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# 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
Rotating Rod
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Impedance and
Summary

Sine Waves

## For inductors and capacitors i = C dv di

10: Sine waves and phasors
Sine Waves dt and v = L dt so we need to
Rotating Rod
differentiate i(t) and v(t) when analysing circuits containing them.
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Impedance and
Summary

Sine Waves

## For inductors and capacitors i = C dv di

10: Sine waves and phasors
Sine Waves dt and v = L dt so we need to
Rotating Rod
differentiate i(t) and v(t) when analysing circuits containing them.
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic Usually differentiation changes the 1
Complex Impedances 0
Phasor Analysis
shape of a waveform. -1
0 1 2 3 4
CIVIL t
Impedance and 5
0
Summary
-5
0 1 2 3 4
t

Sine Waves

## For inductors and capacitors i = C dv di

10: Sine waves and phasors
Sine Waves dt and v = L dt so we need to
Rotating Rod
differentiate i(t) and v(t) when analysing circuits containing them.
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic Usually differentiation changes the 1
Complex Impedances 0
Phasor Analysis
shape of a waveform. -1
0 1 2 3 4
CIVIL t
Impedance and For bounded waveforms there is 5
0
Summary only one exception: -5
0 1 2 3 4
t

dv
v(t) = sin t dt = cos t

Sine Waves

## For inductors and capacitors i = C dv di

10: Sine waves and phasors
Sine Waves dt and v = L dt so we need to
Rotating Rod
differentiate i(t) and v(t) when analysing circuits containing them.
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic Usually differentiation changes the 1
Complex Impedances 0
Phasor Analysis
shape of a waveform. -1
0 1 2 3 4
CIVIL t
Impedance and For bounded waveforms there is 5
0
Summary only one exception: -5
0 1 2 3 4
t

dv
v(t) = sin t dt = cos t 1

v(t)
0

-1
0 5 10 15
t
1

dv/dt
0

-1
0 5 10 15
t

Sine Waves

## For inductors and capacitors i = C dv di

10: Sine waves and phasors
Sine Waves dt and v = L dt so we need to
Rotating Rod
differentiate i(t) and v(t) when analysing circuits containing them.
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic Usually differentiation changes the 1
Complex Impedances 0
Phasor Analysis
shape of a waveform. -1
0 1 2 3 4
CIVIL t
Impedance and For bounded waveforms there is 5
0
Summary only one exception: -5
0 1 2 3 4
t

dv
v(t) = sin t dt = cos t 1

v(t)
0
same shape but with a time shift. -1
0 5 10 15
t
1

dv/dt
0

-1
0 5 10 15
t

Sine Waves

## For inductors and capacitors i = C dv di

10: Sine waves and phasors
Sine Waves dt and v = L dt so we need to
Rotating Rod
differentiate i(t) and v(t) when analysing circuits containing them.
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic Usually differentiation changes the 1
Complex Impedances 0
Phasor Analysis
shape of a waveform. -1
0 1 2 3 4
CIVIL t
Impedance and For bounded waveforms there is 5
0
Summary only one exception: -5
0 1 2 3 4
t

dv
v(t) = sin t dt = cos t 1

v(t)
0
same shape but with a time shift. -1
0 5 10 15
t

## sin t completes one full period 1

dv/dt
0
every time t increases by 2 . -1
0 5 10 15
t

Sine Waves

## For inductors and capacitors i = C dv di

10: Sine waves and phasors
Sine Waves dt and v = L dt so we need to
Rotating Rod
differentiate i(t) and v(t) when analysing circuits containing them.
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic Usually differentiation changes the 1
Complex Impedances 0
Phasor Analysis
shape of a waveform. -1
0 1 2 3 4
CIVIL t
Impedance and For bounded waveforms there is 5
0
Summary only one exception: -5
0 1 2 3 4
t

dv
v(t) = sin t dt = cos t 1

v(t)
0
same shape but with a time shift. -1
0 5 10 15
t

## sin t completes one full period 1

dv/dt
0
every time t increases by 2 . -1
0 5 10 15
t

## sin 2f t makes f complete repetitions every time t increases by 1; this

gives a frequency of f cycles per second, or f Hz.

Sine Waves

## For inductors and capacitors i = C dv di

10: Sine waves and phasors
Sine Waves dt and v = L dt so we need to
Rotating Rod
differentiate i(t) and v(t) when analysing circuits containing them.
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic Usually differentiation changes the 1
Complex Impedances 0
Phasor Analysis
shape of a waveform. -1
0 1 2 3 4
CIVIL t
Impedance and For bounded waveforms there is 5
0
Summary only one exception: -5
0 1 2 3 4
t

dv
v(t) = sin t dt = cos t 1

v(t)
0
same shape but with a time shift. -1
0 5 10 15
t

## sin t completes one full period 1

dv/dt
0
every time t increases by 2 . -1
0 5 10 15
t

## sin 2f t makes f complete repetitions every time t increases by 1; this

gives a frequency of f cycles per second, or f Hz.
We often use the angular frequency, = 2f instead.
is measured in radians per second. E.g. 50 Hz 314 rad.s1 .
E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2016-9024) Phasors: 10 2 / 11
Rotating Rod

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
A useful way to think of a cosine wave is as the
Rotating Rod projection of a rotating rod onto the horizontal axis.
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
For a unit-length rod, the projection has length cos .
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Impedance and
Summary

Rotating Rod

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
A useful way to think of a cosine wave is as the
Rotating Rod projection of a rotating rod onto the horizontal axis.
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
For a unit-length rod, the projection has length cos .
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis If the rod is rotating at a speed of f revolutions per
CIVIL
Impedance and second, then increases uniformly with time:
Summary = 2f t.

