Electrical phasors

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Electrical phasors

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Sine Waves

Rotating Rod

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Impedance and

Admittance

Summary

Sine Waves

10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves dt and v = L dt so we need to

Rotating Rod

differentiate i(t) and v(t) when analysing circuits containing them.

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Impedance and

Admittance

Summary

Sine Waves

10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves dt and v = L dt so we need to

Rotating Rod

differentiate i(t) and v(t) when analysing circuits containing them.

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic Usually differentiation changes the 1

Complex Impedances 0

Phasor Analysis

shape of a waveform. -1

0 1 2 3 4

CIVIL t

Impedance and 5

Admittance

0

Summary

-5

0 1 2 3 4

t

Sine Waves

10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves dt and v = L dt so we need to

Rotating Rod

differentiate i(t) and v(t) when analysing circuits containing them.

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic Usually differentiation changes the 1

Complex Impedances 0

Phasor Analysis

shape of a waveform. -1

0 1 2 3 4

CIVIL t

Impedance and For bounded waveforms there is 5

Admittance

0

Summary only one exception: -5

0 1 2 3 4

t

dv

v(t) = sin t dt = cos t

Sine Waves

10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves dt and v = L dt so we need to

Rotating Rod

differentiate i(t) and v(t) when analysing circuits containing them.

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic Usually differentiation changes the 1

Complex Impedances 0

Phasor Analysis

shape of a waveform. -1

0 1 2 3 4

CIVIL t

Impedance and For bounded waveforms there is 5

Admittance

0

Summary only one exception: -5

0 1 2 3 4

t

dv

v(t) = sin t dt = cos t 1

v(t)

0

-1

0 5 10 15

t

1

dv/dt

0

-1

0 5 10 15

t

Sine Waves

10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves dt and v = L dt so we need to

Rotating Rod

differentiate i(t) and v(t) when analysing circuits containing them.

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic Usually differentiation changes the 1

Complex Impedances 0

Phasor Analysis

shape of a waveform. -1

0 1 2 3 4

CIVIL t

Impedance and For bounded waveforms there is 5

Admittance

0

Summary only one exception: -5

0 1 2 3 4

t

dv

v(t) = sin t dt = cos t 1

v(t)

0

same shape but with a time shift. -1

0 5 10 15

t

1

dv/dt

0

-1

0 5 10 15

t

Sine Waves

10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves dt and v = L dt so we need to

Rotating Rod

differentiate i(t) and v(t) when analysing circuits containing them.

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic Usually differentiation changes the 1

Complex Impedances 0

Phasor Analysis

shape of a waveform. -1

0 1 2 3 4

CIVIL t

Impedance and For bounded waveforms there is 5

Admittance

0

Summary only one exception: -5

0 1 2 3 4

t

dv

v(t) = sin t dt = cos t 1

v(t)

0

same shape but with a time shift. -1

0 5 10 15

t

dv/dt

0

every time t increases by 2 . -1

0 5 10 15

t

Sine Waves

10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves dt and v = L dt so we need to

Rotating Rod

differentiate i(t) and v(t) when analysing circuits containing them.

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic Usually differentiation changes the 1

Complex Impedances 0

Phasor Analysis

shape of a waveform. -1

0 1 2 3 4

CIVIL t

Impedance and For bounded waveforms there is 5

Admittance

0

Summary only one exception: -5

0 1 2 3 4

t

dv

v(t) = sin t dt = cos t 1

v(t)

0

same shape but with a time shift. -1

0 5 10 15

t

dv/dt

0

every time t increases by 2 . -1

0 5 10 15

t

gives a frequency of f cycles per second, or f Hz.

Sine Waves

10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves dt and v = L dt so we need to

Rotating Rod

differentiate i(t) and v(t) when analysing circuits containing them.

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic Usually differentiation changes the 1

Complex Impedances 0

Phasor Analysis

shape of a waveform. -1

0 1 2 3 4

CIVIL t

Impedance and For bounded waveforms there is 5

Admittance

0

Summary only one exception: -5

0 1 2 3 4

t

dv

v(t) = sin t dt = cos t 1

v(t)

0

same shape but with a time shift. -1

0 5 10 15

t

dv/dt

0

every time t increases by 2 . -1

0 5 10 15

t

gives a frequency of f cycles per second, or f Hz.

We often use the angular frequency, = 2f instead.

is measured in radians per second. E.g. 50 Hz 314 rad.s1 .

E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2016-9024) Phasors: 10 2 / 11

Rotating Rod

Sine Waves

A useful way to think of a cosine wave is as the

Rotating Rod projection of a rotating rod onto the horizontal axis.

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

For a unit-length rod, the projection has length cos .

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Impedance and

Admittance

Summary

Rotating Rod

Sine Waves

A useful way to think of a cosine wave is as the

Rotating Rod projection of a rotating rod onto the horizontal axis.

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

For a unit-length rod, the projection has length cos .

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis If the rod is rotating at a speed of f revolutions per

CIVIL

Impedance and second, then increases uniformly with time:

Admittance

Summary = 2f t.

Rotating Rod

Sine Waves

A useful way to think of a cosine wave is as the

Rotating Rod projection of a rotating rod onto the horizontal axis.

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

For a unit-length rod, the projection has length cos .

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis If the rod is rotating at a speed of f revolutions per

CIVIL

Impedance and second, then increases uniformly with time:

Admittance

Summary = 2f t.

The only difference between cos and sin is the starting position of the rod:

Rotating Rod

Sine Waves

A useful way to think of a cosine wave is as the

Rotating Rod projection of a rotating rod onto the horizontal axis.

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

For a unit-length rod, the projection has length cos .

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis If the rod is rotating at a speed of f revolutions per

CIVIL

Impedance and second, then increases uniformly with time:

Admittance

Summary = 2f t.

The only difference between cos and sin is the starting position of the rod:

1

-1

0 5 10 15

t

v = cos 2f t

Rotating Rod

Sine Waves

A useful way to think of a cosine wave is as the

Rotating Rod projection of a rotating rod onto the horizontal axis.

