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Annotated Bibliography 1

Restak, Richard M. Attention Deficit: The Brain Syndrome of Our Era. The New Brain: How the

Modern Age Is Rewiring Your Mind. Emmaus, Pa: Rodale, 2003. Print.

Chapter three of the book The New Brain, titled Attention Deficit: The Brain Syndrome

of Our Era primarily focuses on the effects of technology on the human brain. Technology is

specified to television, cellphones, movies, laptop and the internet. Restak mentions how division

of attention makes it difficult to perform tasks with a complete focus, which can lead to ADD or

ADHD (42). As a result, a person with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), or Attention Deficit

Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may talk excessively out of turn, fidget a lot, is often forgetful,

fails to give attention to tasks, or is impatient even as they grow into their adulthood (Restak 43).

The constant need for multitasking and switching focus on tasks is rapidly leading to more

ADHD, and what was considered dysfunctional personality traits are now becoming the norm

with hyperactivity and distractibility (45).

An important message that Restak introduces is that as technology progresses, the

pressure to respond quickly and accurately increases, which alternatively causes a decrease in the

amount of material absorbed. The little time intervals to grasp information in order to multitask

leads to inefficiency according to Restak, because the frontal lobes are shifting attention. In

addition, the transition from one task to another takes up to seven-tenths of a second to redirect

focus which results in a loss of time, proving his point of inefficiency (55). The constant need to

be in two places at once, such as mentally on the phone with one person, and physically

elsewhere involves heavy involvement of the mind. Such technologies are forcing our brains to

restructure themselves and accommodate to a world of multiple identity and presence (53).
Restak, a neurologist and neuropsychiatrist is well credited for his books on brain

function. His intended audience speaks out to every individual in possession of a portable

technology, which is everyone. He is credible for his work as he is a clinical professor of

neurology at George Washington University Medical Center in Washington, D.C and has

appeared on authorized television shows such as NPRs Morning Edition, The Today Show,

Good Morning America, and the Discovery Channel.

Restak understands that we participate in many different and disparate realities, yet as a

result of our attention and focus problems we cant fully participate in them (54). Walk and

chew gum at the same time (60) is a quote he uses to critique his counteract on multitasking,

which shows that Restak acknowledges both sides of his argument. Its an absolutely beautiful

piece of music that compels the human spirit to perform, to care, to love. This quote by Restak

proves a point of his that multitasking is possible with his example of music and manual

activities activating different parts of the brain, avoiding competition (61).

I think the author brings up a key point about multitasking with his examples of using a phone
and having a conversation in person simultaneously, being present in two different realities at
once. This is where technology is incorporated because without constant dependency on
everyday technology such as television, phones, music, etc there would not be a drastic shift in
focus due to giving attention in multiple directions. I think this highlights my point of how
technology affects the human mind, positively being that it allows different areas of the brain to
activate, which can be beneficial for multitasking. On the contrary, it can also be a detriment
when activating the same parts of the brain, leaving the mind to compete for focus on one
particular task, to not be able to give a task all the attention it needs. This text can be useful for
those wanting a better understanding of the plasticity of the human mind and how it allows
technology to control the mind.
Annotated Bibliography 2

Cook, Jia-Rui. "Digital Technology Can Be Harmful to Your Health." UCLA Newsroom. N.p., 29 Mar.

2016. Web. 28 Mar. 2017.

The article Digital Technology Can Be Harmful to Your Health is a conversation

amongst highly educated UCLA staff who speak about the negative effects of bright light

technology such as television, ipads, and phones. Perhaps the most dramatic impact is the

reduction in the amount of sleep is a statement made by the UCLA chancellor, Gene Block. He

backs up his statement with facts of bright light effects on the decrease of melatonin, leptin, and

increase in ghrelin which all take a part in the regulation of sleep cycles. He mentions that sleep

is a primitive process, but certainly necessary which supports his argument on the downside of

technology. UCLA psychologist, Greenfield, reminds the audience that Being able to

understand the feelings of other people is extremely important to society, I think we can all see a

reduction in that. She makes a different point on the human dependency of technology by

claiming that earlier on, not responding to an email for two weeks would be alright, but as the

days progress, not responding in two hours is a worrisome. As a solution to the concern about

technology, Anusuya Chatterjee, a health economist, proposed that people get up every hour

from their desks and walk around. By stating, Humans are making the choice to be so obsessed

with technology, Chatterjee takes on the point about humans making the choice to spend a lot of

their time on technology rather than blaming technology as a whole.