Rotating Rod

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
A useful way to think of a cosine wave is as the
Rotating Rod projection of a rotating rod onto the horizontal axis.
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
For a unit-length rod, the projection has length cos .
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis If the rod is rotating at a speed of f revolutions per
CIVIL
Impedance and second, then increases uniformly with time:
Summary = 2f t.
The only difference between cos and sin is the starting position of the rod:

Rotating Rod

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
A useful way to think of a cosine wave is as the
Rotating Rod projection of a rotating rod onto the horizontal axis.
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
For a unit-length rod, the projection has length cos .
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis If the rod is rotating at a speed of f revolutions per
CIVIL
Impedance and second, then increases uniformly with time:
Summary = 2f t.
The only difference between cos and sin is the starting position of the rod:
1

-1
0 5 10 15
t

v = cos 2f t

Rotating Rod

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
A useful way to think of a cosine wave is as the
Rotating Rod projection of a rotating rod onto the horizontal axis.
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
For a unit-length rod, the projection has length cos .
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis If the rod is rotating at a speed of f revolutions per
CIVIL
Impedance and second, then increases uniformly with time:
Summary = 2f t.
The only difference between cos and sin is the starting position of the rod:
1 1

0 0

-1 -1
0 5 10 15 0 5 10 15
t t

v = cos 2f t v = sin 2f t

Rotating Rod

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
A useful way to think of a cosine wave is as the
Rotating Rod projection of a rotating rod onto the horizontal axis.
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
For a unit-length rod, the projection has length cos .
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis If the rod is rotating at a speed of f revolutions per
CIVIL
Impedance and second, then increases uniformly with time:
Summary = 2f t.
The only difference between cos and sin is the starting position of the rod:
1 1

0 0

-1 -1
0 5 10 15 0 5 10 15
t t


v = cos 2f t v = sin 2f t = cos 2f t 2

Rotating Rod

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
A useful way to think of a cosine wave is as the
Rotating Rod projection of a rotating rod onto the horizontal axis.
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
For a unit-length rod, the projection has length cos .
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis If the rod is rotating at a speed of f revolutions per
CIVIL
Impedance and second, then increases uniformly with time:
Summary = 2f t.
The only difference between cos and sin is the starting position of the rod:
1 1

0 0

-1 -1
0 5 10 15 0 5 10 15
t t


v = cos 2f t v = sin 2f t = cos 2f t 2

## sin 2f t lags cos 2f t by 90 (or 2 radians) because its peaks occurs 1

4
of a cycle later (equivalently cos leads sin) .

Phasors

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
If the rod has length A and starts at an angle then the projection onto the
Rotating Rod horizontal axis is
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
A cos (2f t + )
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Impedance and
Summary

Phasors

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
If the rod has length A and starts at an angle then the projection onto the
Rotating Rod horizontal axis is
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
A cos (2f t + )
Complex Impedances = A cos cos 2f t A sin sin 2f t
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Impedance and
Summary

Phasors

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
If the rod has length A and starts at an angle then the projection onto the
Rotating Rod horizontal axis is
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
A cos (2f t + )
Complex Impedances = A cos cos 2f t A sin sin 2f t
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL = X cos 2f t Y sin 2f t
Impedance and
Summary

Phasors

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
If the rod has length A and starts at an angle then the projection onto the
Rotating Rod horizontal axis is
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
A cos (2f t + )
Complex Impedances = A cos cos 2f t A sin sin 2f t
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL = X cos 2f t Y sin 2f t
Impedance and
Summary
At time t = 0, the tip of the rod has coordinates
(X, Y ) = (A cos , A sin ).

Phasors

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
If the rod has length A and starts at an angle then the projection onto the
Rotating Rod horizontal axis is
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
A cos (2f t + )
Complex Impedances = A cos cos 2f t A sin sin 2f t
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL = X cos 2f t Y sin 2f t
Impedance and
Summary
At time t = 0, the tip of the rod has coordinates
(X, Y ) = (A cos , A sin ).

If we think of the plane as an Argand Diagram (or complex plane), then the
complex number X + jY corresponding to the tip of the rod at t = 0 is
called a phasor .

Phasors

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
If the rod has length A and starts at an angle then the projection onto the
Rotating Rod horizontal axis is
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
A cos (2f t + )
Complex Impedances = A cos cos 2f t A sin sin 2f t
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL = X cos 2f t Y sin 2f t
Impedance and
Summary
At time t = 0, the tip of the rod has coordinates
(X, Y ) = (A cos , A sin ).

If we think of the plane as an Argand Diagram (or complex plane), then the
complex number X + jY corresponding to the tip of the rod at t = 0 is
called a phasor .

The magnitude of the phasor, A = X 2 + Y 2 , gives the amplitude (peak
value) of the sine wave.

Phasors

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
If the rod has length A and starts at an angle then the projection onto the
Rotating Rod horizontal axis is
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
A cos (2f t + )
Complex Impedances = A cos cos 2f t A sin sin 2f t
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL = X cos 2f t Y sin 2f t
Impedance and
Summary
At time t = 0, the tip of the rod has coordinates
(X, Y ) = (A cos , A sin ).

If we think of the plane as an Argand Diagram (or complex plane), then the
complex number X + jY corresponding to the tip of the rod at t = 0 is
called a phasor .

The magnitude of the phasor, A = X 2 + Y 2 , gives the amplitude (peak
value) of the sine wave.
Y
The argument of the phasor, = arctan X , gives the phase shift relative
to cos 2f t.
If > 0, it is leading and if < 0, it is lagging relative to cos 2f t.

Phasor Examples

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
V = 1, f = 50 Hz
Rotating Rod
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Impedance and
Summary

Phasor Examples

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
V = 1, f = 50 Hz 1

## Rotating Rod v(t) = cos 2f t 0

Phasors -1
0 0.02 0.04 0.06
Phasor Examples t
Phasor arithmetic
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Impedance and
Summary

Phasor Examples

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
V = 1, f = 50 Hz 1

## Rotating Rod v(t) = cos 2f t 0

Phasors -1
0 0.02 0.04 0.06
Phasor Examples t
Phasor arithmetic V = j
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Impedance and
Summary

Phasor Examples

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
V = 1, f = 50 Hz 1

## Rotating Rod v(t) = cos 2f t 0

Phasors -1
0 0.02 0.04 0.06
Phasor Examples t
Phasor arithmetic V = j 1
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis v(t) = sin 2f t 0

-1
CIVIL 0 0.02 0.04 0.06
Impedance and t
Summary

Phasor Examples

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
V = 1, f = 50 Hz 1

## Rotating Rod v(t) = cos 2f t 0

Phasors -1
0 0.02 0.04 0.06
Phasor Examples t
Phasor arithmetic V = j 1
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis v(t) = sin 2f t 0

-1
CIVIL 0 0.02 0.04 0.06
Impedance and t
Summary
V = 10.5j

Phasor Examples

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
V = 1, f = 50 Hz 1

## Rotating Rod v(t) = cos 2f t 0

Phasors -1
0 0.02 0.04 0.06
Phasor Examples t
Phasor arithmetic V = j 1
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis v(t) = sin 2f t 0

-1
CIVIL 0 0.02 0.04 0.06
Impedance and t
Summary
V = 10.5j
v(t) = cos 2f t + 0.5 sin 2f t

