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# 1.

## An incremental model of a solid state device is one which represents the

A. ac property of the device at desired operating point
B. dc property of the device at all operating points
C. complete ac and dc behaviour at all operating points
D. ac property of the device at all operating points
Explanation:Incremental model is used for ac response at one operating point.

2. What is the correct sequence of the following step in the fabrication of a monolithic, Bipolar junction
transistor?
1. Emitter diffusion
2. Base diffusion
3. Buried layer formation
4. E pi-layer formation
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
A. 3, 4, 1, 2
B. 4, 3, 1, 2
C. 3, 4, 2, 1
D. 4, 3, 2, 1
Explanation:It is always non-linear.

3. For an n-channel enhancement type MOSFET, if the source is connected at a higher potential than that
of the bulk (VSB > 0), the threshold voltage VT of the MOSFET will
A. remain unchanged
B. decrease
C. change Polarity
D. increase
Explanation: VT depends upon MOSFET construction, hence it will Independent from MOSFET
parameters.

4.Which of the following is used for generating time varying wave forms?
A. MOSFET
B. PIN diode
C. Tunnel diode
D. UJT
Explanation: Its output is used to trigger SCR.

5.Calculate the resistivity of n-type semiconductor from the following data, Density of holes = 5 x 1012
cm-3. Density of electrons = 8 x 1013 cm-3, mobility of conduction electron = 2.3 x 104 cm2/ V-sec and
mobility of holes = 100 cm2/V-sec.
A. 0.43 -m
B. 0.34 -m
C. 0.42 -m
D. 0.24 -m

Explanation: Resistivity(r) =
= e(neue + nnun).
6. An one sided abrupt junction has 1021/m3 of dopants on the lightly doped side, zero bias voltage and a
built-in potential of 0.2 V. The depletion width of abrupt junction.(q = 1.6 x 10-19 C, r =16, 0 = 8.87 x
10-12 F/m) is
A. 0.036 nm B. 0.6 m
C. 3 mm D. 1.5 mm

Explanation:

7. n-type semiconductors
A. are negatively charged
B. are produced when indium is added as impurity to germanium
C. are produced when phosphorus is added as impurity to silicon
D. none of the above
Explanation: n type semiconductor is produced when pentavalent impurity is added.

8. In all metals
A. conductivity decreases with increase in temperature
B. current flow by electrons as well as by holes
C. resistivity decreases with increase in temperature
D. the gap between valence and conduction bands is small
Explanation: In all metals conductivity decreases (and resistance increases) with increase in temperature.

## 9. The voltage across a zener diode

A. is constant in forward direction
B. is constant in reverse direction
C. is constant in both forward and reverse directions
D. none of the above
Explanation: Zener diode is always reverse biased.

10. Assertion (A): Two transistors one n-p-n and the other p-n-p are identical in all respects (doping,
construction, shape, size). The n-p-n transistor will have better frequency response.
Reason (R): The electron mobility is higher than hole mobility.
A. Both A and R are true and R is correct explanation of A
B. Both A and R are true but R is not a correct explanation of A
C. A is true but R is false
D. A is false but R is true
Explanation: Therefore mostly npn transistors are used.

11. The threshold voltage of an n-channel enhancement mode MOSFET is 0.5 when the device is biased
at a gate voltage of 3V. Pinch off would occur at a drain voltage of
A. 1.5 V B. 2.5 V
C. 3.5 V D. 4.5 V
Explanation: It is used with reverse bias.
12. Which of these has degenerate p and n materials?
A. Zener diode B. PIN diode
C. Tunnel diode D. Photo diode
Explanation: Tunnel diode has heavily doped p and n layers called degenerate p and n materials.

13. A Schottky diode clamp is used along with switching BJT for
A. reducing the power dissipation B. reducing the switching time
C. increasing the value of D. reducing the base current
Explanation: Schottky diode has very low switching time.

## A. BJT is pnp B. BJT is npn

C. transistor is faulty D. not possible to determined
Explanation: According to figure, both the LED is glowing, which indicate that circuit is complete in both
the half cycle of AC signal.
Therefore Emitter and Base junction will act as short circuit in both direction, which indicate transistor is
faulty.

## 15. In a piezoelectric crystal, applications of a mechanical stress would produce

A. plastic deformation of the crystal
B. magnetic dipoles in the crystal
C. electrical polarization in the crystal
D. shift in the Fermi level
Explanation: In piezoelectric materials mechanical stress produces electric polarization.

16. In which of the following is the width of junction barrier very small?
A. Tunnel diode B. Photo diode
C. PIN diode D. Schottky diode
Explanation: Schottky diode has very small depletion layer.

