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2014ENG 4.5 – BUILDING STRUCTURES – IV CONTACT PERIODS: 3 (LECTURE) PER WEEK DURATION OF
2014ENG 4.5 – BUILDING STRUCTURES – IV
CONTACT PERIODS: 3 (LECTURE) PER WEEK
DURATION OF EXAM: 3 HRS VIVA MARKS:75 PROGRESSIVE
MARKS :75
OBJECTIVE: Gain understanding of Steel Structural Systems including
composite construction; Fundamental principles and structural behavior
of steel buildings in withstanding gravity loads. Understand the process
of the design of structural steel systems and to learn how to design
simple steel structures.
OUTLINE 1) Structural Steel: Different kinds of Steel, their Basic characteristics of Steel & Light
OUTLINE
1) Structural Steel: Different kinds of Steel, their Basic characteristics of Steel & Light Gauge Steel
materials.
2) Concepts of design of Steel Structures: Introduction to the concept of Working Stress Design and Load
and Resistance Factor Design.
3) Steel Structural Systems: Introduction to Rigid Portal Frames design of a one story industrial building
18M X 48m with two-bay mezzanine office floor. Project work to include a framing plan for both the industrial
building and the mezzanine, an approximate design of structural frame elements, columns and beams.
Introduction to available sections in structural steel used in the design of frame elements.
4) Introduction to National Building Code: IS 800: Criteria & Design to satisfy Building Codes and
Standards, Dead and Live load calculations as per IS875 (Part1&2). Determine the general loads to be
considered in the design of the structure, based on the type of occupancy for each area specified.
5) Rigid Frames design-1: Properties of Indian standard rolled steel section and general framing
arrangement of beams and columns for the one story 18M X 48m industrial building.
6) Rigid Frames design-2: Design of Rigid frame including selection of frames according to the span spacing
and frame configuration using steel manuals.
7) Composite Flooring Systems: Discussion on steel-concrete composite construction using steel beams,
metal decking and concrete, including the role of shear connectors’ attachment to the beam for composite
action.
8) Composite flooring systems design for mezzanine: Loading and Analysis (Moment diagram to be
provided) and design of composite steel decking with concrete topping.
9) Rigid frame elements design-1: Steel Structural Column design using IS special publication for the
design of steel structures [SP-6 (1)]
10) Rigid frame elements design-2: Steel Structural Beams and trusses design using IS special publication
for the design of steel structures [SP-6 (1)]
11) Drawings and Specifications for the Rigid frame design: Structural design criteria, including loads
used, calculations, drawings and detailing, and steel tonnage calculation.
12) Field Inspection of Steel Construction Site: The structure for site visit shall be similar to the one
discussed in the semester and project work to include documentation and a report about the observations,
learning and findings at Site
Introduction Structural Steel :
Introduction Structural Steel :
Structural Steel:
Structural Steel:
Structural Steel:
Structural Steel:
Structural Steel:
Structural Steel:
Structural Steel:
Structural Steel:
Thinking of Forms New forms cannot be conceived because forms are universal and it is
Thinking of Forms
New forms cannot be conceived because forms are universal
and it is only thinking or ideas of forms, which is new.
The basics of thinking or concept of forms Rationally and
Empirically are to reproduce a form in the brain by pattern
matching or pattern recognition.
One of the ways brain processes information is that when
brain sees new forms, these visualized forms are matched
against past forms in memory and judgments are made.
The brain makes judgments by comparing present visualized
form and arranging with past forms in memory.The brain has
the capacity to mix, match, merge, shift, and sort forms.
Thinking according to British Philosopher David Hume is divided into two:
Impressions - Immediate data of seeing, i.e. Immediate sensation, Passion & Emotion
Concepts - Concepts are copies of faint images of impression by thinking about or recalling of impressions.
1) Structural Steel: Basic Characteristics of Steel & Light Gauge Steel Materials.
1) Structural Steel:
Basic Characteristics of Steel & Light
Gauge Steel Materials.