Phasor Examples

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
V = 1, f = 50 Hz 1

## Rotating Rod v(t) = cos 2f t 0

Phasors -1
0 0.02 0.04 0.06
Phasor Examples t
Phasor arithmetic V = j 1
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis v(t) = sin 2f t 0

-1
CIVIL 0 0.02 0.04 0.06
Impedance and t
Summary
V = 10.5j = 1.12153
v(t) = cos 2f t + 0.5 sin 2f t

Phasor Examples

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
V = 1, f = 50 Hz 1

## Rotating Rod v(t) = cos 2f t 0

Phasors -1
0 0.02 0.04 0.06
Phasor Examples t
Phasor arithmetic V = j 1
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis v(t) = sin 2f t 0

-1
CIVIL 0 0.02 0.04 0.06
Impedance and t
Summary
V = 10.5j = 1.12153
v(t) = cos 2f t + 0.5 sin 2f t
= 1.12 cos (2f t 2.68)

Phasor Examples

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
V = 1, f = 50 Hz 1

## Rotating Rod v(t) = cos 2f t 0

Phasors -1
0 0.02 0.04 0.06
Phasor Examples t
Phasor arithmetic V = j 1
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis v(t) = sin 2f t 0

-1
CIVIL 0 0.02 0.04 0.06
Impedance and t
Summary
V = 10.5j = 1.12153
v(t) = cos 2f t + 0.5 sin 2f t
= 1.12 cos (2f t 2.68)
V = X + jY

Phasor Examples

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
V = 1, f = 50 Hz 1

## Rotating Rod v(t) = cos 2f t 0

Phasors -1
0 0.02 0.04 0.06
Phasor Examples t
Phasor arithmetic V = j 1
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis v(t) = sin 2f t 0

-1
CIVIL 0 0.02 0.04 0.06
Impedance and t
Summary
V = 10.5j = 1.12153
v(t) = cos 2f t + 0.5 sin 2f t
= 1.12 cos (2f t 2.68)
V = X + jY
v(t) = X cos 2f t Y sin 2f t

Phasor Examples

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
V = 1, f = 50 Hz 1

## Rotating Rod v(t) = cos 2f t 0

Phasors -1
0 0.02 0.04 0.06
Phasor Examples t
Phasor arithmetic V = j 1
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis v(t) = sin 2f t 0

-1
CIVIL 0 0.02 0.04 0.06
Impedance and t
Summary
V = 10.5j = 1.12153
v(t) = cos 2f t + 0.5 sin 2f t
= 1.12 cos (2f t 2.68)
V = X + jY
v(t) = X cos 2f t Y sin 2f t
Beware minus sign.

Phasor Examples

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
V = 1, f = 50 Hz 1

## Rotating Rod v(t) = cos 2f t 0

Phasors -1
0 0.02 0.04 0.06
Phasor Examples t
Phasor arithmetic V = j 1
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis v(t) = sin 2f t 0

-1
CIVIL 0 0.02 0.04 0.06
Impedance and t
Summary
V = 10.5j = 1.12153
v(t) = cos 2f t + 0.5 sin 2f t
= 1.12 cos (2f t 2.68)
V = X + jY V = A
v(t) = X cos 2f t Y sin 2f t
Beware minus sign.

Phasor Examples

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
V = 1, f = 50 Hz 1

## Rotating Rod v(t) = cos 2f t 0

Phasors -1
0 0.02 0.04 0.06
Phasor Examples t
Phasor arithmetic V = j 1
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis v(t) = sin 2f t 0

-1
CIVIL 0 0.02 0.04 0.06
Impedance and t
Summary
V = 10.5j = 1.12153
v(t) = cos 2f t + 0.5 sin 2f t
= 1.12 cos (2f t 2.68)
V = X + jY V = A
v(t) = X cos 2f t Y sin 2f t v(t) = A cos (2f t + )
Beware minus sign.

Phasor Examples

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
V = 1, f = 50 Hz 1

## Rotating Rod v(t) = cos 2f t 0

Phasors -1
0 0.02 0.04 0.06
Phasor Examples t
Phasor arithmetic V = j 1
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis v(t) = sin 2f t 0

-1
CIVIL 0 0.02 0.04 0.06
Impedance and t
Summary
V = 10.5j = 1.12153
v(t) = cos 2f t + 0.5 sin 2f t
= 1.12 cos (2f t 2.68)
V = X + jY V = A = Aej
v(t) = X cos 2f t Y sin 2f t v(t) = A cos (2f t + )
Beware minus sign.

Phasor Examples

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
V = 1, f = 50 Hz 1

## Rotating Rod v(t) = cos 2f t 0

Phasors -1
0 0.02 0.04 0.06
Phasor Examples t
Phasor arithmetic V = j 1
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis v(t) = sin 2f t 0

-1
CIVIL 0 0.02 0.04 0.06
Impedance and t
Summary
V = 10.5j = 1.12153
v(t) = cos 2f t + 0.5 sin 2f t
= 1.12 cos (2f t 2.68)
V = X + jY V = A = Aej
v(t) = X cos 2f t Y sin 2f t v(t) = A cos (2f t + )
Beware minus sign.

## A phasor represents an entire waveform (encompassing all time) as a

single complex number. We assume the frequency, f , is known.

Phasor Examples

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
V = 1, f = 50 Hz 1

## Rotating Rod v(t) = cos 2f t 0

Phasors -1
0 0.02 0.04 0.06
Phasor Examples t
Phasor arithmetic V = j 1
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis v(t) = sin 2f t 0

-1
CIVIL 0 0.02 0.04 0.06
Impedance and t
Summary
V = 10.5j = 1.12153
v(t) = cos 2f t + 0.5 sin 2f t
= 1.12 cos (2f t 2.68)
V = X + jY V = A = Aej
v(t) = X cos 2f t Y sin 2f t v(t) = A cos (2f t + )
Beware minus sign.

## A phasor represents an entire waveform (encompassing all time) as a

single complex number. We assume the frequency, f , is known.

## A phasor is not time-varying, so we use a capital letter: V .

A waveform is time-varying, so we use a small letter: v(t).

