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Under Frequency Islanding Scheme of Atomic Power

Plant
Sumit Nariyal Dr. M.P.Sharma Dr. R. K. Khanna Vikash Koundilya Bhavesh Vyas
PhD Student Dean Research Asst. Professor, EE Dept. Asst. Professor, EE Dept.
Assistant Engineer
Vivekananda Global Vivekananda Global Arya Institute of Engineering Arya College of Engineering
RRVPNL
University University Technology & Management, & I.T
Jaipur, India
Jaipur, India Jaipur, India Jaipur, India Jaipur, India
sumitnariyal@gmail.com mahavir_sh@rediffmail.com rkkhanna.iitm@gmail.com koundilya@gmail.com tonu567@gmail.com

AbstractThis paper describes under frequency based based on the magnitude of falling frequency during
islanding scheme of the Rawatbhatta Atomic Power Plant contingencies [9].
(RAPP) situated in Rajasthan. The islanding power system
consists of seven generators having total 780 MW generation This paper describes under frequency based islanding scheme
capacity. On the basis of simulation studies, under frequency of the Rawatbhatta Atomic Power Plant (RAPP) situated in
based islanding scheme have been designed. Under frequency Rajasthan. It also proposes the activation of load shedding
based islanding relays are placed at interconnecting points. scheme inside islands. Load shedding schemes are helpful to
Further under frequency based load shedding relays are also bound the operations within the operating limits. It is possible
placed in the island to control the island frequency in the event of that island may be load rich or may be generation rich. In load
generation and load imbalance. Simulation results are presented rich island system frequency will drop because of the
up to 10% overload of Island. Simulation studies have been generation shortage. If the frequency falls below a certain set
carried out using Mi-Power software. Frequency response of point (e.g., 47.5 Hz), the generator protection system will trip
Islanded System, generators active & reactive power output, the generator. Further reducing the generation in the island
generators terminal voltage, response of governors & AVRs have makes the system frequency even worse. In the worst case, the
been plotted. Simulation studies indicate that with proper setting entire island will blackout. To prevent blackout of island under
of under frequency load shedding relays Island is successfully frequency load shedding relays (UFLSRs) are provided inside
formed and stabilized at acceptable frequency.
the island at different locations [10]-[11].
Keywords under frequency islanding scheme; rate of change of
frequency; under frequency load shedding; grid disturbance. II. SYSTEM ISLANDING DISCRIPTION
I. INTRODUCTION In this paper, under frequency based islanding scheme for
Rawatbhata, Atomic Power Plant (RAPP) and MAHI Hydro
Two major grid failure incidents occurred in India on 30th
and 31st July, 2012 affecting a large area of power network Power Plant, which is part of Rajasthan Power System have
covering states namely Uttar Pradesh, Uttarkhand, Punjab, been designed. Power map of Rajasthan power system is
Haryana, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh, Delhi falling under placed at Figure-1. Rajasthan power system has been
Northern Region beside other states of Eastern (ER) & North- electrically modeled using MiPower software. It consists of
Eastern (NER) regions [1-4]. total 746 buses out of which 2 are 765 kV, 35 are 400 kV, 145
are 220 kV, 501 are 132 kV and 63 are generator buses. Peak
Defensive plans such as under frequency based islanding demand of Rajasthan is 10000 MW. Load flow study results of
scheme would have been a safeguard to the grid failure [5]-[7]. Rajasthan power system for 400 kV and 765 kV network are
Challenge is to meet major essential loads such as hospitals, plotted at Fig. 2.
railway traction, major industrial, communication systems etc.
On the basis of availability of net 715 MW generation, after
in the proposed island. However, if it is not possible due to
excluding 65 MW auxiliary consumption, a network which
overloads in the islands, efforts should be made to extend
supply from these islands to identified essential loads on have load approximately 715 MW including 5 % transmission
priority basis [4]. loss have been selected for proposed Island. On the basis of
average monthly recorded load at substations in the vicinity of
Abnormal conditions make power system utility the generators, seven 220 KV and twenty six 132 KV
management more complex as the losses and nominal substations are part of proposed islanded power system. Single
parameters associated with the system vary in a very wide line diagram of proposed Islanded power system is placed in
range. The losses reach to extreme if abnormal condition Figure-3. There are total 51 buses in the proposed Island out of
persists. This further, leads to a system blackout [8]. This which 9 are 220 kV, 35 are 132 kV and 7 are generator buses.
research paper presents a technique in which islanding scheme There are eleven 220 KV transmission lines and thirty nine
for power system can be developed to bring the system to a 132 KV transmission lines in the proposed island. 317.34
stable operating state. Robustness of the proposed approach is MVAR capacity capacitor banks are connected to proposed
verified by taking different operating conditions and Island. Load flow study results of proposed Islanded power
contingencies in simulation studies. The proposed technique is system are plotted at Figure-4.

