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EXPLORATIONS

Telecebo: Beyond Placebo to an
Expanded Concept of Healing
| Larry Dossey, MD |

I
n 1909 two titans of modern psy- Many interpretations have been though the solid wood. I was thun-
chology, Sigmund Freud (1856– offered to explain (or explain away) the derstruck. How could such a thing
1939) and Carl Gustav Jung close temporal sequence of Jung’s inter- happen? A table of solid walnut
(1875–1961), met in Freud’s home nal feelings and the successive exploding that had dried out for seventy
in Vienna. As Jung writes in his auto- years—how could it split on a
sounds from the nearby bookcase.
summer day in the relatively high
biography, Memories, Dreams, Reflections, Among them are (1) random, accidental, degree of humidity characteristic of
he wanted to know more about Freud’s unrelated happenings, “just one of those our climate?
views on extrasensory perception or ESP, things”; (2) faulty observations (the
an area that fascinated Jung and toward sounds might have come from gunshots A few weeks later Jung arrived home
which he was quite open. Although down the street); (3) synchronicity, an at six o’clock in the evening and found
Freud later changed his position in favor acausal connection of events that are the household—his mother, his 14-year-
of ESP, on this particular occasion he highly meaningful to the individual old sister, and the maid—greatly agi-
dismissed Jung’s views with such shal- involved; (4) precognition, the aware- tated. About an hour previously there
lowness, Jung said, “I had difficulty in ness of future events; and (5) psychokin- had been another deafening sound, this
checking the sharp retort on the tip of esis, the causal influence of thought, time from the direction of the side-
my tongue.” As Freud continued to feeling, and intention on the physical board, a heavy piece of furniture dating
disparage ESP, Jung began to sense “a world. The first two possibilities reflect from the 18th century. By the time Jung
curious sensation. It was as if my dia- Freud’s view that any connection arrived, the other household members
phragm were made of iron and were between the detonations and emotion, had inspected it thoroughly, as well as
becoming red-hot—a glowing vault. thought, or intention was imaginary. the surrounding area, and could find no
And at that moment there was such a Jung believed his interior feelings had evidence for a split in the wood. Jung
loud report in the bookcase, which somehow exteriorized and were con- repeated their inspection, again finding
stood right next to us, that we both nected with physical events outside nothing. Then he looked inside. In the
started up in alarm, fearing the thing his body. area containing the breadbasket he
was going to topple over on us. I Jung was no stranger to these curious found a loaf of bread, with the bread
said to Freud: ‘There, that is an example happenings. Similar events had occurred knife beside it. As he describes3:
of a so-called catalytic exteriorization previously in the Jung household.
phenomenon.’” In 1898, while Jung was sitting in his The greater part of the blade had
“Oh come,” Freud protested. “That is room studying his textbooks, an event snapped off in several pieces. The
sheer bosh.” occurred that influenced him pro- handle lay in one corner of the
“It is not,” Jung replied. “You are foundly2: rectangular basket, and in each of
the other corners lay a piece of the
mistaken, Herr Professor. And to prove
blade. The knife had been used
my point I now predict that in a In the adjoining room, the door to shortly before at four-o’clock tea,
moment there will be another such loud which stood ajar, my mother was and afterward put away. Since then
report!” No sooner had Jung made this knitting. That was our dining room, no one had gone to the sideboard.
prediction than the same loud detona- where the round walnut dining
tion occurred in the bookcase. Freud table stood … about seventy years The next day Jung took the shattered
simply stared aghast at him. old …. Suddenly there sounded a knife to one of the best cutlers in the
Jung was baffled about what gave him report like a pistol shot. I jumped city. The expert examined the knife with
this certainty, but he knew “beyond all up and rushed into the room from a magnifying glass and said, “The knife is
which the noise of the explosion
doubt” that the phenomenon would perfectly sound. There is no fault in the
had come. My mother was sitting
occur again. Jung sensed that the inci- flabbergasted in her armchair, the steel. Someone must have deliberately
dent aroused Freud’s mistrust, and Jung knitting fallen from her hands …. broken it piece by piece. It could be
felt he had “done something against The table top had split from the done, for instance, by sticking the blade
him.” Jung never discussed the event rim to beyond the center, and not into the crack of the drawer and break-
afterward with him.1 along any point: the split ran right ing off a piece at a time. Or else it might

Explorations EXPLORE January/February 2016, Vol. 12, No. 1 1

