ex-
ment(1) Provision and use. Where an posure to lead.
employee is exposed to lead above the (vii)(A) The employer shall ensure
PEL without regard to the use of res- that the containers of contaminated
pirators, where employees are exposed protective clothing and equipment re-
to lead compounds which may cause quired by paragraph (g)(2)(v) of this
skin or eye irritation (e.g. lead arse- section are labeled as follows:
nate, lead azide), and as interim pro-
tection for employees performing tasks DANGER: CLOTHING AND EQUIPMENT
as specified in paragraph (d)(2) of this CONTAMINATED WITH LEAD. MAY
section, the employer shall provide at DAMAGE FERTILITY OR THE UNBORN
no cost to the employee and assure CHILD. CAUSES DAMAGE TO THE CEN-
TRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. DO NOT EAT,
that the employee uses appropriate
DRINK OR SMOKE WHEN HANDLING. DO
protective work clothing and equip- NOT REMOVE DUST BY BLOWING OR
ment that prevents contamination of SHAKING. DISPOSE OF LEAD CONTAMI-
the employee and the employees gar- NATED WASH WATER IN ACCORDANCE
ments such as, but not limited to: WITH APPLICABLE LOCAL, STATE, OR
(i) Coveralls or similar full-body FEDERAL REGULATIONS.
work clothing;
(B) Prior to June 1, 2015, employers
(ii) Gloves, hats, and shoes or dispos- may include the following information
able shoe coverlets; and on bags or containers of contaminated
(iii) Face shields, vented goggles, or protective clothing and equipment re-
other appropriate protective equip- quired by paragraph (g)(2)(v) in lieu of
ment which complies with 1910.133 of the labeling requirements in paragraph
this chapter. (g)(2)(vii)(A) of this section:
(2) Cleaning and replacement. (i) The
employer shall provide the protective Caution: Clothing contaminated with lead.
clothing required in paragraph (g)(1) of Do not remove dust by blowing or shaking.
this section in a clean and dry condi- Dispose of lead contaminated wash water in
accordance with applicable local, state, or
tion at least weekly, and daily to em-
federal regulations.
ployees whose exposure levels without
regard to a respirator are over 200 g/ (viii) The employer shall prohibit the
m3 of lead as an 8-hour TWA. removal of lead from protective cloth-
(ii) The employer shall provide for ing or equipment by blowing, shaking,
the cleaning, laundering, and disposal or any other means which disperses
of protective clothing and equipment lead into the air.

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1926.62 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

(h) Housekeeping(1) All surfaces employees shower at the end of the


shall be maintained as free as prac- work shift and shall provide an ade-
ticable of accumulations of lead. quate supply of cleansing agents and
(2) Clean-up of floors and other sur- towels for use by affected employees.
faces where lead accumulates shall (4) Eating facilities. (i) The employer
wherever possible, be cleaned by shall provide lunchroom facilities or
vacuuming or other methods that min- eating areas for employees whose air-
imize the likelihood of lead becoming borne exposure to lead is above the
airborne. PEL, without regard to the use of res-
(3) Shoveling, dry or wet sweeping, pirators.
and brushing may be used only where (ii) The employer shall assure that
vacuuming or other equally effective lunchroom facilities or eating areas
methods have been tried and found not are as free as practicable from lead
to be effective. contamination and are readily acces-
(4) Where vacuuming methods are se- sible to employees.
lected, the vacuums shall be equipped (iii) The employer shall assure that
with HEPA filters and used and employees whose airborne exposure to
emptied in a manner which minimizes lead is above the PEL, without regard
the reentry of lead into the workplace. to the use of a respirator, wash their
(5) Compressed air shall not be used hands and face prior to eating, drink-
to remove lead from any surface unless ing, smoking or applying cosmetics.
the compressed air is used in conjunc- (iv) The employer shall assure that
tion with a ventilation system de- employees do not enter lunchroom fa-
signed to capture the airborne dust cre- cilities or eating areas with protective
ated by the compressed air. work clothing or equipment unless sur-
(i) Hygiene facilities and practices. (1) face lead dust has been removed by
The employer shall assure that in areas vacuuming, downdraft booth, or other
where employees are exposed to lead cleaning method that limits dispersion
above the PEL without regard to the of lead dust.
use of respirators, food or beverage is (5) Hand washing facilities. (i) The em-
not present or consumed, tobacco prod- ployer shall provide adequate
ucts are not present or used, and cos- handwashing facilities for use by em-
metics are not applied. ployees exposed to lead in accordance
(2) Change areas. (i) The employer with 29 CFR 1926.51(f).
shall provide clean change areas for (ii) Where showers are not provided
employees whose airborne exposure to the employer shall assure that employ-
lead is above the PEL, and as interim ees wash their hands and face at the
protection for employees performing end of the work-shift.
tasks as specified in paragraph (d)(2) of (j) Medical surveillance(1) General. (i)
this section, without regard to the use The employer shall make available ini-
of respirators. tial medical surveillance to employees
(ii) The employer shall assure that occupationally exposed on any day to
change areas are equipped with sepa- lead at or above the action level. Ini-
rate storage facilities for protective tial medical surveillance consists of bi-
work clothing and equipment and for ological monitoring in the form of
street clothes which prevent cross-con- blood sampling and analysis for lead
tamination. and zinc protoporphyrin levels.
(iii) The employer shall assure that (ii) The employer shall institute a
employees do not leave the workplace medical surveillance program in ac-
wearing any protective clothing or cordance with paragraphs (j)(2) and
equipment that is required to be worn (j)(3) of this section for all employees
during the work shift. who are or may be exposed by the em-
(3) Showers. (i) The employer shall ployer at or above the action level for
provide shower facilities, where fea- more than 30 days in any consecutive
sible, for use by employees whose air- 12 months;
borne exposure to lead is above the (iii) The employer shall assure that
PEL. all medical examinations and proce-
(ii) The employer shall assure, where dures are performed by or under the su-
shower facilities are available, that pervision of a licensed physician.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.62

