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Differential equation :
An equation involving derivatives of one or more dependent variables with respect to one or more
independent variables is called a differential equation.
Ordinary differential equation :
A differential equation involving derivatives with respect to a single independent variable is called an
ordinary differential equation.

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1. Differential equation :

An equation involving derivatives of one or more dependent variables with respect to one or more

independent variables is called a differential equation.

dy

e.g., log = ax + by,

dx

(1 x2) (1 y) dx = xy (1 + y) dy,

dy d 2 y dn y

Note : We use y (or y1), y (or y2), y (or y3)... y(n) (or yn) to denote , 2 ,.... n respectively.

dx dx dx

A differential equation involving derivatives with respect to a single independent variable is called an

ordinary differential equation.

dy

e.g., = x + sin x

dx

3

d2 y dy 2 2

k 2 = 1

dx dx

A differential equation involving partial derivatives with respect to more than one independent variables

is called a partial differential equation.

2

2v 3v

e.g., 2

= k 3

t x

2u 2u 2u

2

k 2 2 = 0

x y z

The order of a differential equation is the order of the highest derivative involved in a differential

equation, e.g.

5

d 4 x d 2 x dx 5 th

(i) = e is of 4 order.

dt 4 dt 2 dt

5L

Ordinary Differential Equations 6L Engineering Mathematics-II

3

d2 y 2

dy 2

(ii) k 2 = 1

nd

is of 2 order.

dx dx

2

2v 3 v

(iii) 2

= k 3 is of 3rd order.

t dx

(iv) dy = (x + sin x) dx is of 1st order.

The degree of a differential equation is the degree of the highest derivative which occurs in it, after the

differential equation has been made free from radicals and fractions as far as the derivatives are concerned.

5

e.g., (i)d 4 x d 2 x dx = et is of first degree

dt 4 dt 2 dt

dy k

(ii) y = x

dx dy

dx

Making it free from fractions, we get

2

dy dy

y = x k

dx dx

Which is of second degree.

4 2

d 3y 2 dy x

1.1. The differential equation = sin xy

dx 3 6x dx e

is of .................. order and ................... degree. [UPTU 2009, Marks 2]

3 4 2

d y 2 dy x

3 6 x e = sin xy is of 3 order and 4 degree.

dx dx

OR

4 8

d 3y 2 dy

1.2. The order and degree of the differential equation 6x = 0 are .................

dx 3 dx

and ................. [UPTU 2009, Marks 2]

4 8

d3 y dy

The order and degree of the differential equation 3 6 x 2 = 0 are 3 and 4.

dx dx

An exact differential equation is formed by directly differentiating its primitive (solution) without any

other process.

Mdx + Ndy = 0

is said to be an exact differential equation if it satisfies the following condition

M N

=

y x

M N

where denotes the differential coefficient of M with respect to y keeping x constant and , the

y x

differential coefficient of N with respect to x, keeping y constant.

Method For Solving Exact Differential Equations

Step I. Integrate M with respect to x keeping y constant.

Step II. Integrate N with respect to y, only those terms of N which do not contain x.

Step III. Result of I + Result of II = Constant.

Engineering Mathematics-II 7L Ordinary Differential Equations

Here, M = 5x4 + 3x2y2 2xy3, N = 2x3y 3x2y2 5y4

M N

= 6x2y 6x y2, = 6x2y 6xy2

y x

M N

Since, = , the given equation is exact.

y x

Now M dx (terms of N not containing x) dy =C

4 2 2 3 4

(5 x 3x y 2xy )dx 5 y dy = C

x 5 + x 3y 2 x 2y 3 y 5 = C

a 2 ( x dy y dx )

1.4. Solve xdx + ydy =

x2y2

a2 ( x dy y dx)

We have, xdx + ydy =

x 2 y2

a2 y a2 x

or x 2 2

dx + y 2 dy = 0

x y x y2

a2 y a2 x

Here, M= x and N = y

x 2 y2 x2 y2

M a2 ( x2 y2 ) N a2 ( x2 y2 )

Now, = , =

y ( x 2 y 2 )2 x ( x 2 y 2 )2

M N

Since, =

y x

Equation is exact. Hence,

M dx N dy =C

a2 y

or x x2 y2 dx y dy =C

x2 1 x y2

a2 y. tan 1 =C

2 y y 2

x 2 y2 x

+ a2 tan1 = C

2 y

Sometimes a differential equation which is not exact may become so, on multiplication by a suitable

function known as the integrating factor.

M N

y x f ( x ) dx

Rule I. If is a function of x alone, say f(x), then I.F. = e .

N

M = 2y and N = 2x log x xy ...(1)

M N

= 2, = 2 (1 + log x) y

y x

Ordinary Differential Equations 8L Engineering Mathematics-II

M N

y x 2 log x y 1

Here, = = = f(x)

N 2 x log x xy x

1

x dx 1

I.F. = e = e log x =

x

1

Now, {(2x log x xy)dy + 2y dx}. =0

x

2y

or dx + (2 log xy)dy = 0

x

Integrating both sides, we get

1 2

2y log x y =C

2

N M

x y

Rule II. If is a function of y alone, say f(y), then

M

f ( y) dy

I.F. = e

Here M = y4 + 2y and N = xy3 + 2y4 4x ...(1)

M N

= 4y3 + 2 ; = y3 4

y x

N M

x y ( y3 4) (4 y3 2) 3( y3 2) 3

= = = = f(y)

M y4 2 y y( y3 2) y

3

f ( y) dy y dy 3 1

I.F. = e = e = e3 log y = elog y = y3 =

y3

1

On multiplying the given equation (1) by , we get the exact differential equation.

y3

2 4x

y 2 dx + x 2 y 3 dy = 0

y y

2

y y2 dx 2 y dy =C

2

x y 2 + y2 = C

y

1

then I.F =

Mx Ny

y(x y + 2x2y2)dx + x(xy x2y2)dy = 0 ...(1)

Engineering Mathematics-II 9L Ordinary Differential Equations

y(1 + 2xy) dx + x(1 xy) dy = 0 ...(2)

M = yf1(xy) and N = xf2(xy)

1 1 1

I.F = = =

Mx Ny xy(1 2 xy) xy(1 xy) 3x2 y2

1

Multiplying (2) by , we have an exact differential equation.

3x 2 y2

1 2 1 1

2 dx + 2

dy = 0

3x y 3 x 3 xy 3 y

1 2 1

3 x2 y 3x dx + 3 y dy =C

1 2 1

log x log y = C

3 xy 3 3

1

2 log x log y = b

xy

Rule IV : For this type of xm yn (ay dx + bx dy) + xm yn (ay dx + bx dy) = 0, the integrating factor is xhyk.

m h 1 n k 1 m h 1 n k 1

Where = and =

a b a b

(3y 2xy3) dx + (4x 3x2y2) dy = 0

(3y dx + 4x dy) + xy2 ( 2y dx 3x dy) = 0 ...(1)

Comparing the coefficients of (1) with xm yn (ay dx + bx dy) + xm yn (ay dx + bx dy) = 0, we get

m = 0, n = 0, a = 3, b = 4

m = 1, n = 2, a = 2, b = 3

To find the integrating factor xhyk

m h 1 n k 1 m h 1 n k 1

= and =

a b a b

0 h 1 0 k 1 1 h 1 2 k1

= and =

3 4 2 3

h 1 k 1 h 2 k 3

= and =

3 4 2 3

2k

4h 3k + 1 = 0 ... (2) and 3h 2k = 0 h= ...(3)

3

Putting the value of h from equation (3) in (2), we get

8k

3k 1 = 0

3

k

1 = 0 k = 3

3

Putting k = 3 in equation (3), we get

2k 23

h= = =2

3 3

I.F = xhyk = x2y3

Ordinary Differential Equations 10 L Engineering Mathematics-II

x2y3 (3y 2xy3) dx + x2y3 (4x 3x2y2) dy = 0

(3x2y4 2x3y6) dx + (4x3y3 3x4y5) dy = 0

This is the exact differential equation.

2 4 3 6

Its solution is (3 x y 2 x y ) dx = C

x4 6

x3 y4 y =C

2

1

Rule V : If the given equation Mdx + Ndy = 0 is homogeneous equation and Mx + Ny 0, then

Mx Ny

is an integrating factor.

dy x3y3

1.9. Solve =

dx xy 2

(x3 + y3) dx (xy2) dy = 0 ...(1)

Here M = x3 + y3 and N = xy2

1 1 1

I.F. = = =

Mx Ny x( x y ) xy2 ( y)

3 3

x4

1 1 1

Multiplying equation (1) by 4 we get, (x3 + y3) dx + 4 ( xy2) dy = 0

x x4 x

1 y3 y2

4 dx 3 dy = 0, which is an exact differential equation.

x x x

1 y3 y3

x x4 dx =C log x

3 x3

=C

The following differential equations, which commonly occur, help in selecting the suitable integrating

factor.

x dy y dx y

(i) y dx + x dy = d[xy] (ii) = d

x2 x

y dx x dy x x dy y dx 1 y

(iii) = d (iv) = d tan

y2 y x 2 y2 x

x dy y dx y x dx y dy 1 2 2

(v) = d log (vi) = d log( x y )

xy x x2 y2 2

x dy y dx 1 x y x dy y dx 1

(vii) = d log (viii) 2 2 = d

2

x y 2 2 x y x y xy

A differential equation is linear if

(i) every dependent variable and every derivative involved occurs in the first degree only.

(ii) no product of dependent variables and/or derivatives occur.

Engineering Mathematics-II 11 L Ordinary Differential Equations

A differential equation which is not linear is called a non linear differential equation.

dy 2u 2u

e.g., = x + sin x and = 0 are linear,

dx x 2 y2

2

2v 3v

but 2

= K 3 is not linear.

t x

Any relation between the dependent and independent variables, when substituted in the differential

equation, reduces it to an identity is called a solution or integral of the differential equation.

Let F(x, y, y1, y2,......, yn) = 0 be an nth order differential equation. ...(1)

A solution of (1) containing n independent arbitrary constants is called a general solution. A solution of

(1) obtained from a general solution of (1) by giving particular values to one or more of the n independent

arbitrary constants is called a particular solution of (1).

A solution of (1) which cannot be obtained from any general solution of (1) by any choice of the n

independent arbitrary constants is called a singular solution of (1).

The equation of a circle with centre (h, k) and radius a is

(x h)2 + (y k)2 = a2 ...(1)

Here h, k are constants and a is a given parameter. Since here are two arbitrary constants therefore a

second order differential equation is formed by differentiating equation (1) two times and eliminating h

and k.

Differentiating (1) with respect to x, we get

2 (x h) + 2 (y k) y = 0

or (x h) + (y k) y = 0 ...(2)

Differentiate (2) again

1 + (y k) y + (y)2 = 0

1 ( y)

y k =

y

Put this value of (y k) in equation (2)

1 ( y) 2

x h y = 0

y

(1 ( y )2 )

xh= y

y

Using the values of x h and y k in equation (1), we get

(1 ( y )2 )2 ( y)2 (1 ( y)2 )2

= a2

( y)2 ( y )2

(1 + (y)2)3 = a2 (y)2

xy = aex + bex + x2 is a solution.

We have xy = aex + bex + x2 ...(1)

Differentiating (1) with respect to x, we get

xy + y = aex bex + 2x ...(2)

Ordinary Differential Equations 12 L Engineering Mathematics-II

xy + y + y = aex + bex + 2 ...(3)

Put aex + bex = xy + 2y 2 from (3) in equation (1)

xy = xy + 2y 2 + x2

2

xy + 2y xy + x 2 = 0

D.1. Form the differential equation for y = a cos (nx + b), where a and b are constants.

A linear differential equation is an equation in which the dependent variable and its derivatives appear

only in the first degree. For example

d2 y dy

+7 9y = 4x2 7

dx 2 dx

A linear differential equation of order n is of the form

dn y d n 1 y dn 2 y dy

n

+ a 1 n 1

a2 n 2

.... an 1 an y = Q

dx dx dx dx

Where a1, a2, a3,....an are all constants and Q is any function of x or constant. The above equation is called

a L.D.E., with constant coefficients.

If n = 2, this equation is L.D.E., of second order with constant coefficient. Its general form is given by

d2 y dy

2

Qy = R

P ...(1)

dx dx

Where P and Q are constants and R is a function of x or constant. Equation (1) in symbolic form may be

written as

(D2 + PD + Q) y = R

dy d2 y

Where Dy = , D2y =

dx dx 2

D stands for differentiation and is called as differential operator.