Gene Block, the chancellor of UCLA holds a bachelors, masters, and ph.D in

psychology from Stanford University, and the University of Oregon. He also specialized in

circadian aaabiology and received prestigious awards such as the NAACP Foundation

Presidents award and The Friends of the UCLA Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human
Behavior visionary award. Along with this, he holds a patent for a non-contact respiratory

monitor and is an expertise in the fields of biology. Patricia Greenfield, is a psychologist at

UCLA, who received her ph.D from Harvard University. She is a recipient of awards such as the

APA, SRCD and many more in the fields of biology and psychology. Along with these, she has

also a written a book called Mind and Media and has other projects related to cultural

education and human development. Anusuya Chatterjee, a fellow at the Milken Institute, is a an

expertise on the economic effects of the medical field. Her books about technologys influence

on obesity and life habits, along with her magazines have been published in outlets such as the

Forbes Magazine, and her works have been cited in CNN, PBS, Los Angeles Times and many

more. She also has a masters degree and ph.D in economics.

This article was very helpful because it incorporated arguments along with concurring

opinions amongst professors with phDs and other high degrees. They focused primarily on the

negative effects of technology on an individuals mind and health. This was a beneficial article

relating to my topic specifically about technologys effects to the mind, but it can also be

beneficial to a research involving technology and behavioral changes in a person.


Yu, Tai-Kuei, Mei-Lan Lin, and Ying-Kai Liao. "Understanding Factors Influencing Information

Communication Technology Adoption Behavior: The Moderators of Information Literacy and

Digital Skills." Computers in Human Behavior 71 (2017): 196-208. Web.

This article mainly focuses on the positive attributes of growing technology. It mentions the

division in digital era, comparing technology in the rural areas to urban areas. The information

literacy in rural locations are better than the ones in the urban locations, therefore increasing the

digital division between people, claim Venkatesh and Sykes. At present, knowledge and

information have become important determinants of wealth is a quote emphasized by the

scholars Van Deursen and Van Dijk followed by their statement that the lack of computers and

technology leads to minority groups, especially in urban areas. Information technology is

mentioned to give greater access to people and acts as a communicative bridge between an

individual and society (De wit, Heerwegh, & Verhoeven). So the scholars give reasoning as to

why the digital division between locations should be reduced, which is mainly to increase

communication and knowledge.

One of the authors of this article, Mei-Lan Lin graduated from Southern Taiwan

University of Science and Technology and works in the department of Hospitality Management.

Tai-Kuei Yu, a phD scholar in quantitative social research, and educational technology, is also

credible with his experience in writing many articles relating to digital division. Likewise, Ying-

Kai Liao, a scholar of international business from Taiwan. This article also incorporates voices of

other scholars such as Van Deursen and Van Dijk, Venkatesh, and Sykes. The intended audience

is mostly towards those reaching for technology, the beginners. It speaks out to those in the rural
and urban areas in order to connect the division between them through communication and

knowledge which can be acquired through modern technology.

Quotes: The ICT medium could provide service interaction to people and enable them to access

peer opinions; hence, people can see the potential for additional benefits

The higher the level of richness, the easier it is to convey information to receivers, thus

facilitating better communication (Vanduerson).

Such communication consists of cues that convey information and use of appropriate skills

through appropriate devices that promote activities and effective dialogues. Hence, users need to

go through the information medium to obtain the required information (knowledge) and services,

thus enabling them to convey messages using the AEIOU framework.

This article was a little harder to read compared to the other bibliographies because it

incorporated a lot of scholarly voices apart from the main authors. The text was also peer

reviewed and was in the form of a journal article so it consisted of a lot of bias stances on the

improvement of technology. Apart from this, the article is useful for my topic because it

highlights the different areas that technology is used and how it affects people in their respective

regions and their dependency on technology.


Adamovich, Sergei V., Gerard G. Fluet, Eugene Tunik, and Alma S. Merians. "Sensorimotor Training in

Virtual Reality: A Review." NeuroRehabilitation. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2009. Web.

