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# UNIT 1

## ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

1. Differential equation :
An equation involving derivatives of one or more dependent variables with respect to one or more
independent variables is called a differential equation.
dy
e.g., log = ax + by,
dx
(1 x2) (1 y) dx = xy (1 + y) dy,

dy d 2 y dn y
Note : We use y (or y1), y (or y2), y (or y3)... y(n) (or yn) to denote , 2 ,.... n respectively.
dx dx dx

## 2. Ordinary differential equation :

A differential equation involving derivatives with respect to a single independent variable is called an
ordinary differential equation.
dy
e.g., = x + sin x
dx
3
d2 y dy 2 2
k 2 = 1
dx dx

## 3. Partial differential equation :

A differential equation involving partial derivatives with respect to more than one independent variables
is called a partial differential equation.
2
2v 3v
e.g., 2
= k 3
t x

2u 2u 2u
2
k 2 2 = 0
x y z

## 4. Order of a differential equation :

The order of a differential equation is the order of the highest derivative involved in a differential
equation, e.g.
5
d 4 x d 2 x dx 5 th
(i) = e is of 4 order.
dt 4 dt 2 dt

5L
Ordinary Differential Equations 6L Engineering Mathematics-II

3
d2 y 2
dy 2
(ii) k 2 = 1
nd
is of 2 order.
dx dx
2
2v 3 v
(iii) 2
= k 3 is of 3rd order.
t dx
(iv) dy = (x + sin x) dx is of 1st order.

## 5. Degree of a differential equation :

The degree of a differential equation is the degree of the highest derivative which occurs in it, after the
differential equation has been made free from radicals and fractions as far as the derivatives are concerned.
5
e.g., (i)d 4 x d 2 x dx = et is of first degree

dt 4 dt 2 dt
dy k
(ii) y = x
dx dy
dx
Making it free from fractions, we get
2
dy dy
y = x k
dx dx
Which is of second degree.

4 2
d 3y 2 dy x
1.1. The differential equation = sin xy
dx 3 6x dx e

is of .................. order and ................... degree. [UPTU 2009, Marks 2]
3 4 2
d y 2 dy x
3 6 x e = sin xy is of 3 order and 4 degree.
dx dx
OR
4 8
d 3y 2 dy
1.2. The order and degree of the differential equation 6x = 0 are .................
dx 3 dx

and ................. [UPTU 2009, Marks 2]
4 8
d3 y dy
The order and degree of the differential equation 3 6 x 2 = 0 are 3 and 4.
dx dx

## 6. (a) First order exact differential equations :

An exact differential equation is formed by directly differentiating its primitive (solution) without any
other process.
Mdx + Ndy = 0
is said to be an exact differential equation if it satisfies the following condition
M N
=
y x
M N
where denotes the differential coefficient of M with respect to y keeping x constant and , the
y x
differential coefficient of N with respect to x, keeping y constant.
Method For Solving Exact Differential Equations
Step I. Integrate M with respect to x keeping y constant.
Step II. Integrate N with respect to y, only those terms of N which do not contain x.
Step III. Result of I + Result of II = Constant.
Engineering Mathematics-II 7L Ordinary Differential Equations

## 1.3. Solve (5x4 + 3x2 y2 2xy3)dx + (2x3y 3x2y2 5y4)dy = 0

Here, M = 5x4 + 3x2y2 2xy3, N = 2x3y 3x2y2 5y4
M N
= 6x2y 6x y2, = 6x2y 6xy2
y x
M N
Since, = , the given equation is exact.
y x
Now M dx (terms of N not containing x) dy =C
4 2 2 3 4
(5 x 3x y 2xy )dx 5 y dy = C
x 5 + x 3y 2 x 2y 3 y 5 = C

a 2 ( x dy y dx )
1.4. Solve xdx + ydy =
x2y2
a2 ( x dy y dx)
We have, xdx + ydy =
x 2 y2
a2 y a2 x
or x 2 2
dx + y 2 dy = 0
x y x y2

a2 y a2 x
Here, M= x and N = y
x 2 y2 x2 y2
M a2 ( x2 y2 ) N a2 ( x2 y2 )
Now, = , =
y ( x 2 y 2 )2 x ( x 2 y 2 )2
M N
Since, =
y x
Equation is exact. Hence,

M dx N dy =C

a2 y
or x x2 y2 dx y dy =C

x2 1 x y2
a2 y. tan 1 =C
2 y y 2
x 2 y2 x
+ a2 tan1 = C
2 y

## 6. (b) Equations reducible to the exact differential equations :

Sometimes a differential equation which is not exact may become so, on multiplication by a suitable
function known as the integrating factor.
M N

y x f ( x ) dx
Rule I. If is a function of x alone, say f(x), then I.F. = e .
N

## 1.5. Solve (2x log x xy) dy + 2y dx = 0

M = 2y and N = 2x log x xy ...(1)
M N
= 2, = 2 (1 + log x) y
y x
Ordinary Differential Equations 8L Engineering Mathematics-II

M N

y x 2 log x y 1
Here, = = = f(x)
N 2 x log x xy x
1
x dx 1
I.F. = e = e log x =
x
1
Now, {(2x log x xy)dy + 2y dx}. =0
x
2y
or dx + (2 log xy)dy = 0
x
Integrating both sides, we get
1 2
2y log x y =C
2

N M

x y
Rule II. If is a function of y alone, say f(y), then
M
f ( y) dy
I.F. = e

## 1.6. Solve (y4 + 2y) dx + (xy3 + 2y4 4x) dy = 0.

Here M = y4 + 2y and N = xy3 + 2y4 4x ...(1)
M N
= 4y3 + 2 ; = y3 4
y x
N M

x y ( y3 4) (4 y3 2) 3( y3 2) 3
= = = = f(y)
M y4 2 y y( y3 2) y
3
f ( y) dy y dy 3 1
I.F. = e = e = e3 log y = elog y = y3 =
y3
1
On multiplying the given equation (1) by , we get the exact differential equation.
y3
2 4x
y 2 dx + x 2 y 3 dy = 0
y y
2
y y2 dx 2 y dy =C

2
x y 2 + y2 = C
y

1
then I.F =
Mx Ny

## 1.7. Solve y(xy + 2x2y2) dx + x (xy x2y2)dy = 0

y(x y + 2x2y2)dx + x(xy x2y2)dy = 0 ...(1)
Engineering Mathematics-II 9L Ordinary Differential Equations

## Dividing (1) by xy, we get

y(1 + 2xy) dx + x(1 xy) dy = 0 ...(2)
M = yf1(xy) and N = xf2(xy)
1 1 1
I.F = = =
Mx Ny xy(1 2 xy) xy(1 xy) 3x2 y2
1
Multiplying (2) by , we have an exact differential equation.
3x 2 y2
1 2 1 1
2 dx + 2
dy = 0
3x y 3 x 3 xy 3 y
1 2 1
3 x2 y 3x dx + 3 y dy =C

1 2 1
log x log y = C
3 xy 3 3
1
2 log x log y = b
xy

Rule IV : For this type of xm yn (ay dx + bx dy) + xm yn (ay dx + bx dy) = 0, the integrating factor is xhyk.
m h 1 n k 1 m h 1 n k 1
Where = and =
a b a b

## 1.8. Solve (3y 2xy3) dx + (4x 3x2y2) dy = 0. [UPTU 2007, Marks 5]

(3y 2xy3) dx + (4x 3x2y2) dy = 0
(3y dx + 4x dy) + xy2 ( 2y dx 3x dy) = 0 ...(1)
Comparing the coefficients of (1) with xm yn (ay dx + bx dy) + xm yn (ay dx + bx dy) = 0, we get
m = 0, n = 0, a = 3, b = 4
m = 1, n = 2, a = 2, b = 3
To find the integrating factor xhyk
m h 1 n k 1 m h 1 n k 1
= and =
a b a b
0 h 1 0 k 1 1 h 1 2 k1
= and =
3 4 2 3
h 1 k 1 h 2 k 3
= and =
3 4 2 3
2k
4h 3k + 1 = 0 ... (2) and 3h 2k = 0 h= ...(3)
3
Putting the value of h from equation (3) in (2), we get
8k
3k 1 = 0
3

k
1 = 0 k = 3
3
Putting k = 3 in equation (3), we get

2k 23
h= = =2
3 3
I.F = xhyk = x2y3
Ordinary Differential Equations 10 L Engineering Mathematics-II

## On multiplying the given differential equation by x2y3, we get

x2y3 (3y 2xy3) dx + x2y3 (4x 3x2y2) dy = 0
(3x2y4 2x3y6) dx + (4x3y3 3x4y5) dy = 0
This is the exact differential equation.
2 4 3 6
Its solution is (3 x y 2 x y ) dx = C

x4 6
x3 y4 y =C
2

1
Rule V : If the given equation Mdx + Ndy = 0 is homogeneous equation and Mx + Ny 0, then
Mx Ny
is an integrating factor.

dy x3y3
1.9. Solve =
dx xy 2
(x3 + y3) dx (xy2) dy = 0 ...(1)
Here M = x3 + y3 and N = xy2
1 1 1
I.F. = = =
Mx Ny x( x y ) xy2 ( y)
3 3
x4
1 1 1
Multiplying equation (1) by 4 we get, (x3 + y3) dx + 4 ( xy2) dy = 0
x x4 x
1 y3 y2
4 dx 3 dy = 0, which is an exact differential equation.
x x x
1 y3 y3
x x4 dx =C log x
3 x3
=C

## 6. (c) Differential equations reducible to exact form (by inspection) :

The following differential equations, which commonly occur, help in selecting the suitable integrating
factor.
x dy y dx y
(i) y dx + x dy = d[xy] (ii) = d
x2 x
y dx x dy x x dy y dx 1 y
(iii) = d (iv) = d tan
y2 y x 2 y2 x
x dy y dx y x dx y dy 1 2 2
(v) = d log (vi) = d log( x y )
xy x x2 y2 2
x dy y dx 1 x y x dy y dx 1
(vii) = d log (viii) 2 2 = d
2
x y 2 2 x y x y xy

## 7. Linear and Non linear differential equations :

A differential equation is linear if
(i) every dependent variable and every derivative involved occurs in the first degree only.
(ii) no product of dependent variables and/or derivatives occur.
Engineering Mathematics-II 11 L Ordinary Differential Equations

A differential equation which is not linear is called a non linear differential equation.
dy 2u 2u
e.g., = x + sin x and = 0 are linear,
dx x 2 y2
2
2v 3v
but 2
= K 3 is not linear.
t x

## 8. Solution of a differential equation :

Any relation between the dependent and independent variables, when substituted in the differential
equation, reduces it to an identity is called a solution or integral of the differential equation.

## 8. (a) General solution, particular solution and singular solution :

Let F(x, y, y1, y2,......, yn) = 0 be an nth order differential equation. ...(1)
A solution of (1) containing n independent arbitrary constants is called a general solution. A solution of
(1) obtained from a general solution of (1) by giving particular values to one or more of the n independent
arbitrary constants is called a particular solution of (1).
A solution of (1) which cannot be obtained from any general solution of (1) by any choice of the n
independent arbitrary constants is called a singular solution of (1).

## 1.10. Form a differential equation of all circles of radius a.

The equation of a circle with centre (h, k) and radius a is
(x h)2 + (y k)2 = a2 ...(1)
Here h, k are constants and a is a given parameter. Since here are two arbitrary constants therefore a
second order differential equation is formed by differentiating equation (1) two times and eliminating h
and k.
Differentiating (1) with respect to x, we get
2 (x h) + 2 (y k) y = 0
or (x h) + (y k) y = 0 ...(2)
Differentiate (2) again
1 + (y k) y + (y)2 = 0
1 ( y)
y k =
y
Put this value of (y k) in equation (2)
1 ( y) 2
x h y = 0
y
(1 ( y )2 )
xh= y
y
Using the values of x h and y k in equation (1), we get

(1 ( y )2 )2 ( y)2 (1 ( y)2 )2
= a2
( y)2 ( y )2
(1 + (y)2)3 = a2 (y)2

## 1.11. Formulate a differential equation for which

xy = aex + bex + x2 is a solution.
We have xy = aex + bex + x2 ...(1)
Differentiating (1) with respect to x, we get
xy + y = aex bex + 2x ...(2)
Ordinary Differential Equations 12 L Engineering Mathematics-II

## Differentiating again with respect to x

xy + y + y = aex + bex + 2 ...(3)
Put aex + bex = xy + 2y 2 from (3) in equation (1)
xy = xy + 2y 2 + x2
2
xy + 2y xy + x 2 = 0

D.1. Form the differential equation for y = a cos (nx + b), where a and b are constants.