17. If the reverse voltage across a p-n junction is increased three times, the junction capacitance
A. will decrease
B. will increase
C. will decrease by an approximate factor of about 2
D. will increase by an approximate factor of about 2
Explanation: Increase of reverse voltage widens the depletion layer and junction capacitance decreases.
However the decrease in capacitance is not proportional to increase in voltage.

## 18. Which of these has highly doped p and n region?

A. PIN diode
B. Tunnel diode
C. Schottky diode
D. Photodiode
Explanation: Tunnel diode has heavily doped p and n regions leading to very thin depletion layer.

## 19. Measurement of Hall coefficient enables the determination of

A. recovery time of stored carrier
B. type of conductivity and concentration of charge carriers
C. temperature coefficient and thermal conductivity
D. Fermi level and forbidden energy gap
Explanation: If a potential difference is developed across a current carrying metal strip when the strip is
placed in transverse magnetic field.
Hall effect is very weak in metals, but it is large semiconductors.

## 20. The units for transconductance are

A. ohms B. amperes
C. volts D. siemens
Explanation: Its units are the same as the units of conductance.

21. The amount of photoelectric emission current depends on the frequency of incident light.
A. True B. False
Explanation: It depends on intensity of incident light.

## 22. When a p-n junction is forward biased

A. the width of depletion layer increases
B. the width of depletion layer decreases
C. the majority carriers move away from the junction
D. the current is very small

Explanation: Forward voltage decreases the width of depletion layer leading to low resistance.

## 23. The carriers of n channel JFET are

A. free electrons and holes
B. holes
C. free electrons or holes
D. free electrons
Explanation: In n type semiconductors carriers are electrons.

## 24. The depletion layer around p-n junction in JFET consists of

A. hole B. electron
C. immobile charges D. none of the above
Explanation: Depletion layer always has immobile charges.
25. Junction temperature is always the same as room temperature.
A. True B. False
Explanation: When the device is being used, junction temperature is higher than room temperature.

26. The mean free path of conduction electrons in copper is about 4 x 10-8 m. For a copper block, find the
electric field which can give, on an average, 1 eV energy to a conduction electron
A. 2.62 x 107 V/m
B. 2.64 x 107 V/m
C. 2.5 x 107 V/m
D. 2.58 x 107 V/m
Explanation: Work (Energy) = F x d
1 eV = e.E x d

## 2.5 x 107 V/m.

27. When a p-n-p transistor is properly biased to operate in active region the holes from emitter.
A. diffuse through base into collector region
B. recombine with electrons in base
C. recombine with electrons in emitter
D. none of the above
Explanation: The reason that collector current is nearly equal to emitter current.

28. Assertion (A): Silicon is preferred over germanium in manufacture of semiconductor devices.
Reason (R): Forbidden gap in silicon is more than that in germanium.
A. Both A and R are true and R is correct explanation of A
B. Both A and R are true but R is not a correct explanation of A
C. A is true but R is false
D. A is false but R is true
Explanation: Wider forbidden gap in silicon makes it less sensitive to temperature than germanium.

29. Assertion (A): A decrease in temperature increases the reverse saturation current in a p-n diode.
Reason (R): When a diode is reverse biased surface leakage current flows.
A. Both A and R are true and R is correct explanation of A
B. Both A and R are true but R is not a correct explanation of A
C. A is true but R is false
D. A is false but R is true
Explanation: A is wrong because decrease in junction temperature decreases reverse saturation current.

## 30. At room temperature a semiconductor material is

A. perfect insulator
B. conductor
C. slightly conducting
D. any of the above
Explanation: At 0 K a semiconductor is perfect insulator. At room temperature it is slightly conducting.
31. The static characteristic of an adequately forward biased P-n junction is a straight line, if the plot is of
__________ Vs versus
A. log I Vs log V
B. log I Vs V
C. I Vs log V
D. I Vs V
Explanation: Diode current equation

I = Is(eV/Vr - 1) = eV/Vr - 1

= = eVs/VR

Vs = VR .

## 32. In an n channel JFET

A. ID, IS and IG are considered positive when flowing into the transistor
B. ID and IS are considered positive when flowing into transistor and IG is considered positive when
flowing out of it
C. ID, IS, IG are considered positive when flowing out of transistor
D. IS and IG are considered positive when flowing into transistor and ID is considered positive when
flowing out of it
Explanation: All currents are assumed positive when flowing into JFET.