Phasor Examples

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
V = 1, f = 50 Hz 1

## Rotating Rod v(t) = cos 2f t 0

Phasors -1
0 0.02 0.04 0.06
Phasor Examples t
Phasor arithmetic V = j 1
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis v(t) = sin 2f t 0

-1
CIVIL 0 0.02 0.04 0.06
Impedance and t
Summary
V = 10.5j = 1.12153
v(t) = cos 2f t + 0.5 sin 2f t
= 1.12 cos (2f t 2.68)
V = X + jY V = A = Aej
v(t) = X cos 2f t Y sin 2f t v(t) = A cos (2f t + )
Beware minus sign.

## A phasor represents an entire waveform (encompassing all time) as a

single complex number. We assume the frequency, f , is known.

## A phasor is not time-varying, so we use a capital letter: V .

A waveform is time-varying, so we use a small letter: v(t).

## Casio: Pol(X, Y ) A, , Rec(A, ) X, Y . Saved X & Y mems.

E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2016-9024) Phasors: 10 5 / 11
Phasor arithmetic

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Phasors Waveforms
Sine Waves
Rotating Rod
Phasors V = P + jQ v(t) = P cos t Q sin t
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
where = 2f .
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Impedance and
Summary

## E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2016-9024) Phasors: 10 6 / 11

Phasor arithmetic

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Phasors Waveforms
Sine Waves
Rotating Rod
Phasors V = P + jQ v(t) = P cos t Q sin t
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
where = 2f .
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis a v(t)
CIVIL
Impedance and
Summary

## E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2016-9024) Phasors: 10 6 / 11

Phasor arithmetic

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Phasors Waveforms
Sine Waves
Rotating Rod
Phasors V = P + jQ v(t) = P cos t Q sin t
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
where = 2f .
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis a v(t) = aP cos t aQ sin t
CIVIL
Impedance and
Summary

## E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2016-9024) Phasors: 10 6 / 11

Phasor arithmetic

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Phasors Waveforms
Sine Waves
Rotating Rod
Phasors V = P + jQ v(t) = P cos t Q sin t
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
where = 2f .
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis aV a v(t) = aP cos t aQ sin t
CIVIL
Impedance and
Summary

## E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2016-9024) Phasors: 10 6 / 11

Phasor arithmetic

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Phasors Waveforms
Sine Waves
Rotating Rod
Phasors V = P + jQ v(t) = P cos t Q sin t
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
where = 2f .
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis aV a v(t) = aP cos t aQ sin t
CIVIL
Impedance and
Admittance v1 (t) + v2 (t)
Summary

## E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2016-9024) Phasors: 10 6 / 11

Phasor arithmetic

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Phasors Waveforms
Sine Waves
Rotating Rod
Phasors V = P + jQ v(t) = P cos t Q sin t
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
where = 2f .
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis aV a v(t) = aP cos t aQ sin t
CIVIL
Impedance and
Admittance V1 + V2 v1 (t) + v2 (t)
Summary

## E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2016-9024) Phasors: 10 6 / 11

Phasor arithmetic

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Phasors Waveforms
Sine Waves
Rotating Rod
Phasors V = P + jQ v(t) = P cos t Q sin t
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
where = 2f .
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis aV a v(t) = aP cos t aQ sin t
CIVIL
Impedance and
Admittance V1 + V2 v1 (t) + v2 (t)
Summary

## E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2016-9024) Phasors: 10 6 / 11

Phasor arithmetic

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Phasors Waveforms
Sine Waves
Rotating Rod
Phasors V = P + jQ v(t) = P cos t Q sin t
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
where = 2f .
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis aV a v(t) = aP cos t aQ sin t
CIVIL
Impedance and
Admittance V1 + V2 v1 (t) + v2 (t)
Summary

## Adding or scaling is the same for waveforms and phasors.

dv
dt = P sin t Q cos t

## E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2016-9024) Phasors: 10 6 / 11

Phasor arithmetic

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Phasors Waveforms
Sine Waves
Rotating Rod
Phasors V = P + jQ v(t) = P cos t Q sin t
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
where = 2f .
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis aV a v(t) = aP cos t aQ sin t
CIVIL
Impedance and
Admittance V1 + V2 v1 (t) + v2 (t)
Summary

## Adding or scaling is the same for waveforms and phasors.

dv
dt = P sin t Q cos t
= (Q) cos t (P ) sin t

## E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2016-9024) Phasors: 10 6 / 11

Phasor arithmetic

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Phasors Waveforms
Sine Waves
Rotating Rod
Phasors V = P + jQ v(t) = P cos t Q sin t
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
where = 2f .
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis aV a v(t) = aP cos t aQ sin t
CIVIL
Impedance and
Admittance V1 + V2 v1 (t) + v2 (t)
Summary

## Adding or scaling is the same for waveforms and phasors.

dv
dt = P sin t Q cos t
V = (Q) + j (P ) = (Q) cos t (P ) sin t

## E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2016-9024) Phasors: 10 6 / 11

Phasor arithmetic

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Phasors Waveforms
Sine Waves
Rotating Rod
Phasors V = P + jQ v(t) = P cos t Q sin t
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
where = 2f .
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis aV a v(t) = aP cos t aQ sin t
CIVIL
Impedance and
Admittance V1 + V2 v1 (t) + v2 (t)
Summary

## Adding or scaling is the same for waveforms and phasors.

dv
dt = P sin t Q cos t
V = (Q) + j (P ) = (Q) cos t (P ) sin t
= j (P + jQ)

## E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2016-9024) Phasors: 10 6 / 11

Phasor arithmetic

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Phasors Waveforms
Sine Waves
Rotating Rod
Phasors V = P + jQ v(t) = P cos t Q sin t
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
where = 2f .
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis aV a v(t) = aP cos t aQ sin t
CIVIL
Impedance and
Admittance V1 + V2 v1 (t) + v2 (t)
Summary

## Adding or scaling is the same for waveforms and phasors.

dv
dt = P sin t Q cos t
V = (Q) + j (P ) = (Q) cos t (P ) sin t
= j (P + jQ)
= jV

## E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2016-9024) Phasors: 10 6 / 11

Phasor arithmetic

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Phasors Waveforms
Sine Waves
Rotating Rod
Phasors V = P + jQ v(t) = P cos t Q sin t
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
where = 2f .
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis aV a v(t) = aP cos t aQ sin t
CIVIL
Impedance and
Admittance V1 + V2 v1 (t) + v2 (t)
Summary

## Adding or scaling is the same for waveforms and phasors.

dv
dt = P sin t Q cos t
V = (Q) + j (P ) = (Q) cos t (P ) sin t
= j (P + jQ)
= jV
Differentiating waveforms corresponds to multiplying
phasors by j .