## 9. Linear Differential Equations (L.D.E.) :

A linear differential equation is an equation in which the dependent variable and its derivatives appear
only in the first degree. For example

d2 y dy
+7 9y = 4x2 7
dx 2 dx
A linear differential equation of order n is of the form

dn y d n 1 y dn 2 y dy
n
+ a 1 n 1
a2 n 2
.... an 1 an y = Q
dx dx dx dx
Where a1, a2, a3,....an are all constants and Q is any function of x or constant. The above equation is called
a L.D.E., with constant coefficients.
If n = 2, this equation is L.D.E., of second order with constant coefficient. Its general form is given by

d2 y dy
2
Qy = R
P ...(1)
dx dx
Where P and Q are constants and R is a function of x or constant. Equation (1) in symbolic form may be
written as
(D2 + PD + Q) y = R
dy d2 y
Where Dy = , D2y =
dx dx 2
D stands for differentiation and is called as differential operator.
1
stands for integration.
D

9. (a) Solution of a second order linear differential equation with constant coefficient :
Solution of the second order L.D.E., consists of two parts. One part is corresponding to the L.H.S., of the
equation and second part is for the R.H.S. The first part is called as complementary function and second
one as particular integral. Thus
Complete solution = Complementary Function (C.F.) + Particular Integral (P.I.)
Procedure to find C.F. : The following are the steps to find complementary function :
Step (1) Put the R.H.S. of the given equation equals to zero, i.e., f(D) y = 0.
d d2
Step (2) Replace D, D2 and so on i.e., convert the given equation in symbolic form.
dx dx2
Step (3) Make an auxiliary equation replacing D by m. Say the equation is
(D2 + 4D + 7) = 0 then its auxiliary equation is
m2 + 4m + 7 = 0
Step (4) Find the roots of auxiliary equation (A.E.). C.F. will depend upon the type of root.
Engineering Mathematics-II 13 L Ordinary Differential Equations

Case (i) : If all roots of the A.E., are real and distinct say m1, m2,...., mn, then
C.F. = C1em1x + C2em2x +.....+ Cnemnx
Where C1, C2,...., Cn are constant.
Case (ii) : If roots of A.E., are real and equal say
m1 = m2 = ......... = mn = m (say). Then
C.F. = (C1 + C2x + C2x2 +.....+ Cnxn1) emx
If some roots are equal, others are distinct say m1 = m2 = m3 = m and m4, m5,....., mn
Then C.F. = (C1 + C2 x + C3 x2) emx + C4em4x + C5em5x +.....+ Cnemnx
Case (iii) : If the roots of A.E., are complex say
m = i, then
C.F. = C1e(+i)x + C2e( i)x
or C.F. = C1ex eix + C2ex eix
C.F. = C1ex (cos x + i sin x) + C2ex (cos x i sin x)
C.F. = ex (C1 + C2) cos x + iex (C1 C2) sin x
C.F. = ex [A cos x + B sin x]
or changing the constants
C.F. = ex (C1 cos x + C2 sin x)
This expression may be written as
C.F. = C1ex (cos x + C2) or C.F. = C1ex (sin x + C2)
Case (iv) : If the A.E. has irrational roots say
= , where is positive, then
x
C.F. = e (C1 cosh x + C2 sinh x)

dy 1 2
1.12. A particular solution of the differential equation = (y 1) that satisfies the initial
dt 2
condition y(0) = 2 is .................... [UPTU 2009, Marks 2]
dy 1 2
A particular solution of the differential equation ( y 1) that satisfies the initial condition
dt 2
y(0) = 2 is y 1 1
= et
y1 3
d 5y d 3y
1.13. The general solution of the differential equation 5
= 0 is given by .....................
dx dx 3
[UPTU 2009, Marks 2]
d5 y d3 y
The general solution of the differential equation = 0 is given by
dx5 dx3
y = C1 + C2x + C3x2 + C4 ex + C5 ex

## 1.14. Pick the correct statement from the following.

(i) Integrating factor to a differential equation is unique.
ydx xdy
(ii) y = ex is the general solution of the = 0. [UPTU 2010, Marks 2]
x2
(i) Integrating factor to a differential equation is unique.

1.15. The differential equation for which xy = aex + bex + x2 is the solution, is given as
[UPTU 2011, Marks 2]
Refer Q1.11.

d 2y dy
1.16. Solve 30 y = 0.
dx 2 dx
Symbolic form of the equation is
(D2 + D 30) y = 0
Ordinary Differential Equations 14 L Engineering Mathematics-II

A.E. is
m2 + m 30 = 0
or
m2 + 6m 5m 30 = 0
m (m + 6) 5 (m + 6) = 0
(m 5) (m + 6) = 0
m = 5, 6
The roots of the A.E. are real and distinct so the C.F. is
C.F. = C1 e5x + C2 e6x
There is no term in R.H.S., therefore P.I. = 0
Complete solution y = C.F. + P.I.
y = C1 e5x + C2 e6x

## 1.17. Solve (D2 8D + 16)y = 0

A.E. is
m2 8m + 16 = 0
(m 4)2 = 0
m= 4, 4 (roots are real and equal)
C.F. = (C1 + C2x) e4x, P.I. = 0
Thus
y = (C1 + C2x) e4x

d 3y d 2y dy
1.18. Solve 3
2 4 8y = 0
dx dx 2 dx

## Symbolic form of the given equation is

(D3 2D2 + 4D 8)y = 0
A.E. is
m3 2m2 + 4m 8 = 0
m2 (m 2) + 4 (m 2) = 0
(m2 + 4) (m 2) = 0
m = 2, 2i
One root is real, two are imaginary thus
y = C1 e2x + e0x (C2 cos 2x + C3 sin 2x)
y = C1 e2x + C2 cos 2x + C3 sin 2x

d 4y d 2y
1.19. Solve 4
= 0, given y (0) = y (0) = y (0) = 0 and y (0) = 1
dx dx 2
Given equation is
(D4 + D2)y = 0
A.E. is
m4 + m2 = 0
m (m2 + 1) = 0
2

m = 0, 0, i
Two roots are equal and two are imaginary thus
y = (C1 + C2x) e0x + e0x (C3 cos x + C4 sin x)
y = C1 + C2x + C3 cos x + C4 sin x ...(1)
Applying
y(0) = 0
0 = C1 + C3 ...(2)
y = C2 C3 sin x + C4 cos x
Engineering Mathematics-II 15 L Ordinary Differential Equations

Applying
y(0) = 0
0 = C2 + C4 ...(3)
y = C3 cos x C4 sin x
Applying
y(0) = 0
0 = C3 C3 = 0
From (2) C1 = 0
Again
y = C3 sin x C4 cos x
Applying y(0) = 1
1= C4
C4 = 1
From (3)
C2 = C4 = 1
Thus from (1)
y = x sin x

10. Rules to find P.I. (Particular Integral) : When there is any term in the R.H.S., particular integral is
evaluated and complete solution of the given differential equation will be the sum of C.F. and P.I. will
depend upon the type of function. The function may be of the following types :
(i) eax, a is any constant and f(a) 0
(ii) eax and f(a) = 0, case of failure
(iii) sin ax or cos ax and f( a2) 0
(iv) sin ax or cos ax and f( a2) = 0, case of failure
(v) x n
(vi) eax. V, V is any function of x.
(vii) x. V, V is any function of x.

## 1.20. Solve (D3 + 1)y = (ex + 1)2

To find C.F.
A.E. is m3 + 1 = 0
1 i 3
(m + 1) (m2 m + 1) = 0 m = 1,
2
x
3 3
C.F. = C1ex + e 2 C2 cos x C3 sin x
2 2
1 1
To find P.I. P.I. = ( e x 1)2 = 3 (e 2 x 1 2 e x )
D3 1 D 1
1 1 1
= e2 x 3
3
e0 x 2 3 ex
D 1 D 1 D 1
(Replacing D by a in each term, in first term a is 2, in second a is zero and in third a is 1)
1 1 1 2x
= e2 x 2. 3 ex = e ex 1
23 1 0 1 1 1 9
Hence the complete solution is
y = C.F. + P.I.
x
3 3 e2 x
y = C1ex + e 2 C2 cos x C3 sin x ex 1
2 2 9
Table 1.1.
How to find particular Integral when the function in R.H.S. is of the type

eax, f(a) 0 eax, f(a) = 0 sin ax, cos ax sin ax, cos ax xn eax .V x.V General
f( a2) 0 f( a2) = 0 Method

P.I. = eax If f(a) = 0 then P.I. = If f( a2) = 0 then P.I. = xn P.I. = eax.V P.I. = xV This method is

replace D by a P.I. = or P.I.= = = [f(D)]1 xn In this case rep- =x V applicable for all
Ordinary Differential Equations

P.I. = = x. P.I. = and repeat this step expand lace D by (D + a) but if V is of the form types of functions
2 1
but in this case Again if f (a) = 0 in both cases again if f ( a ) = 0. [f(D) ] by the and take out the sin ax or cos ax and including sec x,

f(a) 0 P.I. = x2 replace D2 by Binomial term eax outside f( a2) = 0 cosec x, tan x,
2
If f(a) = 0, it and so on. a but theorem in the operator i.e., then this method is cot x etc.
2 ax
will be a case f( a) 0 ascending P.I. = e not applicable, then P.I. =

16 L

## exist in denomi- ation on xn is of the type of V. = P.I. =

iax n
nator then mul- zero. e x thus

## stands for eiax

differentiation of
function.
Engineering Mathematics-II
Engineering Mathematics-II 17 L Ordinary Differential Equations

## 1.21. Solve (D2 + 4D + 5)y = 2 cosh x.

A.E. is m2 + 4m + 5 = 0
4 16 20
m= =2i
2
2x
C.F. = e (C1 cos x + C2 sin x)
1
P.I. = ( 2 cos hx)
D2 4 D 5
1 e x e x 1
P.I. = 2 = (e x e x )
D 4 D 5
2
2 D2 4 D 5
1 1 1 x 1 x
= ex e x = e e
D2 4 D 5 D2 4 D 5 10 2
D 1 D 1
e x e x
Thus y = e2x (C1 cos x + C2 sin x)
10 2

d 2 y dy
D.2. (i) 6 y = ex cosh 2x
dx 2 dx
d 2y dy
(ii) 2k k 2 y = ex
dx 2 dx

## 1.22. Solve (D2 7D + 6) y = 2 sin 3x

Given that y = 0, Dy = 0 when x = 0
A.E. is
m2 7m + 6 = 0
m2 6m m + 6 = 0
(m 6) (m 1) = 0
m= 1, 6
C.F. = C1ex + C2e6x
1
P.I. = 2 sin 3x
D2 7 D 6
2 2
Replace D by 3
1 2
P.I. = 2 sin 3x = sin 3x
32 7 D 6 7D 3
2(7 D 3) 2(7 D 3)
P.I. = 2 sin 3x = sin 3x
49 D 9 49 (32 ) 9
2(7 D 3) 1
= sin 3x = (7 D 3) sin 3x
450 225
1 1
= [7D sin 3x 3 sin 3x] = [21 cos 3 x 3 sin 3 x]
225 225
7 cos 3 x sin 3 x
=
75
1
Thus, y = C1e + C2e6x +
x
(7 cos3 x sin 3 x)
75
Also we have y = 0, x = 0
7
0 = C1 + C2 +
75
Ordinary Differential Equations 18 L Engineering Mathematics-II

7
C1 + C2 = ...(1)
75
7 1
and Dy = C1 ex + 6C2e6x sin 3x cos 3x
25 25
Dy = 0 when x = 0
1
0 = C1 + 6C2
25
1
C1 + 6C2 = ...(2)
25
From (1) and (2)
3 2
C1 = , C2 =
25 75
Thus
3 x 2 6x 1
y= e e (7 cos3 x sin 3 x)
25 75 75

d 2y
1.23. Solve + y = sin 3x cos 2x
dx 2
A.E. is m2 + 1 = 0
m=i
C.F. = C1 cos x + C2 sin x
1 1 1
P.I. = sin 3x cos 2x = 2 sin 3x cos 2x
D2 1 2 D2 1
1 1 1 1 1
= {sin 5x + sin x} = sin 5x 2 sin x
2 D2 1 2 D2 1 D 1
1 1 1
= 2 sin5 x 2
sin x
2 5 1 1 1
case of failure
1 1 1 1 1 1
= sin 5 x x. sin x = sin5 x x. sin x
48 2 2D 0 48 2 2D
1 1 1
= sin 5 x x ( cos x) = (sin 5 x 12 x cos x)
48 4 48
1
Thus y = C1 cos x + C2 sin x (sin 5x + 12 x cos x)
48

d 3y d 2y dy
1.24. Solve 3
3 2
3 y = ex
dx dx dx
A.E. is m3 + 3m2 + 3m + 1 = 0
(m + 1) m2 + 2m (m + 1) + (m + 1) = 0
(m + 1) (m2 + 2m + 1) = 0
(m + 1) (m + 1)2 = 0
m = 1, 1, 1
C.F. = (C1 + C2x + C3x2) ex
1
P.I. =e x
( D 1)3
Replacing D by 1 is a case of failure
1
P.I. x. e x
3( D 1)2
Engineering Mathematics-II 19 L Ordinary Differential Equations

