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Imagine: Task-Based Affective Learning for the English Language

Classroom

Dwayne Engh, UK

Dwayne Engh was born in Vancouver, Canada and currently lives in London, England
where he works as an English teacher and musician. He completed an MA in ELT &
Applied Linguistics at King's College London in 2010. He has taught in Canada, China
and the U.K. E-mail: dwayneengh@shaw.ca

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Introduction
Pre-listening discussion activities
Listening activity
Post-listening discussion
Singing (optional)
Written production response
Creative writing
Written reflection wrap-up activities
Singing performance (optional)
Possible extension activities
Extension - choral rehearsal suggestions (optional)
References

Introduction

The Main Focus of this lesson outline is to affectively explore the authentic text of
Lennons (1971) Imagine. Stated Learning Outcomes include: Students will engage on
an emotional and sociocultural level with Imagine text though listening, speaking,
reading and writing; Students will infer core themes; express personal reactions and
opinion to Imagine and its themes; Students will critically compare and contrast multiple
sociocultural and historical song texts; Students will collaboratively interact and explore
universal themes through creative writing; and Students will participate in individual
reflection and self-evaluation. The intended Context and Level was intermediate to
advanced teen or adult learners and has been used numerous times in Canada, China and
in the U.K. by multiple educators.

Stage Estimated Task Focus


1. Warm-Up Pre-Listening

Word Cloud 5-10 min. Schema activation, Predicting

Categorising 5-10 min. Schema activation, Build vocabulary,


Categorise and justify decisions
2. Listening Activity 20-25 min. Listening, Problem solving, Analysing,
Reasoning
3. Post-Listening Activity 10 min. Solicit and share personal opinions, Infer core
themes
4. Singing (Optional) 10 min. Re-creation through performance,
Pronunciation
5. Written Production 10-15 min. Synthesise information and transfer to different
medium, Compare and Contrast cultural
universal themes
6. Creative Writing 20-30 min. Engage with text as new text is created,
Creative writing
7. Reflection

Journal Reflection 30-40 min. Wrap-Up Reflection, Challenge preconceptions

Emotion Reflection 30-40 min. Opportunity for personal emotional discovery


and growth
8. Singing (Optional) 10 min. Performance of Imagine

Pre-listening discussion activities

A. Word Cloud
(est. 5-10 minutes)

Note with Thanks: Word Cloud Activities are from Hania Kryszewskas article
Ideas from the Corpora from Humanising Language Teaching Magazine for
teachers and teacher trainers Year 12/Issue 3/June 2010

Create a Word Cloud of Imagine. Copy and hand out to the class in pairs. As a
class or in pairs, ask students to guess if they recognise the song based on the
words used. If they do, try to remember as much of the lyrics as they can. If you
wish, this could be done in pairs at computers in a lab or with an LCD
projector/overhead as a full class.

B. Vocabulary and Schema Activation


(est. 5-10 minutes)

Drawing from the Imagine Word Cloud handout, write the following words on
the board and elicit discussion to confirm students understanding of vocabulary:
Heaven, Countries, World, Brotherhood, Hell, Religion, Peace, Greed, Dreamer,
Imagine, Possession and Hunger.

In pairs, have the students put all of the words in the Imagine Word Cloud into
two columns, one listing Positive Words and one listing Negative Words. Which
ones are important to keep or to eliminate and why? After the students listen to
the song, do they still have the same opinions? Perhaps Lennons perspective was
different than their perspective? Why do the students think that is?

Listening activity
(est. 20-25 minutes)

Create a handout of the lyrics from Image that contains multiple mistakes that
alter the meaning of the text. For example, here is a possible verse two (with
incorrect words underlined).

Imagine there's no munchies,


It is card to do.
Nothing to fill or buy for,
And no real gin too.
Imagine all the people,
Living rife in peace.

Ask students to correct while listening. Play multiple times if required. After
individual listening, place students in pairs to compare answers and listen again
while in pairs until consensus is reached. Discuss as full class. Ask students to
come up and write correct text on blackboard/whiteboard. Once that has been
done, handout original Imagine lyrics. Play the song again for the entire class
while students read the original lyrics. If you are comfortable leading singing, or
have a student with a strong voice who is comfortable, sing the song (either with
or without the recording). Perhaps sing without words as well - choose a
consonant that is challenging for learners and put that with an open vowel sound.

Post-listening discussion
(est. 10 minutes)

Use the topic as a springboard for discussion (as a class or small groups). If
students are stuck, here are some more concrete questions you might use: Do you
think the song is happy or sad? Why do you think that? What were some events
that happened in the world that year? What was the specific context that this song
was written in? Was John Lennon popular in your country? What is the song
about? Do you believe in what John Lennon is suggesting? Do you agree or
disagree with those ideas? Do you think it is possible (theoretically or
practically)? Are there any other English songs that have similar ideas or themes?
Are there any songs from your home country that have similar themes? Are there
any songs that have the opposite themes? This discussion flows well into chart
activity below.

Singing ( optional)
(est. 10 minutes)
Singing is repetitive while remaining engaging. Besides being good
pronunciation practise, it builds community and lifts peoples spirits. If you are
comfortable leading singing yourself, then go for it! If you are not 100%
comfortable, but would still like the students to sing, consider searching for a
student who enjoys singing and would be confident enough to lead the class in
this portion of the activity.

I would recommend (either with a recording or with one person leading) that you
start with the You may say stanza, as it repeats with nearly exactly the same
melody and words both times. Sing that two or three times until all students are
comfortable. They now have something to latch on to if they start to feel lost in
the other stanzas. After the You may say stanza is solid, sing just the first
stanza a few times. Then sing through entire piece once or twice, accepting the
fact that not all students will be producing all the words accurately. If you have
time and the class is still engaged, go through each stanza to confirm everyone is
able to produce the words so that they are clear and understandable (matching to a
British specific accent is not necessary, but would be your decision as teacher if
you want all phonemes produced in exactly the same manner).