1

stands for integration.

D

9. (a) Solution of a second order linear differential equation with constant coefficient :

Solution of the second order L.D.E., consists of two parts. One part is corresponding to the L.H.S., of the

equation and second part is for the R.H.S. The first part is called as complementary function and second

one as particular integral. Thus

Complete solution = Complementary Function (C.F.) + Particular Integral (P.I.)

Procedure to find C.F. : The following are the steps to find complementary function :

Step (1) Put the R.H.S. of the given equation equals to zero, i.e., f(D) y = 0.

d d2

Step (2) Replace D, D2 and so on i.e., convert the given equation in symbolic form.

dx dx2

Step (3) Make an auxiliary equation replacing D by m. Say the equation is

(D2 + 4D + 7) = 0 then its auxiliary equation is

m2 + 4m + 7 = 0

Step (4) Find the roots of auxiliary equation (A.E.). C.F. will depend upon the type of root.

Engineering Mathematics-II 13 L Ordinary Differential Equations

Case (i) : If all roots of the A.E., are real and distinct say m1, m2,...., mn, then

C.F. = C1em1x + C2em2x +.....+ Cnemnx

Where C1, C2,...., Cn are constant.

Case (ii) : If roots of A.E., are real and equal say

m1 = m2 = ......... = mn = m (say). Then

C.F. = (C1 + C2x + C2x2 +.....+ Cnxn1) emx

If some roots are equal, others are distinct say m1 = m2 = m3 = m and m4, m5,....., mn

Then C.F. = (C1 + C2 x + C3 x2) emx + C4em4x + C5em5x +.....+ Cnemnx

Case (iii) : If the roots of A.E., are complex say

m = i, then

C.F. = C1e(+i)x + C2e( i)x

or C.F. = C1ex eix + C2ex eix

C.F. = C1ex (cos x + i sin x) + C2ex (cos x i sin x)

C.F. = ex (C1 + C2) cos x + iex (C1 C2) sin x

C.F. = ex [A cos x + B sin x]

or changing the constants

C.F. = ex (C1 cos x + C2 sin x)

This expression may be written as

C.F. = C1ex (cos x + C2) or C.F. = C1ex (sin x + C2)

Case (iv) : If the A.E. has irrational roots say

= , where is positive, then

x

C.F. = e (C1 cosh x + C2 sinh x)

dy 1 2

1.12. A particular solution of the differential equation = (y 1) that satisfies the initial

dt 2

condition y(0) = 2 is .................... [UPTU 2009, Marks 2]

dy 1 2

A particular solution of the differential equation ( y 1) that satisfies the initial condition

dt 2

y(0) = 2 is y 1 1

= et

y1 3

d 5y d 3y

1.13. The general solution of the differential equation 5

= 0 is given by .....................

dx dx 3

[UPTU 2009, Marks 2]

d5 y d3 y

The general solution of the differential equation = 0 is given by

dx5 dx3

y = C1 + C2x + C3x2 + C4 ex + C5 ex

(i) Integrating factor to a differential equation is unique.

ydx xdy

(ii) y = ex is the general solution of the = 0. [UPTU 2010, Marks 2]

x2

(i) Integrating factor to a differential equation is unique.

1.15. The differential equation for which xy = aex + bex + x2 is the solution, is given as

[UPTU 2011, Marks 2]

Refer Q1.11.

d 2y dy

1.16. Solve 30 y = 0.

dx 2 dx

Symbolic form of the equation is

(D2 + D 30) y = 0

Ordinary Differential Equations 14 L Engineering Mathematics-II

A.E. is

m2 + m 30 = 0

or

m2 + 6m 5m 30 = 0

m (m + 6) 5 (m + 6) = 0

(m 5) (m + 6) = 0

m = 5, 6

The roots of the A.E. are real and distinct so the C.F. is

C.F. = C1 e5x + C2 e6x

There is no term in R.H.S., therefore P.I. = 0

Complete solution y = C.F. + P.I.

y = C1 e5x + C2 e6x

A.E. is

m2 8m + 16 = 0

(m 4)2 = 0

m= 4, 4 (roots are real and equal)

C.F. = (C1 + C2x) e4x, P.I. = 0

Thus

y = (C1 + C2x) e4x

d 3y d 2y dy

1.18. Solve 3

2 4 8y = 0

dx dx 2 dx

(D3 2D2 + 4D 8)y = 0

A.E. is

m3 2m2 + 4m 8 = 0

m2 (m 2) + 4 (m 2) = 0

(m2 + 4) (m 2) = 0

m = 2, 2i

One root is real, two are imaginary thus

y = C1 e2x + e0x (C2 cos 2x + C3 sin 2x)

y = C1 e2x + C2 cos 2x + C3 sin 2x

d 4y d 2y

1.19. Solve 4

= 0, given y (0) = y (0) = y (0) = 0 and y (0) = 1

dx dx 2

Given equation is

(D4 + D2)y = 0

A.E. is

m4 + m2 = 0

m (m2 + 1) = 0

2

m = 0, 0, i

Two roots are equal and two are imaginary thus

y = (C1 + C2x) e0x + e0x (C3 cos x + C4 sin x)

y = C1 + C2x + C3 cos x + C4 sin x ...(1)

Applying

y(0) = 0

0 = C1 + C3 ...(2)

y = C2 C3 sin x + C4 cos x

Engineering Mathematics-II 15 L Ordinary Differential Equations

Applying

y(0) = 0

0 = C2 + C4 ...(3)

y = C3 cos x C4 sin x

Applying

y(0) = 0

0 = C3 C3 = 0

From (2) C1 = 0

Again

y = C3 sin x C4 cos x

Applying y(0) = 1

1= C4

C4 = 1

From (3)

C2 = C4 = 1

Thus from (1)

y = x sin x

10. Rules to find P.I. (Particular Integral) : When there is any term in the R.H.S., particular integral is

evaluated and complete solution of the given differential equation will be the sum of C.F. and P.I. will

depend upon the type of function. The function may be of the following types :

(i) eax, a is any constant and f(a) 0

(ii) eax and f(a) = 0, case of failure

(iii) sin ax or cos ax and f( a2) 0

(iv) sin ax or cos ax and f( a2) = 0, case of failure

(v) x n

(vi) eax. V, V is any function of x.

(vii) x. V, V is any function of x.

To find C.F.

A.E. is m3 + 1 = 0

1 i 3

(m + 1) (m2 m + 1) = 0 m = 1,

2

x

3 3

C.F. = C1ex + e 2 C2 cos x C3 sin x

2 2

1 1

To find P.I. P.I. = ( e x 1)2 = 3 (e 2 x 1 2 e x )

D3 1 D 1

1 1 1

= e2 x 3

3

e0 x 2 3 ex

D 1 D 1 D 1

(Replacing D by a in each term, in first term a is 2, in second a is zero and in third a is 1)

1 1 1 2x

= e2 x 2. 3 ex = e ex 1

23 1 0 1 1 1 9

Hence the complete solution is

y = C.F. + P.I.

x

3 3 e2 x

y = C1ex + e 2 C2 cos x C3 sin x ex 1

2 2 9

Table 1.1.

How to find particular Integral when the function in R.H.S. is of the type

eax, f(a) 0 eax, f(a) = 0 sin ax, cos ax sin ax, cos ax xn eax .V x.V General

f( a2) 0 f( a2) = 0 Method

P.I. = eax If f(a) = 0 then P.I. = If f( a2) = 0 then P.I. = xn P.I. = eax.V P.I. = xV This method is

replace D by a P.I. = or P.I.= = = [f(D)]1 xn In this case rep- =x V applicable for all

Ordinary Differential Equations

P.I. = = x. P.I. = and repeat this step expand lace D by (D + a) but if V is of the form types of functions

2 1

but in this case Again if f (a) = 0 in both cases again if f ( a ) = 0. [f(D) ] by the and take out the sin ax or cos ax and including sec x,

f(a) 0 P.I. = x2 replace D2 by Binomial term eax outside f( a2) = 0 cosec x, tan x,

2

If f(a) = 0, it and so on. a but theorem in the operator i.e., then this method is cot x etc.

2 ax

will be a case f( a) 0 ascending P.I. = e not applicable, then P.I. =

16 L

iax n

nator then mul- zero. e x thus

differentiation of

function.

Engineering Mathematics-II

Engineering Mathematics-II 17 L Ordinary Differential Equations

A.E. is m2 + 4m + 5 = 0

4 16 20

m= =2i

2

2x

C.F. = e (C1 cos x + C2 sin x)

1

P.I. = ( 2 cos hx)

D2 4 D 5

1 e x e x 1

P.I. = 2 = (e x e x )

D 4 D 5

2

2 D2 4 D 5

1 1 1 x 1 x

= ex e x = e e

D2 4 D 5 D2 4 D 5 10 2

D 1 D 1

e x e x

Thus y = e2x (C1 cos x + C2 sin x)

10 2

d 2 y dy

D.2. (i) 6 y = ex cosh 2x

dx 2 dx

d 2y dy

(ii) 2k k 2 y = ex

dx 2 dx

Given that y = 0, Dy = 0 when x = 0

A.E. is

m2 7m + 6 = 0

m2 6m m + 6 = 0

(m 6) (m 1) = 0

m= 1, 6

C.F. = C1ex + C2e6x

1

P.I. = 2 sin 3x

D2 7 D 6

2 2

Replace D by 3

1 2

P.I. = 2 sin 3x = sin 3x

32 7 D 6 7D 3

2(7 D 3) 2(7 D 3)

P.I. = 2 sin 3x = sin 3x

49 D 9 49 (32 ) 9

2(7 D 3) 1

= sin 3x = (7 D 3) sin 3x

450 225

1 1

= [7D sin 3x 3 sin 3x] = [21 cos 3 x 3 sin 3 x]

225 225

7 cos 3 x sin 3 x

=

75

1

Thus, y = C1e + C2e6x +

x

(7 cos3 x sin 3 x)

75

Also we have y = 0, x = 0

7

0 = C1 + C2 +

75

Ordinary Differential Equations 18 L Engineering Mathematics-II

7

C1 + C2 = ...(1)

75

7 1

and Dy = C1 ex + 6C2e6x sin 3x cos 3x

25 25

Dy = 0 when x = 0

1

0 = C1 + 6C2

25

1

C1 + 6C2 = ...(2)

25

From (1) and (2)

3 2

C1 = , C2 =

25 75

Thus

3 x 2 6x 1

y= e e (7 cos3 x sin 3 x)

25 75 75

d 2y

1.23. Solve + y = sin 3x cos 2x

dx 2

A.E. is m2 + 1 = 0

m=i

C.F. = C1 cos x + C2 sin x

1 1 1

P.I. = sin 3x cos 2x = 2 sin 3x cos 2x

D2 1 2 D2 1

1 1 1 1 1

= {sin 5x + sin x} = sin 5x 2 sin x

2 D2 1 2 D2 1 D 1

1 1 1

= 2 sin5 x 2

sin x

2 5 1 1 1

case of failure

1 1 1 1 1 1

= sin 5 x x. sin x = sin5 x x. sin x

48 2 2D 0 48 2 2D

1 1 1

= sin 5 x x ( cos x) = (sin 5 x 12 x cos x)

48 4 48

1

Thus y = C1 cos x + C2 sin x (sin 5x + 12 x cos x)

48

d 3y d 2y dy

1.24. Solve 3

3 2

3 y = ex

dx dx dx

A.E. is m3 + 3m2 + 3m + 1 = 0

(m + 1) m2 + 2m (m + 1) + (m + 1) = 0

(m + 1) (m2 + 2m + 1) = 0

(m + 1) (m + 1)2 = 0

m = 1, 1, 1

C.F. = (C1 + C2x + C3x2) ex

1

P.I. =e x

( D 1)3

Replacing D by 1 is a case of failure

1

P.I. x. e x

3( D 1)2

Engineering Mathematics-II 19 L Ordinary Differential Equations

1 1 x

P.I. = x2. e x = x 3. e

6 ( D 1) 6

x3 e x

Thus y = (C1 + C2x + C3x2) ex +

6

A.E. is m2 + 4 = 0

m = 2i

C.F. = C1 cos 2x + C2 sin 2x

1

P.I. = 2 e2 x

D 4

D is replaced by 2

1 2x

P.I. = e

8

e2 x

y = C1 cos 2x + C2 sin 2x +

8

A.E. is m2 4 = 0 m = 2

C.F. = C1e2x + C2e2x

1

P.I. = 2 e2 x

D 4

Note : If D is replaced by 2, it will be a case of failure but if denominator is factorised, we see that one

factor does not becomes zero, thus when we replace D by a, first try to factorize the denominator and then

proceed.