## E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2016-9024) Phasors: 10 6 / 11

Phasor arithmetic

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Phasors Waveforms
Sine Waves
Rotating Rod
Phasors V = P + jQ v(t) = P cos t Q sin t
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
where = 2f .
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis aV a v(t) = aP cos t aQ sin t
CIVIL
Impedance and
Admittance V1 + V2 v1 (t) + v2 (t)
Summary

## Adding or scaling is the same for waveforms and phasors.

dv
dt = P sin t Q cos t
V = (Q) + j (P ) = (Q) cos t (P ) sin t
= j (P + jQ)
= jV
Differentiating waveforms corresponds to multiplying
phasors by j .

## E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2016-9024) Phasors: 10 6 / 11

Phasor arithmetic

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Phasors Waveforms
Sine Waves
Rotating Rod
Phasors V = P + jQ v(t) = P cos t Q sin t
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
where = 2f .
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis aV a v(t) = aP cos t aQ sin t
CIVIL
Impedance and
Admittance V1 + V2 v1 (t) + v2 (t)
Summary

## Adding or scaling is the same for waveforms and phasors.

dv
dt = P sin t Q cos t
V = (Q) + j (P ) = (Q) cos t (P ) sin t
= j (P + jQ)
= jV
Differentiating waveforms corresponds to multiplying
phasors by j .

## E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2016-9024) Phasors: 10 6 / 11

Complex Impedances

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Resistor:
Sine Waves
Rotating Rod
Phasors v(t) = Ri(t)
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Impedance and
Summary

## E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2016-9024) Phasors: 10 7 / 11

Complex Impedances

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Resistor:
Sine Waves
Rotating Rod
Phasors v(t) = Ri(t) V = RI
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Impedance and
Summary

## E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2016-9024) Phasors: 10 7 / 11

Complex Impedances

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Resistor:
Sine Waves
Rotating Rod V
Phasors v(t) = Ri(t) V = RI I =R
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Impedance and
Summary

## E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2016-9024) Phasors: 10 7 / 11

Complex Impedances

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Resistor:
Sine Waves
Rotating Rod V
Phasors v(t) = Ri(t) V = RI I =R
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Inductor:
Impedance and
di
Summary
v(t) = L dt

## E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2016-9024) Phasors: 10 7 / 11

Complex Impedances

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Resistor:
Sine Waves
Rotating Rod V
Phasors v(t) = Ri(t) V = RI I =R
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Inductor:
Impedance and
di
Summary
v(t) = L dt V = jLI

## E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2016-9024) Phasors: 10 7 / 11

Complex Impedances

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Resistor:
Sine Waves
Rotating Rod V
Phasors v(t) = Ri(t) V = RI I =R
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Inductor:
Impedance and
di V
Summary
v(t) = L dt V = jLI I = jL

## E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2016-9024) Phasors: 10 7 / 11

Complex Impedances

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Resistor:
Sine Waves
Rotating Rod V
Phasors v(t) = Ri(t) V = RI I =R
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Inductor:
Impedance and
di V
Summary
v(t) = L dt V = jLI I = jL

Capacitor:

i(t) = C dv
dt

## E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2016-9024) Phasors: 10 7 / 11

Complex Impedances

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Resistor:
Sine Waves
Rotating Rod V
Phasors v(t) = Ri(t) V = RI I =R
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Inductor:
Impedance and
di V
Summary
v(t) = L dt V = jLI I = jL

Capacitor:

i(t) = C dv
dt I = jCV

## E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2016-9024) Phasors: 10 7 / 11

Complex Impedances

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Resistor:
Sine Waves
Rotating Rod V
Phasors v(t) = Ri(t) V = RI I =R
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Inductor:
Impedance and
di V
Summary
v(t) = L dt V = jLI I = jL

Capacitor:

i(t) = C dv
dt I = jCV V
I = 1
jC

## E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2016-9024) Phasors: 10 7 / 11

Complex Impedances

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Resistor:
Sine Waves
Rotating Rod V
Phasors v(t) = Ri(t) V = RI I =R
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Inductor:
Impedance and
di V
Summary
v(t) = L dt V = jLI I = jL

Capacitor:

i(t) = C dv
dt I = jCV V
I = 1
jC

For all three components, phasors obey Ohms law if we use the complex
1
impedances jL and jC as the resistance of an inductor or capacitor.

## E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2016-9024) Phasors: 10 7 / 11

Complex Impedances

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Resistor:
Sine Waves
Rotating Rod V
Phasors v(t) = Ri(t) V = RI I =R
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Inductor:
Impedance and
di V
Summary
v(t) = L dt V = jLI I = jL

Capacitor:

i(t) = C dv
dt I = jCV V
I = 1
jC

For all three components, phasors obey Ohms law if we use the complex
1
impedances jL and jC as the resistance of an inductor or capacitor.

If all sources in a circuit are sine waves having the same frequency, we can
do circuit analysis exactly as before by using complex impedances.

Phasor Analysis

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
Given v = 10 sin t where = 2 1000,
Rotating Rod find vC (t).
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Impedance and
Summary 10
v

-10
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
t (ms)

Phasor Analysis

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
Given v = 10 sin t where = 2 1000,
Rotating Rod find vC (t).
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
(1) Find capacitor complex impedance
1 1
Complex Impedances Z= jC = 6.28j104 = 1592j
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Impedance and
Summary 10
v

-10
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
t (ms)

Phasor Analysis

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
Given v = 10 sin t where = 2 1000,
Rotating Rod find vC (t).
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
(1) Find capacitor complex impedance
1 1
Complex Impedances Z= jC = 6.28j104 = 1592j
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Impedance and
Summary (2) Solve circuit with phasors 10
v
Z
VC = V R+Z
0

-10
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
t (ms)

Phasor Analysis

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
Given v = 10 sin t where = 2 1000,
Rotating Rod find vC (t).
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
(1) Find capacitor complex impedance
1 1
Complex Impedances Z= jC = 6.28j104 = 1592j
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Impedance and
Summary (2) Solve circuit with phasors 10
v
Z
VC = V R+Z
1592j 0
= 10j 10001592j
-10
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
t (ms)

Phasor Analysis

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
Given v = 10 sin t where = 2 1000,
Rotating Rod find vC (t).
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
(1) Find capacitor complex impedance
1 1
Complex Impedances Z= jC = 6.28j104 = 1592j
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Impedance and
Summary (2) Solve circuit with phasors 10
v
Z
VC = V R+Z
1592j 0
= 10j 10001592j
= 4.5 7.2j = 8.47 122 -10
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
t (ms)