## Again it will be a case of failure

1 1 x
P.I. = x2. e x = x 3. e
6 ( D 1) 6
x3 e x
Thus y = (C1 + C2x + C3x2) ex +
6

## 1.25. Solve (D2 + 4)y = e2x

A.E. is m2 + 4 = 0
m = 2i
C.F. = C1 cos 2x + C2 sin 2x
1
P.I. = 2 e2 x
D 4
D is replaced by 2
1 2x
P.I. = e
8
e2 x
y = C1 cos 2x + C2 sin 2x +
8

## 1.26. Solve (D2 4) y = e2x

A.E. is m2 4 = 0 m = 2
C.F. = C1e2x + C2e2x
1
P.I. = 2 e2 x
D 4
Note : If D is replaced by 2, it will be a case of failure but if denominator is factorised, we see that one
factor does not becomes zero, thus when we replace D by a, first try to factorize the denominator and then
proceed.
1 e2 x e2 x
P.I. = e2 x =
( D 2) ( D 2) 4( D 2) 4( D 2)
Case of failure
x 2x 1 e2 x 1
= e e2 x = x
4 4(2 2) 4 4
e2 x 1
Thus y = C1e2x + C2e2x + x
4 4

## D.3. Solve (D2 6D + 9) y = 6e3x + 7e2x log 2

d 3y d 2y dy
1.27. Solve 3
6 = 1 + x2
dx dx 2 dx
A.E. is m3 m2 6m = 0
m (m2 m 6) = 0
m = 0, 2, 3
C.F. = C1 + C2 e2x + C3 e3x
1
P.I. = 3 (1 x 2 )
D D2 6 D
1
1 1 2 1 1 2 1
= 1 (D D) (1 x2) 1 (D D) (D2 D)2 ... (1 x2)
6D 6 6D 6 36
[Expanding it using binomial theorem up to D2 terms.]
Ordinary Differential Equations 20 L Engineering Mathematics-II

1 1 1 2
= (1 x2 ) ( D2 D) (1 x 2 ) D (1 x 2 )
6 D 6 36
1 1 1 1 1 x 1
= (1 x2 ) (2 2 x) (2) = 1 x2
6 D 6 36 6 D 3 3 18
1 25 x 1 25 x2 x3
= x2 = x
6D 18 3 6 18 6 3

1 25 x 2 x3
Thus, y = C1 + C2 e2x + C3 e3x x
6 18 6 3

## D.4. Solve the following equations :

(i) (D3 + 8) y = x4 + 2x + 1
(ii) (D2 1) y = ax + sin x

## 1.28. Solve (D2 4D + 3) y = 3ex cos 2x

A.E. is m2 4m + 3 = 0
(m 1) (m 3) = 0
m= 1, 3
C.F. = C1 ex + C2 e3x
1
P.I. = 3e x cos 2x
D2 4 D 3
D is replaced by (D + 1) and takes out the exponential term outside the operator.
1 1
P.I. = 3ex. cos 2 x = 3ex 2 cos 2 x
( D 1)2 4( D 1) 3 D 2D
Now D2 is replaced by 22
1 3 x 1
= 3ex cos 2 x = e cos 2 x
4 2D 2 2 D
3 x D2 3 x ( D 2)
= e cos 2 x = e cos 2 x
2 D2 4 2 4 4
3 x 3 x
= e ( D cos 2 x 2 cos 2 x) = e (sin 2 x cos 2 x)
16 8
3
Thus y = C1ex + C2e3x e x (sin 2 x cos 2 x)
8

d 2y
1.29. Solve 4 y = x sinh x
dx 2
(D2 4) y = x sinh x
A.E. is m2 4 = 0
m=2
C.F. = C1e2x + C2 e2x
1 1 e x e x
P.I. = x sin h x = 2 x
2 D 4 2
D 4
1 1 1 1 1
= ( x e x x e x ) = 2 xe x 2 xe x
2 D2 4 2 D 4 D 4
1 x 1 1 1 x 1 1
= e . x e x x = e . 2 x e x 2 x
2 ( D 1)2 4 2
( D 1) 4 2 D 2D 3 D 2 D 3
Engineering Mathematics-II 21 L Ordinary Differential Equations

1 1
1 e x D2 2 D e x D2 2 D
= 1 x 1 x
2 3 3 3 3

1 ex D2 2 D e x D2 2 D
= 2 3 1 3
x
3
1
3 x

1 ex 2 e x 2 1 x 2
= x
2 3 3 3
x =
3
6 3

e e x x e x e x

x 2
= (sinh x) (cosh x)
3 9
1 2
Thus, y = C1 e2x + C2 e2x x sinh x cosh x
3 9

## 1.30. Solve (D2 + 2D + 1) y = x cos x

A.E. is m2 + 2m + 1 = 0
(m + 1)2 = 0 m = 1, 1
C.F. = (C1 + C2 x) ex
1 1 (2 D 2)
P.I. = x cos x = x. cos x cos x
( D 1) 2 D2 2 D 1 ( D2 2 D 1)2
1 1 f ( D)
P. I. f ( D) x . V x f ( D) V f ( D)2 V

1 2( D 1) 1 ( D 1)
= x. cos x cos x = x. cos x cos x
1 2 D 1 (1 2 D 1) 2 2 D 4 D2
x 1 x 1
= sin x ( D 1) cos x = sin x ( sin x cos x)
2 4 2 4
x sin x 1
Thus y = (C1 + C2 x) ex + ( sin x + cos x)
2 4

## 1.31. Solve (D4 + 2D2 + 1) = x2 cos x

A.E. is m4 + 2m2 + 1 = 0
(m2 + 1)2 = 0, m = i, i
C.F. = (C1 + C2 x) cos x + (C3 + C4 x) sin x
1 1 1 f ( D)
P.I. = x 2 cos x P .I. x. V = x. V V
( D2 1)2 f ( D) f ( D) { f ( D)}2
But this mehtod is not applicable due to case of failure.
1
P.I. = x 2 cos x
( D2 1)2
1
= Real part of x 2 eix [ eix = cos x + i sin x]
( D2 1)2
1 1
= R.P. of eix x 2 = R.P. of eix x2
2
{( D i) 1} 2 { D 2iD}2
2

1 D
2
1 2 D 3 D2 2
= R.P. of eix. 1 x2 = R.P. of eix. 2
1 2 x
(2iD)2 2i (2iD) 2i 4i

1 D 3 2 2 1 2 3
= R.P. of eix. ix x 2xi
1 D x = R.P. of e (2iD)2 2
(2iD)2 i 4
eix 2 3 eix x4 ix3 3 2
= R.P. of
4 D 2 x 2ix 2 = R.P. of x
4 12 3 4
Ordinary Differential Equations 22 L Engineering Mathematics-II

1 ( x4 4 ix3 9 x 2 )
= R.P. of (cos x i sin x)
4 12
1
4 2 3
= cos x( x 9 x ) 4 x sin x
48

cos x x 3 3x2 x 4 cos x x3
= (9x2 x4) sin x = cos x sin x
48 12 16 48 12
Thus y = C.F. + P.I.
3 x2 x 4 cos x x3
= (C1 + C2x) cos x + (C3 + C4x) sin x + cos x sin x
16 48 12

d 2y dy
D.5. Solve 2
4 4 y = 8x2 e2x sin 2x
dx dx

## 1.32. Solve (D2 + 1) y = cosec x

A.E. is m2 + 1 = 0
m=i
C.F. = C1 cos x + C2 sin x
1 1
P.I. = cosec x = cosec x
D2 1 ( D i) ( D i)
1 1 1 1 1 1
= cosec x = cosec x cosec x
2i D i D i 2i D i Di
1 ix ix ix ix
= e e cosec x dx e e cosec x dx
2i
1 ix cos x i sin x cos x i sin x
= e dx eix dx
2i sin x sin x
1 ix cos x cos x 1 ix
= e i dx eix i dx = [ e (log sin x i x) e ix (log sin x i x)]
2i sin x sin x 2i
P.I. = sin x. log (sin x) x cos x
Thus y = C1 cos x + C2 sin x + sin x log (sin x) x cos x

d 2y dy
1.33. Solve 2 2 y = ex sec3 x
dx 2 dx
A.E. is m2 + 2m + 2 = 0
2 4 8
m= =1i
2
x
C.F. = e (C1 cos x + C2 sin x)
1
P.I. = e x sec3 x
D2 2 D 2
x 1 3 x 1
= e ( D 1)2 2 ( D 1) 2 sec x = e sec 3 x
D2 1
x 1 3 e x 1 1
= e ( D i) ( D i) sec x = sec 3 x sec 3 x
2i D i Di
e x ix ix
e e sec3 x dx e ix eix sec3 x dx
2i
=
Engineering Mathematics-II 23 L Ordinary Differential Equations

## e x ix cos x i sin x cos x i sin x

= e dx e ix dx
2i cos3 x cos3 x
e x ix
e (sec2 x i tan x sec2 x) dx e ix (sec 2 x i tan x sec 2 x) dx
2i
=

## e x ix tan 2 x ix tan 2 x x tan 2 x

= e tan x i e tan x i = e sin x tan x cos x.
2i 2 2 2

x sin 2 x 2
x sin x sin 2 x 2
x sin x x sin x tan x
= e sin x tan x 2cos x = e cos x 2cos x = e = e
2cos x 2

sin x tan x
Thus, y = ex C1 cos x C2 sin x
2

d 2y dy
1.34. Find the complete solution of the differential equation 2 y = xex cos x.
dx 2 dx
[UPTU 2009, Marks 5]
Given equation is
d2 y dy
2 +y= xex cos x
dx 2 dx
Auxiliary equation is
(m2 2m + 1) = 0
(m 1)2 = 0
m= 1, 1
Complementary function is
C.F. = (C1 + C2x) ex
Now for particular integral,
1 1
P.I. = x e x cos x = ex x cos x
( D 1) 2 ( D 1 1)2
1 x 1
= e x cos x = e x [ x sin x cos x ]
D2 D
= ex [ x cos x + sin x + sin x]
P.I. = ex [ x cos x + 2 sin x]
Complete solution is given by
y = C.F. + P.I.
y = (C1 + C2x) ex + ex ( x cos x + 2 sin x)

d 2y dy
1.35. Solve the following differential equation : +5 6 y = sin 3x + cos 2x.
dx 2 dx
[UPTU 2010, Marks 5]
d2 y dy
5 6 y = sin 3x + cos 2x
dx2 dx
(D2 + 5D 6)y = sin 3x + cos 2x
A.E. is
m2 + 5m 6 = 0
m = 1, 6
C.F. = C1 ex + C2 e6x
1 1
P.I. = sin 3x + 2 cos 2 x
D2 5 D 6 D 5D 6
Putting D 3 , Putting D 22
2 2 2
Ordinary Differential Equations 24 L Engineering Mathematics-II

1 1
P.I. = sin 3 x cos2 x = 1 D 3 sin3 x 1 D 2 cos 2 x
5 D 15 5 D 10 5 D2 9 5 D2 4
1 1 1 1
= ( D 3)sin 3 x ( D 2)cos 2 x = (3 cos3 x 3sin 3 x) (2sin 2 x 2 cos 2 x)
90 40 90 40
(cos3 x sin 3 x) 1
P.I. = ( cos 2 x sin 2 x)
30 20
Complete solution is y = C.F. + P.I.
1 1
y = C1 ex + C2 e6x (cos 3x + sin 3x) + (sin 2 x cos2 x)
30 20

d 2y
D.6. Solve y = x cot x
dx 2

11. Homogeneous linear differential equation and its solution : [Cauchy-Euler Differential
Equation]
A differential equation of the form
dn y d n 1 y dy
xn n
a1 x n 1 .... an 1 x an y Q
dx dx n1 dx
is called a homogeneous linear differential equation, where a1, a2,....an are constants and Q is either a
constant or a function of x.
Its solution is given by putting
x = ez or log x = z
1 dz
=
x dx
dy dy dz 1 dy
= =
dx dz dx x dz
d d
so, x D
dx dz
Similarly
d2 y d dy d dy dz d 1 dy 1
2 = dx dx = =
dx dz dx dx dz x dz x
1 d 2 y dy 1 dx 1 1 1 d 2 y 1 dy
= 2
2 =
x dz dz x dz x x x dz2 x dz
x2d2 y d2 y dy
= = (D2 D)y
dx2 dz2 dz
d2
x2
D(D 1) and so on.
dx2
When we substitute all these values in given equation it will be converted into a linear differential
equation with constant coefficients in which independent variable is z in place of x. In the final
answer z is replaced by log x.