1 e2 x e2 x

P.I. = e2 x =

( D 2) ( D 2) 4( D 2) 4( D 2)

Case of failure

x 2x 1 e2 x 1

= e e2 x = x

4 4(2 2) 4 4

e2 x 1

Thus y = C1e2x + C2e2x + x

4 4

d 3y d 2y dy

1.27. Solve 3

6 = 1 + x2

dx dx 2 dx

A.E. is m3 m2 6m = 0

m (m2 m 6) = 0

m = 0, 2, 3

C.F. = C1 + C2 e2x + C3 e3x

1

P.I. = 3 (1 x 2 )

D D2 6 D

1

1 1 2 1 1 2 1

= 1 (D D) (1 x2) 1 (D D) (D2 D)2 ... (1 x2)

6D 6 6D 6 36

[Expanding it using binomial theorem up to D2 terms.]

Ordinary Differential Equations 20 L Engineering Mathematics-II

1 1 1 2

= (1 x2 ) ( D2 D) (1 x 2 ) D (1 x 2 )

6 D 6 36

1 1 1 1 1 x 1

= (1 x2 ) (2 2 x) (2) = 1 x2

6 D 6 36 6 D 3 3 18

1 25 x 1 25 x2 x3

= x2 = x

6D 18 3 6 18 6 3

1 25 x 2 x3

Thus, y = C1 + C2 e2x + C3 e3x x

6 18 6 3

(i) (D3 + 8) y = x4 + 2x + 1

(ii) (D2 1) y = ax + sin x

A.E. is m2 4m + 3 = 0

(m 1) (m 3) = 0

m= 1, 3

C.F. = C1 ex + C2 e3x

1

P.I. = 3e x cos 2x

D2 4 D 3

D is replaced by (D + 1) and takes out the exponential term outside the operator.

1 1

P.I. = 3ex. cos 2 x = 3ex 2 cos 2 x

( D 1)2 4( D 1) 3 D 2D

Now D2 is replaced by 22

1 3 x 1

= 3ex cos 2 x = e cos 2 x

4 2D 2 2 D

3 x D2 3 x ( D 2)

= e cos 2 x = e cos 2 x

2 D2 4 2 4 4

3 x 3 x

= e ( D cos 2 x 2 cos 2 x) = e (sin 2 x cos 2 x)

16 8

3

Thus y = C1ex + C2e3x e x (sin 2 x cos 2 x)

8

d 2y

1.29. Solve 4 y = x sinh x

dx 2

(D2 4) y = x sinh x

A.E. is m2 4 = 0

m=2

C.F. = C1e2x + C2 e2x

1 1 e x e x

P.I. = x sin h x = 2 x

2 D 4 2

D 4

1 1 1 1 1

= ( x e x x e x ) = 2 xe x 2 xe x

2 D2 4 2 D 4 D 4

1 x 1 1 1 x 1 1

= e . x e x x = e . 2 x e x 2 x

2 ( D 1)2 4 2

( D 1) 4 2 D 2D 3 D 2 D 3

Engineering Mathematics-II 21 L Ordinary Differential Equations

1 1

1 e x D2 2 D e x D2 2 D

= 1 x 1 x

2 3 3 3 3

1 ex D2 2 D e x D2 2 D

= 2 3 1 3

x

3

1

3 x

1 ex 2 e x 2 1 x 2

= x

2 3 3 3

x =

3

6 3

e e x x e x e x

x 2

= (sinh x) (cosh x)

3 9

1 2

Thus, y = C1 e2x + C2 e2x x sinh x cosh x

3 9

A.E. is m2 + 2m + 1 = 0

(m + 1)2 = 0 m = 1, 1

C.F. = (C1 + C2 x) ex

1 1 (2 D 2)

P.I. = x cos x = x. cos x cos x

( D 1) 2 D2 2 D 1 ( D2 2 D 1)2

1 1 f ( D)

P. I. f ( D) x . V x f ( D) V f ( D)2 V

1 2( D 1) 1 ( D 1)

= x. cos x cos x = x. cos x cos x

1 2 D 1 (1 2 D 1) 2 2 D 4 D2

x 1 x 1

= sin x ( D 1) cos x = sin x ( sin x cos x)

2 4 2 4

x sin x 1

Thus y = (C1 + C2 x) ex + ( sin x + cos x)

2 4

A.E. is m4 + 2m2 + 1 = 0

(m2 + 1)2 = 0, m = i, i

C.F. = (C1 + C2 x) cos x + (C3 + C4 x) sin x

1 1 1 f ( D)

P.I. = x 2 cos x P .I. x. V = x. V V

( D2 1)2 f ( D) f ( D) { f ( D)}2

But this mehtod is not applicable due to case of failure.

1

P.I. = x 2 cos x

( D2 1)2

1

= Real part of x 2 eix [ eix = cos x + i sin x]

( D2 1)2

1 1

= R.P. of eix x 2 = R.P. of eix x2

2

{( D i) 1} 2 { D 2iD}2

2

1 D

2

1 2 D 3 D2 2

= R.P. of eix. 1 x2 = R.P. of eix. 2

1 2 x

(2iD)2 2i (2iD) 2i 4i

1 D 3 2 2 1 2 3

= R.P. of eix. ix x 2xi

1 D x = R.P. of e (2iD)2 2

(2iD)2 i 4

eix 2 3 eix x4 ix3 3 2

= R.P. of

4 D 2 x 2ix 2 = R.P. of x

4 12 3 4

Ordinary Differential Equations 22 L Engineering Mathematics-II

1 ( x4 4 ix3 9 x 2 )

= R.P. of (cos x i sin x)

4 12

1

4 2 3

= cos x( x 9 x ) 4 x sin x

48

cos x x 3 3x2 x 4 cos x x3

= (9x2 x4) sin x = cos x sin x

48 12 16 48 12

Thus y = C.F. + P.I.

3 x2 x 4 cos x x3

= (C1 + C2x) cos x + (C3 + C4x) sin x + cos x sin x

16 48 12

d 2y dy

D.5. Solve 2

4 4 y = 8x2 e2x sin 2x

dx dx

A.E. is m2 + 1 = 0

m=i

C.F. = C1 cos x + C2 sin x

1 1

P.I. = cosec x = cosec x

D2 1 ( D i) ( D i)

1 1 1 1 1 1

= cosec x = cosec x cosec x

2i D i D i 2i D i Di

1 ix ix ix ix

= e e cosec x dx e e cosec x dx

2i

1 ix cos x i sin x cos x i sin x

= e dx eix dx

2i sin x sin x

1 ix cos x cos x 1 ix

= e i dx eix i dx = [ e (log sin x i x) e ix (log sin x i x)]

2i sin x sin x 2i

P.I. = sin x. log (sin x) x cos x

Thus y = C1 cos x + C2 sin x + sin x log (sin x) x cos x

d 2y dy

1.33. Solve 2 2 y = ex sec3 x

dx 2 dx

A.E. is m2 + 2m + 2 = 0

2 4 8

m= =1i

2

x

C.F. = e (C1 cos x + C2 sin x)

1

P.I. = e x sec3 x

D2 2 D 2

x 1 3 x 1

= e ( D 1)2 2 ( D 1) 2 sec x = e sec 3 x

D2 1

x 1 3 e x 1 1

= e ( D i) ( D i) sec x = sec 3 x sec 3 x

2i D i Di

e x ix ix

e e sec3 x dx e ix eix sec3 x dx

2i

=

Engineering Mathematics-II 23 L Ordinary Differential Equations

= e dx e ix dx

2i cos3 x cos3 x

e x ix

e (sec2 x i tan x sec2 x) dx e ix (sec 2 x i tan x sec 2 x) dx

2i

=

= e tan x i e tan x i = e sin x tan x cos x.

2i 2 2 2

x sin 2 x 2

x sin x sin 2 x 2

x sin x x sin x tan x

= e sin x tan x 2cos x = e cos x 2cos x = e = e

2cos x 2

sin x tan x

Thus, y = ex C1 cos x C2 sin x

2

d 2y dy

1.34. Find the complete solution of the differential equation 2 y = xex cos x.

dx 2 dx

[UPTU 2009, Marks 5]

Given equation is

d2 y dy

2 +y= xex cos x

dx 2 dx

Auxiliary equation is

(m2 2m + 1) = 0

(m 1)2 = 0

m= 1, 1

Complementary function is

C.F. = (C1 + C2x) ex

Now for particular integral,

1 1

P.I. = x e x cos x = ex x cos x

( D 1) 2 ( D 1 1)2

1 x 1

= e x cos x = e x [ x sin x cos x ]

D2 D

= ex [ x cos x + sin x + sin x]

P.I. = ex [ x cos x + 2 sin x]

Complete solution is given by

y = C.F. + P.I.

y = (C1 + C2x) ex + ex ( x cos x + 2 sin x)

d 2y dy

1.35. Solve the following differential equation : +5 6 y = sin 3x + cos 2x.

dx 2 dx

[UPTU 2010, Marks 5]

d2 y dy

5 6 y = sin 3x + cos 2x

dx2 dx

(D2 + 5D 6)y = sin 3x + cos 2x

A.E. is

m2 + 5m 6 = 0

m = 1, 6

C.F. = C1 ex + C2 e6x

1 1

P.I. = sin 3x + 2 cos 2 x

D2 5 D 6 D 5D 6

Putting D 3 , Putting D 22

2 2 2

Ordinary Differential Equations 24 L Engineering Mathematics-II

1 1

P.I. = sin 3 x cos2 x = 1 D 3 sin3 x 1 D 2 cos 2 x

5 D 15 5 D 10 5 D2 9 5 D2 4

1 1 1 1

= ( D 3)sin 3 x ( D 2)cos 2 x = (3 cos3 x 3sin 3 x) (2sin 2 x 2 cos 2 x)

90 40 90 40

(cos3 x sin 3 x) 1

P.I. = ( cos 2 x sin 2 x)

30 20

Complete solution is y = C.F. + P.I.

1 1

y = C1 ex + C2 e6x (cos 3x + sin 3x) + (sin 2 x cos2 x)

30 20

d 2y

D.6. Solve y = x cot x

dx 2

11. Homogeneous linear differential equation and its solution : [Cauchy-Euler Differential

Equation]

A differential equation of the form

dn y d n 1 y dy

xn n

a1 x n 1 .... an 1 x an y Q

dx dx n1 dx

is called a homogeneous linear differential equation, where a1, a2,....an are constants and Q is either a

constant or a function of x.

Its solution is given by putting

x = ez or log x = z

1 dz

=

x dx

dy dy dz 1 dy

= =

dx dz dx x dz

d d

so, x D

dx dz

Similarly

d2 y d dy d dy dz d 1 dy 1

2 = dx dx = =

dx dz dx dx dz x dz x

1 d 2 y dy 1 dx 1 1 1 d 2 y 1 dy

= 2

2 =

x dz dz x dz x x x dz2 x dz

x2d2 y d2 y dy

= = (D2 D)y

dx2 dz2 dz

d2

x2

D(D 1) and so on.

dx2

When we substitute all these values in given equation it will be converted into a linear differential

equation with constant coefficients in which independent variable is z in place of x. In the final

answer z is replaced by log x.

d2 y dy

1.36. x2 4x 6 y = x2

dx 2 dx

Engineering Mathematics-II 25 L Ordinary Differential Equations

x = ez

d d2

x D, x2 D(D 1)

dx dx2

2z

D(D 1) y 4Dy + 6y = e

(D2 D)y 4Dy + 6y = e2z

(D2 D 4D + 6)y = e2z

(D2 5D + 6)y = e2z

A.E. is m2 5m + 6 = 0

(m 3) (m 2) = 0 m = 2, 3

C.F. = C1e2z + C2e3z

1 1

P.I. = e2 z , D 2 = 2 e2 z (case of failure)

D2 5 D 6 2 5(2) 6

1 1

P.I. = z. e2 z = z. e2 z = ze2z

2D 5 2(2) 5

Thus y= C.F. + P.I.

y= C1e2z + C2e3z ze2z

y= C1x2 + C2x3 x2 log x

d 2y 1 dy 12 log x

1.37. Solve =

dx 2 x dx x2

d2 y dy

Given equation may be written as x 2 x = 12 log x

dx2 dx

[D(D 1) + D]y = 12 z

D2 y = 12 z

A.E. is m2 = 0

m= 0, 0

C.F. = (C1 + C2 z) e0z = C1 + C2 z

1 3

P.I. = 2

12 z = 12. 1 z = 12. z = 2z3

D 2

D 6

Thus y= C.F. + P.I.

y= C1 + C2 z + 2z3

y= C1 + C2 log x + 2 (log x)3

d 2y dy

D.7. Solve x2 4x 2y = ex

dx 2 dx

D.8. Solve (x2 D2 xD + 4)y = cos (log x) + x sin (log x)

dn y d n 1 y

(ax + b)n a1 ( ax b)n 1 .... an y = Q

dx n dx n 1

is called a Legendres linear differential equation where a1, a2, a3,.....an are constants and Q is a constant

or a function of x.