33. The intrinsic carrier concentration of silicon sample at 300 K is 1.5 x 1016/m3. If after doping, the
number of majority carriers is 5 x 1020/m3. The minority carrier density is
A. 4.5 x 1011/m3
B. 3.33 x 104/m3
C. 5 x 1020/m3
D. 3 x 10-5/m3

Explanation:

34. A diode is operating in forward region and the forward voltage and current are v = 3 + 0.3 sin t
(volts) and i = 5 + 0.2 sin t (mA). The average power dissipated is
A. 15 mW
C. 1.5 mW
Explanation: The contribution of sine terms to power dissipation is zero.
35. Two identical silicon diodes D1 and D2 are connected back to back shown in figure. The reverse
saturation current IS of each diode is 10-8 amps and the breakdown voltage VBr is 50 v. Evaluate the
voltages VD1 and VD2 dropped across the diodes D1 and D2 assuming KT/q to be 25 m V.

A. 4.983 V, 0.017 V
B. - 4.98 V, - 0.017 V
C. 0.17 V, 4.983 V
D. - 0.017 V, - 4.98 V
Explanation: According to figure, D2 is forward bias, D1 is reverse biased. Reverse saturation current I0 =
10-8A. in clockwise direction.

For Diode D2 Is = I0
Here Is = I0
eqv2/kT = 2 or ev2/0.026 = 2
V2 = 0.018 V
Drop across D1 = V1 = 5 - 0.018
4.98 V
By KVL in mesh, VD1 = -4.98 V, VD2 = 0.018 V.

36. For BJT transistor. The maximum power dissipation is specified as 350 mW if ambient temperature is
25C. If ambient temperature is 60C the maximum power dissipation should be limited to about
A. 100 mw B. 250 mW
C. 450 mW D. 600 mW
Explanation: 350 - 2.5 (60 - 25) 250 mW.

## 37. The concentration of minority carriers in a semiconductor depends mainly on

A. the extent of doping B. temperature
C. the applied bias D. none of the above
Explanation: Minority carriers are generated due to thermal excitation.

## 38. Which of the following has highest conductivity?

A. Silver B. Aluminium
C. Tungsten D. Platinum
Explanation: Silver has highest conductivity (and lowest resistivity) in all metals.

39. In a bipolar junction transistor the base region is made very thin so that
A. recombination in base region is minimum
B. electric field gradient in base is high
C. base can be easily fabricated
D. base can be easily biased
Explanation: Since recombination in base region is minimum, I - IE.
40. Compared to bipolar junction transistor, a JFET has
A. lower input impedance
B. high input impedance and high voltage gain
C. higher voltage gain
D. high input impedance and low voltage gain
Explanation: JFET is voltage controlled device. Therefore its input impedance is high. But voltage gain is
lower than in BJT.

## 41. The drain characteristics of JFET in operating region, are

A. inclined upwards B. almost flat
C. inclined downwards D. inclined upwards or downwards
Explanation: The drain current is almost constant. Therefore, characteristics is flat.

## 42. As temperature increases

A. the forbidden energy gap in silicon and germanium increase
B. the forbidden energy gap in silicon and germanium decrease
C. the forbidden energy gap in silicon decreases while that in germanium decreases
D. the forbidden energy gap in silicon increases while that in germanium decreases
Explanation: Therefore, conductivity increases.

43. When a reverse bias is applied to a p-n junction, the width of depletion layer.
A. decreases B. increases
C. remains the same D. may increase or decrease
Explanation: Therefore, the resistance is very high.

44. The Hall constant in Si bar is given by 5 x 103 cm3/ coulomb, the hole concentration in the bar is
given by
A. 105/cm3 B. 1.25 x 1015/cm3
15 3
C. 1.5 x 10 /cm D. 1.6 x 1015/cm3

Explanation:

## 45. Which of the following devices has a silicon dioxide layer?

A. NPN transistor
B. Tunnel diode
C. JFET
D. MOSFET
Explanation: The SiO2 layer provides very high input impedance.

## 46. Which statement is false as regards holes

A. Holes exist in conductors as well as semiconductors
B. Holes constitute positive charges
C. Holes exist only in semiconductors
D. Holes and electrons recombine
Explanation: Holes do not exist in conductors.
47. Photo electric emission can occur only if
A. wave length of incident radiation is equal to threshold value
B. wave length of incident radiation is less than threshold value
C. frequency of incident radiation is less than threshold frequency
D. none of the above
Explanation: The frequency of incident radiation has to be more than threshold value. Wavelength is
inversely proportional to frequency.
Therefore wavelength of incident radiation must be less than threshold value.

48. The reverse saturation current of a diode does not depend on temperature.
A. True B. False
Explanation: It increases with increase of temperature.

## 49. In a piezoelectric crystal, application of a mechanical stress would produce

A. plastic deformation of the crystal
B. magnetic Dipoles in the crystal
C. electric polarization in the crystal
D. shift in the Fermi level
Explanation: Commonly material used as piezoelectric crystal is Barium Nitrate. Generally ferroelectric
crystals and piezoelectric.

## 50. The value of a in a transistor

A. is always equal to 1
B. is less than 1 but more than 0.9