Sructural Steel – Typical Composition HPS* : High Performance Steel Composition % Element HPS* 50W
Sructural Steel – Typical Composition
HPS* : High Performance Steel
Composition %
Element
HPS*
50W and 70W
HPS*
Mild Steel A36
100W
Carbon (C)
0.11 max
0.08
max
0.25-0.29
Manganese (Mn)
1.10-1.35
0.90-1.50
1.20
max
Phosphorus (P)
0.020
max
0.015
max
0.04
max
Sulfur (S)
0.006
max
0.005
max
0.05
max
Silicon (Si)
0.30-0.50
0.40
max
0.15-0.40
Copper (Cu)
0.25-0.40
0.90-1.20
0.20 min (when specified)
Nickel (Ni)
0.25-0.40
0.65-1.00
-
Chromium (Cr)
0.45-0.70
0.40-0.65
-
Vanadium (V)
0.04-0.08
0.05-0.07
-
Molybdenum (Mo)
0.02-0.08
0.40-0.65
-
Aluminum (Al)
0.01-0.04
-
-
Nitrogen (N)
0.015
max
-
-
Structural Steel - Properties Elastic Limit: Transition from elastic to inelastic behavior Yield Point: Stress
Structural Steel - Properties
Elastic Limit:
Transition from elastic to inelastic
behavior
Yield Point:
Stress Fy at the elastic limit
Elastic Modulus:
Slope of elastic part of curve
E~29,000 ksi (200,000 Mpa)
Structural Steel - Properties Yield Point: Stress Fy at the elastic limit Ult. Tens. Str:
Structural Steel - Properties
Yield Point:
Stress Fy at the elastic limit
Ult. Tens. Str:
Fu is the maximum stress developed in
the inelastic zone
Structural Steel - Properties Residual Strain: Permanent deformation after unloading
Structural Steel - Properties
Residual Strain:
Permanent deformation after
unloading
Structural Steel - Properties If Yield Point not Clearly Defined 0.2% Method Draw line parallel
Structural Steel - Properties
If Yield Point not Clearly Defined
0.2% Method
Draw line parallel to elastic part
0.2% Strain
Structural Steel - Characteristics Elasticity: Ability of metal to return to its original shape after
Structural Steel - Characteristics
Elasticity:
Ability of metal to return to its original shape after
loading and subsequent unloading
Fatigue:
Cycling loading and unloading stresses material above
its endurance limit and leads to failure
Ductility:
Deformation without fracture beyond the elastic limit
(ineleastic behavior)
High Ductility
Toughness: Combination of strength and ductility
High toughness
Structural Steel - Characteristics Maintenance: Susceptible to Corrosion when exposed to air and water Use
Structural Steel - Characteristics
Maintenance:
Susceptible to Corrosion when exposed to air and water
Use paints, or weathering steels
Fireproofing:
Strength reduces with increased temperature -
Fireproofing required
Structural Steel - Sections See IS-800 Section Properties and other shapes
Structural Steel - Sections
See IS-800 Section Properties and other shapes
Structural Steel - Sections Typical Cold-Formed Light Gage Steel Shapes
Structural Steel - Sections
Typical Cold-Formed Light Gage Steel Shapes
Available steel grade in India per IS 2062;
Available steel grade in India per IS 2062;
2)Philosophies of Design of Steel Structures: Introduction to the concept of Working Stress Design and
2)Philosophies of Design of Steel Structures:
Introduction to the concept of Working Stress Design
and Load and Resistance Factor Design.
Design Philosophies Allowable Stress Design Method (ASD): This was the traditional method of design for
Design Philosophies
Allowable Stress Design Method (ASD): This was the traditional method of
design for structural steel and timber design. The method basically assumes
that the structural material behaves as a linear elastic manner, and that
adequate safety can be ensured by suitably restricting the stresses in the
material induced by the expected “working loads” on the structure. As the
specified permissible stresses are kept well below the material strength, the
assumption of linear elastic behavior is considered justifiable.
Allowable Stress and Factor of Safety
Every material has a certain capacity to carry load, but unsafe to load a material
to full capacity — it would have no reserve strength.
This is dangerous because:
• May experience a load greater than anticipated
•Material may be defective
•Construction may be faulty (fabrication / erection / workmanship, etc.)
•Other unforeseen situation (calculation errors, etc)
Factor of safety = Yield stress/ Allowable stress
Factor of safety is 1.67 for tension members and beams, 1.92 for long columns
and 2.5 to 3 for connections
Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD): This philosophy is an advancement over the traditional design
Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD): This philosophy is an advancement
over the traditional design philosophies. It considers the safety at the ultimate
load and serviceability at the working load
LRFD –Load and Resistance Factor Design
• A member is selected such that its factored strength is more than the factored loads.