978-1-4673-8587-9/16/$31.00 2016 IEEE


Settings of under frequency load shedding relays in
the Grid
Coordination with under frequency protection scheme
of generators
Maximum possible over load in the Island
Maximum over loading of generator
By consideration of aforesaid points and on the basis of
simulation studies, 48 Hz frequency without any time delay
has been selected for formation of island.
B. Under frequency based Islanding relays
Fig.1 Rajasthan System Power Map
Proposed Island power system is connected from the
Rajasthan Grid through five 220 kV lines and three 132 kV
lines which are to be opened after occurrence of the
disturbance in the grid to form the Island. Power flow on
these lines in Case 1 is tabulated at table I.

TABLE I. UNDER FREQUENCY ISLANDING RELAYS


Power flow
Name of line
MW MVAR
220 kV D/C RAPP(A)-Sakatpura line, Islanding Relay 1 -27 +17
220 kV S/C RAPP(B)-Sakatpura line, Islanding Relay 2 -8 +10
220 kV S/C RAPP(B)- RAPP(C) line , Islanding Relay 3 -8 +4
220 kV S/C Chhitorgarh Hamirgarh line, Islanding
+42 -1
Relay 4
Fig. 2 Load Flow Study Results of Rajasthan Power System 220 kV S/C Dabari-Kankroli line, Islanding Relay 5 +65 +14
132 kV D/C Dabari-Mavli line, Islanding Relay 6 -28 -6
132 kV S/C Seesarma-Gogunda line, Islanding Relay7 -11 -3
132 kV S/C Chhitorgarh-Ajioliya Ka khera line,
-25 -9
Islanding Relay 8
Total 0 +26

Under frequency based islanding relays without any time


delay have been placed on above 220 kV and 132 kV lines to
isolate the power system from rest of the grid for formation of
island. Total 8 islanding relays are required.
C. Under frequency load shedding relays
In islanding mode, system frequency is severely disturbed
Fig.3 Single Line diagram of proposed Islanded System due to imbalance between generation and load demand
resulting in collapse of Islanded power system. In order to
cope with these events, under-frequency load shedding relays
(UFLSR) has been installed to stabilize the frequency. In view
of possibility of maximum 10% over load in the proposed
island, on the basis of simulation studies load shedding relays
are placed on 132 kV radial lines which are listed in table II
along with power flow in Case I.