This type of equation is converted into homogeneous linear differential equation by putting

ax + b = ez

z = log (ax + b)

d

(ax + b) aD

dz

d2

(ax + b)2 a2 D(D 1) and so on.

dz2

Ordinary Differential Equations 26 L Engineering Mathematics-II

d 2y dy

1.38. Solve (1 + x)2 + (1 + x) y = 2 sin {log (1 + x)}

dx 2 dx

Put (1 + x) = ez, z = log (1 + x)

dy

So that (1 + x) = Dy

dx

d2 y d

and (1 + x)2 = D(D 1)y, where D

dx 2 dz

{D(D 1) + D + 1}y = 2 sin z

(D2 + 1)y = 2 sin z

A.E. is m2 + 1 = 0

m= i

C.F. = C1 cos z + C2 sin z

1

P.I. = 2sin z (It is a case of failure)

D2 1

1

P.I. = z 2sin z = z cos z

2D

y = C.F. + P.I. = C1 cos z + C2 sin z z cos z

= C1 cos {log (1 + x)} + C2 sin {log (1 + x)} log (1 + x) cos {log (1 + x)}

d 2y dy

D.9. Solve (1 + 2x)2 6(1 2x ) 16 y = 8(1 + 2x)2

dx 2 dx

given that y(0) = 0, y(0) = 2

13. Simultaneous Differential Equation : If two or more dependent variables are functions of a single

independent variable, the equations which consist of the derivatives of such variables are called

simultaneous differential equations. To solve simultaneous equations we need as many simultaneous

equations as there are dependent variables.

Solution : The solution of simultaneous equations are based upon the method of elimination as usual

in case of algebraic equations. First eliminate terms of x or y from the given equations. Remaining

equation will be of one variable. Solve it and putting the value of the variable into the given equation, we

can get the value of another variable.

dx

= 3x + 8y

dt

dy

= x 3y

dt

with x(0) = 6 and y(0) = 2. [UPTU 2010, Marks 5]

dx

Given equations are = 3x + 8y

dt

(D 3)x 8y = 0 ...(1)

dy

and = x 3y

dt

(D + 3)y + x = 0 ...(2)

Multiplying (1) by (D + 3) and (2) by 8 and on adding, we get

(D2 9)x + 8x = 0

Engineering Mathematics-II 27 L Ordinary Differential Equations

(D2 1)x = 0

A.E. is m2 1 = 0

m= 1

C.F. = C1 et + C2 et

P.I. = 0

x= C.F. + P.I.

x= C1 et + C2 et ...(3)

Dx = C1 et C2et

From equation (1) 8y = Dx 3x

8y = C1 et C2 et 3(C1 et + C2 et)

1 1

y= C et C2et

4 1 2

1

y = (C1 et + 2C2 et) ...(4)

4

Given at t = 0, x = 6, from equation (3)

6 = C1 + C2 ...(5)

At t = 0, y = 2, from equation (4)

C1 C2

2= ...(6)

4 2

From equations (5) and (6)

C1 = 4 and C2 = 2

Thus from equations (3) and (4)

x = 4et + 2et

and y = et et

dx dy

+ x 2y = 0, + x + 4y = 0, x(0) = y(0) = 1 [UPTU 2011, Marks 5]

dt dt

dx

x 2y = 0

dt

dy

+ x + 4y = 0

dt

x(0) = 1, y(0) = 1

(D + 1)x 2y = 0 ...(1)

x + (D + 4)y = 0 ...(2)

Multiplying equation (2) by (D + 1) and subtracting it from equation (1)

2y (D + 1) (D + 4)y = 0

(D2 + 5D + 6)y = 0

A.E. is m2 + 5m + 6 = 0

m2 + 3m + 2m + 6 = 0

m(m + 3) + 2(m + 3) = 0

m = 2, 3

C.F. = C1e2t + C2 e3t, P.I. = 0

y = C1 e2t + C2 e3t

Again, Dy = 2 C1 e2t 3 C2 e3t

From equation (2) x = (D + 4)y

x = [ 2 C1 e2t 3C2 e3t] 4 [C1 e2t + C2e3t]

x = 2C1 e2t C2 e3t

Given at t = 0, x = 1

1 = 2C1 C2 ...(3)

and at t = 0, y = 1

1 = C1 + C2 ...(4)

From equation (3) and (4) C1 = 2, C2 = 3

Thus, x = 4 e2t 3 e3t

and, y = 2 e2t + 3 e3t

Ordinary Differential Equations 28 L Engineering Mathematics-II

Dy 2x + 5y = 0

Given equations may be written as

(2D + 6) x y = 2 sin 2t ...(1)

2x + (D + 5)y = 0 ...(2)

Multiply equation (2) by (D + 3) and on adding with equation (1), we get

2(D + 3)x 2(D + 3)x y + (D + 3) (D + 5)y = 2 sin 2t

D2 + 8D + 14y = 2 sin 2t ...(3)

A.E. is m2 + 8m + 14 = 0

8 64 56

m=

2

m= 4 2

4t

C.F. = e 2 t + C2 sinh 2 t)

(C1 cosh

1

P.I. = 2 2sin 2t

D 8 D 14

D2 22

1 1 4D 5

= 2 sin 2t = sin 2t sin 2t

8 D 10 4D 5 16 D2 25

1 1

= (4D 5) sin 2t = (8 cos 2t 5 sin 2t)

89 89

1

Thus, y = e4t (C1 cosh 2 t + C2 sinh 2 t) (8 cos 2t 5 sin 2t)

89

Dy = e4t ( 2 C1 sinh 2 t + 2 C2 cosh 2 t)

1

4e 4t(C1 cosh 2 t + C2 sinh 2 t) ( 16 sin 2t 10 cos 2t)

89

Dy = e4t [( 2 C1 4C2) sinh 2 t + ( 2 C2 4C1) cosh 2 t]

2

+ (8 sin 2t + 5 cos 2t)

89

Putting these value in equation (2)

2x = Dy + 5y

= e4t ( 2C1 4C2 ) 5C2 sin h 2t ( 2C2 4C1 ) 5C1 cos h 2t

2 5

+ (8sin 2t 5cos2t) (8cos2t 5sin 2t)

89 89

1 1 1

x = e4t {( 2C1 4C2) 5C2}sin h 2 t {( 2C2 4C1) 5C1}cos h 2 t + [41sin 2t 30cos 2t ]

2 2 178

1

x = e4t A sin h 2 t B cos h 2 t + (41 sin 2t 30 cos 2t)

178

dx

1.42. Solve 5x 2 y = t

dt

dy

+ 2x + y = 0,

dt

given x = 0 = y, when t = 0.

(D + 5) x 2y = t ...(1)

2x + (D + 1) y = 0 ...(2)

Multiplying equation (1) by 2 and equation (2) by (D + 5) and on subtracting (2) from (1),

4y (D + 5) (D + 1)y = 2t

4y (D2y + 6Dy + 5y) = 2t

Engineering Mathematics-II 29 L Ordinary Differential Equations

D2y 6Dy 9y = 2t

(D2 + 6D + 9)y = 2t ...(3)

A.E. of equation (3) is

m2 + 6m + 9 = 0

(m + 3)2 = 0

m= 3, 3

C.F. = (C1 + C2t)e3t

2

1 1 D

P.I. = 2

(2t) = 1 (2t)

( D 3) 9 3

2 2D 2 2

P.I. = 1 (t ) = t

9 3 9 3

2t 4

y = (C1 + C2t) e3t

9 27

2

Dy = 3 (C1 + C2t) e3t + C2e3t

9

Putting in equation (2) 2x = Dy y

2 2t 4

2x = 3 (C1 + C2t) e3t C2e3t + (C1 + C2t) e3t +

9 9 27

C2 3t t 1

x = (C1 + C2t) e3t e

2 9 27

Now when t= 0, x = 0, y = 0

4

y= 0 = C1 +

27

4

C1 =

27

C2 1

x= 0 = C1

2 27

C2 1 1

= C1 + =

2 27 9

2

C2 =

9

1 1

Thus we have x= (1 + 6t) e3t + (1 + 3t)

27 27

2 2

y= (2 + 3t) e3t + (2 3t)

27 27

dx

t y =0

dt

dy

t x =0

dt

given x(1) = 1 and y (1) = 0

Ordinary Differential Equations 30 L Engineering Mathematics-II

14. Method of Variation of Parameters : By this method the general solution is obtained by varying

the arbitrary constants of the complementary function that is why the method is known as method of

variation of parameters.

Procedure : (i) First find the complementary function of the given differential equation

d2 y dy

a b cy = R

dx2 dx

Let it is be C.F. = Ay1 + By2 ...(1)

So that y1 and y2 satisfy given differential equation. Let us assume

P.I. = u y1 + v y2 ...(2)

Where u and v are given by

Ry2 Ry1

u= dx and v = dx

y1 y 2 y2 y y1 y 2 y2 y

Putting u and v in (2) we can find P.I. and then complete solution.

1.43. Solve by method of variation of parameters (D2 1) y = 2(1 e2x)1/2. [UPTU 2011, Marks 5]

(D2 1) y = 2 (1 e2x)1/2

Auxiliary equation is m2 1 = 0

m= 1

C.F. = C1 ex + C2 ex = C1y1 + C2 y2

Let y1 = ex, y2 = ex, R = z(1 e 2x)1/2

y1y2 y1y2 = ex ex ex ex = 2

P.I. = uy1 + vy2

Ry2 2(1 e2 x )1 / 2 e x e x

Where, u= dx = dx = dx

y1 y2 y1 y2 2 1 e2 x

x

Let, e = t

dt

ex dx = dt = = cos1 t

1 t2

u= cos1 ex

Ry 2(1 e2 x )1 / 2 e x e x dx e2 x dx

v= y1 y 1y1 y2 dx = 2

dx = 2 x

=

1 e e2 x 1

Let e2x 1 = t

2e2x dx = dt

dt 1 t1 / 2

v = = = t = e2 x 1

2 t 21

2

2x

P.I. = uy1 + vy2 = ex cos1 ex + ex e 1

P.I. = ex cos1 e x 1 e 2 x

Thus, y = C.F. + P.I.

y = C1 ex + C2 ex + ex cos1 e x 1 e 2 x

1.44. Apply the method of variation of parameters to solve the ordinary differential equation

d 2y

y = tan x, 0 < x < /2. [UPTU 2009, Marks 10]

dx 2

d2 y

Given equation is y = tan x

dx2

Engineering Mathematics-II 31 L Ordinary Differential Equations

(D2 + 1) y = tan x

Auxiliary equation is m2 + 1 = 0 m=i

C.F. is y= A cos x + B sin x

let y1 = cos x, y2 = sin x

y 1 y 2 y 2y 1 = cos x (cos x) sin x ( sin x) = 1

P.I. = uy1 + vy2

y2 tan x y tan x

where u= y y

y2 y1

dx and v = y y1

dx

1 1 2 y2 y1

sin x tan x 2

thus u= dx = sin x dx

1 cos x

2

1 cos x

u= dx = (sec x cos x) dx = (cos x sec x) dx

cos x

u= sin x log (sec x + tan x)

cos x tan x

and v= 1 dx = sin x dx = cos x

P.I. = uy1 + vy2

P.I. = [sin x log (sec x + tan x)] cos x cos x sin x

P.I. = cos x log (sec x + tan x)