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

For a unit-length rod, the projection has length cos .

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis If the rod is rotating at a speed of f revolutions per

CIVIL

Impedance and second, then increases uniformly with time:

Admittance

Summary = 2f t.

The only difference between cos and sin is the starting position of the rod:

1 1

0 0

-1 -1

0 5 10 15 0 5 10 15

t t

v = cos 2f t v = sin 2f t

Rotating Rod

Sine Waves

A useful way to think of a cosine wave is as the

Rotating Rod projection of a rotating rod onto the horizontal axis.

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

For a unit-length rod, the projection has length cos .

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis If the rod is rotating at a speed of f revolutions per

CIVIL

Impedance and second, then increases uniformly with time:

Admittance

Summary = 2f t.

The only difference between cos and sin is the starting position of the rod:

1 1

0 0

-1 -1

0 5 10 15 0 5 10 15

t t

v = cos 2f t v = sin 2f t = cos 2f t 2

Rotating Rod

Sine Waves

A useful way to think of a cosine wave is as the

Rotating Rod projection of a rotating rod onto the horizontal axis.

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

For a unit-length rod, the projection has length cos .

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis If the rod is rotating at a speed of f revolutions per

CIVIL

Impedance and second, then increases uniformly with time:

Admittance

Summary = 2f t.

The only difference between cos and sin is the starting position of the rod:

1 1

0 0

-1 -1

0 5 10 15 0 5 10 15

t t

v = cos 2f t v = sin 2f t = cos 2f t 2

4

of a cycle later (equivalently cos leads sin) .

Phasors

Sine Waves

If the rod has length A and starts at an angle then the projection onto the

Rotating Rod horizontal axis is

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

A cos (2f t + )

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Impedance and

Admittance

Summary

Phasors

Sine Waves

If the rod has length A and starts at an angle then the projection onto the

Rotating Rod horizontal axis is

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

A cos (2f t + )

Complex Impedances = A cos cos 2f t A sin sin 2f t

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Impedance and

Admittance

Summary

Phasors

Sine Waves

If the rod has length A and starts at an angle then the projection onto the

Rotating Rod horizontal axis is

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

A cos (2f t + )

Complex Impedances = A cos cos 2f t A sin sin 2f t

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL = X cos 2f t Y sin 2f t

Impedance and

Admittance

Summary

Phasors

Sine Waves

If the rod has length A and starts at an angle then the projection onto the

Rotating Rod horizontal axis is

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

A cos (2f t + )

Complex Impedances = A cos cos 2f t A sin sin 2f t

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL = X cos 2f t Y sin 2f t

Impedance and

Admittance

Summary

At time t = 0, the tip of the rod has coordinates

(X, Y ) = (A cos , A sin ).

Phasors

Sine Waves

If the rod has length A and starts at an angle then the projection onto the

Rotating Rod horizontal axis is

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

A cos (2f t + )

Complex Impedances = A cos cos 2f t A sin sin 2f t

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL = X cos 2f t Y sin 2f t

Impedance and

Admittance

Summary

At time t = 0, the tip of the rod has coordinates

(X, Y ) = (A cos , A sin ).

If we think of the plane as an Argand Diagram (or complex plane), then the

complex number X + jY corresponding to the tip of the rod at t = 0 is

called a phasor .

Phasors

Sine Waves

If the rod has length A and starts at an angle then the projection onto the

Rotating Rod horizontal axis is

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

A cos (2f t + )

Complex Impedances = A cos cos 2f t A sin sin 2f t

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL = X cos 2f t Y sin 2f t

Impedance and

Admittance

Summary

At time t = 0, the tip of the rod has coordinates

(X, Y ) = (A cos , A sin ).

If we think of the plane as an Argand Diagram (or complex plane), then the

complex number X + jY corresponding to the tip of the rod at t = 0 is

called a phasor .

The magnitude of the phasor, A = X 2 + Y 2 , gives the amplitude (peak

value) of the sine wave.

Phasors

Sine Waves

If the rod has length A and starts at an angle then the projection onto the

Rotating Rod horizontal axis is

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

A cos (2f t + )

Complex Impedances = A cos cos 2f t A sin sin 2f t

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL = X cos 2f t Y sin 2f t

Impedance and

Admittance

Summary

At time t = 0, the tip of the rod has coordinates

(X, Y ) = (A cos , A sin ).

If we think of the plane as an Argand Diagram (or complex plane), then the

complex number X + jY corresponding to the tip of the rod at t = 0 is

called a phasor .

The magnitude of the phasor, A = X 2 + Y 2 , gives the amplitude (peak

value) of the sine wave.

Y

The argument of the phasor, = arctan X , gives the phase shift relative

to cos 2f t.

If > 0, it is leading and if < 0, it is lagging relative to cos 2f t.