• Each load effect (DL, LL,
)has
a different load factor which its value depends on the
combination of loads under consideration.
Resistance Factor
• The resistance factors range in value from 0.75 to 1.0 depending on the type of resistance
(tension, bending, compression,
)
• These factors account for uncertainties in material properties, design theory, and
fabrication and construction practices.
3) Steel Structural Systems Design Plan Introduction to Rigid Portal Frames design of a one
3) Steel Structural Systems Design
Plan
Introduction to Rigid Portal Frames design of
a one story industrial building 18M by 48m
with two bay mezzanine office floor.
Students at the end will succeed in have a
framing plan for both the industrial and
mezzanine, and the approximate design of
structural frame elements, column and
beam. Also students shall be introduced to
available section in structural steel for used
in the design of frame elements.
Typical Section
4) Structural Analysis and Design to satisfy Building Codes and Standards; Introduction to National Building
4) Structural Analysis and Design to satisfy
Building Codes and Standards;
Introduction to National Building Code and IS800:
calculation of dead weight and live loads on
structure.
Structural Analysis and Design to Satisfy Building Codes and Standards : IS:800:2007 IS:875:1987(Part-1)
Structural Analysis and Design to Satisfy Building Codes and Standards :
IS:800:2007
IS:875:1987(Part-1)
IS:875:1987(Part-2)
Design Dead Loads as per IS:875:1987(Part-1) Dead Load Self Load: It is the load of
Design Dead Loads as per IS:875:1987(Part-1)
Dead Load
Self Load: It is the load of structural member due to its own weight.
Superimposed Dead Load: It is the load supported by a structural member.
Example: Flooring
Design Dead Loads as per IS:875:1987(Part-1)
Design Dead Loads as per IS:875:1987(Part-1)
Design Live Loads as per IS:875:1987(Part-2) Live Load:“Live loads consist chiefly of occupancy loads in
Design Live Loads as per IS:875:1987(Part-2)
Live Load:“Live loads consist chiefly of occupancy loads in buildings”
5) Rigid Frames design: Loading and Analysis (Moment diagram to be provided) and design of
5) Rigid Frames design: Loading and
Analysis (Moment diagram to be provided)
and design of Rigid frame using steel
manuals;
10) Rigid Frames System Loading (Gravity Loads Only): IS 875-2 (1987): Code of Practice for
10) Rigid Frames System
Loading (Gravity Loads Only):
IS 875-2 (1987): Code of Practice for Design Loads
(Other. Than Earthquake) For Buildings And
Structures, Part 2: Imposed Loads
Dead Load: Self weight of Truss or Beam
plus 0.5mm Thick Roofing Sheet.
Live Load: 0.75 KN/sqm reducible by 2/3 (slope of 10deg)
Rigid Frame System
Rigid Frame System
6) Review of design of rigid framing.
6) Review of design of rigid framing.
7) Composite flooring systems design for mezzanine: With steel decking and concrete topping
7) Composite flooring systems design
for mezzanine: With steel decking and
concrete topping
Composite Flooring System The use of steel-concrete composite construction began around 1926. Composite construction is
Composite Flooring System
The use of steel-concrete composite construction
began around 1926.
Composite construction is when two different
materials are bound together so strongly that
they act together as a single unit from a
structural stand point.
Steel-concrete composite construction uses steel
beams, metal decking and concrete in a very
efficient way so that the best properties of each
material can be used to optimize construction
techniques.
Steel beams are shored (supported at intervals)
during the pouring of slab and the shores remain
in place until the concrete has attained a
reasonable amount of its 28-day strength
(usually 75%). Then the composite section is
available to carry all loads upon removal of the
shores.
During recent years, Steel-concrete composite
design has been widely applied in building
construction.
Structural Design Concept • Composite Steel Floor Deck has a ribbed profile with embossments designed
Structural Design Concept
• Composite Steel Floor Deck has a ribbed profile
with embossments designed to interlock with
concrete slabs, creating a reinforced concrete slab
that serves the dual purpose of permanent form
and positive reinforcement.
Composite construction is when two different
materials are bound together so strongly that they
act together as a single unit from a structural stand
point.