Phasor Analysis

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
Given v = 10 sin t where = 2 1000,
Rotating Rod find vC (t).
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
(1) Find capacitor complex impedance
1 1
Complex Impedances Z= jC = 6.28j104 = 1592j
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Impedance and
Summary (2) Solve circuit with phasors 10
v
Z
VC = V R+Z
vC

C
1592j 0
= 10j 10001592j
= 4.5 7.2j = 8.47 122 -10
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
vC = 8.47 cos (t 122 ) t (ms)

Phasor Analysis

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
Given v = 10 sin t where = 2 1000,
Rotating Rod find vC (t).
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
(1) Find capacitor complex impedance
1 1
Complex Impedances Z= jC = 6.28j104 = 1592j
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Impedance and
Summary (2) Solve circuit with phasors 10
v
Z
VC = V R+Z
vC

C
1592j 0
= 10j 10001592j
= 4.5 7.2j = 8.47 122 -10
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
vC = 8.47 cos (t 122 ) t (ms)

## (3) Draw a phasor diagram showing KVL:

V = 10j
VC = 4.5 7.2j
VR = V VC = 4.5 2.8j = 5.3 32

Phasor Analysis

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
Given v = 10 sin t where = 2 1000,
Rotating Rod find vC (t).
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
(1) Find capacitor complex impedance
1 1
Complex Impedances Z= jC = 6.28j104 = 1592j
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Impedance and
Summary (2) Solve circuit with phasors 10
v
Z

R
VC = V R+Z vR
vC

1592j 0
= 10j 10001592j

C
= 4.5 7.2j = 8.47 122 -10
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
vC = 8.47 cos (t 122 ) t (ms)

## (3) Draw a phasor diagram showing KVL:

V = 10j
VC = 4.5 7.2j
VR = V VC = 4.5 2.8j = 5.3 32

Phasor Analysis

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
Given v = 10 sin t where = 2 1000,
Rotating Rod find vC (t).
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
(1) Find capacitor complex impedance
1 1
Complex Impedances Z= jC = 6.28j104 = 1592j
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Impedance and
Summary (2) Solve circuit with phasors 10
v
Z

R
VC = V R+Z vR
vC

1592j 0
= 10j 10001592j

C
= 4.5 7.2j = 8.47 122 -10
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
vC = 8.47 cos (t 122 ) t (ms)

## (3) Draw a phasor diagram showing KVL:

V = 10j
VC = 4.5 7.2j
VR = V VC = 4.5 2.8j = 5.3 32

## E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2016-9024) Phasors: 10 8 / 11

CIVIL

Capacitors: i = C dv
10: Sine waves and phasors
Sine Waves dt I leads V
Rotating Rod
di
Phasors Inductors: v = L dt V leads I
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Impedance and
Summary

## E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2016-9024) Phasors: 10 9 / 11

CIVIL

Capacitors: i = C dv
10: Sine waves and phasors
Sine Waves dt I leads V
Rotating Rod
di
Phasors Inductors: v = L dt V leads I
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic Mnemonic: CIVIL = In a capacitor I lead V but V leads I in an inductor.
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Impedance and
Summary

## E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2016-9024) Phasors: 10 9 / 11

CIVIL

Capacitors: i = C dv
10: Sine waves and phasors
Sine Waves dt I leads V
Rotating Rod
di
Phasors Inductors: v = L dt V leads I
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic Mnemonic: CIVIL = In a capacitor I lead V but V leads I in an inductor.
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Impedance and
COMPLEX ARITHMETIC TRICKS:
Summary

## E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2016-9024) Phasors: 10 9 / 11

CIVIL

Capacitors: i = C dv
10: Sine waves and phasors
Sine Waves dt I leads V
Rotating Rod
di
Phasors Inductors: v = L dt V leads I
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic Mnemonic: CIVIL = In a capacitor I lead V but V leads I in an inductor.
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Impedance and
COMPLEX ARITHMETIC TRICKS:
Summary (1) j j = j j = 1

## E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2016-9024) Phasors: 10 9 / 11

CIVIL

Capacitors: i = C dv
10: Sine waves and phasors
Sine Waves dt I leads V
Rotating Rod
di
Phasors Inductors: v = L dt V leads I
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic Mnemonic: CIVIL = In a capacitor I lead V but V leads I in an inductor.
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Impedance and
COMPLEX ARITHMETIC TRICKS:
Summary (1) j j = j j = 1
(2) 1j = j

## E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2016-9024) Phasors: 10 9 / 11

CIVIL

Capacitors: i = C dv
10: Sine waves and phasors
Sine Waves dt I leads V
Rotating Rod
di
Phasors Inductors: v = L dt V leads I
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic Mnemonic: CIVIL = In a capacitor I lead V but V leads I in an inductor.
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Impedance and
COMPLEX ARITHMETIC TRICKS:
Summary (1) j j = j j = 1
(2) 1j = j
(3) a + jb = r =rej
where r = a2 + b2 and = arctan ab (180 if a < 0)

## E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2016-9024) Phasors: 10 9 / 11

CIVIL

Capacitors: i = C dv
10: Sine waves and phasors
Sine Waves dt I leads V
Rotating Rod
di
Phasors Inductors: v = L dt V leads I
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic Mnemonic: CIVIL = In a capacitor I lead V but V leads I in an inductor.
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Impedance and
COMPLEX ARITHMETIC TRICKS:
Summary (1) j j = j j = 1
(2) 1j = j
(3) a + jb = r =rej
where r = a2 + b2 and = arctan ab (180 if a < 0)
(4) r = rej = (r cos ) + j (r sin )

## E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2016-9024) Phasors: 10 9 / 11

CIVIL

Capacitors: i = C dv
10: Sine waves and phasors
Sine Waves dt I leads V
Rotating Rod
di
Phasors Inductors: v = L dt V leads I
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic Mnemonic: CIVIL = In a capacitor I lead V but V leads I in an inductor.
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Impedance and
COMPLEX ARITHMETIC TRICKS:
Summary (1) j j = j j = 1
(2) 1j = j
(3) a + jb = r =rej
where r = a2 + b2 and = arctan ab (180 if a < 0)
(4) r = rej = (r cos ) + j (r sin )
a
(5) a b = ab ( + ) and b = ab ( ).
Multiplication and division are much easier in polar form.