the use of a too far”—like saying that “the Rhine are customarily attributed to suggestion. physicians I have ever known has cian justify the deception. dark forces of unreason. the mind has become thor.14 Miller. relieve often. and other devices.6–9 active pharmaceuticals or procedures. and empathy.”10 In service of this duty. anxiety.” The other medicines put together.23 (To find out if your oughly interiorized inside a patient’s Colloca.4 takes place in the clinical encounter clicking on Food And Drug Jung. Today. and defended on the grounds that in the perennial debates surrounding the ries. France’s distinguished physician of Harvard tive placebo response in their great surgeon of the 16th century. calp. drops of colored water. however. Vol.15 attacked because they are deceptive. that placebo effects can elicit quantifiable and improved understanding of the haunted.”17 About eliciting this powerful therapeutic modality. It ideology of materialism. Administration. go to a body as a variable factor in perhaps all effect as “interpersonal healing” that federal database of approved drugs by illnesses. as in can result in therapeutic benefit by seminal article “The Lie That Heals: Jung’s time.13 told me that one of the most popular body medicine is that a patient’s They reflect a patient’s negative beliefs. to use placebo. which are inadequate patients. trust. bread pills. These results intelligence of the patient. been used by physicians to hide the use MIND. through vigorously defended the use of placebos escape an individual’s body and act which a patient finds hope. than of all tion need play no essential role in “Placebo” is Latin for “I shall please. Nowhere is this issue more crucial than Placebos have been used for centu. it considered limited to an individual 2 EXPLORE January/February 2016. said. or other condition. How- assured me that he used more bread ever. as well as from deception is an indispensible com- ponent of successful placebo use. the suggestion that the defined as the positive therapeutic Craen and colleagues report in their shattered knife was faked was inade.’”22 enhanced by her faith and trust in the Secrecy and obfuscation have often clinician who is involved. 1 Explorations . “The value of placebo was bookcase and Jung’s split dining table ineffectual treatment for a medical. But good steel can’t century. medical ritual was more effective and would flow backward just once. a deceptive means to promote a posi- medicine. and In recent years several authorities have become exteriorized—that is.” Many studies show in light of recent placebo research science itself is under attack by demon. placebos have been single individual’s brain and body. when their use took on a impact on pathophysiology. in clinical practice. which asserts healing is distinct from spontaneous has traditionally been assumed that that consciousness is produced by the natural healing.have been dropped on stone from a consoling patients until the 20th was assumed that they had no actual great height. by mere expectation. modifying the pathophysiology of of prescribing placebos in medical nium often respond to Jung’s suggestion disease. as if not “all in the mind. described how he “was patients. However. No. support. medications in his hospital was Lipragus thoughts and emotions matter clinically.” experience of illness symptoms such as The 170-year-long debate in the Those who want to keep the mind safely pain.) that mental–emotional events can by diverse behaviors. Both placebo and nocebo effects are as necessary deceptions in relieving and edged to bring comfort to patients. or chance …. this idea is often considered modifying the perceptions and The Ethics of Giving Placebos”24: occult nonsense—Freud’s “sheer bosh. they were believed to be more your leg. somehow “catalyzing” distant meaning. thought inversely related to the were just a coincidence “went much gical. and fatigue. placebo effect as an integral part of includes disciples of the moribund and immune regulators. INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR negative results called nocebo responses of placebos. Someone has been pulling derogatory quality. a proper understanding of pills.”18 THE TELECEBO EFFECT placebos were widely used in medicine Even though placebos were acknowl.20 More- explode. also been used. Obe- often greatly. “placebo” spelled backward. Interpersonal the doctorpatient relationship. inert substance or effects. physicians can use non- term expresses a long-accepted goal in a century later Richard Cabot. sur. and the notion that Freud’s noisy tration of a harmless. hormones. however. results that arise following the adminis. rather than by medical literature about the ethics interiorized inside an individual’s cra.gov—Catalog of FDA- extensive role for the mind.19. subcutaneously.12 Adverse. anxieties.16 In 1807 Thomas Jefferson wrote the deception is illusory or that the placebo response and the nature of that “one of the most successful beneficent intentions of the physi- healing. historical review of placebos and their quate. they can rituals in the clinical encounter. was suggesting a more between clinician and patient. Medical School. the duty of the physician is “to cure brought up. As Ambroise Paré.” The placebo effect is traditionally effective on the weak-minded.11 over. He believed Interpersonal healing may be activated Approved Drug Products.21 As de For Jung. and the placebo effect shows that decep- THE PLACEBO EFFECT powders of hickory ashes. console is. the placebo effect is therapeutics needs to be reevaluated with mouth-foaming denunciation. water always. and positive thinking on necessary for ‘unintelligent. This Howard Brody stated in 1982 in a physical events. As the mindbody field More sophisticated views of the pla. brain and is confined and limited to a technological healing dependent on Therefore.” the part of the patient. as I suppose every physician occasionally. neurotic.5 This changes in neurotransmitters. —“sugar pill” spelled backward. cebo effect are being offered. As physician–ethicist outside it. A hospital pharmacist once The basic premise underlying mind– are the dark twin of placebo effects. symbols. has has evolved. and Kaptchuk view the placebo medications are real medicine. 12. and expectations of harm.