Phasor Examples

Sine Waves

V = 1, f = 50 Hz

Rotating Rod

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Impedance and

Admittance

Summary

Phasor Examples

Sine Waves

V = 1, f = 50 Hz 1

Phasors -1

0 0.02 0.04 0.06

Phasor Examples t

Phasor arithmetic

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Impedance and

Admittance

Summary

Phasor Examples

Sine Waves

V = 1, f = 50 Hz 1

Phasors -1

0 0.02 0.04 0.06

Phasor Examples t

Phasor arithmetic V = j

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Impedance and

Admittance

Summary

Phasor Examples

Sine Waves

V = 1, f = 50 Hz 1

Phasors -1

0 0.02 0.04 0.06

Phasor Examples t

Phasor arithmetic V = j 1

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis v(t) = sin 2f t 0

-1

CIVIL 0 0.02 0.04 0.06

Impedance and t

Admittance

Summary

Phasor Examples

Sine Waves

V = 1, f = 50 Hz 1

Phasors -1

0 0.02 0.04 0.06

Phasor Examples t

Phasor arithmetic V = j 1

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis v(t) = sin 2f t 0

-1

CIVIL 0 0.02 0.04 0.06

Impedance and t

Admittance

Summary

V = 10.5j

Phasor Examples

Sine Waves

V = 1, f = 50 Hz 1

Phasors -1

0 0.02 0.04 0.06

Phasor Examples t

Phasor arithmetic V = j 1

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis v(t) = sin 2f t 0

-1

CIVIL 0 0.02 0.04 0.06

Impedance and t

Admittance

Summary

V = 10.5j

v(t) = cos 2f t + 0.5 sin 2f t

Phasor Examples

Sine Waves

V = 1, f = 50 Hz 1

0 0.02 0.04 0.06

Phasor Examples t

Phasor arithmetic V = j 1

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis v(t) = sin 2f t 0

-1

CIVIL 0 0.02 0.04 0.06

Impedance and t

Admittance

Summary

V = 10.5j = 1.12153

v(t) = cos 2f t + 0.5 sin 2f t

Phasor Examples

Sine Waves

V = 1, f = 50 Hz 1

0 0.02 0.04 0.06

Phasor Examples t

Phasor arithmetic V = j 1

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis v(t) = sin 2f t 0

-1

CIVIL 0 0.02 0.04 0.06

Impedance and t

Admittance

Summary

V = 10.5j = 1.12153

v(t) = cos 2f t + 0.5 sin 2f t

= 1.12 cos (2f t 2.68)

Phasor Examples

Sine Waves

V = 1, f = 50 Hz 1

0 0.02 0.04 0.06

Phasor Examples t

Phasor arithmetic V = j 1

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis v(t) = sin 2f t 0

-1

CIVIL 0 0.02 0.04 0.06

Impedance and t

Admittance

Summary

V = 10.5j = 1.12153

v(t) = cos 2f t + 0.5 sin 2f t

= 1.12 cos (2f t 2.68)

V = X + jY

Phasor Examples

Sine Waves

V = 1, f = 50 Hz 1

0 0.02 0.04 0.06

Phasor Examples t

Phasor arithmetic V = j 1

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis v(t) = sin 2f t 0

-1

CIVIL 0 0.02 0.04 0.06

Impedance and t

Admittance

Summary

V = 10.5j = 1.12153

v(t) = cos 2f t + 0.5 sin 2f t

= 1.12 cos (2f t 2.68)

V = X + jY

v(t) = X cos 2f t Y sin 2f t

Phasor Examples

Sine Waves

V = 1, f = 50 Hz 1

0 0.02 0.04 0.06

Phasor Examples t

Phasor arithmetic V = j 1

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis v(t) = sin 2f t 0

-1

CIVIL 0 0.02 0.04 0.06

Impedance and t

Admittance

Summary

V = 10.5j = 1.12153

v(t) = cos 2f t + 0.5 sin 2f t

= 1.12 cos (2f t 2.68)

V = X + jY

v(t) = X cos 2f t Y sin 2f t

Beware minus sign.

Phasor Examples

Sine Waves

V = 1, f = 50 Hz 1

0 0.02 0.04 0.06

Phasor Examples t

Phasor arithmetic V = j 1

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis v(t) = sin 2f t 0

-1

CIVIL 0 0.02 0.04 0.06

Impedance and t

Admittance

Summary

V = 10.5j = 1.12153

v(t) = cos 2f t + 0.5 sin 2f t

= 1.12 cos (2f t 2.68)

V = X + jY V = A

v(t) = X cos 2f t Y sin 2f t

Beware minus sign.

Phasor Examples

Sine Waves

V = 1, f = 50 Hz 1

0 0.02 0.04 0.06

Phasor Examples t

Phasor arithmetic V = j 1

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis v(t) = sin 2f t 0

-1

CIVIL 0 0.02 0.04 0.06

Impedance and t

Admittance

Summary

V = 10.5j = 1.12153

v(t) = cos 2f t + 0.5 sin 2f t

= 1.12 cos (2f t 2.68)

V = X + jY V = A

v(t) = X cos 2f t Y sin 2f t v(t) = A cos (2f t + )

Beware minus sign.

Phasor Examples

Sine Waves

V = 1, f = 50 Hz 1

0 0.02 0.04 0.06

Phasor Examples t

Phasor arithmetic V = j 1

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis v(t) = sin 2f t 0

-1

CIVIL 0 0.02 0.04 0.06

Impedance and t

Admittance

Summary

V = 10.5j = 1.12153

v(t) = cos 2f t + 0.5 sin 2f t

= 1.12 cos (2f t 2.68)

V = X + jY V = A = Aej

v(t) = X cos 2f t Y sin 2f t v(t) = A cos (2f t + )

Beware minus sign.

Phasor Examples

Sine Waves

V = 1, f = 50 Hz 1

0 0.02 0.04 0.06

Phasor Examples t

Phasor arithmetic V = j 1

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis v(t) = sin 2f t 0

-1

CIVIL 0 0.02 0.04 0.06

Impedance and t

Admittance

Summary

V = 10.5j = 1.12153

v(t) = cos 2f t + 0.5 sin 2f t

= 1.12 cos (2f t 2.68)

V = X + jY V = A = Aej

v(t) = X cos 2f t Y sin 2f t v(t) = A cos (2f t + )

Beware minus sign.

single complex number. We assume the frequency, f , is known.

Phasor Examples

Sine Waves

V = 1, f = 50 Hz 1

0 0.02 0.04 0.06

Phasor Examples t

Phasor arithmetic V = j 1

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis v(t) = sin 2f t 0

-1

CIVIL 0 0.02 0.04 0.06

Impedance and t

Admittance

Summary

V = 10.5j = 1.12153

v(t) = cos 2f t + 0.5 sin 2f t

= 1.12 cos (2f t 2.68)

V = X + jY V = A = Aej

v(t) = X cos 2f t Y sin 2f t v(t) = A cos (2f t + )

Beware minus sign.

single complex number. We assume the frequency, f , is known.

A waveform is time-varying, so we use a small letter: v(t).