## E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2016-9024) Phasors: 10 9 / 11

CIVIL

Capacitors: i = C dv
10: Sine waves and phasors
Sine Waves dt I leads V
Rotating Rod
di
Phasors Inductors: v = L dt V leads I
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic Mnemonic: CIVIL = In a capacitor I lead V but V leads I in an inductor.
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Impedance and
COMPLEX ARITHMETIC TRICKS:
Summary (1) j j = j j = 1
(2) 1j = j
(3) a + jb = r =rej
where r = a2 + b2 and = arctan ab (180 if a < 0)
(4) r = rej = (r cos ) + j (r sin )
a
(5) a b = ab ( + ) and b = ab ( ).
Multiplication and division are much easier in polar form.
(6) All scientific calculators will convert rectangular to/from polar form.

## E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2016-9024) Phasors: 10 9 / 11

CIVIL

Capacitors: i = C dv
10: Sine waves and phasors
Sine Waves dt I leads V
Rotating Rod
di
Phasors Inductors: v = L dt V leads I
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic Mnemonic: CIVIL = In a capacitor I lead V but V leads I in an inductor.
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Impedance and
COMPLEX ARITHMETIC TRICKS:
Summary (1) j j = j j = 1
(2) 1j = j
(3) a + jb = r =rej
where r = a2 + b2 and = arctan ab (180 if a < 0)
(4) r = rej = (r cos ) + j (r sin )
a
(5) a b = ab ( + ) and b = ab ( ).
Multiplication and division are much easier in polar form.
(6) All scientific calculators will convert rectangular to/from polar form.

## Casio fx-991 (available in all exams except Maths) will do complex

arithmetic (+, , , , x2 , x1 , |x|, x ) in CMPLX mode.

Learn how to use this: it will save lots of time and errors.

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
For any network (resistors+capacitors+inductors):
Rotating Rod
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Impedance and
Summary

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
For any network (resistors+capacitors+inductors):
Rotating Rod
Phasors (1) Impedance = Resistance + j Reactance
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
Z = R + jX ()
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Impedance and
Summary

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
For any network (resistors+capacitors+inductors):
Rotating Rod
Phasors (1) Impedance = Resistance + j Reactance
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
Z = R + jX ()
Complex Impedances |Z|2 = R2 + X 2 Z = arctan X
R
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Impedance and
Summary

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
For any network (resistors+capacitors+inductors):
Rotating Rod
Phasors (1) Impedance = Resistance + j Reactance
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
Z = R + jX ()
Complex Impedances |Z|2 = R2 + X 2 Z = arctan X
R
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL 1
Impedance and (2) Admittance = Impedance = Conductance + j Susceptance
1
Summary Y = Z = G + jB Siemens (S)

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
For any network (resistors+capacitors+inductors):
Rotating Rod
Phasors (1) Impedance = Resistance + j Reactance
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
Z = R + jX ()
Complex Impedances |Z|2 = R2 + X 2 Z = arctan X
R
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL 1
Impedance and (2) Admittance = Impedance = Conductance + j Susceptance
Summary Y = Z1 = G + jB Siemens (S)
|Y |2 = |Z|
1 2
2 = G + B
2
Y = Z = arctan B
G

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
For any network (resistors+capacitors+inductors):
Rotating Rod
Phasors (1) Impedance = Resistance + j Reactance
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
Z = R + jX ()
Complex Impedances |Z|2 = R2 + X 2 Z = arctan X
R
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL 1
Impedance and (2) Admittance = Impedance = Conductance + j Susceptance
Summary Y = Z1 = G + jB Siemens (S)
|Y |2 = |Z|
1 2
2 = G + B
2
Y = Z = arctan B
G

Note:
1
Y = G + jB = Z

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
For any network (resistors+capacitors+inductors):
Rotating Rod
Phasors (1) Impedance = Resistance + j Reactance
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
Z = R + jX ()
Complex Impedances |Z|2 = R2 + X 2 Z = arctan X
R
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL 1
Impedance and (2) Admittance = Impedance = Conductance + j Susceptance
Summary Y = Z1 = G + jB Siemens (S)
|Y |2 = |Z|
1 2
2 = G + B
2
Y = Z = arctan B
G

Note:
1 1
Y = G + jB = Z = R+jX

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
For any network (resistors+capacitors+inductors):
Rotating Rod
Phasors (1) Impedance = Resistance + j Reactance
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
Z = R + jX ()
Complex Impedances |Z|2 = R2 + X 2 Z = arctan X
R
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL 1
Impedance and (2) Admittance = Impedance = Conductance + j Susceptance
Summary Y = Z1 = G + jB Siemens (S)
|Y |2 = |Z|
1 2
2 = G + B
2
Y = Z = arctan B
G

Note:
Y = G + jB = 1
Z = 1
R+jX = R
R +X 2
2 + j R2X
+X 2

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
For any network (resistors+capacitors+inductors):
Rotating Rod
Phasors (1) Impedance = Resistance + j Reactance
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
Z = R + jX ()
Complex Impedances |Z|2 = R2 + X 2 Z = arctan X
R
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL 1
Impedance and (2) Admittance = Impedance = Conductance + j Susceptance
Summary Y = Z1 = G + jB Siemens (S)
|Y |2 = |Z|
1 2
2 = G + B
2
Y = Z = arctan B
G

Note:
Y = G + jB = 1
Z = 1
R+jX = R
R +X 2
2 + j R2X
+X 2
R R
So G = 2
R +X 2 = |Z|2
X X
B= R2 +X 2 = |Z|2

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
For any network (resistors+capacitors+inductors):
Rotating Rod
Phasors (1) Impedance = Resistance + j Reactance
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
Z = R + jX ()
Complex Impedances |Z|2 = R2 + X 2 Z = arctan X
R
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL 1
Impedance and (2) Admittance = Impedance = Conductance + j Susceptance
Summary Y = Z1 = G + jB Siemens (S)
|Y |2 = |Z|
1 2
2 = G + B
2
Y = Z = arctan B
G

Note:
Y = G + jB = 1
Z = 1
R+jX = R
R +X 2
2 + j R2X
+X 2
R R
So G = 2
R +X 2 = |Z|2
X X
B= R2 +X 2 = |Z|2

1
Beware: G 6= R unless X = 0.

Summary

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
Sine waves are the only bounded signals whose shape is unchanged by
Rotating Rod differentiation.
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
Complex Impedances
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL
Impedance and
Summary

Summary

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
Sine waves are the only bounded signals whose shape is unchanged by
Rotating Rod differentiation.
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
Think of a sine wave as the projection of a rotating rod onto the
Complex Impedances horizontal (or real) axis.
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL A phasor is a complex number representing the length and position
Impedance and
Admittance of the rod at time t = 0.
Summary