Complete solution is given by y = C.F. + P.I.

y= A cos x + B sin x cos x log (sec x + tan x)

2

(D2 1)y =

1ex

2

A.E. is m 1= 0 m=1

C.F. = C1 ex + C2 ex

2

Let y1 = ex, y2 = ex, X =

1 ex

y 1 y 2 y 2 y 1 = ex ( ex) (ex) ex = 2

P.I. = uy1 + vy2

2

ex e x e2 x dx

u= 1 ex dx = dx

2 1 ex 1 e x

Let 1 + ex = t

ex dx = dt

( t 1) dt

u=

t

1

= t dt dt = log (1 + ex) (1 + ex) = log (ex + 1) x (1 + ex)

1 2 ex 1

v= x

e x dx v = dx = dx dx

2 1 e 1 ex 1 ex

e x

v=x+ 1 e x dx = x log (1 + ex)

P.I. = {log (1 + ex) x 1 ex}ex {x + log (1 + ex)} ex

= {log (1 + ex) x 1 ex} ex {x + log (1 + ex) x} ex

= {log (1 + ex) x 1 ex} ex log (1 + ex). ex

1 ex

P.I. = ex log x (1 + ex) ex ex log (1 + ex)

e

1 ex

y = C1ex + C2ex + ex log ex 1 ex log (1 + ex)

x

Ordinary Differential Equations 32 L Engineering Mathematics-II

d 2y dy

(i) x2 x y = x3 ex

dx 2 dx

(ii) (D2 + 1) y = sec x tan x

Type I, when Type II, when Equations which do Equations which do

equation is of type equation is of type not contain y directly, not contain x directly,

dn y dn y

f ( x) f ( y) Type III Type IV

dx n dx n

This type of differential In this type of equation, The equations which do not The equations which do not

equations can be solved we multiply both sides by contain y directly can be contain x directly can be

dy dy dy

by successive integration. 2 , if the equation is solved by putting =P solved by putting =P

dx dx dx

d2 y d2 y dP d2 y dP

= f(y). = and so on, =

dx2 dx2 dx dx2 dx

dP dy

It becomes on integration equation will be converted =

dy dx

2

dy d y dy

2 = 2f(y) into P and x. Solve it for P

dx dx2 dx

dy dP

Again integrating and at last replace P by = P.

dx dy

2

dy

=

dx

2 f ( y) dy C and then solve for y. and so on, equation will be

dy dy

= ( y) Again replace P

dx

= f1 (y)

dx

Now separating variables Now separating variables, y

dy

= dx can be found out in terms

( y)

dy

=x+C of x.

( y)

Type V, when one Type VI, By Type VII, To solve Type VIII, Solution

part of C.F. is known reducing the equation equation by changing by method of variation

or can be find out to normal form independent variables of parameters

(or removal of first

derivative)

Let y = u is the known Say the given equation is Say the given equation is By the method of variation

2 2

d y dy d y dy

solution. Let other solu- P Qy R . P Qy R of parameters equation can

dx 2 dx dx 2 dx

tion y = uv. Where v can By removing first order transformed into be solved if we know C.F.

d2 y dy

be find out by the equation derivative, equation is P1 Q1 y R1 Thus by any of the previous

dz2 dz

dz 2 du R

P z transformed into where method first we find C.F.

dx u dx u

Engineering Mathematics-II 33 L Ordinary Differential Equations

2

dz d z

P

dv d 2u dx dx 2

z= and P, R are Q1 u = R1 ...(i) P1 = 2

dx dx2 dz

dx

given by the given where

1 dP P 2

differential equation Q1 = Q

2 dx 4

1

d2 y dy Pdx Q

P Qy R R1 = Re 2 Q1 =

dx 2 dx dz

2

dx

If C.F. is not known, R1 = R/v

then we can find it

1

Pdx

by using following v= e 2 ...(ii)

conditions, If The complete solution

R

1 + P + Q = 0, u = ex is y = u. v R1 = 2

dz

dx

1 P + Q = 0, u = ex where u and v are This equation is solved by

P Q

1+ = 0, u = eax given by (i) and (ii) taking Q1 = a constant

a a2

P + Qx = 0, u = x or

2 + 2Px + Qx2 = 0, P1 = 0

u = x2

n (n 1) + Pnx + Qx2,

u = xn

Type I :

d 3y

1.46. Solve = log x

dx 3

d2 y

Integrating both sides = x log x x + C1

dx

dy x2 x2 1 x2 x2

Again on integration = x log x dx C1 x C2 = log x x dx C1 x C2

dx 2 2 2 2

x2 x2 x2

log x

= C1 x C2

2 4 2

dy x2 3 x2

= log x + C1x + C2

dx 2 4

1 2 3 2

Again integrating y = x log x dx x dx C1 x dx C2 1.dx C3

2 4

1 x3 1 x3 x 3 x2

= log x dx C1 C2 x C3

2 3 x 3 4 2

1 x3 x3 x3 x2 1

y= log x C1 C2 x C3 = [6 x3 log x 11 x3 Ax 2 Bx C ]

2 3 9 4 2 36

d 3y

D.12. Solve = sin2 x

dx 3

Ordinary Differential Equations 34 L Engineering Mathematics-II

Type II :

d 2y

1.47. Solve e2y =1

dx 2

d2 y

= e2y

dx 2

dy d2 y dy

2 = 2e2y

dx dx2 dx

2

dy 2 y dy

On integrating = 2e dx

C1 = e2y + C

1

dx

dy

= C1 e2 y

dx

dy

= dx

C1 e2 y

e y dy

= dx

C1 e2 y 1

1 e y dy

= dx

C1 1

e2 y

C1

Let ey = t and ey dy = dt

1 dt

= dx

C1 1

t2

C1

t

1 1

cosh1 = x + C2

C1 C1

cosh1 C1 t = x C1 + C1 C2

C1 ey = cosh x C1 C1 C2

C1ey = cosh (C1x + C2)

Type III :

d 2y dy

1.48. Solve (1 + x2) x + ax = 0

dx 2 dx

dy d2 y dP

Let = P, =

dx dx 2 dx

dP

(1 + x2) + xP + ax = 0

dx

dP x ax

+ P =

dx 1 x2 1 x2

dy

This equation is of the type Ry = Q

dx

x ax

Here R= and Q =

1 x2 1 x2

x 1

dx 1

log (1 x2 )

I.F. = e 1 x2 = e2

= 1 x

2

2

Engineering Mathematics-II 35 L Ordinary Differential Equations

1 1 1

ax 2 2

P (1 x 2 ) 2 =

1 x2 (1 x )2 dx C1 = a x(1 x ) 2 dx C1

P 1 x2 = a x

1 x2 dx C1

1 x2 P = a x

1 x2 dx C1

a 1 x2 C1 C1

P= 2 =a+

2 1 x2 1 x2 1 x2

dy C1

= a+

dx 1 x2

2

y = ax + C1 log x 1 x C2

Type IV :

2

d 2y dy dy

1.49. Solve y 2

2 =0

dx dx dx

dy d 2 y dP dP dy dP

Let = P, 2

P

dx dx dx dy dx dy

dP

yP P2 2P =0

dy

dP P 2

=0

dy y y

dP P 2

=

dy y y

1

dy 1

I.F. = e y

= elog y =

y

1 2 1

P.

y

= y y dy C1

P 2

= C1

y y

P= 2 + C1y

dy

= 2 + C1y

dx

dy

= dx

2 C1 y

1

log (2 + C1y) = x + C2

C1

log (2 + C1y) = C1x + C1 C2

2 + Ay = eAx + B

2

d 2y dy

D.13. Solve y(1 log y) (1 log y ) =0

dx 2 dx

Type V :

1.50. Solve x2y (x2 + 2x) y + (x + 2)y = x3 ex, given that y = x is a solution.

Given equation may be written as

Ordinary Differential Equations 36 L Engineering Mathematics-II

2 1 2

y 1 y 2 y = x ex

x x x

y= x is given solution

Complete solution is y= uv, u = x thus y = vx, v is given by

d2v 2 du dv R

P =

dx2 u dx dx u

d 2v 2 2 dv x ex

+ 1 .1 =

dx2 x x dx x

d 2v dv

= ex

dx2 dx

dv

Let =P

dx

dP

P= ex

dx

dx x

I.F. = e =e

x

P.ex = e . e x dx C1

dv

= x ex + C1ex

dx

v = xex ex + C1ex + C2

v = (x 1) ex + C1ex + C2

y = vx

y = x(x 1) ex + C1 ex + C2x

y = ex (x2 x + C1) + C2x

d 2y dy

D.14. Solve x (1 x )y = x2 ex

dx 2 dx

Type VI :

d 2y dy 2

1.51. Solve 4x + (4x2 3)y = ex by removing its first derivative.

dx 2 dx

Comparing the given differential equation with

d2 y dy

+P + Qy = R

dx 2 dx 2

P = 4x, Q = 4x2 3, R = ex

1

4 x dx

v= e 2

2 x dx = ex 2

e 2

v = ex

2

R ex

R1 =

= x2 = 1

v e

1 dP P 2 1 ( 4 x)2

Q1 = Q = 4x2 3 ( 4)

2 dx 4 2 4

Q1 = 1

Given equation is transformed into

d 2u

+ Q1u = R1

dx2

Engineering Mathematics-II 37 L Ordinary Differential Equations

d 2u

u= 1

dx2

2

A.E. is m 1= 0

m= 1

C.F. = C1 ex + C2 ex

1

P.I. = 2 e0 x

D 1

1 0x

e = 1

0 1

u= C1 ex + C2 ex 1

y= u. v

2

y= (C1ex + C2 ex 1) ex

d 2y 2 dy 2 2

2

n 2 y = 0

dx x dx x

1.52. Solve the following differential equation by changing the independent variables

d 2y dy

x (4x 2 1) 4 x 3 y = 2x3

dx 2 dx

Given differential equation may be written as

d2 y 1 dy

4x 4 x 2 y = 2x2 ...(1)

dx2 x dx

1

, Q 4 x2 , R 2 x2

P = 4x

x

Changing the independent variable, given differential equation may be converted into

d2 y dy

P1 Q1 y = R1 ...(2)

dz2 dz

Q 4x 2

Where Q1 = 2

= 2

dz dz

dx dx

Let Q1 = 4

4x 2

4= 2

dz

dx

dz

=x

dx

x2

z=

2

2

dz d z 1

P 2 4x x 1

dx dx x

P1 = = =4

dz

2

x2

dx

R 2x2

R1 = 2

= 2 =2

dz x

dx

Ordinary Differential Equations 38 L Engineering Mathematics-II

d2 y dy

4 4y = 2

dz2 dz

(D2 + 4D + 4)y = 2

A.E. is m2 + 4m + 4 = 0

m= 2, 2

C.F. = (C1 + C2z) e2z

1 2 1

P.I. = 2

2e0 z = =

( D 2) 4 2

2z 1

y = (C1 + C2 z) e +

2

2 x2

x2 1

y = C1 C2 e 2

2 2

x 2 x2 1

y = C1 C2 e +

2 2

d2 y dy

D.16. Solve cot x 4 y cosec 2 x = 0

dx2 dx

Type VIII :

d 2y dy

x2 2x (1 x ) 2(1 x )y = x3

dx 2 dx

To solve the given equation using variation of parameters first to find C.F.

Given equation may be written as

d2 y 2(1 x) dy 2(1 x)

y =x

dx2 x dx x2

2 2(1 x)

To find C.F. P= (1 + x), Q = ,R=0

x x2

P+Qx=0

y = x is a part of C.F. (let u =x)

y = v x will be the complete solution and v is given by

d 2 v 2 du dv R

P =

dx2 u dx dx u

d2v 2 2 dv 0

.1 (1 x) =

dx2 x x dx x

2

d v dv

2 =0

dx2 dx

2

(D 2D) v = 0

A.E. is m2 2m = 0

m = 0, 2

C.F. = C1 e0x + C2 e2x

C.F. = C1 + C2 e2x

Thus y=vx

y = C1 x + C2 x e2x

y = C1 y1 + C2 y2

Engineering Mathematics-II 39 L Ordinary Differential Equations

y1 = x, y2 = x e2x

y1 = 1, y2 = e2x + 2x e2x

2

y1 y2 y2 y1 = 2x e2x

P.I. = u y1 + v y2 = u x + v x e2x

y X xe2 x . x 1 x

u= y1 y 2 y2 y1 dx = 2 x 2 e2 x dx = 2 dx 2

y1 X x. x 1 2 x e2 x

v= y y y2 y1

dx = 2 x2 e2 x dx =

2 e dx

4

1

x e2 x x2 x

P.I. = .x ( x e2 x ) =

2 4 2 4

y = C.F. + P.I.

x2 x

y = C1 + C2 e2x

2 4

(i) Free Oscillations : Let O is fixed point of spring s. The static extension at

B, (Position of equilibrium) mg = ks (k is the restoring force per unit O

length). If mass m is stretched up to a distance x downward then equation

of motion is

d2 x

m = mg k (s + x)

dt 2

Weight is working downward (+) and restoring force k(s + x) in upward

direction ().