d2 y dy
1.36. x2 4x 6 y = x2
dx 2 dx
Engineering Mathematics-II 25 L Ordinary Differential Equations

x = ez
d d2
x D, x2 D(D 1)
dx dx2
2z
D(D 1) y 4Dy + 6y = e
(D2 D)y 4Dy + 6y = e2z
(D2 D 4D + 6)y = e2z
(D2 5D + 6)y = e2z
A.E. is m2 5m + 6 = 0
(m 3) (m 2) = 0 m = 2, 3
C.F. = C1e2z + C2e3z
1 1
P.I. = e2 z , D 2 = 2 e2 z (case of failure)
D2 5 D 6 2 5(2) 6
1 1
P.I. = z. e2 z = z. e2 z = ze2z
2D 5 2(2) 5
Thus y= C.F. + P.I.
y= C1e2z + C2e3z ze2z
y= C1x2 + C2x3 x2 log x

d 2y 1 dy 12 log x
1.37. Solve =
dx 2 x dx x2
d2 y dy
Given equation may be written as x 2 x = 12 log x
dx2 dx
[D(D 1) + D]y = 12 z
D2 y = 12 z
A.E. is m2 = 0
m= 0, 0
C.F. = (C1 + C2 z) e0z = C1 + C2 z
1 3
P.I. = 2
12 z = 12. 1 z = 12. z = 2z3
D 2
D 6
Thus y= C.F. + P.I.
y= C1 + C2 z + 2z3
y= C1 + C2 log x + 2 (log x)3

d 2y dy
D.7. Solve x2 4x 2y = ex
dx 2 dx
D.8. Solve (x2 D2 xD + 4)y = cos (log x) + x sin (log x)

## 12. Legendres Linear Differential Equation : A differential equation of form

dn y d n 1 y
(ax + b)n a1 ( ax b)n 1 .... an y = Q
dx n dx n 1
is called a Legendres linear differential equation where a1, a2, a3,.....an are constants and Q is a constant
or a function of x.
This type of equation is converted into homogeneous linear differential equation by putting
ax + b = ez
z = log (ax + b)
d
dz
d2
(ax + b)2 a2 D(D 1) and so on.
dz2
Ordinary Differential Equations 26 L Engineering Mathematics-II

d 2y dy
1.38. Solve (1 + x)2 + (1 + x) y = 2 sin {log (1 + x)}
dx 2 dx
Put (1 + x) = ez, z = log (1 + x)
dy
So that (1 + x) = Dy
dx
d2 y d
and (1 + x)2 = D(D 1)y, where D
dx 2 dz
{D(D 1) + D + 1}y = 2 sin z
(D2 + 1)y = 2 sin z
A.E. is m2 + 1 = 0
m= i
C.F. = C1 cos z + C2 sin z
1
P.I. = 2sin z (It is a case of failure)
D2 1
1
P.I. = z 2sin z = z cos z
2D
y = C.F. + P.I. = C1 cos z + C2 sin z z cos z
= C1 cos {log (1 + x)} + C2 sin {log (1 + x)} log (1 + x) cos {log (1 + x)}

d 2y dy
D.9. Solve (1 + 2x)2 6(1 2x ) 16 y = 8(1 + 2x)2
dx 2 dx
given that y(0) = 0, y(0) = 2

13. Simultaneous Differential Equation : If two or more dependent variables are functions of a single
independent variable, the equations which consist of the derivatives of such variables are called
simultaneous differential equations. To solve simultaneous equations we need as many simultaneous
equations as there are dependent variables.
Solution : The solution of simultaneous equations are based upon the method of elimination as usual
in case of algebraic equations. First eliminate terms of x or y from the given equations. Remaining
equation will be of one variable. Solve it and putting the value of the variable into the given equation, we
can get the value of another variable.

## 1.39. Solve the following equations

dx
= 3x + 8y
dt
dy
= x 3y
dt
with x(0) = 6 and y(0) = 2. [UPTU 2010, Marks 5]
dx
Given equations are = 3x + 8y
dt
(D 3)x 8y = 0 ...(1)
dy
and = x 3y
dt
(D + 3)y + x = 0 ...(2)
Multiplying (1) by (D + 3) and (2) by 8 and on adding, we get
(D2 9)x + 8x = 0
Engineering Mathematics-II 27 L Ordinary Differential Equations

(D2 1)x = 0
A.E. is m2 1 = 0
m= 1
C.F. = C1 et + C2 et
P.I. = 0
x= C.F. + P.I.
x= C1 et + C2 et ...(3)
Dx = C1 et C2et
From equation (1) 8y = Dx 3x
8y = C1 et C2 et 3(C1 et + C2 et)
1 1
y= C et C2et
4 1 2
1
y = (C1 et + 2C2 et) ...(4)
4
Given at t = 0, x = 6, from equation (3)
6 = C1 + C2 ...(5)
At t = 0, y = 2, from equation (4)
C1 C2
2= ...(6)
4 2
From equations (5) and (6)
C1 = 4 and C2 = 2
Thus from equations (3) and (4)
x = 4et + 2et
and y = et et

## 1.40. Solve the system of simultaneous differential equations :

dx dy
+ x 2y = 0, + x + 4y = 0, x(0) = y(0) = 1 [UPTU 2011, Marks 5]
dt dt
dx
x 2y = 0
dt
dy
+ x + 4y = 0
dt
x(0) = 1, y(0) = 1
(D + 1)x 2y = 0 ...(1)
x + (D + 4)y = 0 ...(2)
Multiplying equation (2) by (D + 1) and subtracting it from equation (1)
2y (D + 1) (D + 4)y = 0
(D2 + 5D + 6)y = 0
A.E. is m2 + 5m + 6 = 0
m2 + 3m + 2m + 6 = 0
m(m + 3) + 2(m + 3) = 0
m = 2, 3
C.F. = C1e2t + C2 e3t, P.I. = 0
y = C1 e2t + C2 e3t
Again, Dy = 2 C1 e2t 3 C2 e3t
From equation (2) x = (D + 4)y
x = [ 2 C1 e2t 3C2 e3t] 4 [C1 e2t + C2e3t]
x = 2C1 e2t C2 e3t
Given at t = 0, x = 1
1 = 2C1 C2 ...(3)
and at t = 0, y = 1
1 = C1 + C2 ...(4)
From equation (3) and (4) C1 = 2, C2 = 3
Thus, x = 4 e2t 3 e3t
and, y = 2 e2t + 3 e3t
Ordinary Differential Equations 28 L Engineering Mathematics-II

## 1.41. Solve 2Dx + 6x y = 2 sin 2t

Dy 2x + 5y = 0
Given equations may be written as
(2D + 6) x y = 2 sin 2t ...(1)
2x + (D + 5)y = 0 ...(2)
Multiply equation (2) by (D + 3) and on adding with equation (1), we get
2(D + 3)x 2(D + 3)x y + (D + 3) (D + 5)y = 2 sin 2t
D2 + 8D + 14y = 2 sin 2t ...(3)
A.E. is m2 + 8m + 14 = 0
8 64 56
m=
2
m= 4 2
4t
C.F. = e 2 t + C2 sinh 2 t)
(C1 cosh
1
P.I. = 2 2sin 2t
D 8 D 14
D2 22
1 1 4D 5
= 2 sin 2t = sin 2t sin 2t
8 D 10 4D 5 16 D2 25
1 1
= (4D 5) sin 2t = (8 cos 2t 5 sin 2t)
89 89
1
Thus, y = e4t (C1 cosh 2 t + C2 sinh 2 t) (8 cos 2t 5 sin 2t)
89
Dy = e4t ( 2 C1 sinh 2 t + 2 C2 cosh 2 t)
1
4e 4t(C1 cosh 2 t + C2 sinh 2 t) ( 16 sin 2t 10 cos 2t)
89
Dy = e4t [( 2 C1 4C2) sinh 2 t + ( 2 C2 4C1) cosh 2 t]
2
+ (8 sin 2t + 5 cos 2t)
89
Putting these value in equation (2)
2x = Dy + 5y

= e4t ( 2C1 4C2 ) 5C2 sin h 2t ( 2C2 4C1 ) 5C1 cos h 2t
2 5
+ (8sin 2t 5cos2t) (8cos2t 5sin 2t)
89 89
1 1 1
x = e4t {( 2C1 4C2) 5C2}sin h 2 t {( 2C2 4C1) 5C1}cos h 2 t + [41sin 2t 30cos 2t ]
2 2 178
1
x = e4t A sin h 2 t B cos h 2 t + (41 sin 2t 30 cos 2t)
178

dx
1.42. Solve 5x 2 y = t
dt
dy
+ 2x + y = 0,
dt
given x = 0 = y, when t = 0.
(D + 5) x 2y = t ...(1)
2x + (D + 1) y = 0 ...(2)
Multiplying equation (1) by 2 and equation (2) by (D + 5) and on subtracting (2) from (1),
4y (D + 5) (D + 1)y = 2t
4y (D2y + 6Dy + 5y) = 2t
Engineering Mathematics-II 29 L Ordinary Differential Equations

D2y 6Dy 9y = 2t
(D2 + 6D + 9)y = 2t ...(3)
A.E. of equation (3) is
m2 + 6m + 9 = 0
(m + 3)2 = 0
m= 3, 3
C.F. = (C1 + C2t)e3t
2
1 1 D
P.I. = 2
(2t) = 1 (2t)
( D 3) 9 3
2 2D 2 2
P.I. = 1 (t ) = t
9 3 9 3
2t 4
y = (C1 + C2t) e3t
9 27
2
Dy = 3 (C1 + C2t) e3t + C2e3t
9
Putting in equation (2) 2x = Dy y
2 2t 4
2x = 3 (C1 + C2t) e3t C2e3t + (C1 + C2t) e3t +
9 9 27
C2 3t t 1
x = (C1 + C2t) e3t e
2 9 27
Now when t= 0, x = 0, y = 0
4
y= 0 = C1 +
27
4
C1 =
27
C2 1
x= 0 = C1
2 27
C2 1 1
= C1 + =
2 27 9
2
C2 =
9
1 1
Thus we have x= (1 + 6t) e3t + (1 + 3t)
27 27
2 2
y= (2 + 3t) e3t + (2 3t)
27 27

## D.10. Solve the simultaneous differential equations

dx
t y =0
dt
dy
t x =0
dt
given x(1) = 1 and y (1) = 0
Ordinary Differential Equations 30 L Engineering Mathematics-II

14. Method of Variation of Parameters : By this method the general solution is obtained by varying
the arbitrary constants of the complementary function that is why the method is known as method of
variation of parameters.
Procedure : (i) First find the complementary function of the given differential equation
d2 y dy
a b cy = R
dx2 dx
Let it is be C.F. = Ay1 + By2 ...(1)
So that y1 and y2 satisfy given differential equation. Let us assume
P.I. = u y1 + v y2 ...(2)
Where u and v are given by
Ry2 Ry1
u= dx and v = dx
y1 y 2 y2 y y1 y 2 y2 y
Putting u and v in (2) we can find P.I. and then complete solution.