(iv) The employer shall make avail- (B) The employer shall notify each
able the required medical surveillance employee whose blood lead level is at
including multiple physician review or above 40 g/dl that the standard re-
under paragraph (j)(3)(iii) without cost quires temporary medical removal
to employees and at a reasonable time with Medical Removal Protection ben-
and place. efits when an employees blood lead
(2) Biological monitoring(i) Blood lead level is at or above the numerical cri-
and ZPP level sampling and analysis. terion for medical removal under para-
The employer shall make available bio- graph (k)(1)(i) of this section.
logical monitoring in the form of blood (3) Medical examinations and consulta-
sampling and analysis for lead and zinc tions(i) Frequency. The employer shall
protoporphyrin levels to each employee make available medical examinations
covered under paragraphs (j)(1)(i) and and consultations to each employee
(ii) of this section on the following covered under paragraph (j)(1)(ii) of
schedule: this section on the following schedule:
(A) For each employee covered under (A) At least annually for each em-
paragraph (j)(1)(ii) of this section, at ployee for whom a blood sampling test
least every 2 months for the first 6 conducted at any time during the pre-
months and every 6 months thereafter; ceding 12 months indicated a blood lead
(B) For each employee covered under level at or above 40 g/dl;
paragraphs (j)(1) (i) or (ii) of this sec- (B) As soon as possible, upon notifi-
tion whose last blood sampling and cation by an employee either that the
analysis indicated a blood lead level at employee has developed signs or symp-
or above 40 g/dl, at least every two toms commonly associated with lead
months. This frequency shall continue intoxication, that the employee desires
until two consecutive blood samples medical advice concerning the effects
and analyses indicate a blood lead level of current or past exposure to lead on
below 40 g/dl; and the employees ability to procreate a
(C) For each employee who is re- healthy child, that the employee is
moved from exposure to lead due to an pregnant, or that the employee has
elevated blood lead level at least demonstrated difficulty in breathing
monthly during the removal period. during a respirator fitting test or dur-
(ii) Follow-up blood sampling tests. ing use; and
Whenever the results of a blood lead (C) As medically appropriate for each
level test indicate that an employees employee either removed from expo-
blood lead level is at or above the nu- sure to lead due to a risk of sustaining
merical criterion for medical removal material impairment to health, or oth-
under paragraph (k)(1)(i) of this sec- erwise limited pursuant to a final med-
tion, the employer shall provide a sec- ical determination.
ond (follow-up) blood sampling test (ii) Content. The content of medical
within two weeks after the employer examinations made available pursuant
receives the results of the first blood to paragraph (j)(3)(i)(B)(C) of this sec-
sampling test. tion shall be determined by an exam-
(iii) Accuracy of blood lead level sam- ining physician and, if requested by an
pling and analysis. Blood lead level employee, shall include pregnancy
sampling and analysis provided pursu- testing or laboratory evaluation of
ant to this section shall have an accu- male fertility. Medical examinations
racy (to a confidence level of 95 per- made available pursuant to paragraph
cent) within plus or minus 15 percent (j)(3)(i)(A) of this section shall include
or 6 g/dl, whichever is greater, and the following elements:
shall be conducted by a laboratory ap- (A) A detailed work history and a
proved by OSHA. medical history, with particular atten-
(iv) Employee notification. (A) Within tion to past lead exposure (occupa-
five working days after the receipt of tional and non-occupational), personal
biological monitoring results, the em- habits (smoking, hygiene), and past
ployer shall notify each employee in gastrointestinal, hematologic, renal,
writing of his or her blood lead level; cardiovascular, reproductive and neu-
and rological problems;

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1926.62 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

(B) A thorough physical examination, (C) If the findings, determinations or


with particular attention to teeth, recommendations of the second physi-
gums, hematologic, gastrointestinal, cian differ from those of the initial
renal, cardiovascular, and neurological physician, then the employer and the
systems. Pulmonary status should be employee shall assure that efforts are
evaluated if respiratory protection will made for the two physicians to resolve
be used; any disagreement.
(C) A blood pressure measurement; (D) If the two physicians have been
(D) A blood sample and analysis unable to quickly resolve their dis-
which determines: agreement, then the employer and the
(1) Blood lead level; employee through their respective phy-
(2) Hemoglobin and hematocrit deter- sicians shall designate a third physi-
minations, red cell indices, and exam- cian:
ination of peripheral smear mor- (1) To review any findings, deter-
phology; minations or recommendations of the
(3) Zinc protoporphyrin; prior physicians; and
(4) Blood urea nitrogen; and, (2) To conduct such examinations,
consultations, laboratory tests and dis-
(5) Serum creatinine;
cussions with the prior physicians as
(E) A routine urinalysis with micro-
the third physician deems necessary to
scopic examination; and
resolve the disagreement of the prior
(F) Any laboratory or other test rel- physicians.
evant to lead exposure which the exam- (E) The employer shall act consistent
ining physician deems necessary by with the findings, determinations and
sound medical practice. recommendations of the third physi-
(iii) Multiple physician review mecha- cian, unless the employer and the em-
nism. (A) If the employer selects the ployee reach an agreement which is
initial physician who conducts any otherwise consistent with the rec-
medical examination or consultation ommendations of at least one of the
provided to an employee under this sec- three physicians.
tion, the employee may designate a (iv) Information provided to examining
second physician: and consulting physicians. (A) The em-
(1) To review any findings, deter- ployer shall provide an initial physi-
minations or recommendations of the cian conducting a medical examination
initial physician; and or consultation under this section with
(2) To conduct such examinations, the following information:
consultations, and laboratory tests as (1) A copy of this regulation for lead
the second physician deems necessary including all Appendices;
to facilitate this review. (2) A description of the affected em-
(B) The employer shall promptly no- ployees duties as they relate to the
tify an employee of the right to seek a employees exposure;
second medical opinion after each oc- (3) The employees exposure level or
casion that an initial physician con- anticipated exposure level to lead and
ducts a medical examination or con- to any other toxic substance (if appli-
sultation pursuant to this section. The cable);
employer may condition its participa- (4) A description of any personal pro-
tion in, and payment for, the multiple tective equipment used or to be used;
physician review mechanism upon the (5) Prior blood lead determinations;
employee doing the following within and
fifteen (15) days after receipt of the (6) All prior written medical opinions
foregoing notification, or receipt of the concerning the employee in the em-
initial physicians written opinion, ployers possession or control.
whichever is later: (B) The employer shall provide the
(1) The employee informing the em- foregoing information to a second or
ployer that he or she intends to seek a third physician conducting a medical
second medical opinion, and examination or consultation under this
(2) The employee initiating steps to section upon request either by the sec-
make an appointment with a second ond or third physician, or by the em-
physician. ployee.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.62

(v) Written medical opinions. (A) The the employer shall assure that it be
employer shall obtain and furnish the done under the supervision of a li-
employee with a copy of a written med- censed physician in a clinical setting
ical opinion from each examining or with thorough and appropriate medical
consulting physician which contains monitoring and that the employee is
only the following information: notified in writing prior to its occur-
(1) The physicians opinion as to rence.
whether the employee has any detected (k) Medical removal protection(1)
medical condition which would place Temporary medical removal and return of
the employee at increased risk of ma- an employee(i) Temporary removal due
terial impairment of the employees to elevated blood lead level. The em-
health from exposure to lead; ployer shall remove an employee from
(2) Any recommended special protec- work having an exposure to lead at or
tive measures to be provided to the em- above the action level on each occasion
ployee, or limitations to be placed that a periodic and a follow-up blood
upon the employees exposure to lead; sampling test conducted pursuant to
(3) Any recommended limitation this section indicate that the employ-
upon the employees use of respirators, ees blood lead level is at or above 50
including a determination of whether g/dl; and,
the employee can wear a powered air (ii) Temporary removal due to a final
purifying respirator if a physician de- medical determination. (A) The employer
termines that the employee cannot shall remove an employee from work
wear a negative pressure respirator; having an exposure to lead at or above
and the action level on each occasion that
(4) The results of the blood lead de- a final medical determination results
terminations. in a medical finding, determination, or
(B) The employer shall instruct each opinion that the employee has a de-
examining and consulting physician to: tected medical condition which places
(1) Not reveal either in the written the employee at increased risk of ma-
opinion or orally, or in any other terial impairment to health from expo-
means of communication with the em- sure to lead.
ployer, findings, including laboratory (B) For the purposes of this section,
results, or diagnoses unrelated to an the phrase final medical determination
employees occupational exposure to means the written medical opinion on
lead; and the employees health status by the ex-
(2) Advise the employee of any med- amining physician or, where relevant,
ical condition, occupational or non- the outcome of the multiple physician
occupational, which dictates further review mechanism or alternate medical
medical examination or treatment. determination mechanism used pursu-
(vi) Alternate physician determination ant to the medical surveillance provi-
mechanisms. The employer and an em- sions of this section.
ployee or authorized employee rep- (C) Where a final medical determina-
resentative may agree upon the use of tion results in any recommended spe-
any alternate physician determination cial protective measures for an em-
mechanism in lieu of the multiple phy- ployee, or limitations on an employees
sician review mechanism provided by exposure to lead, the employer shall
paragraph (j)(3)(iii) of this section so implement and act consistent with the
long as the alternate mechanism is as recommendation.
expeditious and protective as the re- (iii) Return of the employee to former
quirements contained in this para- job status. (A) The employer shall re-
graph. turn an employee to his or her former
(4) Chelation. (i) The employer shall job status:
assure that any person whom he re- (1) For an employee removed due to a
tains, employs, supervises or controls blood lead level at or above 50 g/dl
does not engage in prophylactic chela- when two consecutive blood sampling
tion of any employee at any time. tests indicate that the employees
(ii) If therapeutic or diagnostic che- blood lead level is below 40 g/dl;
lation is to be performed by any person (2) For an employee removed due to a
in paragraph (j)(4)(i) of this section, final medical determination, when a