(ii) Damped free oscillations : If the motion of mass is opposed by some A

s

resistance (like air resistance or internal forces) then the oscillations are B

called damped free oscillations. The damping force is proportional to the x

dx

velocity say mg

dt

2

d x dx Fig. 1.

Equation of motion is m = mg k(s+ x)

dt 2 dt

(iii) Forced oscillations (without damping) : When an external force is applied to the body, it is

said to have forced oscillations, say the force applied is P sin nt, equation of motion is

d2 x

m = mg k(s + x) + P sin nt

dt 2

Applications of Differential equations to Engineering Problems :

Electrical Circuit : The following laws are used for an electrical circuit

(i) Kirchhoffs current law

(ii) Kirchhoffs voltage law

dq

(iii) Current i = , where q is the charge. L

dt R

(iv) Voltage drop across resistance = i R

di

(v) Voltage drop across inductance = L

dt

q

(vi) Voltage drop across capacitance =

C

To form a differential equation from an electrical +

circuit :

L R series circuit : E

Applying Kirchhoff s voltage law in the circuit, Fig. 2.

Ordinary Differential Equations 40 L Engineering Mathematics-II

di

iR + L =E

dt

di Ri E

or + =

dt L L

This is linear differential equation of first order and

first degree.

L R C series circuit :

di 1

i dt = E

dt C

iR + L

Fig. 3.

d2q dq q

L 2 +R + =E

dt dt C

This is a second order differential equation with constant coefficients.

(iv) Forced oscillations (with damping) : If an additional damping force applied to the body which is

proportional to velocity then body is said to have forced oscillations with damping (say damping force is

dx

), equation of motion is

dt

d2 x dx

m 2 = mg k(s + x) + + P sin nt

dt dt

1.54. In the RC-circuit where C = 0.01 F, R = 20 Ohms, E0 = 10 V. The current I(t), assuming that

capacitor is completely uncharged, is given as I(t) = ......... [UPTU 2011, Marks 2]

For a R-C circuit,

dq q

R = E

dt C

On putting the values, we get

dq q

20 = 10

dt 0.01

dq 1

or + 5q =

dt 2

5dt

Now, I.F. = e = e 5t

1

qe 5t = e 5 t dt + C

2

5t 1 5t

qe = e +C

10

At t = 0, q = 0

1 1

0= +C C=

10 10

1 1

qe 5t = e 5t +

10 10

1 1 5t

or q= + e

10 10

dq 1 5t

I(t) = e

dt 2

1.55. An alternative emf E sin t is applied to circuit with an inductance L, and a capacitance C in

series. Show that the current in the circuit is

E 1

(cos t cos nt) where n2 = [UPTU 2010, Marks 5]

( n2 2 ) L LC

The circuit is

The differential equation for the above circuit is

Engineering Mathematics-II 41 L Ordinary Differential Equations

d2 q q

L = E sin t L

dt 2 C

d2 q 1 E

sin t C

q =

dt 2 LC L

d2 q E 1

n2 q = sin t Given n2

dt 2 L

LC

E i

(D2 + n2)q = sin t

L

2 2

A.E. is m + n = 0, m = ni E sin t

C.F. = C1 cos nt + C2 sin nt Fig. 4.

1 E

P.I. = 2 sin t

D n2 L

D2 2

1 E

P.I. = sin t

n2 2 L

1 E

Complete solution is q = C1 cos nt + C2 sin nt + sin t ...(1)

n2 2 L

Initially at t = 0, q = 0

From (1) 0 = C1

E

Thus, q = C2 sin nt + sin t ...(2)

L(n2 2 )

dq E

= C2n cos nt + cos t ...(3)

dt L ( n 2 2 )

dq

At t = 0, i = =0

dt

E

From (3) 0 = C2 n

L( n2 2 )

E

C2 =

nL(n2 2 )

dq E E

From (3) =i= cos nt cos t

dt L( n2 2 ) L(n2 2 )

E

i = (cos t cos nt)

L( n2 2 )

1.56. Find the steady state solution in RLC circuit equation consisting of inductance L = 0.05 H,

resistance R = 5 Ohms and a condenser of capacitance 4 104 Farad, if Q = I = 0 when t = 0 and

there is an alternating emf of 200 cos 100t, find Q(t) and I(t). [UPTU 2011, Marks 5]

The differential equation of the circuit is

d 2Q dQ Q L

L R = 200 cos 100t R

dt2 dt C

Where, R = 5 , L = 0.05 H, C = 4 104 F C

2 R 1

D D Q = 200 cos 100t

L LC

R 1

A.E. is m2 m =0

L LC

i

R 1

Let = 2p and = 2

L LC 200 cos 100

R R2 4 Fig. 5.

2

L L LC

m=

2

Ordinary Differential Equations 42 L Engineering Mathematics-II

m = p p2 2

R 5

2p = = = 100

L 0.05

p = 50

1

2 = = 50000

LC

Thus, m = 50 (50)2 50000 = 50 50i 19

C.F. = e 50 t (C1 cos 50 19t C2 sin 50 19t)

1

P.I. = 2 200 cos 100t D2 (100)2

D 2 pD 2

= 1 2

200 cos 100 t = cos 100t

40000 100 D D 400

2( D 400) 2(100 sin 100t 400 cos 100t)

= cos 100 t = 2( D 400) cos 100t =

D2 160000 1,70,000 170000

1

P.I. = (sin 100 t + 4 cos 100t)

850

1

Thus, Q = e 50 t (C1 cos 50 19t C2 sin 50 19 t) (sin 100 t 4 cos 100t)

850

dQ

I= = 50 e 50 t (C1 cos 50 19t C2 sin 50 19t)

dt

e 50 t (50 19C1 sin 50 19 t 50 19C2 cos 50 19 t)

1 ...(2)

(100 cos 100t 400 sin 100 t)

850

At t = 0, Q = 0

4 4

From equation (1) 0 = C1 C1 =

850 850

At t = 0, I = 0

100

From equation (2) 0 = 50(C1 ) 50 19 C2

850

4 100

50 19 C2 = 50

850 850

300 1 6

C2 = =

850 50 19 850 19

50 t 4 6 1

Thus, Q= e 850 cos 50 19t sin 50 19t (sin 100t 4 cos 100t)

850 19 850

= 50 e 50 t 4 cos 50 19 t 6

sin 50 19t

850 850 19

e 50 t 19 sin 50 19 t 6 cos 50 19t

17 17

1

(100 cos 100 t 400 sin 100 t)

850

1.57. The equation of electromotive force in terms of current i for an electrical circuit having

reistance R and a condenser of capacity C, in series is

i

E = iR + C dt. Find the current i at any time t, when E = E0 sin t.

i

Given E = iR + C dt

Engineering Mathematics-II 43 L Ordinary Differential Equations

Fig. 6.

i

iR + dt = E0 sin t ...(1)

C

Differentiating equation (1) both sides with respect to t,

di i

R = E0 cos t

dt C

di 1 E

or i = 0 cos t

dt RC R

This is a linear differential equation of first order,

1 E cos t

P= ,Q= 0

RC R

1 t

RC dt

I.F. = e = e RC

t t

E0

i.e RC = e RC cos t dt C

R

t

t

E e RC 1

i.e RC = 0 cos t sin t C

R 1 2 RC

R2C 2

t

i = E0 RC 2 1

cos t sin t Ce RC

1 R2C 2 RC

d2q dq q

L R = E sin pt

dt 2 dt C

1

The circuit is tuned to resonance so that p2 = . If initially the current i and the charge q

LC

R

be zero, then show that for small values of , the current in the circuit at time t is given by

L

Et

L sin pt.

2

Given equation may be written as

2 R 1 E

D D q = sin pt ...(1)

L LC L

R 1

A.E. is m2 m =0

L LC

R R2 4

L L2 LC = R 1 R2 4

m=

2 2 L 2 L2 LC

R 1 R R2

m= i is small, neglecting 2

2L LC L L

Ordinary Differential Equations 44 L Engineering Mathematics-II

R

m= iP

2L

Rt

C.F. = e 2L C1 cos pt C2 sin pt

1 E

P.I. = sin pt

R2 1 L

D D

L LC

1 E E L 1 E

Replacing D2 by p2 P.I. = sin pt = sin pt = cos pt

R L L R D Rp

p D p2

2

L

Thus q = C.F. + P.I.

Rt

E

q= e 2L C1 cos pt C2 sin pt cos pt ...(2)

Rp

Given at t = 0, q = 0

E E

From equation (2), 0 = C1 C1 =

Rp Rp

Again from equation (2)

Rt Rt

dq R 2L Ep

i= = e 2 L ( pC1 sin pt pC2 cos pt) e (C1 cos pt C2 sin pt) sin pt ...(3)

dt 2L Rp

At t = 0, i = 0

R

0 = pC2 C1

2L

R R E E

C2 = C1 = =

2LP 2 Lp Rp 2 Lp2

Putting the values of C1 and C2 in (3), we have

Rt Rt

E E R 2L E E E

Rp cos pt 2 Lp2 sin pt sin pt

2L

i= e R sin pt 2 Lp cos pt 2 L e

R

Rt Rt

E 2L ER E

i= e sin pt 2 2 e 2 L sin pt sin pt

R 4L p R

E Rt ER Rt E R2

i= 1 sin pt 1 sin pt sin pt neglecting terms of 2

R 2L 4 L2 p2 2L R L

Et E R Et R2

= sin pt 2

sin pt sin pt

2L 4 Lp L 8 p2 L L2

Et R

i=

2L

sin pt L being small

d2 x dx

2k b2 x = ekt sin t. Solve the equation for both cases

dt 2 dt

(i) When 2 b2 k2

(ii) When 2 = b2 k2

(D2 + 2kD + b2)x = ekt sin t

A.E. is m2 + 2km + b2 = 0

m = k k2 b2 [ body is in vibrations k2 < b2]

m = k i b2 k2

C.F. = e

kt

C1 cos b2 k2 t C2 sin b2 k2 t

Engineering Mathematics-II 45 L Ordinary Differential Equations

1

P.I. = e kt sin t

D2 2kD b2

kt 1

Replacing D by (D k) = e sin t

( D k) 2k( D k) b2

1 1

= e kt 2 sin t = e kt sin t

D (b2 k2 ) 2 (b2 k2 )

(i) If 2 b2 k2

e kt

Complete solution x= e

kt

C1 cos b2 k2 t C2 sin b2 k2 t b k2 2

2

sin t

(ii) If 2 = b2 k2 (It is a case of failure)

t e kt t e kt cos t t kt

P.I. = sin t = = e cos t

2D 2 2

t kt

So

x = e kt C1 cos b2 k2 t C2 sin b2 k2 t 2

e cos t

t kt

or x = e kt C1 cos t C2 sin t e cos t

2

d 2y

1.60. The equation for the bending of a strut beam is given by EI Py = 0. If y = 0, when x = 0

dx 2

l

and y = a when x = , find y.