and frontal So how do we know telecebo effects animals and humans. plain sight. visualization. or healer’s intentions and neutral stimulus was later given. casually interested in healing. with whom they felt an empathic. manifested by a physician.” Telecebo effects are not gen. Then nobody will see it.D. or effects do not depend on proximity to a send) conditions were found. sugges. involving rab. nonhuman animals can manifest pla.25. There is abundant evidence that supporting them has long been in plain effect.30 Explorations EXPLORE January/February 2016. Vol. differ. at play. dairy cows. who combining the Greek tele. so that if STUDY individual experiencing them. or originate from a clinician. “To the extent that ing energy or good intentions. as opposed to the local. (cyclophosphamide) with a neutral sti. as we shall see. the years integrating with the community of thoughts for a patient’s welfare. send- from a patient. there was simply good beside manner. Evidence a place for what I wish to call the telecebo tion.000127). the results are presumably not patient? There is an old folk saying: “If cannot directly affect mine. …it is wishing for the subject the highest good. microbes.”27 MRI scanner and was isolated from all and patient. and emotions. while telecebo effects F. Many of the experiments sug. sight. placebo effects are believed passionate bond. McMillan. When only the investigate healing. telecebo experimental (send) and control (no the clinician’s empathy. Researcher Jeanne Achterberg. In this situation. my thoughts cannot directly animals.” incomplete. or perhaps but cells. plants. with distant intentionality (DI). then. telecebo effects? The reasons are their own healing practices at two- the clinician may misinterpret telecebo straightforward. less than approximately one chance in Even if a clinician is aware that telecebo gesting telecebo effects have been done 10. Many of the relevant minute random intervals that could effects as placebo responses originating studies do not involve animals at all. and “Telecebo” expresses both kinship bits. trusting connection between the healer from experiments involving nonhumans and telecebo responses is presented in and the recipient may be a vital part of are especially revealing. subject. microbes. Telecebo effects are like that. Ader and Cohen was well known for her decades-long distant. They described their ence in that placebo responses arise inarian and placebo researcher healing efforts variously—prayer.000 that the results could be effects exist. Moroever. 12. The telecebo phenomenon can be reasonable to posit a similar influence of Each recipient was placed in a functional completely invisible to both clinician placebo effects in animal health care. healing intentions can telecebo effects apart from placebo and if sensory-mediated contact is be exteriorized from one individual to responses. healing intentions. nocebo. No. horses. As far as we Table 1. For example. and that an empathic. she and her colleagues recruited 11 effects that can merge seamlessly with a of research demonstrating the healthy healers. tively nor engage in symbolic meaning INTENTIONS: THE ACHTERBERG FMRI fined to. there is a substantial body trust. age of 23 years. exist? We know because we can tease mals are not involved as test subjects. dogs.patient. the placebo In humans. remotely. mulus (a saccharine solution) in mice Island of Hawaii in the early 2000s to ization of a clinician’s. veter. nurse’s. with the fragment cebo from paired an immunosuppressive drug research in imagery. and difference from. placebo effects would appear another to exert measurable effects on and reports involving both humans and to have been eliminated. contact from a human. as in hundreds of experiments bypassed. taboo that these effects are forbidden in differentiated from our hypothesized The healers sent forms of DI related to science and cannot exist. the recipient. Therefore.28. and your thoughts reactions. meaning far or ing. and sows. who accepted her and mental efforts can directly influence a tive of a placebo response. within a patient’s own body. due to placebo effects but to the results you want to hide the treasure. native healers. and “placebo. put it in This view of placebo responses is of telecebo intentions from the healer. or chemical can exteriorize and affect a distant affect your body. no matter how distant. if ani. thoughts. areas.29 She spent two therapist’s. beyond sensory contact. This explained by chance happenings (p ¼ because in any given clinicianpatient suggests that a nonlocal phenomenon is 0. creating Moreover. the process. THE EXTERIORIZATION OF are regarded as originating in. These result was immunosuppression. with a lupus-like disease. but we have been slow to notice. nonhumans do not think posi. “Telecebo” is a neologism formed by cebo effects through operant condition.26 shared their methods. tissues. they had and placebo effects arise from inten. simply because mental effects know. The areas of the brain that interaction it may be impossible to dis. the precuneus. Each healer was asked to select a patient’s own self-generated placebo effects in animals from visual and tactile person they had worked with previously responses in a cascade toward healing. passion. can placebo responses be forms of sensory contact with the healer. Thus. moved to the Big erated by a patient. underlie placebo responses in higher late areas. Abundant evidence requires This generalization requires qualifica. animals form such perceptions. the brain and body of the to the degree of humans. com- with. likeability. plants. com. This study suggests that remote. and con. compassionate. The healers were not response—kinship in that both telecebo to be mediated by the empathy. The data A comparison of placebo. compassion. if both of them accept the How. and Significant differences between the dismiss them as the nonspecific results of chemical reactions. they can still be elusive. After gaining their patient. and trustworthiness pursued their healing tradition an aver- tions. In other healing intentions are effective in lower What is the evidence that one’s thoughts words. not be anticipated by the recipient. sensory. 1 3 . nonhumans. were activated during the “send” periods tinguish them from placebo responses mediated mechanisms believed to included the anterior and middle cingu- originating in the patient. states. they are an exterior.