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1926.62 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

subsequent final medical determina- mination which differed from the find-
tion results in a medical finding, deter- ings, determinations, or recommenda-
mination, or opinion that the employee tions of the initial physician or;
no longer has a detected medical condi- (2) If the employee has been on re-
tion which places the employee at in- moval status for the preceding eight-
creased risk of material impairment to een months due to an elevated blood
health from exposure to lead. lead level, then the employer shall
(B) For the purposes of this section, await a final medical determination.
the requirement that an employer re- (2) Medical removal protection bene-
turn an employee to his or her former fits(i) Provision of medical removal pro-
job status is not intended to expand tection benefits. The employer shall pro-
upon or restrict any rights an em- vide an employee up to eighteen (18)
ployee has or would have had, absent months of medical removal protection
temporary medical removal, to a spe- benefits on each occasion that an em-
cific job classification or position ployee is removed from exposure to
under the terms of a collective bar- lead or otherwise limited pursuant to
gaining agreement. this section.
(iv) Removal of other employee special (ii) Definition of medical removal pro-
protective measure or limitations. The tection benefits. For the purposes of this
employer shall remove any limitations section, the requirement that an em-
placed on an employee or end any spe- ployer provide medical removal protec-
cial protective measures provided to an tion benefits means that, as long as the
employee pursuant to a final medical job the employee was removed from
determination when a subsequent final continues, the employer shall maintain
medical determination indicates that the total normal earnings, seniority
the limitations or special protective and other employment rights and bene-
measures are no longer necessary. fits of an employee, including the em-
(v) Employer options pending a final ployees right to his or her former job
medical determination. Where the mul- status as though the employee had not
tiple physician review mechanism, or been medically removed from the em-
alternate medical determination mech- ployees job or otherwise medically
anism used pursuant to the medical limited.
surveillance provisions of this section, (iii) Follow-up medical surveillance
has not yet resulted in a final medical during the period of employee removal or
determination with respect to an em- limitation. During the period of time
ployee, the employer shall act as fol- that an employee is medically removed
lows: from his or her job or otherwise medi-
(A) Removal. The employer may re- cally limited, the employer may condi-
move the employee from exposure to tion the provision of medical removal
lead, provide special protective meas- protection benefits upon the employ-
ures to the employee, or place limita- ees participation in follow-up medical
tions upon the employee, consistent surveillance made available pursuant
with the medical findings, determina- to this section.
tions, or recommendations of any of (iv) Workers compensation claims. If a
the physicians who have reviewed the removed employee files a claim for
employees health status. workers compensation payments for a
(B) Return. The employer may return lead-related disability, then the em-
the employee to his or her former job ployer shall continue to provide med-
status, end any special protective ical removal protection benefits pend-
measures provided to the employee, ing disposition of the claim. To the ex-
and remove any limitations placed tent that an award is made to the em-
upon the employee, consistent with the ployee for earnings lost during the pe-
medical findings, determinations, or riod of removal, the employers med-
recommendations of any of the physi- ical removal protection obligation
cians who have reviewed the employ- shall be reduced by such amount. The
ees health status, with two exceptions. employer shall receive no credit for
(1) If the initial removal, special pro- workers compensation payments re-
tection, or limitation of the employee ceived by the employee for treatment-
resulted from a final medical deter- related expenses.

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.62

(v) Other credits. The employers obli- (iv) The employer shall also provide
gation to provide medical removal pro- the training program at least annually
tection benefits to a removed employee for each employee who is subject to
shall be reduced to the extent that the lead exposure at or above the action
employee receives compensation for level on any day.
earnings lost during the period of re- (2) Training program. The employer
moval either from a publicly or em- shall assure that each employee is
ployer-funded compensation program, trained in the following:
or receives income from employment (i) The content of this standard and
with another employer made possible its appendices;
by virtue of the employees removal. (ii) The specific nature of the oper-
(vi) Voluntary removal or restriction of ations which could result in exposure
an employee. Where an employer, al- to lead above the action level;
though not required by this section to (iii) The purpose, proper selection,
do so, removes an employee from expo- fitting, use, and limitations of res-
sure to lead or otherwise places limita- pirators;
tions on an employee due to the effects (iv) The purpose and a description of
of lead exposure on the employees the medical surveillance program, and
medical condition, the employer shall
the medical removal protection pro-
provide medical removal protection
gram including information concerning
benefits to the employee equal to that
the adverse health effects associated
required by paragraph (k)(2) (i) and (ii)
with excessive exposure to lead (with
of this section.
particular attention to the adverse re-
(l) Communication of hazards.(1)
productive effects on both males and
General. (i) Hazard communication. The
females and hazards to the fetus and
employer shall include lead in the pro-
additional precautions for employees
gram established to comply with the
who are pregnant);
Hazard Communication Standard
(HCS) ( 1910.1200). The employer shall (v) The engineering controls and
ensure that each employee has access work practices associated with the em-
to labels on containers of lead and safe- ployees job assignment including
ty data sheets, and is trained in ac- training of employees to follow rel-
cordance with the provisions of HCS evant good work practices described in
and paragraph (l) of this section. The appendix B of this section;
employer shall ensure that at least the (vi) The contents of any compliance
following hazards are addressed: plan in effect;
(A) Reproductive/developmental tox- (vii) Instructions to employees that
icity; chelating agents should not routinely
(B) Central nervous system effects; be used to remove lead from their bod-
(C) Kidney effects; ies and should not be used at all except
(D) Blood effects; and under the direction of a licensed physi-
(E) Acute toxicity effects. cian; and
(ii) The employer shall train each (viii) The employees right of access
employee who is subject to exposure to to records under 29 CFR 1910.20.
lead at or above the action level on any (3) Access to information and training
day, or who is subject to exposure to materials. (i) The employer shall make
lead compounds which may cause skin readily available to all affected em-
or eye irritation (e.g., lead arsenate, ployees a copy of this standard and its
lead azide), in accordance with the re- appendices.
quirements of this section. The em- (ii) The employer shall provide, upon
ployer shall institute a training pro- request, all materials relating to the
gram and ensure employee participa- employee information and training
tion in the program. program to affected employees and
(iii) The employer shall provide the their designated representatives, and
training program as initial training to the Assistant Secretary and the Di-
prior to the time of job assignment or rector.
prior to the start up date for this re- (m) Signs(1) General. (i) The em-
quirement, whichever comes last. ployer shall post the following warning