24 Apr. 2017.

Technology is being used in many ways, and this article advocates for the true

advancement of technology, specifically for neurorehabilitation. The key idea is virtual

technology and how it is being used in the medical field, improving sensory motors and networks

of the brain. Virtual reality (VR) can be defined as an approach to user-computer interface that

involves real-time simulation of an environment, scenario or activity that allows for user

interaction via multiple sensory channels [19]. Sensory stimulation through VR is meant to

target parts of the brain such as the motor areas and explore dysfunctions as well as trigger

neuroplastic changes.

The intended audience of this article is towards an educated group of individuals who

understand the complexity of virtual reality technologies towards neurological repair. It speaks

for those who understand the effects and benefits of this specific technology toward practices and

health treatments. Ethos for this article is highly credible because the authors of this source, J.

Adamovich SV; Fluet GG; Tunik E; Merians AS, are affiliated with their position in their

respective universities: New Jersey Institute of Technology, Department of Biomedical

Engineering, University Heights, Newark, NJ, USA University of Medicine and Dentistry of

New Jersey, Department of Rehabilitation and Movement Science, Newark, NJ, USA.

Quotes: VR as a training environment may provide a rehabilitation tool that can be used to

exploit the nervous systems capacity for sensorimotor adaptation by providing a technological

method for individualized intensive and repetitive training.

An aspect of VR is its versatility in presenting complex sensory stimulation, through a

combination of visual, somatosensory (haptic), and auditory feedback.

Iintentional observation of movement can be used to stimulate the sensorimotor system without

necessitating overt movement itself. Adding more sophisticated manipulations in VR, such as to

the color/brightness of objects, their location, form, perspective (1st versus 3rd person),

temporal/spatial distortions of the movement trajectory, and feedback replays, can perhaps

potentiate these effects in ways that cannot be achieved in the natural world.

This article was the longest article for my annotated bibliographies and although it did take some

time to understand its significance, it has use for my specific topic. It regards the positive aspects

of technology in todays society where it is used in the medical world. This particular article talks

about neurorehabilitation with the use of virtual reality technology and that is very informative

when addressing consequences versus benefits of technology for the brain, into my paper.

Bavelier, Daphne, C. Shawn Green, and Matthew W. G. Dye. "Children, Wired for Better and for

Worse." Neuron. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 09 Sept. 2010. Web. 05 Apr. 2017.

This article relates to how technology is wiring children of this generation in particular.

An enormous part of who we are is shaped by our experiences - experiences that today are

defined by the pervasive influence of technology. The dependency on technology in this

generation is emphasized by the authors along with how it plays a major role in the cognitive

development of immature brains. It is mentioned that the developing brain is more malleable in

response to experience than is the adult brain which is why the primary focus surrounds

younger individuals. Another point that the article highlights is how a difference in media display

either decreases or improves cognitive abilities such as television shows or video games.

The intended audience of this article is directed towards the educated, and the parents

who understand how the different types of media affect children. It can also be directed towards

individuals of great interest towards visionary technology such as televisions, computers, video

games etc. Ethos is credible for this article as Daphene Bavelier, a professor at the University of

Geneva, is well experienced with her studies in cognitive neuroscience and TED talks on video

games affecting the brain. Shawn Green, an assistant professor with a phD from the University

of Rochester has research interests in motor and cognitive domains. Matthew William Dye, who

has a phD for cognitive psychology is also a credible author of this article.

Quotes: Exposure to Dora the Explorer is associated with an increase in vocabulary

and expressive language skills in two year olds, while exposure to Teletubbies is associated

with a decrease in both measures.

Sesame Street, which premiered in 1969, has been repeatedly associated with various positive

outcomes such as school readiness, vocabulary size and numeracy skills 1719. Relatively newer
programs such as Blues Clues, Dora the Explorer, and Clifford the Big Red Dog, have also

been correlated with positive outcomes such as greater vocabulary and higher expressive

language skills.

A large negative association between viewing baby DVDs (e.g. Baby Einstein or Brainy

Baby) and language development score was found for the youngest children (816 months), or

in other words, each hour of daily viewing/listening in this group was associated with a

significant decrement in the pace of language development.

Furthermore, the size of the decrement was not minor - while daily reading with a parent is

associated with a 7-point increase in language score, each hour of daily baby DVD viewing was

associated with a 17-point decrease.