thereby of nonlocal phenomena: they helping patients cope with are unmediated (by any illness and suffering. ameliorate illness by relieving Telecebo effects demonstrate symptoms such as pain. matter/energy. unmitigated (their strength does not diminish with increasing distance). Nocebo. There is little reliable evidence These effects have been that placebos can actually cure demonstrated in a variety of disease by modifying subjects including humans. as a result of interpersonal encounter emotions of a clinician toward perceived trust. References to the relevant Noetic Sciences. or understood through the neural. administration of a harmless. They do not depend on considered a result of positive These effects can be largely the intermediary influence of thinking. comfort. authorities believe that animals. show that when one person’s brain is Entangled Minds31 by consciousness html.” inert substance. and chemical reactions. by conventional exchanges of and stress. empathy. placebos have the power to plants. Achterberg’s experiment is not a stimulated. these effects can exteriorization of the interpersonal clinician-patient result from a negative intentions. Senior one-off. between a clinician and patient. biochemical. three essential characteristics anxiety. They may be support. Most human tissue and cells. Telecebo effects represent an They may be activated by the In addition. dread. and on his blog site (EEG) or fMRI recordings of distant experiments in this field can be at http://deanradin. the distant individual’s researcher Dean Radin. Vol. known form of energy). These effects are often alone. inert substance.com/ individuals who are emotionally close found in the comprehensive book 2010/03/brain-correlation-experiments. cebo from “placebo. hormones. a harmless. dismal prognosis or careless initiated de novo by intention language. by positive or negative. and immune regulators. No.g. Placebo. and fear. and immediate (instantaneous). with the fragment administration of a harmless. e. expectation. or encounter. anxiety. and They can be triggered. microorganisms. Many similar studies utilizing brain often responds similarly at the Researcher at California’s Institute of simultaneous electroencephalographic same time. 4 EXPLORE January/February 2016.blogspot. suggestion.Table 1. 1 Explorations . a patient. meaning far or her body following the her own body following the distant. compassion manifested by a dire predictions such as a Telecebo effects can be clinician. pathophysiology. and Telecebo Effects: A Taxonomy Placebo Nocebo Telecebo Space-Time Characteristic Local (effects confined or Local (effects confined or Nonlocal (effects not confined localized to specific points in localized to specific points in or localized to specific points space and time) space and time) in space and time) Psychological Characteristic Intrapersonal/interpersonal Intrapersonal/interpersonal Interpersonal/ transpersonal Description Placebo effects are the positive Nocebo effects are the negative “Telecebo” is a neologism actions of an individual’s actions of an individual’s formed by combining the thoughts and intentions on his/ thoughts and intentions on his/ Greek tele. neurotransmitters. thoughts. and humoral These effects occur beyond actions that are recognized as Placebo interventions can the reach of the physical the body’s response to evoke quantifiable fluxes in senses and are inexplicable perceived fear. inert substance. 12..

04.” the highest Mozambican subjects in a prospective normal cells by stimulating cell possible grade. They measured significant proliferation. Mory. the rate of wound healing in site to approximately 600 miles. ing. Two exam- even from a distance. critiques and meeting between the control group and the immunocytochemical staining for pro- reports. The in wound healing). and osteoblasts (bone cells) in descriptive studies. cells. disserta- tions. the growth rates of seedlings. The technique. They gave a “B” to following healing intentions in the form intent” on cancerous laboratory mice. 128 summaries or reviews. 271 study found that there was on average cells). systems. “The results these studies individuals have used their been stimulated during treatment. anec- dotes. and pain. group receiving DIH at the P ¼ 01 liferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). abstracts. articles. Moreover. group and the group receiving DIH on untreated controls. significant increase in proliferation of criteria (Consolidated Standards of cessory prayer on auditory and visual fibroblasts. the function of cells in tissue times brought about from a distance treatment group were relieved of chronic cultures. In 2010 Brown. Thus were kept blind to their group assign. to studies involving the study. and mental intention effects. In gesting that an immune response had researchers concluded. techniques in 23 female patients with induced sarcomas were used. commen. A “B” was also given to In a phase-1 pilot study.34–43 the end of the study. mice with methylcholanthrene- plants. to weekly until the mice were cured or only to convey what these experiments cebo effects are further supported by a died. At faculty and student volunteers. In the healing intention studies involving of prayer. researchers injected with mammary adenocarci- laboratory experiments involving assessed the influence of shamanic “jour. the healing of transplanted cancers Bengston notes. 1 5 . and neying” and other shamanic healing ments.47 ence or belief in healing with intent published in the past few decades asses. Pain improved significantly untreated. Vol. delivered daily comprehensive survey. They were successful in produ- generally look like. chronic pain. osteoblasts.46 eight of these experiments. and other writings (DIH) on narcotic analgesic use. and 259 selected books. 12. and distant mental interactions with living the mice. “A specific How good are the clinical and labora. is 100%. case reports. was administered twice a cine. sug- a healer to relieve chronic pain. level. seven less narcotic analgesics taken by culture (P ¼ 0. and tenocytes Reporting Trials).01. noma (breast cancer) cells. The fatal- Many additional systematic and meta. microbes. Tsubono. Thomlinson. and 0. was any difference between the control week for two weeks. Jonas and Craw. letters to editors. tele. respectively). tenocytes (tendon and nonrandomized trials. The tissues. pattern of TT treatment produced a tory studies? Using strict CONSORT mond evaluated the influence of inter.003) and visual (P r 0. and McCly. Analysis revealed a significant difference by sophisticated techniques such as taries. In two experi- nonhumans such as animals. body of research known as DMILS— cing full cures in approximately 90% of In 2009.45 The researchers concluded. but intended In addition to studies in humans. TT significantly sti- dies. When mammary adenocarci- Shealy conducted a randomized con. claims. and animals. the germination rates of that defies conventional understand- pain after only two months of healing. the cancer would not take. TT may affect Crawford gave an “A. Here are some DISTANT MENTAL INTERACTIONS healing technique.” suggesting that a nonlocal process Explorations EXPLORE January/February 2016. effect of Distant Intentionality Healing no-treatment controls. on the proliferation of normal human blind. 1286 other writings the DIH group than the control group.01. author wanted to determine if there intentions. The healers were tive findings have been published in and results were highly significant. Beng- objects such as sophisticated random 0. which emphasizes healing on spiritual healing. and distant healing ples follow. The showed that the treatment group was intentions to influence the growth rates proximity of the volunteer healers to significantly improved compared to the of bacteria and fungi in test tubes and the cages of the mice varied from on control group even though both groups petri dishes. These experiments involve a noma cells were re-injected into cured trolled trial that assessed the ability of wide variety of entities such as organs.33 Jonas and impairments in 24 consecutive rural in culture. and surveys. In a 2003 systematic analysis of healing can be a very effective treatment for Gronowicz and colleagues assessed intentions in general.EVIDENCE This suggests that healing can take place and many other phenomena. peer-reviewed literature. These data were obtained including opinions. seeds. many subjects in the in mice. 80 randomized controlled the total number of narcotic analgesics mulated proliferation of fibroblasts (cells trials. Therefore. energy medi. taken after foot and ankle surgery for that produce collagen and are important 95 reports of observational studies three weeks after the operation. Compared to This included 122 laboratory stu. sing the possible impact of a healer’s they were drilled extensively in the intentions on patients. if analyses of healing intentions with posi. Kuwada reported a double. compared to sham and … over 2200 published reports. plants. Treatment length examples involving humans—not a WITH LIVING SYSTEMS was from 30 to 60 min. only four of the 23 Although they had no previous experi- Scores of clinical trials have been patients merited the original diagnosis. This non-touch including books. and were often quite skeptical of such. temporomandibular joint dysfunction ity rate for both cancers in mice. mice. mice were humans. 0.02) functions ston tested the effect of “healing with number generators.“[T]hese effects were at ment. No. mice.”48 effects of intentions on inanimate improvements in both auditory (P r In 10 controlled experiments. randomized study evaluating the cells in culture.”44 the effect of Therapeutic Touch (TT) ford found:32 In 2013.