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1926.62 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)

signs in each work area where an em- (E) The environmental variables that
ployees exposure to lead is above the could affect the measurement of em-
PEL. ployee exposure.
DANGER
(iii) The employer shall maintain
LEAD WORK AREA monitoring and other exposure assess-
MAY DAMAGE FERTILITY OR THE UN- ment records in accordance with the
BORN CHILD provisions of 29 CFR 1910.33.
CAUSES DAMAGE TO THE CENTRAL (2) Medical surveillance. (i) The em-
NERVOUS SYSTEM ployer shall establish and maintain an
DO NOT EAT, DRINK OR SMOKE IN THIS accurate record for each employee sub-
AREA
ject to medical surveillance as required
(ii) The employer shall ensure that by paragraph (j) of this section.
no statement appears on or near any (ii) This record shall include:
sign required by this paragraph (m) (A) The name, social security num-
that contradicts or detracts from the ber, and description of the duties of the
meaning of the required sign. employee;
(iii) The employer shall ensure that (B) A copy of the physicians written
signs required by this paragraph (m) opinions;
are illuminated and cleaned as nec- (C) Results of any airborne exposure
essary so that the legend is readily monitoring done on or for that em-
visible. ployee and provided to the physician;
(iv) The employer may use signs re- and
quired by other statutes, regulations or (D) Any employee medical com-
ordinances in addition to, or in com- plaints related to exposure to lead.
bination with, signs required by this (iii) The employer shall keep, or as-
paragraph (m). sure that the examining physician
(v) Prior to June 1, 2016, employers keeps, the following medical records:
may use the following legend in lieu of (A) A copy of the medical examina-
that specified in paragraph (m)(1)(i) of tion results including medical and
this section: work history required under paragraph
WARNING
(j) of this section;
LEAD WORK AREA (B) A description of the laboratory
POISON procedures and a copy of any standards
NO SMOKING OR EATING or guidelines used to interpret the test
(n) Recordkeeping(1) Exposure assess- results or references to that informa-
ment. (i) The employer shall establish tion;
and maintain an accurate record of all (C) A copy of the results of biological
monitoring and other data used in con- monitoring.
ducting employee exposure assess- (iv) The employer shall maintain or
ments as required in paragraph (d) of assure that the physician maintains
this section. medical records in accordance with the
(ii) Exposure monitoring records provisions of 29 CFR 1910.33.
shall include: (3) Medical removals. (i) The employer
(A) The date(s), number, duration, lo- shall establish and maintain an accu-
cation and results of each of the sam- rate record for each employee removed
ples taken if any, including a descrip- from current exposure to lead pursuant
tion of the sampling procedure used to to paragraph (k) of this section.
determine representative employee ex- (ii) Each record shall include:
posure where applicable; (A) The name and social security
(B) A description of the sampling and number of the employee;
analytical methods used and evidence (B) The date of each occasion that
of their accuracy; the employee was removed from cur-
(C) The type of respiratory protective rent exposure to lead as well as the
devices worn, if any; corresponding date on which the em-
(D) Name, social security number, ployee was returned to his or her
and job classification of the employee former job status;
monitored and of all other employees (C) A brief explanation of how each
whose exposure the measurement is in- removal was or is being accomplished;
tended to represent; and and

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.62

(D) A statement with respect to each employee exposure to lead requires


removal indicating whether or not the entry into an area where the use of res-
reason for the removal was an elevated pirators, protective clothing or equip-
blood lead level. ment is required, the employer shall
(iii) The employer shall maintain provide the observer with and assure
each medical removal record for at the use of such respirators, clothing
least the duration of an employees em- and equipment, and shall require the
ployment. observer to comply with all other ap-
(4) Objective data for exemption from re- plicable safety and health procedures.
quirement for initial monitoring. (i) For (ii) Without interfering with the
purposes of this section, objective data monitoring, observers shall be entitled
are information demonstrating that a to:
particular product or material con- (A) Receive an explanation of the
taining lead or a specific process, oper- measurement procedures;
ation, or activity involving lead cannot (B) Observe all steps related to the
release dust or fumes in concentrations monitoring of lead performed at the
at or above the action level under any place of exposure; and
expected conditions of use. Objective (C) Record the results obtained or re-
data can be obtained from an industry- ceive copies of the results when re-
wide study or from laboratory product turned by the laboratory.
test results from manufacturers of lead (p) Appendices. The information con-
containing products or materials. The tained in the appendices to this section
data the employer uses from an indus- is not intended by itself, to create any
try-wide survey must be obtained additional obligations not otherwise
under workplace conditions closely re- imposed by this standard nor detract
sembling the processes, types of mate- from any existing obligation.
rial, control methods, work practices
and environmental conditions in the APPENDIX A TO 1926.62SUBSTANCE DATA
SHEET FOR OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO LEAD
employers current operations.
(ii) The employer shall maintain the I. Substance Identification
record of the objective data relied upon A. Substance: Pure lead (Pb) is a heavy
for at least 30 years. metal at room temperature and pressure and
(5) Availability. The employer shall is a basic chemical element. It can combine
make available upon request all with various other substances to form nu-
records required to be maintained by merous lead compounds.
paragraph (n) of this section to affected B. Compounds covered by the standard: The
employees, former employees, and word lead when used in this interim final
their designated representatives, and standard means elemental lead, all inorganic
lead compounds and a class of organic lead
to the Assistant Secretary and the Di- compounds called lead soaps. This standard
rector for examination and copying. does not apply to other organic lead com-
(6) Transfer of records. (i) Whenever pounds.
the employer ceases to do business, the C. Uses: Exposure to lead occurs in several
successor employer shall receive and different occupations in the construction in-
retain all records required to be main- dustry, including demolition or salvage of
tained by paragraph (n) of this section. structures where lead or lead-containing ma-
(ii) The employer shall also comply terials are present; removal or encapsulation
of lead-containing materials, new construc-
with any additional requirements in-
tion, alteration, repair, or renovation of
volving the transfer of records set forth structures that contain lead or materials
in 29 CFR 1910.1020(h). containing lead; installation of products con-
(o) Observation of monitoring(1) Em- taining lead. In addition, there are construc-
ployee observation. The employer shall tion related activities where exposure to
provide affected employees or their lead may occur, including transportation,
designated representatives an oppor- disposal, storage, or containment of lead or
tunity to observe any monitoring of materials containing lead on construction
sites, and maintenance operations associated
employee exposure to lead conducted
with construction activities.
pursuant to paragraph (d) of this sec- D. Permissible exposure: The permissible ex-
tion. posure limit (PEL) set by the standard is 50
(2) Observation procedures. (i) When- micrograms of lead per cubic meter of air (50
ever observation of the monitoring of g/m3), averaged over an 8-hour workday.