Phasor Examples

Sine Waves

V = 1, f = 50 Hz 1

0 0.02 0.04 0.06

Phasor Examples t

Phasor arithmetic V = j 1

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis v(t) = sin 2f t 0

CIVIL 0 0.02 0.04 0.06

Impedance and t

Admittance

Summary

V = 10.5j = 1.12153

v(t) = cos 2f t + 0.5 sin 2f t

= 1.12 cos (2f t 2.68)

V = X + jY V = A = Aej

v(t) = X cos 2f t Y sin 2f t v(t) = A cos (2f t + )

Beware minus sign.

single complex number. We assume the frequency, f , is known.

A waveform is time-varying, so we use a small letter: v(t).

E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2016-9024) Phasors: 10 5 / 11

Phasor arithmetic

Phasors Waveforms

Sine Waves

Rotating Rod

Phasors V = P + jQ v(t) = P cos t Q sin t

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

where = 2f .

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Impedance and

Admittance

Summary

Phasor arithmetic

Phasors Waveforms

Sine Waves

Rotating Rod

Phasors V = P + jQ v(t) = P cos t Q sin t

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

where = 2f .

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis a v(t)

CIVIL

Impedance and

Admittance

Summary

Phasor arithmetic

Phasors Waveforms

Sine Waves

Rotating Rod

Phasors V = P + jQ v(t) = P cos t Q sin t

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

where = 2f .

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis a v(t) = aP cos t aQ sin t

CIVIL

Impedance and

Admittance

Summary

Phasor arithmetic

Phasors Waveforms

Sine Waves

Rotating Rod

Phasors V = P + jQ v(t) = P cos t Q sin t

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

where = 2f .

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis aV a v(t) = aP cos t aQ sin t

CIVIL

Impedance and

Admittance

Summary

Phasor arithmetic

Phasors Waveforms

Sine Waves

Rotating Rod

Phasors V = P + jQ v(t) = P cos t Q sin t

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

where = 2f .

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis aV a v(t) = aP cos t aQ sin t

CIVIL

Impedance and

Admittance v1 (t) + v2 (t)

Summary

Phasor arithmetic

Phasors Waveforms

Sine Waves

Rotating Rod

Phasors V = P + jQ v(t) = P cos t Q sin t

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

where = 2f .

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis aV a v(t) = aP cos t aQ sin t

CIVIL

Impedance and

Admittance V1 + V2 v1 (t) + v2 (t)

Summary

Phasor arithmetic

Phasors Waveforms

Sine Waves

Rotating Rod

Phasors V = P + jQ v(t) = P cos t Q sin t

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

where = 2f .

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis aV a v(t) = aP cos t aQ sin t

CIVIL

Impedance and

Admittance V1 + V2 v1 (t) + v2 (t)

Summary

Phasor arithmetic

Phasors Waveforms

Sine Waves

Rotating Rod

Phasors V = P + jQ v(t) = P cos t Q sin t

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

where = 2f .

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis aV a v(t) = aP cos t aQ sin t

CIVIL

Impedance and

Admittance V1 + V2 v1 (t) + v2 (t)

Summary

dv

dt = P sin t Q cos t

Phasor arithmetic

Phasors Waveforms

Sine Waves

Rotating Rod

Phasors V = P + jQ v(t) = P cos t Q sin t

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

where = 2f .

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis aV a v(t) = aP cos t aQ sin t

CIVIL

Impedance and

Admittance V1 + V2 v1 (t) + v2 (t)

Summary

dv

dt = P sin t Q cos t

= (Q) cos t (P ) sin t

Phasor arithmetic

Phasors Waveforms

Sine Waves

Rotating Rod

Phasors V = P + jQ v(t) = P cos t Q sin t

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

where = 2f .

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis aV a v(t) = aP cos t aQ sin t

CIVIL

Impedance and

Admittance V1 + V2 v1 (t) + v2 (t)

Summary

dv

dt = P sin t Q cos t

V = (Q) + j (P ) = (Q) cos t (P ) sin t

Phasor arithmetic

Phasors Waveforms

Sine Waves

Rotating Rod

Phasors V = P + jQ v(t) = P cos t Q sin t

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

where = 2f .

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis aV a v(t) = aP cos t aQ sin t

CIVIL

Impedance and

Admittance V1 + V2 v1 (t) + v2 (t)

Summary

dv

dt = P sin t Q cos t

V = (Q) + j (P ) = (Q) cos t (P ) sin t

= j (P + jQ)

Phasor arithmetic

Phasors Waveforms

Sine Waves

Rotating Rod

Phasors V = P + jQ v(t) = P cos t Q sin t

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

where = 2f .

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis aV a v(t) = aP cos t aQ sin t

CIVIL

Impedance and

Admittance V1 + V2 v1 (t) + v2 (t)

Summary

dv

dt = P sin t Q cos t

V = (Q) + j (P ) = (Q) cos t (P ) sin t

= j (P + jQ)

= jV

Phasor arithmetic

Phasors Waveforms

Sine Waves

Rotating Rod

Phasors V = P + jQ v(t) = P cos t Q sin t

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

where = 2f .

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis aV a v(t) = aP cos t aQ sin t

CIVIL

Impedance and

Admittance V1 + V2 v1 (t) + v2 (t)

Summary

dv

dt = P sin t Q cos t

V = (Q) + j (P ) = (Q) cos t (P ) sin t

= j (P + jQ)

= jV

Differentiating waveforms corresponds to multiplying

phasors by j .

Phasor arithmetic

Phasors Waveforms

Sine Waves

Rotating Rod

Phasors V = P + jQ v(t) = P cos t Q sin t

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

where = 2f .

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis aV a v(t) = aP cos t aQ sin t

CIVIL

Impedance and

Admittance V1 + V2 v1 (t) + v2 (t)

Summary

dv

dt = P sin t Q cos t

V = (Q) + j (P ) = (Q) cos t (P ) sin t

= j (P + jQ)

= jV

Differentiating waveforms corresponds to multiplying

phasors by j .

Phasor arithmetic

Phasors Waveforms

Sine Waves

Rotating Rod

Phasors V = P + jQ v(t) = P cos t Q sin t

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

where = 2f .