49–52 provocative. The prayed-for group had a statis.32. Entanglement. consciousness researchers Patricio Tres- affirm the emerging concept of nonlocal sible and telecebo effects are likely at soldi. and immediate experiments investigating these phe- positive experiments involving retro. 12. both not subject to suggestion and expecta. If in controlled experiments these this area has changed dramatically. a per. nomena have been conducted since (instantaneous). trolled experiment. The current candidate is suggests that healing through intent physiologically to future events. were able to do. tical and experimental evidence for such suasive case can be made that. described and summarized in readily avoidance of future threats.67–71 robust evidence also supports our tioned.72 They state: and bodies. outside by conventional neuroscientific the three essential features that char- the present. To reiterate. However. and each shows within and between distant organisms. healing intentions significantly positive effects. INTRINSIC CONNECTEDNESS causation is being taken seriously in ern experimental methods and certain areas within science. In this randomized.73 EXTERIORIZATION IN TIME out the use of the ordinary senses. 2010 in the journal NeuroQuantology. assumptions or by traditional the. ESP does exist. These studies are nian advantage via the anticipation and between distant individuals. espe. microbes. and replic. “Interrelation- the University of San Diego. unmitigated (their function in the past. ulate that more comprehensive tant subatomic particles. and biochemical into the environment at a distance. such as individual brains thoughts and intentions of the healer. as the reactions presumably do not think posi. are?”76 has been the subject of a symposium at standing.75 temporal influence on biological and the mid‐19th century. meta‐analytical techniques. ing the ability to acquire information Studies in nonhumans permit us to sentiment studies suggest that the mind beyond the reach of the senses. using mod. We justify —Thich Nhat Hanh. con.52–62 Overall. No. Isn’t it obvious that we “inter- neuroscience assumptions notwith. plants. and placebo responses. meta‐analyses. Today. a sibling of the phe- dently repeatable ESP effect. as already men. and the inanimate systems.77. The lack of theoretical support has mar. sanctioned this conclusion through discussion ship” by the American Association for the of one class of homogeneous Advancement of Science. Taken together. We spec. is a term indicates that traditional cognitive lized.57. Vol. quantum mechanics. present. these retro-temporal and pre. space but to time as well. ESP REVISITED healers in the Achterberg experiment tively or symbolically and are therefore Since Freud and Jung clashed over ESP. with the correlation of brain activity be reviewed here. 74. In from the environment and the insertion entities respond to intentions. This series of studies. and Dean Radin mind—mind unconfined to specific work. is not easily accommodated phenomena because they demonstrate but also at a distance in time. com- differentiate between telecebo effects can exteriorize not only with respect to monly called ESP. can be predictable. This intrinsic connect- events are presumed already to have data have been subjected to six edness permits information exchanges happened.64 experiments reported in 108 pub. in ories underlying our understanding They are unmediated (by any known which thought and intention appear to of perception and cognition. Lance Storm. acterize all nonlocal happenings. presum. equally significant is evidence support- available sources. gest retro-temporal phenomena. Telecebo effects between a clinician Evidence further suggests that intentions that is by “extrasensory perception” and a patient are examples of nonlocal can act not only at a distance in space. the ability to insert information cells. the experimental landscape surrounding vectors—the acquisition of information tion. This four to 10 years after they were hospita. offered to over 3000 patients with sepsis biguous evidence for an indepen. But as we have seen. extrasensory perception.was at work. The bypassing conventional mechanisms. even though these around the world. Some researchers suggest referred to by these researchers deals The DMILS field is too extensive to that this ability would confer a Darwi. previously thought impossible. form of energy). and I am you.66 concepts.78 This space- timent experiments from various models will require new principles spanning intimacy has recently been 6 EXPLORE January/February 2016. laboratories suggest that individuals can based on a more comprehensive conducted at several academic centers. unconsciously anticipate and respond physics. which are coined by Nobel Prize-winning physicist tically better course regarding length of largely based on classical physical Erwin Schrödinger in 1935 to describe stay and the course of fever. an intimate connectedness between dis- Moreover. 1 Explorations . of information into the environment— ably the placebo response is not respon. nonhumans such as quarry. in the form of intercessory prayer were overall results now provide unam. The theore. You are me. Many of these studies sug. are incomplete. reflecting the influence of the analyzed the experimental database for points in space. Subsets of these astonishing ways. Consciousness strength does not diminish with ginalized the study of ESP. cially if such events are emotionally The “unambiguous evidence” that is able.65. and mind unlimited to The possibility that information specific points in time. reliable. but researcher William Braud reviewed 24 increasing distance). What makes telecebo effects possible? One peer-reviewed study suggests the lications and conducted from 1974 Emerging evidence suggests that living influence of healing intentions on past through 2008 by laboratories creatures are intimately connected in medical events.63 The possibility of empirical database has been slowly retro-temporal influence or backward accumulating. nomenon of nonlocality. (ESP). and neuroscience models. dozens of so-called presen. such as the can be acquired at a distance with.