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1926.62 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)
E. Action level: The interim final standard rapidly developing acute effects of lead, and
establishes an action level of 30 micrograms chronic effects which take longer to acquire.
of lead per cubic meter of air (30 g/m3), aver- Lead adversely affects numerous body sys-
aged over an 8-hour workday. The action tems, and causes forms of health impairment
level triggers several ancillary provisions of and disease which arise after periods of expo-
the standard such as exposure monitoring, sure as short as days or as long as several
medical surveillance, and training. years.
(2) Long-term (chronic) overexposure. Chron-
II. Health Hazard Data ic overexposure to lead may result in severe
damage to your blood-forming, nervous, uri-
A. Ways in which lead enters your body.
nary and reproductive systems. Some com-
When absorbed into your body in certain
mon symptoms of chronic overexposure in-
doses, lead is a toxic substance. The object of
clude loss of appetite, metallic taste in the
the lead standard is to prevent absorption of
mouth, anxiety, constipation, nausea, pallor,
harmful quantities of lead. The standard is
excessive tiredness, weakness, insomnia,
intended to protect you not only from the
headache, nervous irritability, muscle and
immediate toxic effects of lead, but also
joint pain or soreness, fine tremors, numb-
from the serious toxic effects that may not
ness, dizziness, hyperactivity and colic. In
become apparent until years of exposure lead colic there may be severe abdominal
have passed. Lead can be absorbed into your pain. Damage to the central nervous system
body by inhalation (breathing) and ingestion in general and the brain (encephalopathy) in
(eating). Lead (except for certain organic particular is one of the most severe forms of
lead compounds not covered by the standard, lead poisoning. The most severe, often fatal,
such as tetraethyl lead) is not absorbed form of encephalopathy may be preceded by
through your skin. When lead is scattered in vomiting, a feeling of dullness progressing to
the air as a dust, fume respiratory tract. In- drowsiness and stupor, poor memory, rest-
halation of airborne lead is generally the lessness, irritability, tremor, and convul-
most important source of occupational lead sions. It may arise suddenly with the onset
absorption. You can also absorb lead through of seizures, followed by coma, and death.
your digestive system if lead gets into your There is a tendency for muscular weakness
mouth and is swallowed. If you handle food, to develop at the same time. This weakness
cigarettes, chewing tobacco, or make-up may progress to paralysis often observed as
which have lead on them or handle them a characteristic wrist drop or foot drop
with hands contaminated with lead, this will and is a manifestation of a disease to the
contribute to ingestion. A significant por- nervous system called peripheral neurop-
tion of the lead that you inhale or ingest athy. Chronic overexposure to lead also re-
gets into your blood stream. Once in your sults in kidney disease with few, if any,
blood stream, lead is circulated throughout symptoms appearing until extensive and
your body and stored in various organs and most likely permanent kidney damage has
body tissues. Some of this lead is quickly fil- occurred. Routine laboratory tests reveal the
tered out of your body and excreted, but presence of this kidney disease only after
some remains in the blood and other tissues. about two-thirds of kidney function is lost.
As exposure to lead continues, the amount When overt symptoms of urinary dysfunc-
stored in your body will increase if you are tion arise, it is often too late to correct or
absorbing more lead than your body is ex- prevent worsening conditions, and progres-
creting. Even though you may not be aware sion to kidney dialysis or death is possible.
of any immediate symptoms of disease, this Chronic overexposure to lead impairs the re-
lead stored in your tissues can be slowly productive systems of both men and women.
causing irreversible damage, first to indi- Overexposure to lead may result in decreased
vidual cells, then to your organs and whole sex drive, impotence and sterility in men.
body systems. Lead can alter the structure of sperm cells
B. Effects of overexposure to lead(1) Short raising the risk of birth defects. There is evi-
term (acute) overexposure. Lead is a potent, dence of miscarriage and stillbirth in women
systemic poison that serves no known useful whose husbands were exposed to lead or who
function once absorbed by your body. Taken were exposed to lead themselves. Lead expo-
in large enough doses, lead can kill you in a sure also may result in decreased fertility,
matter of days. A condition affecting the and abnormal menstrual cycles in women.
brain called acute encephalopathy may arise The course of pregnancy may be adversely
which develops quickly to seizures, coma, affected by exposure to lead since lead
and death from cardiorespiratory arrest. A crosses the placental barrier and poses risks
short term dose of lead can lead to acute to developing fetuses. Children born of par-
encephalopathy. Short term occupational ex- ents either one of whom were exposed to ex-
posures of this magnitude are highly un- cess lead levels are more likely to have birth
usual, but not impossible. Similar forms of defects, mental retardation, behavioral dis-
encephalopathy may, however, arise from ex- orders or die during the first year of child-
tended, chronic exposure to lower doses of hood. Overexposure to lead also disrupts the
lead. There is no sharp dividing line between blood-forming system resulting in decreased

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.62
hemoglobin (the substance in the blood that maintain your BLL below 40 g/dl. The provi-
carries oxygen to the cells) and ultimately sions of the standard are designed with this
anemia. Anemia is characterized by weak- end in mind.
ness, pallor and fatigability as a result of de- Your employer has prime responsibility to
creased oxygen carrying capacity in the assure that the provisions of the standard
blood. are complied with both by the company and
(3) Health protection goals of the standard. by individual workers. You, as a worker,
Prevention of adverse health effects for most however, also have a responsibility to assist
workers from exposure to lead throughout a your employer in complying with the stand-
working lifetime requires that a workers ard. You can play a key role in protecting
blood lead level (BLL, also expressed as PbB) your own health by learning about the lead
be maintained at or below forty micrograms hazards and their control, learning what the
per deciliter of whole blood (40 g/dl). The standard requires, following the standard
blood lead levels of workers (both male and where it governs your own actions, and see-
female workers) who intend to have children ing that your employer complies with provi-
should be maintained below 30 g/dl to mini- sions governing his or her actions.
mize adverse reproductive health effects to (4) Reporting signs and symptoms of health
the parents and to the developing fetus. The problems. You should immediately notify
measurement of your blood lead level (BLL) your employer if you develop signs or symp-
is the most useful indicator of the amount of toms associated with lead poisoning or if you
lead being absorbed by your body. Blood lead desire medical advice concerning the effects
levels are most often reported in units of of current or past exposure to lead or your
milligrams (mg) or micrograms (g) of lead ability to have a healthy child. You should
(1 mg=1000 g) per 100 grams (100g), 100 milli- also notify your employer if you have dif-
liters (100 ml) or deciliter (dl) of blood. These ficulty breathing during a respirator fit test
three units are essentially the same. Some- or while wearing a respirator. In each of
time BLLs are expressed in the form of mg% these cases, your employer must make avail-
or g%. This is a shorthand notation for 100g, able to you appropriate medical examina-
100 ml, or dl. (References to BLL measure- tions or consultations. These must be pro-
ments in this standard are expressed in the vided at no cost to you and at a reasonable
form of g/dl.) time and place. The standard contains a pro-
BLL measurements show the amount of cedure whereby you can obtain a second
lead circulating in your blood stream, but do opinion by a physician of your choice if your
not give any information about the amount employer selected the initial physician.
of lead stored in your various tissues. BLL
measurements merely show current absorp- APPENDIX B TO 1926.62EMPLOYEE
tion of lead, not the effect that lead is hav- STANDARD SUMMARY
ing on your body or the effects that past lead
exposure may have already caused. Past re- This appendix summarizes key provisions
search into lead-related diseases, however, of the interim final standard for lead in con-
has focused heavily on associations between struction that you as a worker should be-
BLLs and various diseases. As a result, your come familiar with.
BLL is an important indicator of the likeli- I. Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL)
hood that you will gradually acquire a lead-
Paragraph (C)
related health impairment or disease.
Once your blood lead level climbs above 40 The standard sets a permissible exposure
g/dl, your risk of disease increases. There is limit (PEL) of 50 micrograms of lead per
a wide variability of individual response to cubic meter of air (50 g/m3), averaged over
lead, thus it is difficult to say that a par- an 8-hour workday which is referred to as a
ticular BLL in a given person will cause a time-weighted average (TWA). This is the
particular effect. Studies have associated highest level of lead in air to which you may
fatal encephalopathy with BLLs as low as 150 be permissibly exposed over an 8-hour work-
g/dl. Other studies have shown other forms day. However, since this is an 8-hour aver-
of diseases in some workers with BLLs well age, short exposures above the PEL are per-
below 80 g/dl. Your BLL is a crucial indi- mitted so long as for each 8-hour work day
cator of the risks to your health, but one your average exposure does not exceed this
other factor is also extremely important. level. This interim final standard, however,
This factor is the length of time you have takes into account the fact that your daily
had elevated BLLs. The longer you have an exposure to lead can extend beyond a typical
elevated BLL, the greater the risk that large 8-hour workday as the result of overtime or
quantities of lead are being gradually stored other alterations in your work schedule. To
in your organs and tissues (body burden). deal with this situation, the standard con-
The greater your overall body burden, the tains a formula which reduces your permis-
greater the chances of substantial perma- sible exposure when you are exposed more
nent damage. The best way to prevent all than 8 hours. For example, if you are exposed
forms of lead-related impairments and dis- to lead for 10 hours a day, the maximum per-
easesboth short term and long termis to mitted average exposure would be 40 g/m3.