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis aV a v(t) = aP cos t aQ sin t

CIVIL

Impedance and

Admittance V1 + V2 v1 (t) + v2 (t)

Summary

dv

dt = P sin t Q cos t

V = (Q) + j (P ) = (Q) cos t (P ) sin t

= j (P + jQ)

= jV

Differentiating waveforms corresponds to multiplying

phasors by j .

Complex Impedances

Resistor:

Sine Waves

Rotating Rod

Phasors v(t) = Ri(t)

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Impedance and

Admittance

Summary

Complex Impedances

Resistor:

Sine Waves

Rotating Rod

Phasors v(t) = Ri(t) V = RI

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Impedance and

Admittance

Summary

Complex Impedances

Resistor:

Sine Waves

Rotating Rod V

Phasors v(t) = Ri(t) V = RI I =R

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Impedance and

Admittance

Summary

Complex Impedances

Resistor:

Sine Waves

Rotating Rod V

Phasors v(t) = Ri(t) V = RI I =R

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Inductor:

Impedance and

di

Admittance

Summary

v(t) = L dt

Complex Impedances

Resistor:

Sine Waves

Rotating Rod V

Phasors v(t) = Ri(t) V = RI I =R

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Inductor:

Impedance and

di

Admittance

Summary

v(t) = L dt V = jLI

Complex Impedances

Resistor:

Sine Waves

Rotating Rod V

Phasors v(t) = Ri(t) V = RI I =R

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Inductor:

Impedance and

di V

Admittance

Summary

v(t) = L dt V = jLI I = jL

Complex Impedances

Resistor:

Sine Waves

Rotating Rod V

Phasors v(t) = Ri(t) V = RI I =R

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Inductor:

Impedance and

di V

Admittance

Summary

v(t) = L dt V = jLI I = jL

Capacitor:

i(t) = C dv

dt

Complex Impedances

Resistor:

Sine Waves

Rotating Rod V

Phasors v(t) = Ri(t) V = RI I =R

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Inductor:

Impedance and

di V

Admittance

Summary

v(t) = L dt V = jLI I = jL

Capacitor:

i(t) = C dv

dt I = jCV

Complex Impedances

Resistor:

Sine Waves

Rotating Rod V

Phasors v(t) = Ri(t) V = RI I =R

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Inductor:

Impedance and

di V

Admittance

Summary

v(t) = L dt V = jLI I = jL

Capacitor:

i(t) = C dv

dt I = jCV V

I = 1

jC

Complex Impedances

Resistor:

Sine Waves

Rotating Rod V

Phasors v(t) = Ri(t) V = RI I =R

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Inductor:

Impedance and

di V

Admittance

Summary

v(t) = L dt V = jLI I = jL

Capacitor:

i(t) = C dv

dt I = jCV V

I = 1

jC

For all three components, phasors obey Ohms law if we use the complex

1

impedances jL and jC as the resistance of an inductor or capacitor.

Complex Impedances

Resistor:

Sine Waves

Rotating Rod V

Phasors v(t) = Ri(t) V = RI I =R

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Inductor:

Impedance and

di V

Admittance

Summary

v(t) = L dt V = jLI I = jL

Capacitor:

i(t) = C dv

dt I = jCV V

I = 1

jC

For all three components, phasors obey Ohms law if we use the complex

1

impedances jL and jC as the resistance of an inductor or capacitor.

If all sources in a circuit are sine waves having the same frequency, we can

do circuit analysis exactly as before by using complex impedances.

Phasor Analysis

Sine Waves

Given v = 10 sin t where = 2 1000,

Rotating Rod find vC (t).

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Impedance and

Admittance

Summary 10

v

-10

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

t (ms)

Phasor Analysis

Sine Waves

Given v = 10 sin t where = 2 1000,

Rotating Rod find vC (t).

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

(1) Find capacitor complex impedance

1 1

Complex Impedances Z= jC = 6.28j104 = 1592j

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Impedance and

Admittance

Summary 10

v

-10

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

t (ms)

Phasor Analysis

Sine Waves

Given v = 10 sin t where = 2 1000,

Rotating Rod find vC (t).

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

(1) Find capacitor complex impedance

1 1

Complex Impedances Z= jC = 6.28j104 = 1592j

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Impedance and

Admittance

Summary (2) Solve circuit with phasors 10

v

Z

VC = V R+Z

0

-10

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

t (ms)

Phasor Analysis

Sine Waves

Given v = 10 sin t where = 2 1000,

Rotating Rod find vC (t).

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

(1) Find capacitor complex impedance

1 1

Complex Impedances Z= jC = 6.28j104 = 1592j

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Impedance and

Admittance

Summary (2) Solve circuit with phasors 10

v

Z

VC = V R+Z

1592j 0

= 10j 10001592j

-10

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

t (ms)

Phasor Analysis

Sine Waves

Given v = 10 sin t where = 2 1000,

Rotating Rod find vC (t).

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

(1) Find capacitor complex impedance

1 1

Complex Impedances Z= jC = 6.28j104 = 1592j

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Impedance and

Admittance

Summary (2) Solve circuit with phasors 10

v

Z

VC = V R+Z

1592j 0

= 10j 10001592j

= 4.5 7.2j = 8.47 122 -10

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

t (ms)

Phasor Analysis

Sine Waves

Given v = 10 sin t where = 2 1000,

Rotating Rod find vC (t).

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

(1) Find capacitor complex impedance

1 1

Complex Impedances Z= jC = 6.28j104 = 1592j

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Impedance and

Admittance

Summary (2) Solve circuit with phasors 10

v

Z

VC = V R+Z

vC

C

1592j 0

= 10j 10001592j

= 4.5 7.2j = 8.47 122 -10

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

vC = 8.47 cos (t 122 ) t (ms)

Phasor Analysis

Sine Waves

Given v = 10 sin t where = 2 1000,

Rotating Rod find vC (t).