1.43. Solve by method of variation of parameters (D2 1) y = 2(1 e2x)1/2. [UPTU 2011, Marks 5]
(D2 1) y = 2 (1 e2x)1/2
Auxiliary equation is m2 1 = 0
m= 1
C.F. = C1 ex + C2 ex = C1y1 + C2 y2
Let y1 = ex, y2 = ex, R = z(1 e 2x)1/2
y1y2 y1y2 = ex ex ex ex = 2
P.I. = uy1 + vy2
Ry2 2(1 e2 x )1 / 2 e x e x
Where, u= dx = dx = dx
y1 y2 y1 y2 2 1 e2 x
x
Let, e = t
dt
ex dx = dt = = cos1 t
1 t2
u= cos1 ex
Ry 2(1 e2 x )1 / 2 e x e x dx e2 x dx
v= y1 y 1y1 y2 dx = 2
dx = 2 x
=
1 e e2 x 1
Let e2x 1 = t
2e2x dx = dt
dt 1 t1 / 2
v = = = t = e2 x 1
2 t 21

2
2x
P.I. = uy1 + vy2 = ex cos1 ex + ex e 1
P.I. = ex cos1 e x 1 e 2 x
Thus, y = C.F. + P.I.
y = C1 ex + C2 ex + ex cos1 e x 1 e 2 x

1.44. Apply the method of variation of parameters to solve the ordinary differential equation
d 2y
y = tan x, 0 < x < /2. [UPTU 2009, Marks 10]
dx 2
d2 y
Given equation is y = tan x
dx2
Engineering Mathematics-II 31 L Ordinary Differential Equations

(D2 + 1) y = tan x
Auxiliary equation is m2 + 1 = 0 m=i
C.F. is y= A cos x + B sin x
let y1 = cos x, y2 = sin x
y 1 y 2 y 2y 1 = cos x (cos x) sin x ( sin x) = 1
P.I. = uy1 + vy2
y2 tan x y tan x
where u= y y
y2 y1
dx and v = y y1
dx
1 1 2 y2 y1
sin x tan x 2
thus u= dx = sin x dx
1 cos x
2
1 cos x
u= dx = (sec x cos x) dx = (cos x sec x) dx
cos x
u= sin x log (sec x + tan x)
cos x tan x
and v= 1 dx = sin x dx = cos x
P.I. = uy1 + vy2
P.I. = [sin x log (sec x + tan x)] cos x cos x sin x
P.I. = cos x log (sec x + tan x)
Complete solution is given by y = C.F. + P.I.
y= A cos x + B sin x cos x log (sec x + tan x)

## 1.45. Solve by the method of variation of parameters

2
(D2 1)y =
1ex
2
A.E. is m 1= 0 m=1
C.F. = C1 ex + C2 ex
2
Let y1 = ex, y2 = ex, X =
1 ex
y 1 y 2 y 2 y 1 = ex ( ex) (ex) ex = 2
P.I. = uy1 + vy2
2
ex e x e2 x dx
u= 1 ex dx = dx
2 1 ex 1 e x
Let 1 + ex = t
ex dx = dt
( t 1) dt
u=
t
1
= t dt dt = log (1 + ex) (1 + ex) = log (ex + 1) x (1 + ex)
1 2 ex 1
v= x
e x dx v = dx = dx dx
2 1 e 1 ex 1 ex
e x
v=x+ 1 e x dx = x log (1 + ex)
P.I. = {log (1 + ex) x 1 ex}ex {x + log (1 + ex)} ex
= {log (1 + ex) x 1 ex} ex {x + log (1 + ex) x} ex
= {log (1 + ex) x 1 ex} ex log (1 + ex). ex
1 ex
P.I. = ex log x (1 + ex) ex ex log (1 + ex)
e
1 ex
y = C1ex + C2ex + ex log ex 1 ex log (1 + ex)
x
Ordinary Differential Equations 32 L Engineering Mathematics-II

## D.11. Solve using method of variation of parameters

d 2y dy
(i) x2 x y = x3 ex
dx 2 dx
(ii) (D2 + 1) y = sec x tan x

## Equations of other types

Type I, when Type II, when Equations which do Equations which do
equation is of type equation is of type not contain y directly, not contain x directly,
dn y dn y
f ( x) f ( y) Type III Type IV
dx n dx n
This type of differential In this type of equation, The equations which do not The equations which do not
equations can be solved we multiply both sides by contain y directly can be contain x directly can be
dy dy dy
by successive integration. 2 , if the equation is solved by putting =P solved by putting =P
dx dx dx
d2 y d2 y dP d2 y dP
= f(y). = and so on, =
dx2 dx2 dx dx2 dx
dP dy
It becomes on integration equation will be converted =
dy dx
2
dy d y dy
2 = 2f(y) into P and x. Solve it for P
dx dx2 dx
dy dP
Again integrating and at last replace P by = P.
dx dy
2
dy
=
dx
2 f ( y) dy C and then solve for y. and so on, equation will be

## = (y) in P and y, solve it P = f1 (y)

dy dy
= ( y) Again replace P
dx
= f1 (y)
dx
Now separating variables Now separating variables, y
dy
= dx can be found out in terms
( y)
dy
=x+C of x.
( y)

Type V, when one Type VI, By Type VII, To solve Type VIII, Solution
part of C.F. is known reducing the equation equation by changing by method of variation
or can be find out to normal form independent variables of parameters
(or removal of first
derivative)
Let y = u is the known Say the given equation is Say the given equation is By the method of variation
2 2
d y dy d y dy
solution. Let other solu- P Qy R . P Qy R of parameters equation can
dx 2 dx dx 2 dx
tion y = uv. Where v can By removing first order transformed into be solved if we know C.F.
d2 y dy
be find out by the equation derivative, equation is P1 Q1 y R1 Thus by any of the previous
dz2 dz
dz 2 du R
P z transformed into where method first we find C.F.
dx u dx u
Engineering Mathematics-II 33 L Ordinary Differential Equations

2
dz d z
P
dv d 2u dx dx 2
z= and P, R are Q1 u = R1 ...(i) P1 = 2
dx dx2 dz

dx
given by the given where
1 dP P 2
differential equation Q1 = Q
2 dx 4
1
d2 y dy Pdx Q
P Qy R R1 = Re 2 Q1 =
dx 2 dx dz
2

dx
If C.F. is not known, R1 = R/v
then we can find it
1
Pdx
by using following v= e 2 ...(ii)
conditions, If The complete solution
R
1 + P + Q = 0, u = ex is y = u. v R1 = 2
dz

dx
1 P + Q = 0, u = ex where u and v are This equation is solved by
P Q
1+ = 0, u = eax given by (i) and (ii) taking Q1 = a constant
a a2
P + Qx = 0, u = x or
2 + 2Px + Qx2 = 0, P1 = 0
u = x2
n (n 1) + Pnx + Qx2,
u = xn

Type I :

d 3y
1.46. Solve = log x
dx 3
d2 y
Integrating both sides = x log x x + C1
dx
dy x2 x2 1 x2 x2
Again on integration = x log x dx C1 x C2 = log x x dx C1 x C2
dx 2 2 2 2
x2 x2 x2
log x
= C1 x C2
2 4 2
dy x2 3 x2
= log x + C1x + C2
dx 2 4
1 2 3 2
Again integrating y = x log x dx x dx C1 x dx C2 1.dx C3
2 4
1 x3 1 x3 x 3 x2
= log x dx C1 C2 x C3
2 3 x 3 4 2

1 x3 x3 x3 x2 1
y= log x C1 C2 x C3 = [6 x3 log x 11 x3 Ax 2 Bx C ]
2 3 9 4 2 36

d 3y
D.12. Solve = sin2 x
dx 3
Ordinary Differential Equations 34 L Engineering Mathematics-II

Type II :
d 2y
1.47. Solve e2y =1
dx 2
d2 y
= e2y
dx 2
dy d2 y dy
2 = 2e2y
dx dx2 dx
2
dy 2 y dy
On integrating = 2e dx
C1 = e2y + C
1
dx
dy
= C1 e2 y
dx
dy
= dx
C1 e2 y
e y dy
= dx
C1 e2 y 1
1 e y dy
= dx
C1 1
e2 y
C1
Let ey = t and ey dy = dt
1 dt
= dx
C1 1
t2
C1
t
1 1
cosh1 = x + C2
C1 C1
cosh1 C1 t = x C1 + C1 C2

C1 ey = cosh x C1 C1 C2
C1ey = cosh (C1x + C2)

Type III :
d 2y dy
1.48. Solve (1 + x2) x + ax = 0
dx 2 dx
dy d2 y dP
Let = P, =
dx dx 2 dx
dP
(1 + x2) + xP + ax = 0
dx
dP x ax
+ P =
dx 1 x2 1 x2
dy
This equation is of the type Ry = Q
dx
x ax
Here R= and Q =
1 x2 1 x2
x 1
dx 1
log (1 x2 )
I.F. = e 1 x2 = e2
= 1 x
2
2

## Solution is P.(I.F.) = Q.(I.F.) dx C1

Engineering Mathematics-II 35 L Ordinary Differential Equations

1 1 1
ax 2 2
P (1 x 2 ) 2 =
1 x2 (1 x )2 dx C1 = a x(1 x ) 2 dx C1

P 1 x2 = a x
1 x2 dx C1

1 x2 P = a x
1 x2 dx C1
a 1 x2 C1 C1
P= 2 =a+
2 1 x2 1 x2 1 x2
dy C1
= a+
dx 1 x2
2
y = ax + C1 log x 1 x C2
Type IV :
2
d 2y dy dy
1.49. Solve y 2
2 =0
dx dx dx
dy d 2 y dP dP dy dP
Let = P, 2
P
dx dx dx dy dx dy
dP
yP P2 2P =0
dy
dP P 2
=0
dy y y
dP P 2
=
dy y y
1
dy 1
I.F. = e y
= elog y =
y
1 2 1
P.
y
= y y dy C1
P 2
= C1
y y
P= 2 + C1y
dy
= 2 + C1y
dx
dy
= dx
2 C1 y
1
log (2 + C1y) = x + C2
C1
log (2 + C1y) = C1x + C1 C2
2 + Ay = eAx + B

2
d 2y dy
D.13. Solve y(1 log y) (1 log y ) =0
dx 2 dx

Type V :
1.50. Solve x2y (x2 + 2x) y + (x + 2)y = x3 ex, given that y = x is a solution.
Given equation may be written as
Ordinary Differential Equations 36 L Engineering Mathematics-II

2 1 2
y 1 y 2 y = x ex
x x x
y= x is given solution
Complete solution is y= uv, u = x thus y = vx, v is given by
d2v 2 du dv R
P =
dx2 u dx dx u
d 2v 2 2 dv x ex
+ 1 .1 =
dx2 x x dx x
d 2v dv
= ex
dx2 dx
dv
Let =P
dx
dP
P= ex
dx
dx x
I.F. = e =e
x
P.ex = e . e x dx C1
dv
= x ex + C1ex
dx
v = xex ex + C1ex + C2
v = (x 1) ex + C1ex + C2
y = vx
y = x(x 1) ex + C1 ex + C2x
y = ex (x2 x + C1) + C2x

d 2y dy
D.14. Solve x (1 x )y = x2 ex
dx 2 dx

Type VI :
d 2y dy 2
1.51. Solve 4x + (4x2 3)y = ex by removing its first derivative.
dx 2 dx
Comparing the given differential equation with
d2 y dy
+P + Qy = R
dx 2 dx 2
P = 4x, Q = 4x2 3, R = ex
1
4 x dx
v= e 2

2 x dx = ex 2
e 2
v = ex
2
R ex
R1 =
= x2 = 1
v e
1 dP P 2 1 ( 4 x)2
Q1 = Q = 4x2 3 ( 4)
2 dx 4 2 4
Q1 = 1
Given equation is transformed into
d 2u
+ Q1u = R1
dx2
Engineering Mathematics-II 37 L Ordinary Differential Equations

d 2u
u= 1
dx2
2
A.E. is m 1= 0
m= 1
C.F. = C1 ex + C2 ex
1
P.I. = 2 e0 x
D 1
1 0x
e = 1
0 1
u= C1 ex + C2 ex 1
y= u. v
2
y= (C1ex + C2 ex 1) ex

## D.15. Solve by reducing to normal form

d 2y 2 dy 2 2
2
n 2 y = 0
dx x dx x

1.52. Solve the following differential equation by changing the independent variables
d 2y dy
x (4x 2 1) 4 x 3 y = 2x3
dx 2 dx
Given differential equation may be written as
d2 y 1 dy
4x 4 x 2 y = 2x2 ...(1)
dx2 x dx
1
, Q 4 x2 , R 2 x2
P = 4x
x
Changing the independent variable, given differential equation may be converted into
d2 y dy
P1 Q1 y = R1 ...(2)
dz2 dz
Q 4x 2
Where Q1 = 2
= 2
dz dz

dx dx
Let Q1 = 4
4x 2
4= 2
dz

dx
dz
=x
dx
x2
z=
2
2
dz d z 1
P 2 4x x 1
dx dx x
P1 = = =4
dz
2
x2

dx
R 2x2
R1 = 2
= 2 =2
dz x

dx
Ordinary Differential Equations 38 L Engineering Mathematics-II

## Thus we have from equation (2)

d2 y dy
4 4y = 2
dz2 dz
(D2 + 4D + 4)y = 2
A.E. is m2 + 4m + 4 = 0
m= 2, 2
C.F. = (C1 + C2z) e2z
1 2 1
P.I. = 2
2e0 z = =
( D 2) 4 2
2z 1
y = (C1 + C2 z) e +
2
2 x2
x2 1
y = C1 C2 e 2
2 2

x 2 x2 1
y = C1 C2 e +
2 2

d2 y dy
D.16. Solve cot x 4 y cosec 2 x = 0
dx2 dx

Type VIII :