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1926.62 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)
II. Exposure AssessmentParagraph (D) required to monitor the exposure of every
employee, but he or she must monitor a rep-
If lead is present in your workplace in any
resentative number of employees and job
quantity, your employer is required to make
types. Enough sampling must be done to en-
an initial determination of whether any em-
able each employees exposure level to be
ployees exposure to lead exceeds the action
reasonably represent full shift exposure. In
level (30 g/m3 averaged over an 8-hour day).
addition, these air samples must be taken
Employee exposure is that exposure which
under conditions which represent each em-
would occur if the employee were not using
ployees regular, daily exposure to lead.
a respirator. This initial determination re-
Sampling performed in the past 12 months
quires your employer to monitor workers may be used to determine exposures above
exposures unless he or she has objective data the action level if such sampling was con-
which can demonstrate conclusively that no ducted during work activities essentially
employee will be exposed to lead in excess of similar to present work conditions.
the action level. Where objective data is used The standard lists certain tasks which may
in lieu of actual monitoring the employer likely result in exposures to lead in excess of
must establish and maintain an accurate the PEL and, in some cases, exposures in ex-
record, documenting its relevancy in assess- cess of 50 times the PEL. If you are per-
ing exposure levels for current job condi- forming any of these tasks, your employer
tions. If such objective data is available, the must provide you with appropriate res-
employer need proceed no further on em- piratory protection, protective clothing and
ployee exposure assessment until such time equipment, change areas, hand washing fa-
that conditions have changed and the deter- cilities, biological monitoring, and training
mination is no longer valid. until such time that an exposure assessment
Objective data may be compiled from var- is conducted which demonstrates that your
ious sources, e.g., insurance companies and exposure level is below the PEL.
trade associations and information from sup- If you are exposed to lead and air sampling
pliers or exposure data collected from simi- is performed, your employer is required to
lar operations. Objective data may also com- notify you in writing within 5 working days
prise previously-collected sampling data in- of the air monitoring results which represent
cluding area monitoring. If it cannot be de- your exposure. If the results indicate that
termined through using objective data that your exposure exceeds the PEL (without re-
worker exposure is less than the action level, gard to your use of a respirator), then your
your employer must conduct monitoring or employer must also notify you of this in
must rely on relevant previous personal sam- writing, and provide you with a description
pling, if available. Where monitoring is re- of the corrective action that has been taken
quired for the initial determination, it may or will be taken to reduce your exposure.
be limited to a representative number of em- Your exposure must be rechecked by moni-
ployees who are reasonably expected to have toring, at least every six months if your ex-
the highest exposure levels. If your employer posure is at or over the action level but
has conducted appropriate air sampling for below the PEL. Your employer may dis-
lead in the past 12 months, he or she may use continue monitoring for you if 2 consecutive
these results, provided they are applicable to measurements, taken at least 7 days apart,
the same employee tasks and exposure condi- are at or below the action level. Air moni-
tions and meet the requirements for accu- toring must be repeated every 3 months if
racy as specified in the standard. As with ob- you are exposed over the PEL. Your em-
jective data, if such results are relied upon ployer must continue monitoring for you at
for the initial determination, your employer this frequency until 2 consecutive measure-
must establish and maintain a record as to ments, taken at least 7 days apart, are below
the relevancy of such data to current job the PEL but above the action level, at which
conditions. time your employer must repeat monitoring
If there have been any employee com- of your exposure every six months and may
plaints of symptoms which may be attrib- discontinue monitoring only after your expo-
utable to exposure to lead or if there is any sure drops to or below the action level. How-
other information or observations which ever, whenever there is a change of equip-
would indicate employee exposure to lead, ment, process, control, or personnel or a new
this must also be considered as part of the type of job is added at your workplace which
initial determination. may result in new or additional exposure to
If this initial determination shows that a lead, your employer must perform additional
reasonable possibility exists that any em- monitoring.
ployee may be exposed, without regard to
respirators, over the action level, your em- III. Methods of ComplianceParagraph (E)
ployer must set up an air monitoring pro- Your employer is required to assure that
gram to determine the exposure level rep- no employee is exposed to lead in excess of
resentative of each employee exposed to lead the PEL as an 8-hour TWA. The interim final
at your workplace. In carrying out this air standard for lead in construction requires
monitoring program, your employer is not employers to institute engineering and work

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.62
practice controls including administrative Your employer is required to select res-
controls to the extent feasible to reduce em- pirators from the types listed in Table I of
ployee exposure to lead. Where such controls the Respiratory Protection section of the
are feasible but not adequate to reduce expo- standard ( 1926.62 (f)). Any respirator chosen
sures below the PEL they must be used none- must be approved by the National Institute
theless to reduce exposures to the lowest for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
level that can be accomplished by these under the provisions of 42 CFR part 84. This
means and then supplemented with appro- respirator selection table will enable your
priate respiratory protection. employer to choose a type of respirator that
Your employer is required to develop and will give you a proper amount of protection
implement a written compliance program based on your airborne lead exposure. Your
prior to the commencement of any job where employer may select a type of respirator
employee exposures may reach the PEL as that provides greater protection than that
an 8-hour TWA. The interim final standard required by the standard; that is, one rec-
identifies the various elements that must be ommended for a higher concentration of lead
included in the plan. For example, employers than is present in your workplace. For exam-
are required to include a description of oper- ple, a powered air-purifying respirator
ations in which lead is emitted, detailing (PAPR) is much more protective than a typ-
other relevant information about the oper- ical negative pressure respirator, and may
ation such as the type of equipment used, also be more comfortable to wear. A PAPR
the type of material involved, employee job has a filter, cartridge, or canister to clean
responsibilities, operating procedures and the air, and a power source that continu-
maintenance practices. In addition, your em- ously blows filtered air into your breathing
ployers compliance plan must specify the zone. Your employer might make a PAPR
means that will be used to achieve compli- available to you to ease the burden of having
ance and, where engineering controls are re- to wear a respirator for long periods of time.
quired, include any engineering plans or The standard provides that you can obtain a
studies that have been used to select the PAPR upon request.
control methods. If administrative controls
Your employer must also start a Res-
involving job rotation are used to reduce em-
piratory Protection Program. This program
ployee exposure to lead, the job rotation
must include written procedures for the
schedule must be included in the compliance
proper selection, use, cleaning, storage, and
plan. The plan must also detail the type of
maintenance of respirators.
protective clothing and equipment, including
respirators, housekeeping and hygiene prac- Your employer must ensure that your res-
tices that will be used to protect you from pirator facepiece fits properly. Proper fit of
the adverse effects of exposure to lead. a respirator facepiece is critical to your pro-
The written compliance program must be tection from airborne lead. Obtaining a prop-
made available, upon request, to affected er fit on each employee may require your
employees and their designated representa- employer to make available several different
tives, the Assistant Secretary and the Direc- types of respirator masks. To ensure that
tor. your respirator fits properly and that face-
Finally, the plan must be reviewed and up- piece leakage is minimal, your employer
dated at least every 6 months to assure it re- must give you either a qualitative or quan-
flects the current status in exposure control. titative fit test as specified in appendix A of
the Respiratory Protection standard located
IV. Respiratory ProtectionParagraph (F) at 29 CFR 1910.134.
Your employer is required to provide and You must also receive from your employer
assure your use of respirators when your ex- proper training in the use of respirators.
posure to lead is not controlled below the Your employer is required to teach you how
PEL by other means. The employer must pay to wear a respirator, to know why it is need-
the cost of the respirator. Whenever you re- ed, and to understand its limitations.
quest one, your employer is also required to The standard provides that if your res-
provide you a respirator even if your air ex- pirator uses filter elements, you must be
posure level is not above the PEL. You given an opportunity to change the filter ele-
might desire a respirator when, for example, ments whenever an increase in breathing re-
you have received medical advice that your sistance is detected. You also must be per-
lead absorption should be decreased. Or, you mitted to periodically leave your work area
may intend to have children in the near fu- to wash your face and respirator facepiece
ture, and want to reduce the level of lead in whenever necessary to prevent skin irrita-
your body to minimize adverse reproductive tion. If you ever have difficulty in breathing
effects. While respirators are the least satis- during a fit test or while using a respirator,
factory means of controlling your exposure, your employer must make a medical exam-
they are capable of providing significant pro- ination available to you to determine wheth-
tection if properly chosen, fitted, worn, er you can safely wear a respirator. The re-
cleaned, maintained, and replaced when they sult of this examination may be to give you
stop providing adequate protection. a positive pressure respirator (which reduces