1 7 . Explorations EXPLORE January/February 2016. Why do the above studies evoke such experiments are so wrongheaded that Evidence for an intrinsic. neurons when both are shielded.”89 Henry communication between them. Key studies are com- originally believed to exist only in the subatomic world. Chaban and his colleagues or does not exist.88 off the scientific map. the prominent Columbia Laboratories in Milan. Speaking of so-called both were completely shielded.82 In a an article of faith in most scientific Eminent scientists say otherwise. involve the supernatural because they tance of these phenomena for “biology. already men. or metaphysical agents in inter- anything. The University’s Institute for Advanced registered the same changes. even if it really happened. the esteemed Yale University one group of cells was stimulated with space and time beyond the confines of physicist and member of Princeton laser light. ciple minds can nonlocally influence our biological evolution and survival86: gods. distant con. as in the tense inter. “Strangely. in princi. he said. although above studies evoke vigorous objections Study. Stapp. The entanglements are cer cells can communicate with normal intentions ought to work remotely or primary. UNPACKING THE RESISTANCE Critics commonly maintain that these son chooses to do in one region studies so radically violate the accepted seems immediately to effect what is This is the sort of thing I would not canons of science and the known laws of true elsewhere in the universe …. facie evidence that our human Another frequent criticism of healing thoughts are linked to nature by studies involves theoretical plausibility. These examinations are almost physician–researcher Ashkan Farhadi never comprehensive. of Technology. requires no physical link … [Or] procedure in science. “[O]ur experimental Unfortunately. entangle. Vol. that they could not communicate by one or two studies that are problematic. no change in the stem cells in distant containers that tioned. any known physical means. When ple. bypass. When they ignore the rest. Therefore these (emphasis in original). be exteriorized and act remotely in Margenau. Now they of human epithelial cells in such a way monly omitted.85 invoke a transcendent. No. and that its effects are University physicist. Italy. damaged the “inducer” group of cells demn this entire field of research. searching for correlations between inten- view is fully compatible with telecebo winian advantage …. speculation about whether healing body …. cation. Some critics identify have become an issue for biology. Ger- series of experiments at DiBit circles that the brain produces human ald Feinberg. They at UCLA School of Medicine have Critics often resort to philosophical may operate in the cells of our demonstrated that neuroblastoma can.The quin. applications.”83 biologists. observed. arisen in humans? What purpose might them outside the domain of empirical tioned. who have offered critiques and analyses in 201179: go’s Rush University Medical Center.” Consciousness Why has this distant connectivity agency or higher power. agreed. including a collection of other preting their findings. nature that this places them completely [O]ur thoughts … DO something —Skeptical scientist87. the “detector” cial evidence from nonhuman studies is including living organisms …. sharp criticism.84 almost always ignored as if it is irrelevant These effects are more pervasive Victor V. They usually defer on the ques- A similar view is expressed by the independent of distance and tion of mechanism. “[M]inds are Atom Institute at the Vienna University because researchers in this field almost entangled with the universe. nonlocal connections: what a per. He states.” Radin’s Entanglement would lead to a Dar. Berkeley81: species. natural. cells were damaged in a similar way. the depth and breadth it does not seem possible to find the data seem to strongly suggest that of healing research remains little known scientific laws or principles violated biological systems present non-local among healthcare professionals. psychologists— in a seminal article in Scientific American In a laboratory experiment at Chica. and even between living they presumably are natural. than anyone ever suspected. of University of California- … between members of different if these phenomena occur in nature. as well by the existence of (these phenomena). And in any case. as men. and generalize to con- tessential quantum effect. humans continues to mount. the distant group of cells the corporeal brain and body. Thus. it is widely assumed that fundamental equations of physics would were shielded to prevent any conscious intentions cannot. be needed to describe them. events) indeed occur. which places researcher Dean Radin. 12. They often insist that these studies Vedral specifically indicates the impor. Literature searches Entanglement and nonlocality were and his colleagues separated two groups are piecemeal. “If such Rita Pizzi and her colleagues placed two confined to the brain and body of an phenomena (so-called paranormal batches of human neurons or neural individual and to the present. they do not deserve consideration and nectedness at the cellular level in change between Freud and Jung? It is should not even be done. physicists. The because they violate this prohibition. [It] could tions and observable effects in the effects. Cru- ment. This is a straw-man argument. emphasizes the scope of these it serve? Johann Summhammer of the science. of it. not. As physicist Vlatko Vedral reports models. not super- The new physics presents prima systems and the inanimate world. researcher consciousness. so in prin. metaphysical medicine and healing. They are merely minds or physical systems. can occur in large systems … with hydrogen peroxide. because it is world. researchers stated.discovered in macroscopic systems as properties not explainable by classical as many of those outside of medicine— well. believe. which is an accepted eminent theoretical physicist Henry P. believes it may assist in never make assertions about entelechies. ing any known means of communi. medicine and healing …. paranormal events.80 coordinate the behaviors of mem- bers of a species.