Summary

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
Sine waves are the only bounded signals whose shape is unchanged by
Rotating Rod differentiation.
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
Think of a sine wave as the projection of a rotating rod onto the
Complex Impedances horizontal (or real) axis.
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL A phasor is a complex number representing the length and position
Impedance and
Admittance of the rod at time t = 0.
Summary
If V = a + jb = r = rej , then
v(t) = a cos t b sin t = r cos (t + ) = V ejt


Summary

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
Sine waves are the only bounded signals whose shape is unchanged by
Rotating Rod differentiation.
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
Think of a sine wave as the projection of a rotating rod onto the
Complex Impedances horizontal (or real) axis.
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL A phasor is a complex number representing the length and position
Impedance and
Admittance of the rod at time t = 0.
Summary
If V = a + jb = r = rej , then
v(t) = a cos t b sin t = r cos (t + ) = V ejt


Summary

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
Sine waves are the only bounded signals whose shape is unchanged by
Rotating Rod differentiation.
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
Think of a sine wave as the projection of a rotating rod onto the
Complex Impedances horizontal (or real) axis.
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL A phasor is a complex number representing the length and position
Impedance and
Admittance of the rod at time t = 0.
Summary
If V = a + jb = r = rej , then
v(t) = a cos t b sin t = r cos (t + ) = V ejt


## The angular frequency = 2f is assumed known.

If all sources in a linear circuit are sine waves having the same
frequency, we can use phasors for circuit analysis:

Summary

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
Sine waves are the only bounded signals whose shape is unchanged by
Rotating Rod differentiation.
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
Think of a sine wave as the projection of a rotating rod onto the
Complex Impedances horizontal (or real) axis.
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL A phasor is a complex number representing the length and position
Impedance and
Admittance of the rod at time t = 0.
Summary
If V = a + jb = r = rej , then
v(t) = a cos t b sin t = r cos (t + ) = V ejt


## The angular frequency = 2f is assumed known.

If all sources in a linear circuit are sine waves having the same
frequency, we can use phasors for circuit analysis:
1
Use complex impedances: jL and jC

Summary

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
Sine waves are the only bounded signals whose shape is unchanged by
Rotating Rod differentiation.
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
Think of a sine wave as the projection of a rotating rod onto the
Complex Impedances horizontal (or real) axis.
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL A phasor is a complex number representing the length and position
Impedance and
Admittance of the rod at time t = 0.
Summary
If V = a + jb = r = rej , then
v(t) = a cos t b sin t = r cos (t + ) = V ejt


## The angular frequency = 2f is assumed known.

If all sources in a linear circuit are sine waves having the same
frequency, we can use phasors for circuit analysis:
1
Use complex impedances: jL and jC
Mnemonic: CIVIL tells you whether I leads V or vice versa
(leads means reaches its peak before).

Summary

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
Sine waves are the only bounded signals whose shape is unchanged by
Rotating Rod differentiation.
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
Think of a sine wave as the projection of a rotating rod onto the
Complex Impedances horizontal (or real) axis.
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL A phasor is a complex number representing the length and position
Impedance and
Admittance of the rod at time t = 0.
Summary
If V = a + jb = r = rej , then
v(t) = a cos t b sin t = r cos (t + ) = V ejt


## The angular frequency = 2f is assumed known.

If all sources in a linear circuit are sine waves having the same
frequency, we can use phasors for circuit analysis:
1
Use complex impedances: jL and jC
Mnemonic: CIVIL tells you whether I leads V or vice versa
(leads means reaches its peak before).
Phasors eliminate time from equations ,

Summary

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
Sine waves are the only bounded signals whose shape is unchanged by
Rotating Rod differentiation.
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
Think of a sine wave as the projection of a rotating rod onto the
Complex Impedances horizontal (or real) axis.
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL A phasor is a complex number representing the length and position
Impedance and
Admittance of the rod at time t = 0.
Summary
If V = a + jb = r = rej , then
v(t) = a cos t b sin t = r cos (t + ) = V ejt


## The angular frequency = 2f is assumed known.

If all sources in a linear circuit are sine waves having the same
frequency, we can use phasors for circuit analysis:
1
Use complex impedances: jL and jC
Mnemonic: CIVIL tells you whether I leads V or vice versa
(leads means reaches its peak before).
Phasors eliminate time from equations ,, converts simultaneous
differential equations into simultaneous linear equations ,,,.

Summary

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
Sine waves are the only bounded signals whose shape is unchanged by
Rotating Rod differentiation.
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
Think of a sine wave as the projection of a rotating rod onto the
Complex Impedances horizontal (or real) axis.
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL A phasor is a complex number representing the length and position
Impedance and
Admittance of the rod at time t = 0.
Summary
If V = a + jb = r = rej , then
v(t) = a cos t b sin t = r cos (t + ) = V ejt


## The angular frequency = 2f is assumed known.

If all sources in a linear circuit are sine waves having the same
frequency, we can use phasors for circuit analysis:
1
Use complex impedances: jL and jC
Mnemonic: CIVIL tells you whether I leads V or vice versa
(leads means reaches its peak before).
Phasors eliminate time from equations ,, converts simultaneous
differential equations into simultaneous linear equations ,,,.
Needs complex numbers / but worth it.

Summary

## 10: Sine waves and phasors

Sine Waves
Sine waves are the only bounded signals whose shape is unchanged by
Rotating Rod differentiation.
Phasors
Phasor Examples
Phasor arithmetic
Think of a sine wave as the projection of a rotating rod onto the
Complex Impedances horizontal (or real) axis.
Phasor Analysis
CIVIL A phasor is a complex number representing the length and position
Impedance and
Admittance of the rod at time t = 0.
Summary
If V = a + jb = r = rej , then
v(t) = a cos t b sin t = r cos (t + ) = V ejt


## The angular frequency = 2f is assumed known.

If all sources in a linear circuit are sine waves having the same
frequency, we can use phasors for circuit analysis:
1
Use complex impedances: jL and jC
Mnemonic: CIVIL tells you whether I leads V or vice versa
(leads means reaches its peak before).
Phasors eliminate time from equations ,, converts simultaneous
differential equations into simultaneous linear equations ,,,.
Needs complex numbers / but worth it.
see Hayt Chapter 10
E1.1 Analysis of Circuits (2016-9024) Phasors: 10 11 / 11