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1926.62 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)
breathing resistance) or to provide alter- 1. Where applicable, place disposal cover-
native means of protection. alls and shoe covers with the abatement
waste;
V. Protective Work Clothing and Equipment 2. Contaminated clothing which is to be
Paragraph (G) cleaned, laundered or disposed of must be
placed in closed containers in the change
If you are exposed to lead above the PEL
room.
as an 8-hour TWA, without regard to your
3. Clean protective gear, including res-
use of a respirator, or if you are exposed to
pirators, according to standard procedures;
lead compounds such as lead arsenate or lead
4. Wash hands and face again. If showers
azide which can cause skin and eye irrita-
are available, take a shower and wash hair.
tion, your employer must provide you with
If shower facilities are not available at the
protective work clothing and equipment ap-
work site, shower immediately at home and
propriate for the hazard. If work clothing is
wash hair.
provided, it must be provided in a clean and
dry condition at least weekly, and daily if VI. HousekeepingParagraph (H)
your airborne exposure to lead is greater
than 200 g/m3. Appropriate protective work Your employer must establish a house-
clothing and equipment can include cover- keeping program sufficient to maintain all
alls or similar full-body work clothing, surfaces as free as practicable of accumula-
gloves, hats, shoes or disposable shoe cover- tions of lead dust. Vacuuming is the pre-
lets, and face shields or vented goggles. Your ferred method of meeting this requirement,
employer is required to provide all such and the use of compressed air to clean floors
equipment at no cost to you. In addition, and other surfaces is generally prohibited
your employer is responsible for providing unless removal with compressed air is done
repairs and replacement as necessary, and in conjunction with ventilation systems de-
also is responsible for the cleaning, laun- signed to contain dispersal of the lead dust.
dering or disposal of protective clothing and Dry or wet sweeping, shoveling, or brushing
equipment. may not be used except where vacuuming or
The interim final standard requires that other equally effective methods have been
your employer assure that you follow good tried and do not work. Vacuums must be
work practices when you are working in used equipped with a special filter called a
areas where your exposure to lead may ex- high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter
ceed the PEL. With respect to protective and emptied in a manner which minimizes
clothing and equipment, where appropriate, the reentry of lead into the workplace.
the following procedures should be observed VII. Hygiene Facilities and Practices
prior to beginning work: Paragraph (I)
1. Change into work clothing and shoe cov-
ers in the clean section of the designated The standard requires that hand washing
changing areas; facilities be provided where occupational ex-
2. Use work garments of appropriate pro- posure to lead occurs. In addition, change
tective gear, including respirators before en- areas, showers (where feasible), and
tering the work area; and lunchrooms or eating areas are to be made
3. Store any clothing not worn under pro- available to workers exposed to lead above
tective clothing in the designated changing the PEL. Your employer must assure that
area. except in these facilities, food and beverage
is not present or consumed, tobacco products
Workers should follow these procedures
are not present or used, and cosmetics are
upon leaving the work area:
not applied, where airborne exposures are
1. HEPA vacuum heavily contaminated
above the PEL. Change rooms provided by
protective work clothing while it is still
your employer must be equipped with sepa-
being worn. At no time may lead be removed
rate storage facilities for your protective
from protective clothing by any means
clothing and equipment and street clothes to
which result in uncontrolled dispersal of lead
avoid cross-contamination. After showering,
into the air;
no required protective clothing or equipment
2. Remove shoe covers and leave them in worn during the shift may be worn home. It
the work area; is important that contaminated clothing or
3. Remove protective clothing and gear in equipment be removed in change areas and
the dirty area of the designated changing not be worn home or you will extend your
area. Remove protective coveralls by care- exposure and expose your family since lead
fully rolling down the garment to reduce ex- from your clothing can accumulate in your
posure to dust. house, car, etc.
4. Remove respirators last; and Lunchrooms or eating areas may not be
5. Wash hands and face. entered with protective clothing or equip-
Workers should follow these procedures ment unless surface dust has been removed
upon finishing work for the day (in addition by vacuuming, downdraft booth, or other
to procedures described above): cleaning method. Finally, workers exposed