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

(1) Find capacitor complex impedance

1 1

Complex Impedances Z= jC = 6.28j104 = 1592j

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Impedance and

Admittance

Summary (2) Solve circuit with phasors 10

v

Z

VC = V R+Z

vC

C

1592j 0

= 10j 10001592j

= 4.5 7.2j = 8.47 122 -10

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

vC = 8.47 cos (t 122 ) t (ms)

V = 10j

VC = 4.5 7.2j

VR = V VC = 4.5 2.8j = 5.3 32

Phasor Analysis

Sine Waves

Given v = 10 sin t where = 2 1000,

Rotating Rod find vC (t).

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

(1) Find capacitor complex impedance

1 1

Complex Impedances Z= jC = 6.28j104 = 1592j

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Impedance and

Admittance

Summary (2) Solve circuit with phasors 10

v

Z

R

VC = V R+Z vR

vC

1592j 0

= 10j 10001592j

C

= 4.5 7.2j = 8.47 122 -10

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

vC = 8.47 cos (t 122 ) t (ms)

V = 10j

VC = 4.5 7.2j

VR = V VC = 4.5 2.8j = 5.3 32

Phasor Analysis

Sine Waves

Given v = 10 sin t where = 2 1000,

Rotating Rod find vC (t).

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

(1) Find capacitor complex impedance

1 1

Complex Impedances Z= jC = 6.28j104 = 1592j

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Impedance and

Admittance

Summary (2) Solve circuit with phasors 10

v

Z

R

VC = V R+Z vR

vC

1592j 0

= 10j 10001592j

C

= 4.5 7.2j = 8.47 122 -10

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

vC = 8.47 cos (t 122 ) t (ms)

V = 10j

VC = 4.5 7.2j

VR = V VC = 4.5 2.8j = 5.3 32

Phasors add like vectors

CIVIL

Capacitors: i = C dv

10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves dt I leads V

Rotating Rod

di

Phasors Inductors: v = L dt V leads I

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Impedance and

Admittance

Summary

CIVIL

Capacitors: i = C dv

10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves dt I leads V

Rotating Rod

di

Phasors Inductors: v = L dt V leads I

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic Mnemonic: CIVIL = In a capacitor I lead V but V leads I in an inductor.

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Impedance and

Admittance

Summary

CIVIL

Capacitors: i = C dv

10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves dt I leads V

Rotating Rod

di

Phasors Inductors: v = L dt V leads I

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic Mnemonic: CIVIL = In a capacitor I lead V but V leads I in an inductor.

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Impedance and

COMPLEX ARITHMETIC TRICKS:

Admittance

Summary

CIVIL

Capacitors: i = C dv

10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves dt I leads V

Rotating Rod

di

Phasors Inductors: v = L dt V leads I

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic Mnemonic: CIVIL = In a capacitor I lead V but V leads I in an inductor.

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Impedance and

COMPLEX ARITHMETIC TRICKS:

Admittance

Summary (1) j j = j j = 1

CIVIL

Capacitors: i = C dv

10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves dt I leads V

Rotating Rod

di

Phasors Inductors: v = L dt V leads I

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic Mnemonic: CIVIL = In a capacitor I lead V but V leads I in an inductor.

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Impedance and

COMPLEX ARITHMETIC TRICKS:

Admittance

Summary (1) j j = j j = 1

(2) 1j = j

CIVIL

Capacitors: i = C dv

10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves dt I leads V

Rotating Rod

di

Phasors Inductors: v = L dt V leads I

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic Mnemonic: CIVIL = In a capacitor I lead V but V leads I in an inductor.

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Impedance and

COMPLEX ARITHMETIC TRICKS:

Admittance

Summary (1) j j = j j = 1

(2) 1j = j

(3) a + jb = r =rej

where r = a2 + b2 and = arctan ab (180 if a < 0)

CIVIL

Capacitors: i = C dv

10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves dt I leads V

Rotating Rod

di

Phasors Inductors: v = L dt V leads I

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic Mnemonic: CIVIL = In a capacitor I lead V but V leads I in an inductor.

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Impedance and

COMPLEX ARITHMETIC TRICKS:

Admittance

Summary (1) j j = j j = 1

(2) 1j = j

(3) a + jb = r =rej

where r = a2 + b2 and = arctan ab (180 if a < 0)

(4) r = rej = (r cos ) + j (r sin )

CIVIL

Capacitors: i = C dv

10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves dt I leads V

Rotating Rod

di

Phasors Inductors: v = L dt V leads I

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic Mnemonic: CIVIL = In a capacitor I lead V but V leads I in an inductor.

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Impedance and

COMPLEX ARITHMETIC TRICKS:

Admittance

Summary (1) j j = j j = 1

(2) 1j = j

(3) a + jb = r =rej

where r = a2 + b2 and = arctan ab (180 if a < 0)

(4) r = rej = (r cos ) + j (r sin )

a

(5) a b = ab ( + ) and b = ab ( ).

Multiplication and division are much easier in polar form.

CIVIL

Capacitors: i = C dv

10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves dt I leads V

Rotating Rod

di

Phasors Inductors: v = L dt V leads I

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic Mnemonic: CIVIL = In a capacitor I lead V but V leads I in an inductor.

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Impedance and

COMPLEX ARITHMETIC TRICKS:

Admittance

Summary (1) j j = j j = 1

(2) 1j = j

(3) a + jb = r =rej

where r = a2 + b2 and = arctan ab (180 if a < 0)

(4) r = rej = (r cos ) + j (r sin )

a

(5) a b = ab ( + ) and b = ab ( ).

Multiplication and division are much easier in polar form.

(6) All scientific calculators will convert rectangular to/from polar form.

CIVIL

Capacitors: i = C dv

10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves dt I leads V

Rotating Rod

di

Phasors Inductors: v = L dt V leads I

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic Mnemonic: CIVIL = In a capacitor I lead V but V leads I in an inductor.