• The shear studs that are welded on to the
double angle top chord provides composite action
between the concrete deck slab and the double
angle chord.
•The composite action will reduce the buckling
problems of the compression top chord members
and will increase the stiffness of the structure.
•The composite action would reduce the steel used
in Composite flooring system and also reduce
deflection.
Advantages of Floor System 1. Efficient use of material. As a result of composite design,
Advantages of Floor System
1. Efficient use of material. As a result of composite design, the size and weight of steel beams can be reduced by as much as 15
to 30%. The cost of fireproofing can be reduced in addition to the cost reduction of steel beams.
2. Greater stiffness. The stiffness of the composite section can be increased. This reduces the deflection of the member as
compared with the noncomposite beam.
3. Saving in labor and other because the construction was usually done with wood forming and the slab was reinforced with bars.
For the last 30 years, steel deck has been used as the forming material for building construction.
4. Weight savings resulting from the efficient composite design and member design of floor system will reduce overall building
costs.
5. Kit-of-parts construction of floor system with standardization of members and connections with simplified erection provides for
fastest and quality construction.
6. Extra usable space. The use of shallow beams can reduce building heights. It is also possible to increase column spacings to
provide larger usable space within a structure. Large column free areas give the architects the maximum flexibility when
selecting a floor layout plan. Customized composite flooring design can be employed for any given load and serviceability
requirements. Beam spans of 6 to 12 m can be created giving maximum flexibility and division of the internal space.
8) Review of design of mezzanine framing.
8) Review of design of mezzanine framing.
8) Review of design of mezzanine framing. Composite Floor System Building Application
8) Review of design of mezzanine
framing.
Composite Floor System
Building Application
Composite Floor System at Bank of America Plaza Bank of America Plaza is a 72-story
Composite Floor System
at Bank of America Plaza
Bank of America Plaza is a 72-story late-modernist skyscraper
located in the Main Street District of downtown Dallas,Texas.
Standing at a structural height of 921 ft (281 m), it is the tallest
skyscraper in the city of Dallas. Construction began in 1983 and
finished in 1985.
Composite Floor System @ One Detroit Center One Detroit Center, is a skyscraper which overlooks
Composite Floor System
@ One Detroit Center
One Detroit Center, is a skyscraper which overlooks the Detroit
Financial District. Rising 619 feet (189 m), the 43-story tower is the
tallest office building in Michigan State. Its floor area is 1,674,708 square
feet (155,585 m2).
Construction began in 1991 and finished in 1993.
Composite Floor System @ Four Allen Center Four Allen Center now called 1400 Smith Street
Composite Floor System
@ Four Allen Center
Four Allen Center now called 1400 Smith Street is
a 691 ft (211m) tall postmodern skyscraper
located in downtown Houston.The building has 50
floors and is the 11th tallest building in the city.
Designed by architectural firm Lloyd Jones Brewer
and Associates, the building was completed in
1983.
Composite Floor System @ The Wells Fargo Center The Wells Fargo Center, formerly known as
Composite Floor System
@ The Wells Fargo Center
The Wells Fargo Center, formerly known as Norwest
Center, is the third-tallest building in Minneapolis,
Minnesota. It is a 57 storied tower completed in 1988, it
is 774 feet (235.6 m) tall. Norwest Center was designed
with a modernized art deco style by César Pelli.
Construction began in 1986 and finished in 1988.
Composite Floor System @ Fox Plaza Fox Plaza is a 492 feet (150 m)-high skyscraper
Composite Floor System
@ Fox Plaza
Fox Plaza is a 492 feet (150 m)-high skyscraper with 35 floors in
Century City, Los Angeles, California, a local landmark. Completed
in 1987
Composite Floor System @ MTA Headquarters The MTA Building is a 398 ft (121 m)
Composite Floor System
@ MTA Headquarters
The MTA Building is a 398 ft (121 m) high
rise office tower in Los Angeles, with 25
floors, completed in 1995.