## 1.53. Solve using the method of variation of parameters

d 2y dy
x2 2x (1 x ) 2(1 x )y = x3
dx 2 dx
To solve the given equation using variation of parameters first to find C.F.
Given equation may be written as
d2 y 2(1 x) dy 2(1 x)
y =x
dx2 x dx x2
2 2(1 x)
To find C.F. P= (1 + x), Q = ,R=0
x x2
P+Qx=0
y = x is a part of C.F. (let u =x)
y = v x will be the complete solution and v is given by
d 2 v 2 du dv R
P =
dx2 u dx dx u
d2v 2 2 dv 0
.1 (1 x) =
dx2 x x dx x
2
d v dv
2 =0
dx2 dx
2
(D 2D) v = 0
A.E. is m2 2m = 0
m = 0, 2
C.F. = C1 e0x + C2 e2x
C.F. = C1 + C2 e2x
Thus y=vx
y = C1 x + C2 x e2x
y = C1 y1 + C2 y2
Engineering Mathematics-II 39 L Ordinary Differential Equations

y1 = x, y2 = x e2x
y1 = 1, y2 = e2x + 2x e2x
2
y1 y2 y2 y1 = 2x e2x
P.I. = u y1 + v y2 = u x + v x e2x
y X xe2 x . x 1 x
u= y1 y 2 y2 y1 dx = 2 x 2 e2 x dx = 2 dx 2
y1 X x. x 1 2 x e2 x
v= y y y2 y1
dx = 2 x2 e2 x dx =
2 e dx
4
1

x e2 x x2 x
P.I. = .x ( x e2 x ) =
2 4 2 4
y = C.F. + P.I.
x2 x
y = C1 + C2 e2x
2 4

## 15. Mechanical system (Oscillations of a spring)

(i) Free Oscillations : Let O is fixed point of spring s. The static extension at
B, (Position of equilibrium) mg = ks (k is the restoring force per unit O
length). If mass m is stretched up to a distance x downward then equation
of motion is

d2 x
m = mg k (s + x)
dt 2
Weight is working downward (+) and restoring force k(s + x) in upward
direction ().
(ii) Damped free oscillations : If the motion of mass is opposed by some A
s
resistance (like air resistance or internal forces) then the oscillations are B
called damped free oscillations. The damping force is proportional to the x
dx
velocity say mg
dt
2
d x dx Fig. 1.
Equation of motion is m = mg k(s+ x)
dt 2 dt
(iii) Forced oscillations (without damping) : When an external force is applied to the body, it is
said to have forced oscillations, say the force applied is P sin nt, equation of motion is
d2 x
m = mg k(s + x) + P sin nt
dt 2
Applications of Differential equations to Engineering Problems :
Electrical Circuit : The following laws are used for an electrical circuit
(i) Kirchhoffs current law
(ii) Kirchhoffs voltage law
dq
(iii) Current i = , where q is the charge. L
dt R
(iv) Voltage drop across resistance = i R
di
(v) Voltage drop across inductance = L
dt
q
(vi) Voltage drop across capacitance =
C
To form a differential equation from an electrical +
circuit :
L R series circuit : E
Applying Kirchhoff s voltage law in the circuit, Fig. 2.
Ordinary Differential Equations 40 L Engineering Mathematics-II

## Voltage drop across R + Voltage drop across L = Applied voltage

di
iR + L =E
dt
di Ri E
or + =
dt L L
This is linear differential equation of first order and
first degree.
L R C series circuit :
di 1
i dt = E
dt C
iR + L
Fig. 3.
d2q dq q
L 2 +R + =E
dt dt C
This is a second order differential equation with constant coefficients.
(iv) Forced oscillations (with damping) : If an additional damping force applied to the body which is
proportional to velocity then body is said to have forced oscillations with damping (say damping force is
dx
), equation of motion is
dt
d2 x dx
m 2 = mg k(s + x) + + P sin nt
dt dt

1.54. In the RC-circuit where C = 0.01 F, R = 20 Ohms, E0 = 10 V. The current I(t), assuming that
capacitor is completely uncharged, is given as I(t) = ......... [UPTU 2011, Marks 2]
For a R-C circuit,
dq q
R = E
dt C
On putting the values, we get
dq q
20 = 10
dt 0.01
dq 1
or + 5q =
dt 2
5dt
Now, I.F. = e = e 5t
1
qe 5t = e 5 t dt + C
2
5t 1 5t
qe = e +C
10
At t = 0, q = 0
1 1
0= +C C=
10 10
1 1
qe 5t = e 5t +
10 10
1 1 5t
or q= + e
10 10
dq 1 5t
I(t) = e
dt 2

1.55. An alternative emf E sin t is applied to circuit with an inductance L, and a capacitance C in
series. Show that the current in the circuit is
E 1
(cos t cos nt) where n2 = [UPTU 2010, Marks 5]
( n2 2 ) L LC
The circuit is
The differential equation for the above circuit is
Engineering Mathematics-II 41 L Ordinary Differential Equations

d2 q q
L = E sin t L
dt 2 C
d2 q 1 E
sin t C
q =
dt 2 LC L
d2 q E 1
n2 q = sin t Given n2
dt 2 L
LC
E i
(D2 + n2)q = sin t
L
2 2
A.E. is m + n = 0, m = ni E sin t
C.F. = C1 cos nt + C2 sin nt Fig. 4.
1 E
P.I. = 2 sin t
D n2 L
D2 2
1 E
P.I. = sin t
n2 2 L
1 E
Complete solution is q = C1 cos nt + C2 sin nt + sin t ...(1)
n2 2 L
Initially at t = 0, q = 0
From (1) 0 = C1
E
Thus, q = C2 sin nt + sin t ...(2)
L(n2 2 )
dq E
= C2n cos nt + cos t ...(3)
dt L ( n 2 2 )
dq
At t = 0, i = =0
dt
E
From (3) 0 = C2 n
L( n2 2 )
E
C2 =
nL(n2 2 )
dq E E
From (3) =i= cos nt cos t
dt L( n2 2 ) L(n2 2 )
E
i = (cos t cos nt)
L( n2 2 )

1.56. Find the steady state solution in RLC circuit equation consisting of inductance L = 0.05 H,
resistance R = 5 Ohms and a condenser of capacitance 4 104 Farad, if Q = I = 0 when t = 0 and
there is an alternating emf of 200 cos 100t, find Q(t) and I(t). [UPTU 2011, Marks 5]
The differential equation of the circuit is
d 2Q dQ Q L
L R = 200 cos 100t R
dt2 dt C
Where, R = 5 , L = 0.05 H, C = 4 104 F C
2 R 1
D D Q = 200 cos 100t
L LC
R 1
A.E. is m2 m =0
L LC
i
R 1
Let = 2p and = 2
L LC 200 cos 100
R R2 4 Fig. 5.
2

L L LC
m=
2
Ordinary Differential Equations 42 L Engineering Mathematics-II

m = p p2 2
R 5
2p = = = 100
L 0.05
p = 50
1
2 = = 50000
LC
Thus, m = 50 (50)2 50000 = 50 50i 19
C.F. = e 50 t (C1 cos 50 19t C2 sin 50 19t)
1
P.I. = 2 200 cos 100t D2 (100)2
D 2 pD 2

= 1 2
200 cos 100 t = cos 100t
40000 100 D D 400
2( D 400) 2(100 sin 100t 400 cos 100t)
= cos 100 t = 2( D 400) cos 100t =
D2 160000 1,70,000 170000
1
P.I. = (sin 100 t + 4 cos 100t)
850
1
Thus, Q = e 50 t (C1 cos 50 19t C2 sin 50 19 t) (sin 100 t 4 cos 100t)
850
dQ
I= = 50 e 50 t (C1 cos 50 19t C2 sin 50 19t)
dt
e 50 t (50 19C1 sin 50 19 t 50 19C2 cos 50 19 t)
1 ...(2)
(100 cos 100t 400 sin 100 t)
850
At t = 0, Q = 0
4 4
From equation (1) 0 = C1 C1 =
850 850
At t = 0, I = 0
100
From equation (2) 0 = 50(C1 ) 50 19 C2
850
4 100
50 19 C2 = 50
850 850
300 1 6
C2 = =
850 50 19 850 19
50 t 4 6 1
Thus, Q= e 850 cos 50 19t sin 50 19t (sin 100t 4 cos 100t)
850 19 850

= 50 e 50 t 4 cos 50 19 t 6
sin 50 19t
850 850 19

e 50 t 19 sin 50 19 t 6 cos 50 19t
17 17
1
(100 cos 100 t 400 sin 100 t)
850

1.57. The equation of electromotive force in terms of current i for an electrical circuit having
reistance R and a condenser of capacity C, in series is
i
E = iR + C dt. Find the current i at any time t, when E = E0 sin t.
i
Given E = iR + C dt
Engineering Mathematics-II 43 L Ordinary Differential Equations

Fig. 6.
i
iR + dt = E0 sin t ...(1)
C
Differentiating equation (1) both sides with respect to t,
di i
R = E0 cos t
dt C
di 1 E
or i = 0 cos t
dt RC R
This is a linear differential equation of first order,
1 E cos t
P= ,Q= 0
RC R
1 t
RC dt
I.F. = e = e RC
t t
E0
i.e RC = e RC cos t dt C
R
t
t
E e RC 1
i.e RC = 0 cos t sin t C
R 1 2 RC

R2C 2
t
i = E0 RC 2 1
cos t sin t Ce RC
1 R2C 2 RC

## 1.58. In an L C R series circuit, the charge q on a plate of a condenser is given by

d2q dq q
L R = E sin pt
dt 2 dt C
1
The circuit is tuned to resonance so that p2 = . If initially the current i and the charge q
LC
R
be zero, then show that for small values of , the current in the circuit at time t is given by
L
Et
L sin pt.
2
Given equation may be written as
2 R 1 E
D D q = sin pt ...(1)
L LC L
R 1
A.E. is m2 m =0
L LC
R R2 4

L L2 LC = R 1 R2 4
m=
2 2 L 2 L2 LC
R 1 R R2
m= i is small, neglecting 2
2L LC L L
Ordinary Differential Equations 44 L Engineering Mathematics-II

R
m= iP
2L
Rt

C.F. = e 2L C1 cos pt C2 sin pt
1 E
P.I. = sin pt
R2 1 L
D D
L LC
1 E E L 1 E
Replacing D2 by p2 P.I. = sin pt = sin pt = cos pt
R L L R D Rp
p D p2
2
L
Thus q = C.F. + P.I.
Rt
E
q= e 2L C1 cos pt C2 sin pt cos pt ...(2)
Rp
Given at t = 0, q = 0
E E
From equation (2), 0 = C1 C1 =
Rp Rp
Again from equation (2)
Rt Rt
dq R 2L Ep
i= = e 2 L ( pC1 sin pt pC2 cos pt) e (C1 cos pt C2 sin pt) sin pt ...(3)
dt 2L Rp
At t = 0, i = 0
R
0 = pC2 C1
2L
R R E E
C2 = C1 = =
2LP 2 Lp Rp 2 Lp2
Putting the values of C1 and C2 in (3), we have
Rt Rt
E E R 2L E E E
Rp cos pt 2 Lp2 sin pt sin pt
2L
i= e R sin pt 2 Lp cos pt 2 L e
R
Rt Rt
E 2L ER E
i= e sin pt 2 2 e 2 L sin pt sin pt
R 4L p R
E Rt ER Rt E R2
i= 1 sin pt 1 sin pt sin pt neglecting terms of 2
R 2L 4 L2 p2 2L R L
Et E R Et R2
= sin pt 2
sin pt sin pt
2L 4 Lp L 8 p2 L L2
Et R
i=
2L
sin pt L being small

## 1.59. A body executes damped forced vibrations given by the equation

d2 x dx
2k b2 x = ekt sin t. Solve the equation for both cases
dt 2 dt
(i) When 2 b2 k2
(ii) When 2 = b2 k2
(D2 + 2kD + b2)x = ekt sin t
A.E. is m2 + 2km + b2 = 0
m = k k2 b2 [ body is in vibrations k2 < b2]

m = k i b2 k2

C.F. = e
kt

C1 cos b2 k2 t C2 sin b2 k2 t
Engineering Mathematics-II 45 L Ordinary Differential Equations

1
P.I. = e kt sin t
D2 2kD b2
kt 1
Replacing D by (D k) = e sin t
( D k) 2k( D k) b2
1 1
= e kt 2 sin t = e kt sin t
D (b2 k2 ) 2 (b2 k2 )
(i) If 2 b2 k2
e kt
Complete solution x= e
kt

C1 cos b2 k2 t C2 sin b2 k2 t b k2 2
2
sin t
(ii) If 2 = b2 k2 (It is a case of failure)
t e kt t e kt cos t t kt
P.I. = sin t = = e cos t
2D 2 2
t kt
So
x = e kt C1 cos b2 k2 t C2 sin b2 k2 t 2
e cos t

t kt
or x = e kt C1 cos t C2 sin t e cos t
2

d 2y
1.60. The equation for the bending of a strut beam is given by EI Py = 0. If y = 0, when x = 0
dx 2
l
and y = a when x = , find y.
2
Given equation is
d2 y 2 P
EI Py = 0 or D y=0
dx 2 EI
P
A.E. is m2 + =0
EI
P
m = i
EI
P
Let =
EI
m= i
Thus y= C1 cos x + C2 sin x ...(1)
y= 0 when x = 0
0= C1
From (1) y= C2 sin x ...(2)
l
y = a, when x =
2
l
a = C2 sin
2
a
C2 =
l
sin
2
P
a sin x
a sin x EI
From (2) y= =
l P l
sin sin
2 EI 2