TABLE II. UNDER FREQUENCY LOAD SHEDDING RELAYS


Power Operating
Name of transmission line
flow Frequency
Fig.4 Load Flow Study Results of Proposed Island System (Case 1) 132 kV S/C Aspur-Dhariwad line UFLSR-1 11 MW 47. 95Hz
132 kV S/C Banswara-Paloda line UFLSR-2 12 MW 47.88 Hz
III. PROPOSED ISLANDING SCHEME 132 kV S/C Bagidora -kushalgarh line UFLSR-3 8 MW 47.82 Hz
132 kV S/C Madri-Dakan Kotra line UFLSR-4 13 MW 47.73 Hz
A. Island formation frequency 132 kV S/C Sukher-Sesarma line UFLSR-5 32 MW 47.65 Hz
Total 76 MW
Following points are considered for selection of island
formation frequency:- Locations of Islanding relays and load shedding relays are
Normal Grid operating frequency indicated in Single line diagram of proposed Island placed at
Figure-4.
D. Operating frequency setting of load shedding relays Following disturbance at 5 second have been created in the
simulation studies to analyze the behavior of Islanded power
To find out operating frequncy of load shedding relays, system.
simulation studies have been carried out under the occurrence
of grid disturbance for various Island loading conditions and a) Outage of Kawai Thermal Power plant (2x660 MW)
then maximum fall in island frequncy is found, below which b) Outage of Chhabra Thermal Power plant (4x250 MW)
frequency of next load shedding relay has been determined. c) Outage of Kalisindh Thermal Power plant (2x600 MW)
1. Simulation studies have been carried out for 780 MW Simulation studies have been carried out for 80 seconds.
Island load and maximum transient fall in frequency is
47.990 Hz. Therefore, first relay has set to operate for A. Simulation Results for Case-1
47.95 Hz.
2. Simulation studies have been carried out for 799.20 MW
Island load and maximum transient fall in frequency is
47.925 Hz after operation of first load shedding relay.
Therefore, second relay has set to operate for 47.88 Hz.
3. Simulation studies have been carried out for 809.78 MW
Island load and maximum transient fall in frequency is
47.862 Hz after operation of 1 &2 load shedding relays. Figure 5.1 Frequency Response of Islanded Power System
Therefore, third relay has set to operate for 47.82 Hz.
4. Simulation studies have been carried out for 820 MW
Island load and maximum transient fall in frequency is
47.773 Hz after operation of 1,2 &3 load shedding relays.
Therefore, fourth relay has set to operate for 47.73 Hz.
5. Simulation studies have been carried out for 830.63 MW
Island load and maximum transient fall in frequency is
Figure-5.2 Response of Islanding relays
47.697 Hz after operation of 1,2,3&4 load shedding relays.
Therefore, fifth relay has set to operate for 47.65 Hz.
IV. SIMULATION STUDY
To validate the proposed islanding scheme for various island
loading conditions, simulation studies have been carried out
for following 8 cases. Figure-5.3 Responses of Load Shedding relays

TABLE III. ISLAND LOAD CONDITIONS

Approx. load to be shed


Particulars Island Load (MW)
(MW)
Case 1 779.95 0
Case 2 799.20 10
Case 3 809.78 20
Case 4 820.50 30
Figure-5.4 Active power output of Generators
Case 5 830.63 40
Case 6 841.04 50
Case 7 852.21 60
Case 8 863.55 70

Transmission loss of Islanded system and auxiliary power


requirement of generators have been included in the island
load. Auxiliary power requirement of generators located inside
the island is 65 MW and as per load flow study, transmission
loss of Islanded system is approx. 30 MW. Island has been Figure-5.5 Generators reactive power output
planned for 790 MW total load, considering 1% over load on
generators and excessive load is to be shedded by the under
frequency load shedding relays. Response of under frequency
islanding relays, load shedding relays, frequency response of
Islanded System, generators active & reactive power output
for different cases are plotted.
Figure-5.6 Generators mechanical power behavior
D. Simulation Results for Case-4

Figure-5.7 Generators AVRs Response

B. Simulation Results for Case-2


Figure 8.1 Frequency Response of Islanded Power System

Figure 6.1 Frequency Response of Islanded Power System

Figure 8.2 Response of islanding relays

Figure-6.2 Response of Islanding relays

Figure-8.3 Responses of Load Shedding relays

E. Simulation Results for Case-5


Figure-6.3 Responses of Load Shedding relays

C. Simulation Results for Case-3

Figure 9.1 Frequency Response of Islanded Power System


Figure 7.1 Frequency Response of Islanded Power System

Figure 9.2 Response of Islanding relays

Figure-7.2 Response of islanding relays

Figure-7.3 Responses of Load Shedding relays Figure-9.3 Responses of Load Shedding relays
F. Simulation Results for Case-6 H. Simulation Results for Case-8
Load flow results for Case 8 are plotted at Figure 12.1 and
simulation results under occurrence of grid disturbance are
placed at Figure 12.2 to 12.8.

Figure 10.1 Frequency Response of Islanded System

Figure 10.2 Response of Islanding relays

Fig-12.1 Load Flow Study Results of Islanding system for Case 8.