Composite Floor System @ Bank of America Plaza Bank of America Plaza is a skyscraper
Composite Floor System
@ Bank of America Plaza
Bank of America Plaza is a skyscraper
located in Atlanta, Georgia.At 312 m (1,024
ft) the tower is a 55 stories of office space
completed in 1992
Composite Floor System @ Bank of America Plaza U.S. Bank Tower, formerly Library Tower and
Composite Floor System
@ Bank of America Plaza
U.S. Bank Tower, formerly Library Tower and First Interstate Bank
World Center, is a 310.3 m (1,018 ft) skyscraper at downtown Los
Angeles. It is the tallest building in California, it is also the tallest
building in the world with a roof-top heliport. Until the
construction of Taipei 101, it was also the tallest building in a major
active seismic region; its structure was designed to resist an
earthquake of 8.3 on the Richter scale. It consists of 73 stories
above ground and two parking levels below ground. Construction
began in 1987 with completion in 1989.
Composite Floor System @ 777 Tower 777 Tower (also known as the Pelli Tower) is
Composite Floor System
@ 777 Tower
777 Tower (also known as the Pelli Tower) is a 221 m (725 ft), 52-
story office building designed by César Pelli in Downtown Los
Angeles, California. Developed in 1991, the building contains
approximately 1,025,000 sq ft (95,200 m2) and a three-story Italian
marble lobby.The exterior is clad with sculpted white metal and
glass.
9)Steel Structural Rigid frame elements design: Column design using IS handbook for Structural Engineers Structural
9)Steel Structural Rigid frame elements design: Column design using IS
handbook for Structural Engineers Structural Steel SP6 (1)]
Why Working Stress Method and SP6 (1)?
9)Steel Structural Rigid frame elements design: Column design using IS special publication for the design
9)Steel Structural Rigid frame elements design: Column design using IS special
publication for the design of steel structures[SP-6 (1)]
Loading (Gravity Loads Only):
Dead load:
a)Self weight of beam & column
b) 50mm thick steel deck plus 75mm concrete.
Live load: 5 KN/sqm
9)Steel Structural Rigid frame elements design: Column design using IS special publication for the design
9)Steel Structural Rigid frame elements design: Column design using IS special
publication for the design of steel structures[SP-6 (1)]
10) Steel Structural Rigid frame elements design: Beams or trusses design using IS special publication
10) Steel Structural Rigid frame elements design: Beams or trusses
design using IS special publication for the design of steel structures[SP-6 (1)]
Loading (Gravity Loads Only):
IS 875-2 (1987): Code of Practice for Design Loads
(Other. Than Earthquake) For Buildings And
Structures, Part 2: Imposed Loads
Dead Load: Self weight of Truss or Beam
plus 0.5mm Thick Roofing Sheet.
Live Load: 0.75 KN/sqm reducible by 2/3 (slope of 10deg)
10) Steel Structural Rigid frame elements design: Beams or trusses design using IS special publication
10) Steel Structural Rigid frame elements design: Beams or trusses
design using IS special publication for the design of steel structures[SP-6 (1)]
Loading (Gravity Loads Only):
Dead Load: Self weight Beam plus 52MM1.25mm Thick Roofing Sheet + 75MM Concrete
Live Load: 5 KN/sqm
10) Steel Structural Rigid frame elements design: Beams or trusses design using IS special publication
10) Steel Structural Rigid frame elements design: Beams or trusses
design using IS special publication for the design of steel structures[SP-6 (1)]
11) Drawings and Specifications for the Rigid frame design: Structural design criteria, including loads used,
11) Drawings and Specifications for the Rigid frame design:
Structural design criteria, including loads used, calculations, drawings and
detailing, and steel tonnage calculation.
11) Drawings and Specifications for the Rigid frame design: Structural design criteria, including loads used,
11) Drawings and Specifications for the Rigid frame design:
Structural design criteria, including loads used, calculations, drawings and
detailing, and steel tonnage calculation.
11) Drawings and Specifications for the Rigid frame design: Structural design criteria, including loads used,
11) Drawings and Specifications for the Rigid frame design:
Structural design criteria, including loads used, calculations, drawings and
detailing, and steel tonnage calculation.
11) Drawings and Specifications for the Rigid frame design: Structural design criteria, including loads used,
11) Drawings and Specifications for the Rigid frame design:
Structural design criteria, including loads used, calculations, drawings and
detailing, and steel tonnage calculation.
11) Drawings and Specifications for the Rigid frame design: Structural design criteria, including loads used,
11) Drawings and Specifications for the Rigid frame design:
Structural design criteria, including loads used, calculations, drawings and
detailing, and steel tonnage calculation.