1.61. The differential equation satisfied by a beam uniformly loaded (w kg/m) with one end fixed
and the second end subjected to tensile force P is given by
Ordinary Differential Equations 46 L Engineering Mathematics-II

d2 y 1
EI = Py w x2
dx 2 2
dy
Show that the elastic curve for the beam with conditions y = 0 = at x = 0 is given by :
dx
w wx 2 P
y= 2
(1 cosh nx) + , where n2 =
Pn 2P EI
Given equation may be written as
2 P w 2
D y = x
EI 2 EI
w 2
(D2 n2)y = x
2 EI
A.E. is m2 n2 = 0
m = n
C.F. = C1enx + C2enx
1
1 w 2 w 1 D2
P.I. = 2 2 x = 2 1 2 x2
D n 2 EI 2 EI n n
w D2 2 = w 2 2
= x x 2
2 1 2 2 EIn 2
n
2 EIn n
w 2 2
Thus y = C1 enx C2 e nx x 2 ...(1)
2 EIn2 n
Given at x = 0, y = 0
w
From euqation (1) 0 = C1 C2
EIn4
w
C1 + C2 = ...(2)
EIn4
dy wx
Again from equation (1) = nC1 enx nC2 e nx
dx EIn2
dy
At x = 0, =0
dx
0 = nC1 nC2
C1 = C2
w
From equation (2) 2C2 =
EIn4
w
C2 =
2 EIn4
w 2 P
n = EI
C1 = C2 =
2n2 P
Putting the values of C1 and C2 equation (1)
w w 2 2 w wx2 w
y= e nx
e nx
x = 2 2cosh nx
2
2n P 2 P 2
n 2n P 2 P Pn2
w w 2
y= (1 cosh nx) x
n2 P 2P
Engineering Mathematics-II 47 L Ordinary Differential Equations

D.17. The deflection of a strut of length l with one end (x = 0) built-in and the other support end
subjected to end thrust P, satisfied the equation
d2 y a2 R
2
a2 y = ( l x)
dx P
Prove that the deflection curve is
R 1
y= sin ax l cos ax l x
P a
where al = tan al

D.18. The voltage V and the current i at a distance x from the sending end of the transmission
line satisfy the equations
dV di
= i R and = GV
dx dx
Where G and R are constants. If V = V0 at (x = 0) and V = 0 at x = l, show that
sinh n(l x) 2
V = V0 , where n = RG
sinh nl
dx dy
D.19. The equations of motion of a particle are given by wy = 0, wx = 0. Find the path
dt dt
of the particle and show that it is a circle. [UPTU 2009, Marks 5]

D.20. A particle of mass m moves in a straight line under the action of force mn2x which is
always directed towards a fixed point O on the line. Determine the displacement x(t) if the
dx
resistance of the motion is 2 mnv. Given that initially x = 0, = 0 (0 < < 1).
dt
[UPTU 2010, Marks 10]
Ordinary Differential Equations 48 L Engineering Mathematics-II

## SOLUTION TO DRILL PROBLEMS

D-1. We have y = a cos (nx + b) ...(1)
Differentiating (1) with respect to x, we get y = an sin (nx + b) ...(2)
Differentiating again with respect to x, we get
y = an2 cos (nx + b) ...(3)
Put the value of acos (nx + b) = y from (1) in equation (3),
y = n2y
y + n2y = 0

d2 y dy
D-2. (i) 6 y = ex cosh 2x
dx2 dx
Symbolic form of the equation is
(D2 D 6)y = ex cosh 2x
Auxiliary equation (A.E.) is
m2 m 6 = 0
m2 3m + 2m 6 = 0
m(m 3) + 2(m 3)= 0
m = 2, 3
C.F. = C1e2x + C2e3x
1 1 1 1 1
P.I. = 2 e x cosh 2 x = e x ( e2 x e2 x ) = ( e3 x e x )
D D6 2 D2 D 6 2 D2 D 6
1 1 1
= e3 x 2 e x
2 D2 D 6 D D6
D3 D 1
(case of failure)
x 3x 1 x
P.I. = 1 x 1 e3 x 1 e x = e e
2 2D 1 2(4) 10 8
1
Thus y = C1 e2 x C2e3 x x e3 x e x
10 8
d2 y dy
(ii) 2k k2 y = ex
dx2 dx
(D2 2kD + k2)y = ex
A.E. is m2 2km + k2 =0
(m k)2 =0
m = k, k
C.F. = (C1 + C2x)ekx
1
P.I. = 2 ex
D 2 kD k2
D is replaced by 1
1 1
P.I. = ex = ex
1 2 k k2 ( k 1)2
1
Thus y = (C1 C2 x)e kx ex
( k 1)2

## D-3. (D2 6D + 9)y = 6e3x + 7e2x log 2

A.E. is m2 6m + 9 = 0
(m 3)2 = 0
m = 3, 3
C.F. = (C1 + C2x)e3x
1 1 1 1
P.I. = (6 e3 x 7 e 2 x log 2) = 6 2
e3 x 7 2
e 2 x log 2 e0 x
( D 3) 2 ( D 3) (D 3) (D 3)2
Engineering Mathematics-II 49 L Ordinary Differential Equations

1 7 2 x 1 1 7 2 x 1
P.I. = 6 x e3 x e log 2 = 6 x2 e3 x e log 2
2( D 3) 25 9 2 25 9
7 2 x 1
P.I. = 3 x 2 e3 x e log 2
25 9
3x 2 3x 7 2 x 1
Thus y = (C1 C2 x)e 3 x e e log 2
25 9

## D-4. (i) (D3 + 8)y = x4 + 2x + 1

A.E. is m3 + 8 = 0
(m + 2) (m2 + 4 2m) = 0
2 4 16
m = 2, m =
2
m = 2, 1 i 3
2 x
C.F. = C1e e x C2 cos 3x C3 sin 3 x
3 1
1 1
P.I. = 3 x4 2 x 1 = 1 D (x4 2 x 1)
D 8 8 8
1 D3 4 1 1
= 1
(x + 2x + 1) = x 4 2 x 1 3 x = x 4 x 1
8 8 8 8
2 x x 1 4
y = C1 e e C2 cos 3 x C3 sin 3 x x x 1
8
(ii) (D2 1)y = ax + sin x
A.E. is m2 1 = 0
m = 1
C.F. = C1ex + C2ex
1 1 1 x 1
P.I. = 2 ax 2 sin x = 2 elog a 2 sin x
D 1 D 1 D 1 D 1
1 1
= e x log a 2 sin x
D2 1 D 1
D log a D 12
2

1 1
= e x log a sin x
(log a)2 1 2
1 1
P.I. = a x sin x
(log a)2 1 2
x x 1 1
Thus y = C1 e C2 e a x sin x
(log a)2 1 2

2
D-5. d y 4 dy 4 y = 8x2 e2x sin 2x
dx2 dx
A.E. is m2 4m + 4 =0
(m 2)2 =0
m = 2, 2
C.F. = (C1 + C2x)e2x
1
P.I. = 2 8 x2 e2 x sin 2 x
D 4D 4
1
P.I. = 8 2 e2 x ( x2 sin 2 x)
D 4D 4
D ( D 2)
1 1 1
= 8 e2 x x 2 sin 2 x = 8 e2 x 2 x 2 sin 2 x = 8 e2 x x 2 sin 2 x dx
( D 2)2 4( D 2) 4 D D
Ordinary Differential Equations 50 L Engineering Mathematics-II

## 1 x2 x sin 2 x cos2 x = 8 e2 x 1 x 2 cos 2 x dx 1 x sin 2 x dx 1 cos 2 x dx

= 8 e2 x
2 2 4
cos2 x
D 2 2 4

x2 sin 2x 1 1 1
= 8 e2 x x sin 2x x sin 2x dx sin 2x
4 2 2 8
x2 sin 2x x cos2 x sin 2 x sin 2 x
= 8 e2 x
4 2 4 8
x 2 sin 2 x x cos 2 x 3sin 2 x
= 8e2x
4 2 8
= e2x (2x2 sin 2x 4x cos 2x + 3 sin 2x)
= e2x [4x cos 2x + (2x2 3)sin 2x]
y = (C1 + C2x) e2x e2x [4x cos 2x + (2x2 3)sin 2x]

d2 y
D-6. y = x cot x
dx2
A.E. is m2 + 1 = 0
m = i
C.F. = C1 cos x + C2 sin x
1 1 1
P.I. = 2 ( x cot x) = x cot x = P1 P2
D 1 D2 1 ( D i) ( D i)
1
P1 = x = (1 + D2)1x = (1 D2)x = x
D2 1
1 1 1 1
P2 = cot x = cot x
( D i) ( D i) 2i D i D i
1 1 1 1 ix ix
= cot x = e e cot x dx e ix eix cot x dx
2i
cot x
2i D i Di
1 ix (cos x i sin x)cos x (cos x i sin x)cos x
= e dx e ix dx
2i sin x sin x
1 ix cos2 x 2
ix cos x
= e i cos x dx e i cos x dx
2i sin x sin x
1 ix
= e (cosec x sin x i cos x)dx eix (cosec x sin x i cos x) dx
2i
1 ix
= e log(cosec x cot x) cos x i sin x e ix {log(cosec x cot x) cos x i sin x}
2i
1
= log(cosec x cot x)(eix eix ) cos x(eix eix ) i sin x(eix eix )
2i
= sin x log (cosec x cot x) + sin x cos x sin x cos x
= sin x log (cosec x cot x)
P.I. = P1 P2
= x sin x log (cosec x cot x)
y = C.F. + P.I.
y = C1 cos x + C2 sin x + x sin x log (cosec x cot x)

d2 y dy
D-7. x 2 2
4x 2 y = ex
dx dx
On putting x = ez,
z
{D(D 1) + 4D + 2}y = ee
z
(D2 + 3D + 2)y = ee
A.E. is m2 + 3m + 2 = 0 m = 1, 2
C.F. = C1ez + C2 e2z
Engineering Mathematics-II 51 L Ordinary Differential Equations

1 z
P.I. = ee
D2 3 D 2
(Using General method to find P.I.)
1 z 1 1 ez 1 z 1 z
= ee = e = ee ee
( D 1) ( D 2) D 1 D 2 D 1 D 2
z z
= e z e z e e dz e2 z e2 z e e dz
let ez = t ez dz = dt
z t 2 z t t
= e z et dt e2 z t et dt = e e e (t e e )
z z z z
= e z ee e 2 z ( e z e e e e ) = e2 z e e
Hence y = C.F. + P.I.
z
y = C1 e z C2 e2 z e 2 z e e
1 1 1 x
y = C1 C2 2 2 e
x x x

## D-8. (x2D2 xD + 4)y = cos (log x) + x sin (log x)

{D(D 1) D + 4}y = cos z + ez sin z
(D2 2D + 4)y = cos z + ez sin z
A.E. is m2 2m + 4 = 0
2 4 16
m= = 1i 3
2
z
C.F. = e C1 cos 3 z C2 sin 3z
1
P.I. = (cos z e z sin z)
D2 2 D 4
1 1
= 2 cos z 2 ez sin z
D 2D 4 D 2D 4
D2 12 D D 1
1 1 1 1
= cos z e z sin z = cos z e z 2 sin z
(2 D 3) ( D 1)2 2( D 1) 4 2D 3 D 3
2
D2 1
(2 D 3) 1 1 1
= cos z e z sin z = (2sin z 3cos z) e z sin z
4 D2 9 2 13 2
2 3 1
y = e z C1 cos 3 z C2 sin 3 z sin z cos z e z sin z
13 13 2
2 3 1
or
y = x C1 cos 3(log x) C2 sin 3(log x) 13
sin (log x) cos(log x) x sin(log x)
13 2

d2 y dy
D-9. (1 2x)2 6(1 2x) 16 y = 8(1 + 2x)2
dx 2 dx
Let 1 + 2x = ez
d
(1 2 x) 2D
dx
d2
(1 2x)2 22D(D 1)
dx2
{4D(D 1) 6 2D + 16}y = 8e2z
(4D2 16D + 16)y = 8e2z
(D2 4D + 4)y = 2e2z
A.E. is m2 4m + 4 =0
Ordinary Differential Equations 52 L Engineering Mathematics-II