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Impedance and

COMPLEX ARITHMETIC TRICKS:

Admittance

Summary (1) j j = j j = 1

(2) 1j = j

(3) a + jb = r =rej

where r = a2 + b2 and = arctan ab (180 if a < 0)

(4) r = rej = (r cos ) + j (r sin )

a

(5) a b = ab ( + ) and b = ab ( ).

Multiplication and division are much easier in polar form.

(6) All scientific calculators will convert rectangular to/from polar form.

arithmetic (+, , , , x2 , x1 , |x|, x ) in CMPLX mode.

Learn how to use this: it will save lots of time and errors.

Impedance and Admittance

Sine Waves

For any network (resistors+capacitors+inductors):

Rotating Rod

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Impedance and

Admittance

Summary

Impedance and Admittance

Sine Waves

For any network (resistors+capacitors+inductors):

Rotating Rod

Phasors (1) Impedance = Resistance + j Reactance

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

Z = R + jX ()

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Impedance and

Admittance

Summary

Impedance and Admittance

Sine Waves

For any network (resistors+capacitors+inductors):

Rotating Rod

Phasors (1) Impedance = Resistance + j Reactance

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

Z = R + jX ()

Complex Impedances |Z|2 = R2 + X 2 Z = arctan X

R

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Impedance and

Admittance

Summary

Impedance and Admittance

Sine Waves

For any network (resistors+capacitors+inductors):

Rotating Rod

Phasors (1) Impedance = Resistance + j Reactance

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

Z = R + jX ()

Complex Impedances |Z|2 = R2 + X 2 Z = arctan X

R

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL 1

Impedance and (2) Admittance = Impedance = Conductance + j Susceptance

Admittance

1

Summary Y = Z = G + jB Siemens (S)

Impedance and Admittance

Sine Waves

For any network (resistors+capacitors+inductors):

Rotating Rod

Phasors (1) Impedance = Resistance + j Reactance

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

Z = R + jX ()

Complex Impedances |Z|2 = R2 + X 2 Z = arctan X

R

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL 1

Impedance and (2) Admittance = Impedance = Conductance + j Susceptance

Admittance

Summary Y = Z1 = G + jB Siemens (S)

|Y |2 = |Z|

1 2

2 = G + B

2

Y = Z = arctan B

G

Impedance and Admittance

Sine Waves

For any network (resistors+capacitors+inductors):

Rotating Rod

Phasors (1) Impedance = Resistance + j Reactance

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

Z = R + jX ()

Complex Impedances |Z|2 = R2 + X 2 Z = arctan X

R

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL 1

Impedance and (2) Admittance = Impedance = Conductance + j Susceptance

Admittance

Summary Y = Z1 = G + jB Siemens (S)

|Y |2 = |Z|

1 2

2 = G + B

2

Y = Z = arctan B

G

Note:

1

Y = G + jB = Z

Impedance and Admittance

Sine Waves

For any network (resistors+capacitors+inductors):

Rotating Rod

Phasors (1) Impedance = Resistance + j Reactance

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

Z = R + jX ()

Complex Impedances |Z|2 = R2 + X 2 Z = arctan X

R

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL 1

Impedance and (2) Admittance = Impedance = Conductance + j Susceptance

Admittance

Summary Y = Z1 = G + jB Siemens (S)

|Y |2 = |Z|

1 2

2 = G + B

2

Y = Z = arctan B

G

Note:

1 1

Y = G + jB = Z = R+jX

Impedance and Admittance

Sine Waves

For any network (resistors+capacitors+inductors):

Rotating Rod

Phasors (1) Impedance = Resistance + j Reactance

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

Z = R + jX ()

Complex Impedances |Z|2 = R2 + X 2 Z = arctan X

R

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL 1

Impedance and (2) Admittance = Impedance = Conductance + j Susceptance

Admittance

Summary Y = Z1 = G + jB Siemens (S)

|Y |2 = |Z|

1 2

2 = G + B

2

Y = Z = arctan B

G

Note:

Y = G + jB = 1

Z = 1

R+jX = R

R +X 2

2 + j R2X

+X 2

Impedance and Admittance

Sine Waves

For any network (resistors+capacitors+inductors):

Rotating Rod

Phasors (1) Impedance = Resistance + j Reactance

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

Z = R + jX ()

Complex Impedances |Z|2 = R2 + X 2 Z = arctan X

R

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL 1

Impedance and (2) Admittance = Impedance = Conductance + j Susceptance

Admittance

Summary Y = Z1 = G + jB Siemens (S)

|Y |2 = |Z|

1 2

2 = G + B

2

Y = Z = arctan B

G

Note:

Y = G + jB = 1

Z = 1

R+jX = R

R +X 2

2 + j R2X

+X 2

R R

So G = 2

R +X 2 = |Z|2

X X

B= R2 +X 2 = |Z|2

Impedance and Admittance

Sine Waves

For any network (resistors+capacitors+inductors):

Rotating Rod

Phasors (1) Impedance = Resistance + j Reactance

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

Z = R + jX ()

Complex Impedances |Z|2 = R2 + X 2 Z = arctan X

R

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL 1

Impedance and (2) Admittance = Impedance = Conductance + j Susceptance

Admittance

Summary Y = Z1 = G + jB Siemens (S)

|Y |2 = |Z|

1 2

2 = G + B

2

Y = Z = arctan B

G

Note:

Y = G + jB = 1

Z = 1

R+jX = R

R +X 2

2 + j R2X

+X 2

R R

So G = 2

R +X 2 = |Z|2

X X

B= R2 +X 2 = |Z|2

1

Beware: G 6= R unless X = 0.

Summary

Sine Waves

Sine waves are the only bounded signals whose shape is unchanged by

Rotating Rod differentiation.

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

Complex Impedances

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL

Impedance and

Admittance

Summary

Summary

Sine Waves

Sine waves are the only bounded signals whose shape is unchanged by

Rotating Rod differentiation.

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

Think of a sine wave as the projection of a rotating rod onto the

Complex Impedances horizontal (or real) axis.

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL A phasor is a complex number representing the length and position

Impedance and

Admittance of the rod at time t = 0.