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Occupational Safety and Health Admin., Labor 1926.62
above the PEL must wash both their hands g/dl. A zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) test is a
and faces prior to eating, drinking, smoking very useful blood test which measures an ad-
or applying cosmetics. verse metabolic effect of lead on your body
All of the facilities and hygiene practices and is therefore an indicator of lead toxicity.
just discussed are essential to minimize ad- If your BLL exceeds 40 g/dl the moni-
ditional sources of lead absorption from in- toring frequency must be increased from
halation or ingestion of lead that may accu- every 6 months to at least every 2 months
mulate on you, your clothes, or your posses- and not reduced until two consecutive BLLs
sions. Strict compliance with these provi- indicate a blood lead level below 40 g/dl.
sions can virtually eliminate several sources Each time your BLL is determined to be over
of lead exposure which significantly con- 40 g/dl, your employer must notify you of
tribute to excessive lead absorption. this in writing within five working days of
his or her receipt of the test results. The em-
VIII. Medical SurveillanceParagraph (J)
ployer must also inform you that the stand-
The medical surveillance program is part ard requires temporary medical removal
of the standards comprehensive approach to with economic protection when your BLL ex-
the prevention of lead-related disease. Its ceeds 50 g/dl. (See Discussion of Medical Re-
purpose is to supplement the main thrust of moval Protection-Paragraph (k).) Anytime
the standard which is aimed at minimizing your BLL exceeds 50 g/dl your employer
airborne concentrations of lead and sources must make available to you within two
of ingestion. Only medical surveillance can weeks of receipt of these test results a sec-
determine if the other provisions of the ond follow-up BLL test to confirm your BLL.
standard have affectively protected you as If the two tests both exceed 50 g/dl, and you
an individual. Compliance with the stand- are temporarily removed, then your em-
ards provision will protect most workers ployer must make successive BLL tests
from the adverse effects of lead exposure, but available to you on a monthly basis during
may not be satisfactory to protect individual the period of your removal.
workers (1) who have high body burdens of Medical examinations beyond the initial
lead acquired over past years, (2) who have one must be made available on an annual
additional uncontrolled sources of non-occu- basis if your blood lead level exceeds 40 g/dl
pational lead exposure, (3) who exhibit un- at any time during the preceding year and
usual variations in lead absorption rates, or you are being exposed above the airborne ac-
(4) who have specific non-work related med- tion level of 30 g/m3 for 30 or more days per
ical conditions which could be aggravated by year. The initial examination will provide
lead exposure (e.g., renal disease, anemia). In information to establish a baseline to which
addition, control systems may fail, or hy- subsequent data can be compared.
giene and respirator programs may be inad-
An initial medical examination to consist
equate. Periodic medical surveillance of indi-
of blood sampling and analysis for lead and
vidual workers will help detect those fail-
zinc protoporphyrin must also be made avail-
ures. Medical surveillance will also be impor-
able (prior to assignment) for each employee
tant to protect your reproductive ability-re-
being assigned for the first time to an area
gardless of whether you are a man or woman.
where the airborne concentration of lead
All medical surveillance required by the
equals or exceeds the action level at any
interim final standard must be performed by
time. In addition, a medical examination or
or under the supervision of a licensed physi-
cian. The employer must provide required consultation must be made available as soon
medical surveillance without cost to employ- as possible if you notify your employer that
ees and at a reasonable time and place. The you are experiencing signs or symptoms
standards medical surveillance program has commonly associated with lead poisoning or
two partsperiodic biological monitoring that you have difficulty breathing while
and medical examinations. Your employers wearing a respirator or during a respirator
obligation to offer you medical surveillance fit test. You must also be provided a medical
is triggered by the results of the air moni- examination or consultation if you notify
toring program. Full medical surveillance your employer that you desire medical ad-
must be made available to all employees who vice concerning the effects of current or past
are or may be exposed to lead in excess of exposure to lead on your ability to procreate
the action level for more than 30 days a year a healthy child.
and whose blood lead level exceeds 40 g/dl. Finally, appropriate follow-up medical ex-
Initial medical surveillance consisting of aminations or consultations may also be pro-
blood sampling and analysis for lead and zinc vided for employees who have been tempo-
protoporphyrin must be provided to all em- rarily removed from exposure under the
ployees exposed at any time (1 day) above medical removal protection provisions of the
the action level. standard. (See Part IX, below.)
Biological monitoring under the standard The standard specifies the minimum con-
must be provided at least every 2 months for tent of pre-assignment and annual medical
the first 6 months and every 6 months there- examinations. The content of other types of
after until your blood lead level is below 40 medical examinations and consultations is

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1926.62 29 CFR Ch. XVII (7112 Edition)
left up to the sound discretion of the exam- whether you can wear a powered air puri-
ining physician. Pre-assignment and annual fying respirator (PAPR) if you are found un-
medical examinations must include (1) a de- able to wear a negative pressure respirator.
tailed work history and medical history; (2) The medical surveillance program of the
a thorough physical examination, including interim lead standard may at some point in
an evaluation of your pulmonary status if time serve to notify certain workers that
you will be required to use a respirator; (3) a they have acquired a disease or other adverse
blood pressure measurement; and (4) a series medical condition as a result of occupational
of laboratory tests designed to check your lead exposure. If this is true, these workers
blood chemistry and your kidney function. might have legal rights to compensation
In addition, at any time upon your request, from public agencies, their employers, firms
a laboratory evaluation of male fertility will that supply hazardous products to their em-
be made (microscopic examination of a ployers, or other persons. Some states have
sperm sample), or a pregnancy test will be laws, including worker compensation laws,
given. that disallow a worker who learns of a job-
The standard does not require that you related health impairment to sue, unless the
participate in any of the medical procedures, worker sues within a short period of time
tests, etc. which your employer is required after learning of the impairment. (This pe-
to make available to you. Medical surveil- riod of time may be a matter of months or
lance can, however, play a very important years.) An attorney can be consulted about
role in protecting your health. You are these possibilities. It should be stressed that
strongly encouraged, therefore, to partici- OSHA is in no way trying to either encour-
pate in a meaningful fashion. The standard age or discourage claims or lawsuits. How-
contains a multiple physician review mecha- ever, since results of the standards medical
nism which will give you a chance to have a surveillance program can significantly affect
physician of your choice directly participate the legal remedies of a worker who has ac-
in the medical surveillance program. If you quired a job-related disease or impairment,
are dissatisfied with an examination by a it is proper for OSHA to make you aware of
physician chosen by your employer, you can this.
select a second physician to conduct an inde- The medical surveillance section of the
pendent analysis. The two doctors would at- standard also contains provisions dealing
tempt to resolve any differences of opinion, with chelation. Chelation is the use of cer-
and select a third physician to resolve any tain drugs (administered in pill form or in-
firm dispute. Generally your employer will jected into the body) to reduce the amount
choose the physician who conducts medical of lead absorbed in body tissues. Experience
surveillance under the lead standard-unless accumulated by the medical and scientific
you and your employer can agree on the communities has largely confirmed the effec-
choice of a physician or physicians. Some tiveness of this type of therapy for the treat-
companies and unions have agreed in ad- ment of very severe lead poisoning. On the
vance, for example, to use certain inde- other hand, it has also been established that
pendent medical laboratories or panels of there can be a long list of extremely harmful
physicians. Any of these arrangements are side effects associated with the use of
acceptable so long as required medical sur- chelating agents. The medical community
veillance is made available to workers. has balanced the advantages and disadvan-
The standard requires your employer to tages resulting from the use of chelating
provide certain information to a physician to agents in various circumstances and has es-
aid in his or her examination of you. This in- tablished when the use of these agents is ac-
formation includes (1) the standard and its ceptable. The standard includes these ac-
appendices, (2) a description of your duties as cepted limitations due to a history of abuse
they relate to occupational lead exposure, (3) of chelation therapy by some lead compa-
your exposure level or anticipated exposure nies. The most widely used chelating agents
level, (4) a description of any personal pro- are calcium disodium EDTA, (Ca Na2 EDTA),
tective equipment you wear, (5) prior blood Calcium Disodium Versenate (Versenate),
lead level results, and (6) prior written med- and d-penicillamine (pencillamine or
ical opinions concerning you that the em- Cupramine).
ployer has. After a medical examination or The standard prohibits prophylactic che-
consultation the physician must prepare a lation of any employee by any person the
written report which must contain (1) the employer retains, supervises or controls. Pro-
physicians opinion as to whether you have phylactic chelation is the routine use of
any medical condition which places you at chelating or similarly acting drugs to pre-
increased risk of material impairment to vent elevated blood levels in workers who
health from exposure to lead, (2) any rec- are occupationally exposed to lead, or the
ommended special protective measures to be use of these drugs to routi