(m 2)2 = 0
m = 2, 2
C.F. = (C1 + C2z)e2x
1 1 1
P.I. = 2 e2 z (case of failure) = 2 z e2 z = 2 z2 e2 z = z2e2z
( D 2)2 2( D 2) 2
y = (C1 + C2z)e2z + z2e2z
y = [C1 + C2 log (1 + 2x) + {log(1 + 2x)}2] (1 + 2x)2 ...(1)
At x = 0, y = 0, from equation (1)
0 = C1 + 0 C1 = 0
Again from equation (1)
dy 2C2 22 log(1 2 x) 2 2
= (1 2 x) 4(1 2 x)[C1 C2 log(1 2 x) {log(1 2 x)} ]
dx (1 2 x) (1 2 x)
dy
At x = 0, =2
dx
2 = 2C2 + 4[C1]
2C2 = 2 [ c1 = 0]
C2 = 1
Putting C1 = 0 and C2 = 1 in equation (1), we have
y = log (1 + 2x) [1 + log (1 + 2x)] (1 + 2x)2

dx
D-10. ty =0 ...(1)
dt
dy
t x =0
dt
x(1) = 1, y( 1) = 0 ...(2)
Differentiating equation (1) with respect to t
d2 x dx dy
t =0
dt 2 dt dt
d2 x dx dy
or t2 2 t t =0 ...(3)
dt dt dt
dy
From (2), t = x, putting in equation (3)
dt
d2 x dx
t2 2 t x =0 ...(4)
dt dt
This is a homogeneous differential equation,
Let t = ez
d
t D
dt
d2
t2 D(D 1)
dt2
Equation (4) becomes
{D(D 1) + D 1}x = 0
(D2 1)x = 0
A.E. is m2 1 = 0
m=1
x = C1 ez + C2 ez
1
x = C1t + C2 ...(5)
t
dx C2
= C1 2
dt t
dx
From equation (1), y=t
dt
Engineering Mathematics-II 53 L Ordinary Differential Equations

C2
y = C1 t + ...(6)
t
Given t= 1, x = 1, from equation (5)
C1 + C2 = 1
and t= 1, y = 0, from equation (6)
0= C1 C2
1 1
On solving C1 = , C2 =
2 2
1 1
Thus x= t
2 t
1 1
y= t
2 t

d2 y dy
D-11. (i) x2 x y = x3 ex
dx2 dx
To solve the above differential equation by variation of parameters, first to find C.F.
Let x = ez z
{D(D 1) + D 1}y = e3z ee
z
(D2 1)y = e3z ee
A.E. is m2 1 = 0
m=1
1
C.F. = C1 ez + C2 ez = C1 x + C2
x
1 1 2
Let y1 = x, y2 = , y = 1, y2 = 2 , y1 y2 y2 y1 =
x 1 x x
P.I. = u y1 + v y2, X = x3 ex
Xy x2ex 1 3 x
u= y1 y2 y22 y1 dx = 2 dx =
2
x e

x
1 3 x
u= [x e 3x2 ex + 6xex 6ex]
2
X y1 x3 e x . x 1
v=
dx = dx = x5 e x dx
y1 y2 y2 y1 2 2

x
1 5 x
v= [x e 5x4 ex + 20x3 ex 60x2 ex + 120 xex 120 ex]
2
P.I. = u y1 + v y2
1 4 x 1 x 4 3 2 120
= (x e 3x3 ex + 6x2 ex 6x ex) e x 5x 20x 60x 120
2 2 x
ex 3 2 120
P.I. = 2 x 14 x 54 x 120
2 x
C2 60
y = C1 x + ex x3 7 x2 27 x 60
x x
(ii) (D2 + 1)y = sec x tan x
A.E. is m2 + 1 = 0
m= i
C.F. = C1 cos x + C2 sin x
Let y1 = cos x, y2 = sin x
y 1 y 2 y 2 y 1 = cos2 x + sin2 x = 1
X= sec x tan x
Ordinary Differential Equations 54 L Engineering Mathematics-II

## P.I. = uy1 + vy2

sec x tan x sin x 2
u= dx = tan x dx
1
sec x tan x sin x
u= dx
1
2
= (sec x 1) dx = tan x + x
sec x tan x.cos x
v= dx = tan x dx
1
v= log sec x
Thus, P.I. = ( tan x + x) cos x + (log (sec x)) sin x
P.I. = x cos x sin x + sin x log (sec x)
y= C1 cos x + C2 sin x + x cos x sin x + sin x. log (sec x)

d3 y
D-12. = sin2 x
dx3
d3 y 1 cos 2 x
3
=
dx 2
d2 y 1 sin 2 x
On integration = x C1
dx 2 2 2
dy 1 x2 cos 2 x
Again on integration, = C1 x C2
dx 2 2 4

1 x3 sin 2 x C1 x2
and y= + C2 x + C3
2 6 8 2
x3 sin 2 x C1 x 2
Thus y= + C2 x + C3
12 16 2

2
d2 y dy
D-13. y(1 log y) 2 + (1 + log y) =0
dx dx
dy d2 y dP
Let = P, =
dx dx 2 dx
d2 y dP dy dP
2
= =P
dx dx dy dy
dP
y(1 log y) P + (1 + log y) P2 = 0
dy
dP (1 log y)
or separating the variables we get = y (1 log y) dy
P
Let log y = z
1
dy = dz
y
dP (1 z) z1 2
= dz = dz = 1 dz
P (1 z) z 1 z 1
Integrating both sides, log P = z + 2 log (z 1) + log C1
log P = z + log (z 1)2 C1
log P = log ez + log (z 1)2 C1
log P = log ez (z 1)2 C1
P= ez (z 1)2 C1
Engineering Mathematics-II 55 L Ordinary Differential Equations

dy
= ez (z 1)2 C1 = y (log y 1)2 C1
dx
dy
or = C1 dx
y(log y 1)2
1
Let log y 1 = t dy = dt
y
dt
= C1 dx
t2
1
On integration = C1 x + C2
t
1
= C1 x + C2
(log y 1)
1
1 log y =
C1 x C2
d2 y
dy
D-14. x (1 x) y = x2 ex
dx dx
Given equation may be written as
1 1
y 1 y = x ex
y
x x
1 1
P= , Q= 1, R = x ex
x x
1 + P + Q = 0, thus ex is a solution, u = ex
Thus y = vex, v is given by
d 2v 2 du dv R
2
+ P =
dx u dx dx u
d 2v 1 2 x dv xe x
2
+ x e =
dx x e dx ex
d2v 1 dv
2 = x e2x
dx2 x dx
dv
Let =P
dx
dP 1
2 P = x e2x
dx x
1 1

2 x dx log
I.F. = e = e2 xlog x = e2 x e log x e2x e x

1
I.F. = e2 x
x
2 x
Thus P.(I.F.) = xe (I.F.)dx C1

1 2 x 1
P e2 x = xe e2 x dx C1
x x
e2x
P = dx C1
x
P = x2 e2x + x e2x C1
dv
= x2 e2x + x e2x C1
dx
2 2 x
On integrating v= x e dx C1 x e2 x dx C2
Ordinary Differential Equations 56 L Engineering Mathematics-II

x2 e2 x x2 e2 x
v= x e2 x dx C1 x e2 x dx C2 = (C1 1) x e2 x dx C2
2 2
x2 e2 x 2 x 1 2 x x 2 e 2 x 2 x e 2 x
v= (C1 1) x e e dx C2 = (C1 1) x e C2
2 2 2 2 2 4
Thus y =vx
e2 x
y=
4

2 x3 2 x 2 (C1 1) x(C1 1) + C2x

d 2 y 2 dy 2 2
D-15. n 2 y = 0
dx2 x dx x
2 2
P= , Q = n2 2 , R = 0
x x
1 2 dx
dx
v = e 2 x e x elog x
v=x
R
R1 = =0
v
1 dP p2 2 1 2 1 4 1 1
Q1 = Q = n2 + 2 2 2 = n2 2 2
2 dx 4 x 2 x 4 x x x
Q1 = n2
Given equation is transformed into
d 2u
Q1u = R1
dx 2
d 2u
n 2u =0
dx 2
A.E. is m2 + n2 =0
m = ni
C.F. = C1 cos nx + C2 sin nx
u = C1 cos nx + C2 sin nx
Thus y = u.v. = x(C1 cos nx + C2 sin nx)

d2 y dy
D-16. cot x 4 y cosec 2 x = 0
dx2 dx
P = cot x, Q = 4 cosec2 x, R = 0
Q
Q1 = 2
dz

dx
Let Q1 = 4
4 cosec 2 x
4= 2
dz

dx
2
dz = cosec2 x

dx
dz x
= cosec x z = log tan
dx 2
2
dz d z
P 2 cot x cosec x (cosec x cot x)
P1 = dx 2 dx = =0
dz cosec 2 x

dx
Engineering Mathematics-II 57 L Ordinary Differential Equations

R
R1 = 2
=0
dz

dx
Thus equation is transformed into
d2 y
4y =0
dz2
A.E. is m2 + 4 =0
m = 2i
y = C1 cos 2z + C2 sin 2z
x x
y = C1 cos 2 log tan C2 sin 2 log tan
2 2

d2 y a2 R
D-17. 2
a2 y = (l x )
dx P

a2 R
(D2 + a2)y = (l x )
p
A.E. is m2 + a2 = 0
m = ai
C.F. = C1 cos ax + C2 sin ax
1
1 a2 R a2 R 1 D2
P.I. = 2 2
. (l x) = 1 2 (l x )
D a P 2
P a a
R D2 R
= 1 2 (l x ) = P (l x )
P a
R
Thus y = C1 cos ax + C2 sin ax + (l x) ...(1)
P
Now at x = 0, y = 0
Rl
0 = C1
P
Rl
C1 =
P
dy
Also at x = 0, =0
dx
dy R
From equation (1), = aC1 sin ax + aC2 cos ax
dx p
R R
0 = aC2 C2 =
P aP
Rl R R
From equation (1), y= cos ax sin ax (l x)
P aP P
R 1
or y= sin ax l cos ax l x
Pa
Again when x = l, y = 0
R 1
0= sin al l cos al l l
Pa
or al = tan al

dV
D-18. =iR ...(1)
dx
Ordinary Differential Equations 58 L Engineering Mathematics-II

di
= GV ...(2)
dx
1 dV
From equation (1) i= , putting value of i in equation (2)
R dx
d dV 1 = GV

dx dx R
d 2V
= RGV (D2 RG)V = 0
dx2
A.E. is m2 RG =0 (Let RG = n2)
m2 n2 =0m=n
Therefore, V = C1 enx + C2 enx
At x = 0, V = V0
V0 = C1 + C2 ...(3)
At x = l, V = 0
0= C1 enl + C2 enl ...(4)
From equations (3) and (4)
V0 V0 e2nl
C1 = , C2 =
1 e 2 nl 1 e2nl
Thus we have V = C1 enx + C2 enx
V e nx V e2 nl e nx sinh n(l x)
V = 0 2nl 0 V = V0 (where n2 = RG)
1 e 1 e2 nl sinh nl

## D-19. The given equations are

Dx + wy = 0 ...(1)
wx + Dy = 0 ...(2)
Multiplying (1) by w and (2) by D and on adding
(D2 + w2)y = 0
Auxiliary equation is
m2 + w2 = 0
m = wi
Thus y = C1 cos wt + C2 sin wt ...(3)
dy
Also = Dy = C1w sin wt + C2w cos wt
dt
From (2) wx = Dy
wx = C1 w sin wt + C2 w cos wt
x = C1 sin wt + C2 cos wt ...(4)
Squaring and adding equations (3) and (4)
x2 + y2 = C12 + C22
x 2 + y 2 = R2
where R2 = C12 + C22
Hence, the path is a circle.

## D-20. Equation of motion is

dv
mv = mn2x 2 mnv
dx
2
dv
= (n x 2 nv) ...(1)
dx v
Let v = yx
dv dy
= yx
dx dx
From equation (1)
Engineering Mathematics-II 59 L Ordinary Differential Equations

dy (n2 2 ny)
yx =
dx y
dy n2 2 ny y2
x =
dx y
ydy dx
n2 2ny y2 = C
x
1 2 y 2n 2n dx
dy =
2 n2 2ny y2
C
x
1 2 y 2n dy
dy n
2 n2 2ny y2
= log x + C
( y n)2 n2 (1 2 )
1 dy
log(n2 2ny y 2 ) n = log x + C
2 ( y n)2 (n 1 2 )2
1 n y n
log(n2 2ny y 2 ) tan 1 2
= log x + C
2 n 1 2
n 1
y n
log n2 2ny y2 log x tan 1 =C
2
1 2 n 1
y n
log x n2 2ny y2 tan 1 2
=C
2
1 n 1
v
Putting y =
x
v nx
log v2 2nvx n2 x 2 tan 1 =C
2 2
1 nx 1
We know that v = 0 and x = 0
Thus, C = 0
Hence,
v nx
log v2 2nvx n2 x 2 tan1 2
=0
2
1 nx 1