2

Given equation is

d2 y 2 P

EI Py = 0 or D y=0

dx 2 EI

P

A.E. is m2 + =0

EI

P

m = i

EI

P

Let =

EI

m= i

Thus y= C1 cos x + C2 sin x ...(1)

y= 0 when x = 0

0= C1

From (1) y= C2 sin x ...(2)

l

y = a, when x =

2

l

a = C2 sin

2

a

C2 =

l

sin

2

P

a sin x

a sin x EI

From (2) y= =

l P l

sin sin

2 EI 2

1.61. The differential equation satisfied by a beam uniformly loaded (w kg/m) with one end fixed

and the second end subjected to tensile force P is given by

Ordinary Differential Equations 46 L Engineering Mathematics-II

d2 y 1

EI = Py w x2

dx 2 2

dy

Show that the elastic curve for the beam with conditions y = 0 = at x = 0 is given by :

dx

w wx 2 P

y= 2

(1 cosh nx) + , where n2 =

Pn 2P EI

Given equation may be written as

2 P w 2

D y = x

EI 2 EI

w 2

(D2 n2)y = x

2 EI

A.E. is m2 n2 = 0

m = n

C.F. = C1enx + C2enx

1

1 w 2 w 1 D2

P.I. = 2 2 x = 2 1 2 x2

D n 2 EI 2 EI n n

w D2 2 = w 2 2

= x x 2

2 1 2 2 EIn 2

n

2 EIn n

w 2 2

Thus y = C1 enx C2 e nx x 2 ...(1)

2 EIn2 n

Given at x = 0, y = 0

w

From euqation (1) 0 = C1 C2

EIn4

w

C1 + C2 = ...(2)

EIn4

dy wx

Again from equation (1) = nC1 enx nC2 e nx

dx EIn2

dy

At x = 0, =0

dx

0 = nC1 nC2

C1 = C2

w

From equation (2) 2C2 =

EIn4

w

C2 =

2 EIn4

w 2 P

n = EI

C1 = C2 =

2n2 P

Putting the values of C1 and C2 equation (1)

w w 2 2 w wx2 w

y= e nx

e nx

x = 2 2cosh nx

2

2n P 2 P 2

n 2n P 2 P Pn2

w w 2

y= (1 cosh nx) x

n2 P 2P

Engineering Mathematics-II 47 L Ordinary Differential Equations

D.17. The deflection of a strut of length l with one end (x = 0) built-in and the other support end

subjected to end thrust P, satisfied the equation

d2 y a2 R

2

a2 y = ( l x)

dx P

Prove that the deflection curve is

R 1

y= sin ax l cos ax l x

P a

where al = tan al

D.18. The voltage V and the current i at a distance x from the sending end of the transmission

line satisfy the equations

dV di

= i R and = GV

dx dx

Where G and R are constants. If V = V0 at (x = 0) and V = 0 at x = l, show that

sinh n(l x) 2

V = V0 , where n = RG

sinh nl

dx dy

D.19. The equations of motion of a particle are given by wy = 0, wx = 0. Find the path

dt dt

of the particle and show that it is a circle. [UPTU 2009, Marks 5]

D.20. A particle of mass m moves in a straight line under the action of force mn2x which is

always directed towards a fixed point O on the line. Determine the displacement x(t) if the

dx

resistance of the motion is 2 mnv. Given that initially x = 0, = 0 (0 < < 1).

dt

[UPTU 2010, Marks 10]

Ordinary Differential Equations 48 L Engineering Mathematics-II

D-1. We have y = a cos (nx + b) ...(1)

Differentiating (1) with respect to x, we get y = an sin (nx + b) ...(2)

Differentiating again with respect to x, we get

y = an2 cos (nx + b) ...(3)

Put the value of acos (nx + b) = y from (1) in equation (3),

y = n2y

y + n2y = 0

d2 y dy

D-2. (i) 6 y = ex cosh 2x

dx2 dx

Symbolic form of the equation is

(D2 D 6)y = ex cosh 2x

Auxiliary equation (A.E.) is

m2 m 6 = 0

m2 3m + 2m 6 = 0

m(m 3) + 2(m 3)= 0

m = 2, 3

C.F. = C1e2x + C2e3x

1 1 1 1 1

P.I. = 2 e x cosh 2 x = e x ( e2 x e2 x ) = ( e3 x e x )

D D6 2 D2 D 6 2 D2 D 6

1 1 1

= e3 x 2 e x

2 D2 D 6 D D6

D3 D 1

(case of failure)

x 3x 1 x

P.I. = 1 x 1 e3 x 1 e x = e e

2 2D 1 2(4) 10 8

1

Thus y = C1 e2 x C2e3 x x e3 x e x

10 8

d2 y dy

(ii) 2k k2 y = ex

dx2 dx

(D2 2kD + k2)y = ex

A.E. is m2 2km + k2 =0

(m k)2 =0

m = k, k

C.F. = (C1 + C2x)ekx

1

P.I. = 2 ex

D 2 kD k2

D is replaced by 1

1 1

P.I. = ex = ex

1 2 k k2 ( k 1)2

1

Thus y = (C1 C2 x)e kx ex

( k 1)2

A.E. is m2 6m + 9 = 0

(m 3)2 = 0

m = 3, 3

C.F. = (C1 + C2x)e3x

1 1 1 1

P.I. = (6 e3 x 7 e 2 x log 2) = 6 2

e3 x 7 2

e 2 x log 2 e0 x

( D 3) 2 ( D 3) (D 3) (D 3)2

Engineering Mathematics-II 49 L Ordinary Differential Equations

1 7 2 x 1 1 7 2 x 1

P.I. = 6 x e3 x e log 2 = 6 x2 e3 x e log 2

2( D 3) 25 9 2 25 9

7 2 x 1

P.I. = 3 x 2 e3 x e log 2

25 9

3x 2 3x 7 2 x 1

Thus y = (C1 C2 x)e 3 x e e log 2

25 9

A.E. is m3 + 8 = 0

(m + 2) (m2 + 4 2m) = 0

2 4 16

m = 2, m =

2

m = 2, 1 i 3

2 x

C.F. = C1e e x C2 cos 3x C3 sin 3 x

3 1

1 1

P.I. = 3 x4 2 x 1 = 1 D (x4 2 x 1)

D 8 8 8

1 D3 4 1 1

= 1

(x + 2x + 1) = x 4 2 x 1 3 x = x 4 x 1

8 8 8 8

2 x x 1 4

y = C1 e e C2 cos 3 x C3 sin 3 x x x 1

8

(ii) (D2 1)y = ax + sin x

A.E. is m2 1 = 0

m = 1

C.F. = C1ex + C2ex

1 1 1 x 1

P.I. = 2 ax 2 sin x = 2 elog a 2 sin x

D 1 D 1 D 1 D 1

1 1

= e x log a 2 sin x

D2 1 D 1

D log a D 12

2

1 1

= e x log a sin x

(log a)2 1 2

1 1

P.I. = a x sin x

(log a)2 1 2

x x 1 1

Thus y = C1 e C2 e a x sin x

(log a)2 1 2

2

D-5. d y 4 dy 4 y = 8x2 e2x sin 2x

dx2 dx

A.E. is m2 4m + 4 =0

(m 2)2 =0

m = 2, 2

C.F. = (C1 + C2x)e2x

1

P.I. = 2 8 x2 e2 x sin 2 x

D 4D 4

1

P.I. = 8 2 e2 x ( x2 sin 2 x)

D 4D 4

D ( D 2)

1 1 1

= 8 e2 x x 2 sin 2 x = 8 e2 x 2 x 2 sin 2 x = 8 e2 x x 2 sin 2 x dx

( D 2)2 4( D 2) 4 D D

Ordinary Differential Equations 50 L Engineering Mathematics-II

= 8 e2 x

2 2 4

cos2 x

D 2 2 4

x2 sin 2x 1 1 1

= 8 e2 x x sin 2x x sin 2x dx sin 2x

4 2 2 8

x2 sin 2x x cos2 x sin 2 x sin 2 x

= 8 e2 x

4 2 4 8

x 2 sin 2 x x cos 2 x 3sin 2 x

= 8e2x

4 2 8

= e2x (2x2 sin 2x 4x cos 2x + 3 sin 2x)

= e2x [4x cos 2x + (2x2 3)sin 2x]

y = (C1 + C2x) e2x e2x [4x cos 2x + (2x2 3)sin 2x]

d2 y

D-6. y = x cot x

dx2

A.E. is m2 + 1 = 0

m = i

C.F. = C1 cos x + C2 sin x

1 1 1

P.I. = 2 ( x cot x) = x cot x = P1 P2

D 1 D2 1 ( D i) ( D i)

1

P1 = x = (1 + D2)1x = (1 D2)x = x

D2 1

1 1 1 1

P2 = cot x = cot x

( D i) ( D i) 2i D i D i

1 1 1 1 ix ix

= cot x = e e cot x dx e ix eix cot x dx

2i

cot x

2i D i Di

1 ix (cos x i sin x)cos x (cos x i sin x)cos x

= e dx e ix dx

2i sin x sin x

1 ix cos2 x 2

ix cos x

= e i cos x dx e i cos x dx

2i sin x sin x

1 ix

= e (cosec x sin x i cos x)dx eix (cosec x sin x i cos x) dx

2i

1 ix

= e log(cosec x cot x) cos x i sin x e ix {log(cosec x cot x) cos x i sin x}

2i

1

= log(cosec x cot x)(eix eix ) cos x(eix eix ) i sin x(eix eix )

2i

= sin x log (cosec x cot x) + sin x cos x sin x cos x

= sin x log (cosec x cot x)

P.I. = P1 P2

= x sin x log (cosec x cot x)

y = C.F. + P.I.

y = C1 cos x + C2 sin x + x sin x log (cosec x cot x)

d2 y dy

D-7. x 2 2

4x 2 y = ex

dx dx

On putting x = ez,

z

{D(D 1) + 4D + 2}y = ee

z

(D2 + 3D + 2)y = ee

A.E. is m2 + 3m + 2 = 0 m = 1, 2

C.F. = C1ez + C2 e2z

Engineering Mathematics-II 51 L Ordinary Differential Equations

1 z

P.I. = ee

D2 3 D 2

(Using General method to find P.I.)

1 z 1 1 ez 1 z 1 z

= ee = e = ee ee

( D 1) ( D 2) D 1 D 2 D 1 D 2

z z

= e z e z e e dz e2 z e2 z e e dz

let ez = t ez dz = dt

z t 2 z t t

= e z et dt e2 z t et dt = e e e (t e e )

z z z z

= e z ee e 2 z ( e z e e e e ) = e2 z e e

Hence y = C.F. + P.I.

z

y = C1 e z C2 e2 z e 2 z e e

1 1 1 x

y = C1 C2 2 2 e

x x x

{D(D 1) D + 4}y = cos z + ez sin z

(D2 2D + 4)y = cos z + ez sin z

A.E. is m2 2m + 4 = 0

2 4 16

m= = 1i 3

2

z

C.F. = e C1 cos 3 z C2 sin 3z

1

P.I. = (cos z e z sin z)

D2 2 D 4

1 1

= 2 cos z 2 ez sin z

D 2D 4 D 2D 4

D2 12 D D 1

1 1 1 1

= cos z e z sin z = cos z e z 2 sin z

(2 D 3) ( D 1)2 2( D 1) 4 2D 3 D 3

2

D2 1

(2 D 3) 1 1 1

= cos z e z sin z = (2sin z 3cos z) e z sin z

4 D2 9 2 13 2

2 3 1

y = e z C1 cos 3 z C2 sin 3 z sin z cos z e z sin z

13 13 2

2 3 1

or

y = x C1 cos 3(log x) C2 sin 3(log x) 13

sin (log x) cos(log x) x sin(log x)

13 2

d2 y dy

D-9. (1 2x)2 6(1 2x) 16 y = 8(1 + 2x)2

dx 2 dx

Let 1 + 2x = ez

d

(1 2 x) 2D

dx

d2

(1 2x)2 22D(D 1)

dx2

{4D(D 1) 6 2D + 16}y = 8e2z

(4D2 16D + 16)y = 8e2z

(D2 4D + 4)y = 2e2z

A.E. is m2 4m + 4 =0

Ordinary Differential Equations 52 L Engineering Mathematics-II

(m 2)2 = 0

m = 2, 2

C.F. = (C1 + C2z)e2x

1 1 1

P.I. = 2 e2 z (case of failure) = 2 z e2 z = 2 z2 e2 z = z2e2z

( D 2)2 2( D 2) 2

y = (C1 + C2z)e2z + z2e2z

y = [C1 + C2 log (1 + 2x) + {log(1 + 2x)}2] (1 + 2x)2 ...(1)

At x = 0, y = 0, from equation (1)

0 = C1 + 0 C1 = 0

Again from equation (1)

dy 2C2 22 log(1 2 x) 2 2

= (1 2 x) 4(1 2 x)[C1 C2 log(1 2 x) {log(1 2 x)} ]

dx (1 2 x) (1 2 x)

dy

At x = 0, =2

dx

2 = 2C2 + 4[C1]

2C2 = 2 [ c1 = 0]

C2 = 1

Putting C1 = 0 and C2 = 1 in equation (1), we have

y = log (1 + 2x) [1 + log (1 + 2x)] (1 + 2x)2

dx

D-10. ty =0 ...(1)

dt

dy

t x =0

dt

x(1) = 1, y( 1) = 0 ...(2)

Differentiating equation (1) with respect to t

d2 x dx dy

t =0

dt 2 dt dt

d2 x dx dy

or t2 2 t t =0 ...(3)

dt dt dt

dy

From (2), t = x, putting in equation (3)

dt

d2 x dx

t2 2 t x =0 ...(4)

dt dt

This is a homogeneous differential equation,

Let t = ez

d

t D

dt

d2

t2 D(D 1)

dt2

Equation (4) becomes

{D(D 1) + D 1}x = 0

(D2 1)x = 0

A.E. is m2 1 = 0

m=1

x = C1 ez + C2 ez

1

x = C1t + C2 ...(5)

t

dx C2

= C1 2

dt t

dx

From equation (1), y=t

dt

Engineering Mathematics-II 53 L Ordinary Differential Equations

C2

y = C1 t + ...(6)

t

Given t= 1, x = 1, from equation (5)

C1 + C2 = 1

and t= 1, y = 0, from equation (6)

0= C1 C2

1 1

On solving C1 = , C2 =

2 2

1 1

Thus x= t

2 t

1 1

y= t

2 t

d2 y dy

D-11. (i) x2 x y = x3 ex

dx2 dx

To solve the above differential equation by variation of parameters, first to find C.F.