Figure-10.3 Responses of Load Shedding relays

G. Simulation Results for Case-7

Figure 12.2 Frequency Response of Islanded System

Figure 11.1 Frequency Response of Islanded Power System

Figure-12.3 Response of Islanding relays

Figure-11.2 Response of Islanding relays


Figure-12.4 Responses of Load Shedding relays

Figure-11.3 Responses of Load Shedding relays Figure-12.5 Generators active power output
REFERENCES
[1] IEEE Recommended Practice for the Design of Reliable Industrial and
Commercial Power Systems - Redline," IEEE Std 493-2007 (Revision
of IEEE Std 493-1997) - Redline , vol., no., pp.1,426, June 25 2007.
[2] http://www.thecroforum.org/cro-forum-positioning-on-power-blackout-
risks.
Figure-12.6 Generators reactive power output [3] Rahman, F.S.; Hariyanto, N., "Under frequency load shedding scheme
using generator coherency approach," Electronics, Computer and
Applications, 2014 IEEE Workshop on , pp.750, 753, 8-9May2014. doi:
10.1109/IWECA.2014.6845731.
[4] http://www.cercind.gov.in/2012/orders/Final_Report_Grid_Disturbance.
[5] Ansi Wang; Yong Tang; Huadong Sun; Wei Wu; Jun Yi, "An adaptive
emergency control method for interconnected power grids against
frequency decline and system blackout," IPEC, 2012 Conference on
Power & Energy , vol., no., pp.439,444, 12-14 Dec.2012 doi:
Figure-12.7 Generators mechanical power output 10.1109/ASSCC.2012.6523308.
[6] Shafiullah, M.; Alsharif, B.S.; Hossain, M.I; Ahsan, M.Q., "Impact study
on a load rich island and development of frequency based auto load
shedding scheme to improve service reliability of the
island," Informatics, Electronics & Vision (ICIEV), 2014 International
Conference on , vol., no., pp.1,6, 23-24May2014 doi:
10.1109/ICIEV.2014.6850821.
[7] Chowdhury, S.P.; Chowdhury, S.; Chui Fen Ten; Crossley, P.A,
"Islanding protection of distribution systems with distributed generators
A comprehensive survey report," Power and Energy Society General
Figure-12.8 Generators AVR Response Meeting - Conversion and Delivery of Electrical Energy in the 21st
Century, 2008IEEE , vol.,no., pp.1,8,20-24 July2008 doi:
10.1109/PES.2008.4596787.
V. RESULT ANALYSIS
[8] P. Kundur, Power System Stability and Control. New York:McGrawHill,
1. After the occurrence of disturbance in the grid at 5 1994.
seconds, frequency starts to fall. When grid frequency [9] Md. Quamrul Ahsan, Abdul Hasib Chowdhury, S. Shahnawaz Ahmed,
Imamul Hassan Bhuyan, Mohammad Ariful Haque, and Hamidur
becomes 48 Hz then due to operation of UFR relays, Rahman , Technique to Develop Auto Load Shedding and Islanding
Island is formed at 48 Hz. Scheme to Prevent Power System Blackout ,IEEE Transation on Power
2. In all cases, active and reactive power loading on System, VOL. 27, No. 1, February 201.
generators are within limits. [10] H. You, V. Vittal, and Z. Yang, Self-healing in power systems: An
approach using islanding and rate of frequency decline-based load
3. In all cases stable island frequency is greater than 49.5 shedding, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 174181, Feb.
Hz. 2003.
4. Under frequency load shedding relays are properly [11] S. S. Ahmed, N. C. Sarker, A. B. Khairuddin, M. R. B. A. Ghani, and H.
Ahmad, A scheme for controlled islanding to prevent subsequent
operate to control the Islanding frequency. blackout, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 136143,
5. In all cases frequency does not drop up to 47.5 Hz which Feb.2003.
is under frequency protection of generators.

VI. CONCLUSION
This paper describes under frequency based islanding
scheme of the Atomic Power Plant. On the basis of simulation
studies, under frequency based islanding scheme have been
designed. Under frequency based load shedding relays are also
placed in the island to control the frequency in the event of
generation and load imbalance. On the basis of simulation
studies frequency setting of under frequency load shedding
relays have been decided so that in the case of mismatch
between generation and load in the island proper load
shedding may be activated. Simulation results indicate that
proposed island scheme is successful up to 10% overload of
Island. Active and reactive power loading on generators are
within limits up to 10% overload of Island and frequency is
stabilized greater than 49.5 Hz. In all possible mismatches
between island generation and load, frequency does not drop
up to 47.50 Hz.