Summary

Summary

Sine Waves

Sine waves are the only bounded signals whose shape is unchanged by

Rotating Rod differentiation.

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

Think of a sine wave as the projection of a rotating rod onto the

Complex Impedances horizontal (or real) axis.

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL A phasor is a complex number representing the length and position

Impedance and

Admittance of the rod at time t = 0.

Summary

If V = a + jb = r = rej , then

v(t) = a cos t b sin t = r cos (t + ) = V ejt

Summary

Sine Waves

Sine waves are the only bounded signals whose shape is unchanged by

Rotating Rod differentiation.

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

Think of a sine wave as the projection of a rotating rod onto the

Complex Impedances horizontal (or real) axis.

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL A phasor is a complex number representing the length and position

Impedance and

Admittance of the rod at time t = 0.

Summary

If V = a + jb = r = rej , then

v(t) = a cos t b sin t = r cos (t + ) = V ejt

Summary

Sine Waves

Sine waves are the only bounded signals whose shape is unchanged by

Rotating Rod differentiation.

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

Think of a sine wave as the projection of a rotating rod onto the

Complex Impedances horizontal (or real) axis.

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL A phasor is a complex number representing the length and position

Impedance and

Admittance of the rod at time t = 0.

Summary

If V = a + jb = r = rej , then

v(t) = a cos t b sin t = r cos (t + ) = V ejt

If all sources in a linear circuit are sine waves having the same

frequency, we can use phasors for circuit analysis:

Summary

Sine Waves

Sine waves are the only bounded signals whose shape is unchanged by

Rotating Rod differentiation.

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

Think of a sine wave as the projection of a rotating rod onto the

Complex Impedances horizontal (or real) axis.

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL A phasor is a complex number representing the length and position

Impedance and

Admittance of the rod at time t = 0.

Summary

If V = a + jb = r = rej , then

v(t) = a cos t b sin t = r cos (t + ) = V ejt

If all sources in a linear circuit are sine waves having the same

frequency, we can use phasors for circuit analysis:

1

Use complex impedances: jL and jC

Summary

Sine Waves

Sine waves are the only bounded signals whose shape is unchanged by

Rotating Rod differentiation.

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

Think of a sine wave as the projection of a rotating rod onto the

Complex Impedances horizontal (or real) axis.

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL A phasor is a complex number representing the length and position

Impedance and

Admittance of the rod at time t = 0.

Summary

If V = a + jb = r = rej , then

v(t) = a cos t b sin t = r cos (t + ) = V ejt

If all sources in a linear circuit are sine waves having the same

frequency, we can use phasors for circuit analysis:

1

Use complex impedances: jL and jC

Mnemonic: CIVIL tells you whether I leads V or vice versa

(leads means reaches its peak before).

Summary

Sine Waves

Sine waves are the only bounded signals whose shape is unchanged by

Rotating Rod differentiation.

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

Think of a sine wave as the projection of a rotating rod onto the

Complex Impedances horizontal (or real) axis.

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL A phasor is a complex number representing the length and position

Impedance and

Admittance of the rod at time t = 0.

Summary

If V = a + jb = r = rej , then

v(t) = a cos t b sin t = r cos (t + ) = V ejt

If all sources in a linear circuit are sine waves having the same

frequency, we can use phasors for circuit analysis:

1

Use complex impedances: jL and jC

Mnemonic: CIVIL tells you whether I leads V or vice versa

(leads means reaches its peak before).

Phasors eliminate time from equations ,

Summary

Sine Waves

Sine waves are the only bounded signals whose shape is unchanged by

Rotating Rod differentiation.

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

Think of a sine wave as the projection of a rotating rod onto the

Complex Impedances horizontal (or real) axis.

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL A phasor is a complex number representing the length and position

Impedance and

Admittance of the rod at time t = 0.

Summary

If V = a + jb = r = rej , then

v(t) = a cos t b sin t = r cos (t + ) = V ejt

If all sources in a linear circuit are sine waves having the same

frequency, we can use phasors for circuit analysis:

1

Use complex impedances: jL and jC

Mnemonic: CIVIL tells you whether I leads V or vice versa

(leads means reaches its peak before).

Phasors eliminate time from equations ,, converts simultaneous

differential equations into simultaneous linear equations ,,,.

Summary

Sine Waves

Sine waves are the only bounded signals whose shape is unchanged by

Rotating Rod differentiation.

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

Think of a sine wave as the projection of a rotating rod onto the

Complex Impedances horizontal (or real) axis.

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL A phasor is a complex number representing the length and position

Impedance and

Admittance of the rod at time t = 0.

Summary

If V = a + jb = r = rej , then

v(t) = a cos t b sin t = r cos (t + ) = V ejt

If all sources in a linear circuit are sine waves having the same

frequency, we can use phasors for circuit analysis:

1

Use complex impedances: jL and jC

Mnemonic: CIVIL tells you whether I leads V or vice versa

(leads means reaches its peak before).

Phasors eliminate time from equations ,, converts simultaneous

differential equations into simultaneous linear equations ,,,.

Needs complex numbers / but worth it.

Summary

Sine Waves

Sine waves are the only bounded signals whose shape is unchanged by

Rotating Rod differentiation.

Phasors

Phasor Examples

Phasor arithmetic

Think of a sine wave as the projection of a rotating rod onto the

Complex Impedances horizontal (or real) axis.

Phasor Analysis

CIVIL A phasor is a complex number representing the length and position

Impedance and

Admittance of the rod at time t = 0.

Summary

If V = a + jb = r = rej , then

v(t) = a cos t b sin t = r cos (t + ) = V ejt

If all sources in a linear circuit are sine waves having the same

frequency, we can use phasors for circuit analysis:

1

Use complex impedances: jL and jC

Mnemonic: CIVIL tells you whether I leads V or vice versa

(leads means reaches its peak before).

Phasors eliminate time from equations ,, converts simultaneous

differential equations into simultaneous linear equations ,,,.

Needs complex numbers / but worth it.

see Hayt Chapter 10

E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2016-9024) Phasors: 10 11 / 11

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