Let x = ez z

{D(D 1) + D 1}y = e3z ee

z

(D2 1)y = e3z ee

A.E. is m2 1 = 0

m=1

1

C.F. = C1 ez + C2 ez = C1 x + C2

x

1 1 2

Let y1 = x, y2 = , y = 1, y2 = 2 , y1 y2 y2 y1 =

x 1 x x

P.I. = u y1 + v y2, X = x3 ex

Xy x2ex 1 3 x

u= y1 y2 y22 y1 dx = 2 dx =

2

x e

x

1 3 x

u= [x e 3x2 ex + 6xex 6ex]

2

X y1 x3 e x . x 1

v=

dx = dx = x5 e x dx

y1 y2 y2 y1 2 2

x

1 5 x

v= [x e 5x4 ex + 20x3 ex 60x2 ex + 120 xex 120 ex]

2

P.I. = u y1 + v y2

1 4 x 1 x 4 3 2 120

= (x e 3x3 ex + 6x2 ex 6x ex) e x 5x 20x 60x 120

2 2 x

ex 3 2 120

P.I. = 2 x 14 x 54 x 120

2 x

C2 60

y = C1 x + ex x3 7 x2 27 x 60

x x

(ii) (D2 + 1)y = sec x tan x

A.E. is m2 + 1 = 0

m= i

C.F. = C1 cos x + C2 sin x

Let y1 = cos x, y2 = sin x

y 1 y 2 y 2 y 1 = cos2 x + sin2 x = 1

X= sec x tan x

Ordinary Differential Equations 54 L Engineering Mathematics-II

sec x tan x sin x 2

u= dx = tan x dx

1

sec x tan x sin x

u= dx

1

2

= (sec x 1) dx = tan x + x

sec x tan x.cos x

v= dx = tan x dx

1

v= log sec x

Thus, P.I. = ( tan x + x) cos x + (log (sec x)) sin x

P.I. = x cos x sin x + sin x log (sec x)

y= C1 cos x + C2 sin x + x cos x sin x + sin x. log (sec x)

d3 y

D-12. = sin2 x

dx3

d3 y 1 cos 2 x

3

=

dx 2

d2 y 1 sin 2 x

On integration = x C1

dx 2 2 2

dy 1 x2 cos 2 x

Again on integration, = C1 x C2

dx 2 2 4

1 x3 sin 2 x C1 x2

and y= + C2 x + C3

2 6 8 2

x3 sin 2 x C1 x 2

Thus y= + C2 x + C3

12 16 2

2

d2 y dy

D-13. y(1 log y) 2 + (1 + log y) =0

dx dx

dy d2 y dP

Let = P, =

dx dx 2 dx

d2 y dP dy dP

2

= =P

dx dx dy dy

dP

y(1 log y) P + (1 + log y) P2 = 0

dy

dP (1 log y)

or separating the variables we get = y (1 log y) dy

P

Let log y = z

1

dy = dz

y

dP (1 z) z1 2

= dz = dz = 1 dz

P (1 z) z 1 z 1

Integrating both sides, log P = z + 2 log (z 1) + log C1

log P = z + log (z 1)2 C1

log P = log ez + log (z 1)2 C1

log P = log ez (z 1)2 C1

P= ez (z 1)2 C1

Engineering Mathematics-II 55 L Ordinary Differential Equations

dy

= ez (z 1)2 C1 = y (log y 1)2 C1

dx

dy

or = C1 dx

y(log y 1)2

1

Let log y 1 = t dy = dt

y

dt

= C1 dx

t2

1

On integration = C1 x + C2

t

1

= C1 x + C2

(log y 1)

1

1 log y =

C1 x C2

d2 y

dy

D-14. x (1 x) y = x2 ex

dx dx

Given equation may be written as

1 1

y 1 y = x ex

y

x x

1 1

P= , Q= 1, R = x ex

x x

1 + P + Q = 0, thus ex is a solution, u = ex

Thus y = vex, v is given by

d 2v 2 du dv R

2

+ P =

dx u dx dx u

d 2v 1 2 x dv xe x

2

+ x e =

dx x e dx ex

d2v 1 dv

2 = x e2x

dx2 x dx

dv

Let =P

dx

dP 1

2 P = x e2x

dx x

1 1

2 x dx log

I.F. = e = e2 xlog x = e2 x e log x e2x e x

1

I.F. = e2 x

x

2 x

Thus P.(I.F.) = xe (I.F.)dx C1

1 2 x 1

P e2 x = xe e2 x dx C1

x x

e2x

P = dx C1

x

P = x2 e2x + x e2x C1

dv

= x2 e2x + x e2x C1

dx

2 2 x

On integrating v= x e dx C1 x e2 x dx C2

Ordinary Differential Equations 56 L Engineering Mathematics-II

x2 e2 x x2 e2 x

v= x e2 x dx C1 x e2 x dx C2 = (C1 1) x e2 x dx C2

2 2

x2 e2 x 2 x 1 2 x x 2 e 2 x 2 x e 2 x

v= (C1 1) x e e dx C2 = (C1 1) x e C2

2 2 2 2 2 4

Thus y =vx

e2 x

y=

4

2 x3 2 x 2 (C1 1) x(C1 1) + C2x

d 2 y 2 dy 2 2

D-15. n 2 y = 0

dx2 x dx x

2 2

P= , Q = n2 2 , R = 0

x x

1 2 dx

dx

v = e 2 x e x elog x

v=x

R

R1 = =0

v

1 dP p2 2 1 2 1 4 1 1

Q1 = Q = n2 + 2 2 2 = n2 2 2

2 dx 4 x 2 x 4 x x x

Q1 = n2

Given equation is transformed into

d 2u

Q1u = R1

dx 2

d 2u

n 2u =0

dx 2

A.E. is m2 + n2 =0

m = ni

C.F. = C1 cos nx + C2 sin nx

u = C1 cos nx + C2 sin nx

Thus y = u.v. = x(C1 cos nx + C2 sin nx)

d2 y dy

D-16. cot x 4 y cosec 2 x = 0

dx2 dx

P = cot x, Q = 4 cosec2 x, R = 0

Q

Q1 = 2

dz

dx

Let Q1 = 4

4 cosec 2 x

4= 2

dz

dx

2

dz = cosec2 x

dx

dz x

= cosec x z = log tan

dx 2

2

dz d z

P 2 cot x cosec x (cosec x cot x)

P1 = dx 2 dx = =0

dz cosec 2 x

dx

Engineering Mathematics-II 57 L Ordinary Differential Equations

R

R1 = 2

=0

dz

dx

Thus equation is transformed into

d2 y

4y =0

dz2

A.E. is m2 + 4 =0

m = 2i

y = C1 cos 2z + C2 sin 2z

x x

y = C1 cos 2 log tan C2 sin 2 log tan

2 2

d2 y a2 R

D-17. 2

a2 y = (l x )

dx P

a2 R

(D2 + a2)y = (l x )

p

A.E. is m2 + a2 = 0

m = ai

C.F. = C1 cos ax + C2 sin ax

1

1 a2 R a2 R 1 D2

P.I. = 2 2

. (l x) = 1 2 (l x )

D a P 2

P a a

R D2 R

= 1 2 (l x ) = P (l x )

P a

R

Thus y = C1 cos ax + C2 sin ax + (l x) ...(1)

P

Now at x = 0, y = 0

Rl

0 = C1

P

Rl

C1 =

P

dy

Also at x = 0, =0

dx

dy R

From equation (1), = aC1 sin ax + aC2 cos ax

dx p

R R

0 = aC2 C2 =

P aP

Rl R R

From equation (1), y= cos ax sin ax (l x)

P aP P

R 1

or y= sin ax l cos ax l x

Pa

Again when x = l, y = 0

R 1

0= sin al l cos al l l

Pa

or al = tan al

dV

D-18. =iR ...(1)

dx

Ordinary Differential Equations 58 L Engineering Mathematics-II

di

= GV ...(2)

dx

1 dV

From equation (1) i= , putting value of i in equation (2)

R dx

d dV 1 = GV

dx dx R

d 2V

= RGV (D2 RG)V = 0

dx2

A.E. is m2 RG =0 (Let RG = n2)

m2 n2 =0m=n

Therefore, V = C1 enx + C2 enx

At x = 0, V = V0

V0 = C1 + C2 ...(3)

At x = l, V = 0

0= C1 enl + C2 enl ...(4)

From equations (3) and (4)

V0 V0 e2nl

C1 = , C2 =

1 e 2 nl 1 e2nl

Thus we have V = C1 enx + C2 enx

V e nx V e2 nl e nx sinh n(l x)

V = 0 2nl 0 V = V0 (where n2 = RG)

1 e 1 e2 nl sinh nl

Dx + wy = 0 ...(1)

wx + Dy = 0 ...(2)

Multiplying (1) by w and (2) by D and on adding

(D2 + w2)y = 0

Auxiliary equation is

m2 + w2 = 0

m = wi

Thus y = C1 cos wt + C2 sin wt ...(3)

dy

Also = Dy = C1w sin wt + C2w cos wt

dt

From (2) wx = Dy

wx = C1 w sin wt + C2 w cos wt

x = C1 sin wt + C2 cos wt ...(4)

Squaring and adding equations (3) and (4)

x2 + y2 = C12 + C22

x 2 + y 2 = R2

where R2 = C12 + C22

Hence, the path is a circle.

dv

mv = mn2x 2 mnv

dx

2

dv

= (n x 2 nv) ...(1)

dx v

Let v = yx

dv dy

= yx

dx dx

From equation (1)

Engineering Mathematics-II 59 L Ordinary Differential Equations

dy (n2 2 ny)

yx =

dx y

dy n2 2 ny y2

x =

dx y

ydy dx

n2 2ny y2 = C

x

1 2 y 2n 2n dx

dy =

2 n2 2ny y2

C

x

1 2 y 2n dy

dy n

2 n2 2ny y2

= log x + C

( y n)2 n2 (1 2 )

1 dy

log(n2 2ny y 2 ) n = log x + C

2 ( y n)2 (n 1 2 )2

1 n y n

log(n2 2ny y 2 ) tan 1 2

= log x + C

2 n 1 2

n 1

y n

log n2 2ny y2 log x tan 1 =C

2

1 2 n 1

y n

log x n2 2ny y2 tan 1 2

=C

2

1 n 1

v

Putting y =

x

v nx

log v2 2nvx n2 x 2 tan 1 =C

2 2

1 nx 1

We know that v = 0 and x = 0

Thus, C = 0

Hence,

v nx

log v2 2nvx n2 x 2 tan1 2

=0

2

1 nx 1

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