12) Field Inspection of Steel Construction Site. The building for site visit shall be similar
12) Field Inspection of Steel Construction Site.
The building for site visit shall be
similar to the building discussed in
the semester and students at the end
shall document and submit a report
about the learnings and findings at
Site
12) Field Inspection of Steel Construction Site.
12) Field Inspection of Steel Construction Site.
12) Field Inspection of Steel Construction Site.
12) Field Inspection of Steel Construction Site.
12) Field Inspection of Steel Construction Site.
12) Field Inspection of Steel Construction Site.
12) Field Inspection of Steel Construction Site.
12) Field Inspection of Steel Construction Site.
The Cloud The cloud project is one of the first large-scale cable supported spaceframe projects
The Cloud
The cloud project is one of the
first large-scale cable
supported spaceframe projects
in the United States, at
approximately 60,000 square
feet of covered area on each
face
Fabrication • Pipe storage • Welding • Shipping
Fabrication
• Pipe storage
• Welding
• Shipping
Strut Test Five strut type (ST3, ST5, ST7, ST10 & ST12) The failure load was
Strut Test
Five strut type (ST3, ST5, ST7, ST10 & ST12)
The failure load was well over the allowable
load, giving us great confidence in the strut
design. The effect of bending moment due to
self-weight on the smallest strut ST3 type
was minimum. However the bending moment
had effect on the ST5 strut type even in this
case the safety factor was higher than the
theoretical.
Installation Procedure • Foundation • Towers • Rings • Cables • Spaceframe Segments
Installation Procedure
• Foundation
• Towers
• Rings
• Cables
• Spaceframe Segments
Connecting the north and south segments • Spaceframe sections were completed around each of the
Connecting the north and south segments
• Spaceframe sections were completed
around each of the column towers first
• The center sections were placed between
the column sections
• This created a stable system of space
frame, connector struts, cables, and the
tower columns
Cladding Installation • The nosing frame sections were first installed • Later the cladding framing
Cladding Installation
• The nosing frame sections
were first installed
• Later the cladding framing and
cladding was installed
Project Remarks • There were numerous difficult engineering issues to solve on this problem, with
Project Remarks
• There
were
numerous
difficult
engineering
issues
to
solve
on
this
problem, with the
eccentric
cable
supported nature of the design
• The final result is a mammoth sized,
sleek looking, shade and sign structure
that provides visual impact for both the
day and night times
Questions aid for teaching Part A question 1) Draw plan, elevation and details for a
Questions aid for teaching
Part A question
1) Draw plan, elevation and details for a one story industrial building 18M X 48m, including structural framing
and frame element (columns, beam, purlins etc.) arrangements with dimensions for all the different elements?
Describe the behavior of the structural system used?
2) Draw plan, elevation and details for a one story mezzanine office floor occupying two-bay in an industrial
building 18M X 48m, including structural framing and frame element (columns, beam, deck slab etc.)
arrangements with dimensions for all the different elements? Describe the behavior of the structural system
used?
Part B question
1) Calculation of total dead weight and live loads on factory structure as per IS875 (Part1&2). Determine the
live and dead loads on roof, roof beam and column to be considered in the design of the structure.
2) Calculation of total dead weight and live loads on the mezzanine structure as per IS875 (Part1&2).
Determine the mezzanine floor loads on a typical column and design column using IS special publication for
the design of steel structures [SP-6 (1)] based on the type of occupancy as office.
3) Calculation of total dead weight and live loads on the mezzanine typical beam as per IS875 (Part1&2) and
design beam using IS special publication for the design of steel structures [SP-6 (1)] based on the type of
occupancy as office.
4) Sketch a typical structural steel drawing showing: Structural design criteria, including loads used, calculations,
drawings and detailing, and steel tonnage calculation for a one story industrial building 18M X 48m with two-bay
mezzanine office floor, include a framing plan for both the industrial building.
5) Describe the use of Steel as a structural material: Basic characteristics of Steel including the stress strain
curve and note all available steel grades with strengths?
6) Describe the concepts of design of Steel Structures:Working Stress Design and Load and Resistance Factor Design?
7) Draw and sketch the available sections in structural steel used in the design of. Framing elements as per IS-