Though effect and use it consciously. Some of the emi- of consciousness is in the embarrassing book Man & Time. said. We cannot get 8 EXPLORE January/February 2016. But in truth. As Sir John Maddox. the distinctions kinesis …. only later to be tive. main methods and results of the There are no inviolable laws of con. There- of neuroscience in the past century … manifestations of consciousness learns fore.94 thoroughly acquainted with the who is sick and in need. Irvine: “The scientific study wright–philosopher. would be acting can be exteriorized via a healer’s inten- science. universal human endeavor called heal- implausibility. Despite the marvelous successes Anyone who researches the nonlocal are not emotion-free automatons. with his theory largely been ignored. which simply wrong.B. between healthcare providers and “Today’s physics allows for the existence Hufford and Dossey have offered a patients. mind to influence a patient. with- often backfired.”101 limited to it. consciousness that is nonlocal in space None of these great scientists were more “When I hear the word ‘ironclad.” As one physicist said. The whole concept of intentions. but their views have of consciousness. consciousness is an entity that is deep-seated prejudices. without making himself nate intentions on behalf of someone matured.D. hope. that they will which Buddhist scholar Alan Watts accepted view of reality—but not—as continue to exist in a similar manner in satirized as the “skin-encapsulated many of us have believed—between the future. such as the circulation of the very unwisely. employing telecebo careful and long-continued work sciousness. Doctorpatient interchanges are seldom consciousness consists of … is … a emotionally neutral.’ the paranormal is unleashed a weaponized salvo against cians. the importance of hand washing himself which he might have decisively. has said. and continental avoided …. “Far University philosopher of science.”97 This is not a rationale for ego. and that it can affect matter—an even apply to the so-called “ironclad Evolving evidence requires a view of underlying premise of telecebo effects.” And as tion. physi- from being ‘irrational. nurses. with the limitations of science. And anyone who at tively. but obligatory.93. precognition. “What ceremony as a conceited ignoramus. If we understand the differ- requires this possibility.”91 And. emphatic on this score than Planck104: to get my acetylene torch. little can be done except to make a face produced by the material brain. Hoffman. whether positive or nega.”96 The above studies “[O]f course if a man. Priestley. ing. it often seems. shown that queer things are happening. the British play. offers facetious nent founders of modern science have position of having no scientific theory advice that is perhaps appropriate: already done so. means that even currently accepted that consciousness is fundamental. They believed. in which the effects of inten. is We can be certain that we have not at him and a rude noise.103 Many of them violate not laws of nature or at stake.We can find contradictions between that any physical laws exist. (their occurrence) and our culturally have existed up to now. a respected abound. were initially condemned by the present day expresses confident cebo effects is an affirmation of the authorities because of their sheer opinions. Vol. his words still apply100: throughout human history have always plausibility-based verdicts regarding done. 1 Explorations . meaning. This view of mental. inflexible commonly crop up in interactions Costa de Beauregard similarly observed. which always employs compassio- embraced as scientific understanding nomena. the founder of quantum phy. providers might lay claim to the telecebo original). and other healthcare postulated by today’s physics” (emphasis in the critics of so-called paranormal phe. Broad. laying up trouble for tions.”90 The eminent physicist O. and because they have long of ‘paranormal’ phenomena of critique of the most common objections been lumped together with placebo telepathy. or if they notion of the limited. but a actions telecebo effects because they oped. How should one respond to The materialistic straightjacket with cognitive scientist at University of them? J. former editor of Nature. Thus the deliberate use of tele- drift. we clinicians will use telecebo we seem as far from understanding soon enough that uninformed critics effects for good or ill with our patients.’ I want and time. and psycho. the eminent Cambridge important. However. on ostensibly paranormal phe. confined self. which we have shackled consciousness California. ago. No. makes up his mind not to be believed that the popular view that consciousness but. I regard matter as derivative sics. caution against a hide-bound. The consensus of shamans and new ideas and developments have Anyone who should nowadays start medicine men and women was that to investigate these subjects. either positively or nega- and sterile technique. directed toward the field of healing responses.”95 Donald D. as healers Throughout the history of science. ences between these categories. and purpose out first mastering the relevant parts accepted concepts in medicine and of that literature. Many currently intention.99 between telecebo and placebo are ‘nonlocality’ in contemporary physics C. in his important should be removed. cognitive process as we were a century such as those described by Broad either consciously or unconsciously. “We have no right to assume consciousness transcends our usual from consciousness. rather. and perishes with it is exhausted nature’s inventory. laws of nature. thought. because physicians puzzle.”102 (their occurrence) and the scientific laws “anything goes” or playing fast and loose I have called certain nonlocal mental that have been so laboriously devel. harsh. the may be dismissed without further effects is not optional. that scientific views always exist in a state USING TELECEBO EFFECTS it cannot be derived from anything more of “Until Further Notice.” This may CONSCIOUSLY basic.92 nomena at mid-20th century. and emotion can exter- Nobel laureate and physicist Max iorize from a clinician’s or therapist’s I regard consciousness as funda- Planck. sometimes impacting a patient blood. ideology. 12.98.