This article was very informative because it gave a different perspective on my topic,

which is on children. This information specifies how infants and children are affected by

technology, which is another voice by scholarly authors to consider. The authors use relatable

examples of t.v shows, which allowed me to connect to my childhood t.v shows and understand

the reasoning for their stance better.

Carr, Nicholas. "'The Shallows': This Is Your Brain Online." NPR. NPR, 02 June 2010. Web. 05 Apr.


The internet is a major distraction to minute and major tasks is the basic point that

Nicholas Carr, a writer on technology and culture, makes. "I'd sit down with a book, or a long

article and after a couple of pages my brain wanted to do what it does when I'm online: check e-

mail, click on links, do some Googling, hop from page to page is what he told NPR's Robert

Siegel. In his book, he proceeds to talk about how the internet slows down creative thinking and

memory skills, and overall supports his bias of the taking over of technology in todays world

with facts.

Nicholas Carr, an American author on technology, business, and culture, has received

education from Dartmouth College with a B.A and Harvard University with an M.A. He has also

written several books on the topic surrounding technology and computers in society. He has

written for The Atlantic, the Wall Street Journal, the New York Times, Wired, Nature, MIT

Technology Review, and many other periodicals. He writes towards the newer generation, who

drown themselves in digital technology instead of going oldschool with pen and papers, him


Quotes: "Neuroscientists and psychologists have discovered that, even as adults, our

brains are very plastic. They're very malleable, they adapt at the cellular level to whatever we

happen to be doing. And so the more time we spend surfing, and skimming, and scanning ... the

more adept we become at that mode of thinking."

Even if people get better at hopping from page to page, they will still be losing their abilities to

employ a "slower, more contemplative mode of thought. Research shows that as people get better

at multitasking, they "become less creative in their thinking."

The Internet simply returns us to our "natural state of distractedness and is not just

technological progress but a form of human regress."

There were a lot of statements of Nicholas Carrs that made me pause for a minute and analyze

the reality of it. He was biased about how technology had downsides of being distracting and

slowing processes of todays society, but made valid points as to why he thought the way he did.

This was an easy and assuring article and it fits with my topic of how technology is affecting

todays minds and ideas.


Technology & the Human Mind. Dir. TEDxTalks. Perf. Susan Greenfield. YouTube, 03 July 2014. Web.

05 Apr. 2017.
The Tedtalk given by Susan Greenfield focuses on the topic of the advancement of

technologys impact on an individual's mind and ways in which people can alleviate their

addiction to digital advancement. She shares a personal experience of how she witnessed a lady

beside her constantly tweeting, which emphasizes her point of how the 21st century finds it

necessary to constantly be connected virtually. Do you really want to be connected to people all

the time? As she says it. She also highlights her point about the technicality of the brains

adaptation and reflection to the surrounding world and its high association with visual screening

displays. Dopamine inhibits the prefrontal cortex, so intense video screening time stimulates a

fast response, which means there is a drive for a sentation of a cognition in which the screen will

offer you something that perhaps the real world doesn't, so youll go onto watch the video

(16:08). Video games were the primary example that she gave about an individuals attachment

to the screen, relating to pre-frontal cortex and sensation.

Susan Greenfield, a writer, a broadcaster, and a British neuroscientist, has been published

in multiple peer reviewed journals and has received several awards, including Michael Faraday

Medal from the Royal Society along with thirty other degrees from universities around the

world. Her area of research focuses on 21st technology's impact on the mind and her expertise in

Ted talks and novels giver her high credibility. Her audience for this particular video, apart from

all those in the room, are individuals of every sort, primarily those who use excessive digital


Quotes: The thrill of the moment trumps the consequences (15:42).

We do something fantastically, we adapt to the environment (2:55)

The biological basis of the mind, the personalization of the brain, the unique dynamic

configurations of your neural connections driven by your experiences (6:54)

Kids that were playing alot of video games had changes in their brain similar to that

scene of compulsive gambling (12:55).

The Ted Talk presented by Susan Greenfield was a good ending to sum up my previous

bibliographies because she restated how technology has its own negative effects on people,

especially children and teenagers with brain plasticity and developing brains. She relates hyper

usage of technology to addiction of all sorts and this is useful for my paper because it hits the

key points of how technology shapes the mind.