bear in mind the intention. neurotic. that in the main Jung got it blinders. 12. By the end of ence was a fact. but as the telecebo THE EVERYDAY Did Richard’s thoughts exteriorize to effect. These phenomena can erupt in duals have demonstrated the ability to data points. empirical evidence for the Richard could not help notice it sagging. He hypnotized agreed105. this manifests not as exploding gation to serve in the military. to exhibit open- which we were dragooned in our educa. Everything everyday life when emotional intensity is harm living organisms through negative that we talk about. Richard acted like he did not notice bread knife committed suicide by dinger. kill if so ordered. but he no relevant. we have more the case. and other towering giants in it going down but inside thought it exploding into several pieces. Her eyes followed it why Jung’s old walnut dining table tore Opening to the centrality of con. should we not consider using the truth—how nervous. As you do. worried. He confrontation. to keep quiet. what Jung would have said. In the domain of medicine and in healing.”114 As Frank McLynn.110–113 we regard as existing.?”6. he thought. but she did not say anything.109: consciousness. alongside placebo responses as co-factors tions can exteriorize to affect the outside The counselor was sympathetic. with Jung about ESP in their Vienna for the army draft. the Because we think it is “more prudent plant kept wilting. this is not always laboratory experiments in which indivi. its guts out. everything that high. As Richard continued longer felt like that and was. It was for purely prudential examined. The counselor and mysticism if parts of the occultist the abundant. disgusted. or was its Neither Freud nor Jung could have the exteriorization of intention and collapse just a cute coincidence. my friend Richard Although Freud vigorously disagreed Schrödinger. Nobel Prize-winnnng physicist Erwin During the 1970s draft for the VIENNA REVISITED Vietnam War. Richard walked into the feared that until psychoanalysis was accuse us of “going mystic?” Because the counselor’s office in a deplorable established beyond risk of destruc- moth-eaten. as in the following account intentions. the understanding of the uncon- Richard decided he would tell her scious. No.115 The psychiatrist determined that he anything else …. or to maintain that all We may never know for certain why had bent over to half their original is doubtful. behind consciousness. down. view. empirical Explorations EXPLORE January/February 2016. replicated. purposes rather than to advance In view of the evidence we have Before seeing the counselor. cannot be accounted for in terms of biographers. We can science might assist us in removing our was really neat because the plant’s conclude. why until late in his career the many fearful. postulates reported by author Bill Sweet108. explains. it for the military and sent him to a pathy but feared it could be used has got to be the psychic one. about 45 minutes. materialistic worldview with state of mind. indeed. From the foregoing. it may appear that negatively influence the plant. reasons that he did not publish telecebo effects deliberately? If not. sit on the fence. 1 9 . “just known the extent to which empirical thought manifests mainly in medical one of those things?” I think I know evidence would eventually support the environments. Our world is different than Jung demonstrated. The sergeant sent sis. I would devote myself to psychi- sciousness cannot be accounted for communicate that he would not cal research rather than to psychoanaly- in physical terms. Schrö. whose wave equations are got a notice to appear for a physical at the heart of quantum physics. theirs: we know more.6 Richard was released from his obli- healing. since counselor to see what could be for reactionary and superstitious that exists anyway. but as the emotion. one of Jung’s ness is absolutely fundamental. In 1932 he wrote that he that these phenomena cannot happen? plant with large leaves.106: himself to get sick. not? Because they are old-fashioned? strange cases of thought transfer- and freaked out he was about the Because there is no billing code for such prospect of learning to use a rifle to ence he had come across. For conscious. the leaves of the plant of orthodoxy. data …. He did everything he could to again. It him to the company psychiatrist. Freud’s bookcase erupted twice with in statesmanlike ambiguity for more The drooping plant freaked out noisy detonations in Jung’s presence. Late in life he sanctioned Jung’s Although I think that life may be rily for two months. sceptic … If I had my life to live over think that of consciousness.107 the counselor. he simply a service? Because our colleagues might kill people. biologically canon were proved true. or why his flawless steel sciousness recognized by Planck. anxious. stating. and inten- emerge in full view and take their place of mind. As soon as used to fear that science might be the session began. so that telecebo effects can a reaction to his negative state right: emotions. was obviously evidence. It worked. “I am not an out and out the result of an accident. mindedness was to hand enemies a tional years continues to persuade us On the counselor’s desk was a weapon. As a consequence. world. furniture and cutlery. and wait height. however. the plant began overwhelmed by spiritualism or Because of our willful blindness toward to droop. in view of abundant descent. done. thoughts. his opposition was not to got out of the army draft tempora. last. to be a moderate defender the session. The session lasted tion by ridicule. exteriorized actions of consciousness? convinced that thought transfer- with his negative thoughts. But you impact of exteriorized thought and charged exchange between Freud and decide. Vol. I do not Richard joined the Navy Reserve. If we have to was not potentially good material Freud was always interested in tele- decide to have only one sphere. Con.

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