Written production activity


(est. 10-15 minutes)

After the Post-Listening Discussion, assign the students homework to find other
songs with similar or contrasting themes. Specifically, students should look for:
(a) Lyrics and a recording of another English song that has a similar or contrasting
theme; (b) Lyrics and a recording of a song from the students home country that
shares a similar or contrasting theme. The next day, draw a graph on the board
with three columns: Imagine, another song in English, and a song from their home
country. Now, discuss the similarities and differences between those three songs.
As you contrast and compare, you could include specific questions such as:
important words or phrases, meaning, themes, which phrases the student
agrees/disagrees with most.

Creative writing activity


(est. 20-30 minutes)

This is a chance for creative writing. Create a handout so that students will find
only the first sentence of each verse. Ask them to complete the verse with their
own ideas, deliberately attempting to change the context to suit their own
perspectives or background while following the lyrics rhyme and metre. For
example: Imagine there's no Heaven, It's easy if you try. (Student writes her/his
own lyrics to complete stanza.)

After each student has completed their creative writing, place into pairs and have
them read their work to each other. Students will then work together in pairs to
combine what they feel is best of each others work and Lennons work. One
stanza in its final form may therefore have portions of Lennon, Student 1 and
Student 2 or only portions of Student 1 and Student 2 (or any other variation).
Share these with the class either in written form or by singing.

Written reflection wrap-up activities

A. Journal reflection
(est. 30-40 minutes)

This is a chance for the students to reflect and share some personal thoughts.
There is no right or wrong answer. Simply ask the students to think a little about
the question they choose before they start and then write whatever they feel or
think about the topic. Ask the students to choose one of the following questions
and to write their personal opinions and feelings: (a) What was your personal
reaction to the song Imagine? Did you like it? Why or why not? How did it
make you feel? (b) What was your personal reaction to one of the other songs you
or a classmate used? Did you like it? Why or why not? How did it make you
feel? (c) Choose another song that you really like and describe what your personal
reaction is to that song. Why do you like it? How does it make you feel?

B. Emotion reflection
(est. 30-40 minutes)

Write the following Mahatma Gandhi quotation paraphrase on the board: You
must be the change you wish to see in the world. As you may know, John Lennon
wrote Imagine as a protest against Americas military presence in Vietnam during
the years of 1961-1973. He also meant it as a protest against war and fighting in
general throughout the world. Discuss this context of Imagine with the students.
Then ask how they think Gandhis quotation and the lyrics from Lennons
Imagine relate to each other? Let them know they are going to do something that
may be emotionally challenging for them as we reflect on how change in the
world begins with us.

Of course, remind them that they are in a safe community in the classroom but
also give the option that they do not have to share anything that they dont want to
and could choose the Alternative Question.

Ask students to think about the following questions and write a short response
(one or two sentences) for each: (a) Imagine when you were younger. What
emotions were allowed or not allowed? How acceptable were those emotions in
your family and culture? Examples of emotions might be: Joy, Neglect, Grief,
Fear, Passion, Love, Sadness or Anger. (b) Now, chose one of those emotions that
were unacceptable. Try to choose one that you feel strongly about. (c) Was there
a particular moment or event that made you aware of this? (d) Do you think there
are any left over feelings of unfinished business about the event and that
emotion now? (e) How might this affect your life? How might it affect your
relationships (with friends or family or romantically)? How might it affect how
you deal with conflict in your life today? (f) You must be the change you wish
to see in the world. Do you agree that? Why or why not? How does the
reflection activity we just did help us understand ourselves and how we can help
change the world?

Alternative question

Choose one of the following emotions (or add your own to the list): Joy, Neglect,
Grief, Fear, Passion, Love, Sadness or Anger. Take that word as a starting point
and write freely about that word. What personal memories in your life are
connected to that word? Relate the word to your life in any way you wish.

Singing performance ( optional)


(est. 10 minutes)

Review what was accomplished in the last musical rehearsal. Build their
confidence! Perform the piece! Invite an audience to your classroom (perhaps
another class, friends, family members or other administrative and teaching staff).
Or, go to another teachers classroom to perform. Enjoy!

Possible extension activities

i) Song Word Cloud: Hania Kryszewska has excellent extension activities in her
Ideas from the Corpora from Humanising Language Teaching Magazine for
teachers and teacher trainers Year 12/Issue 3/June 2010

ii) If you chose to do Reflection Wrap-Up Activity, consider playing Ben Harpers
With My Own Two Hands from the album Diamonds on the Inside and discuss
connections to both Lennons song and the Ghandi quotation.

iii) Singing: If the teacher and a majority of the class have a level of musical literacy
that would involve reading sheet music and singing in harmony, feel free to use
rough outline entitled Imagine: Choral Rehearsal Suggestions below. I would
recommend learning in a classroom that has access to a piano or guitar for pitch
reference. If you wish to sing and your class does not read sheet music, then
follow suggestions above within the Teacher Instructions.

Extension - choral rehearsal suggestions (optional)

This lesson outline is to prepare for a performance of the piece (either at a concert
or for another class) and assumes a certain level of musical literacy.

Choral rehearsal 1
(est. 10 minutes)
Hand out sheet music for Imagine. Learn the melody without words. Use a
neutral syllable with a soft consonant sound at the beginning such as bah (/b/)
or bee (/bi:/). This allows for good tone to be developed on a consistent syllable
while still having enough articulation from the consonant to hear the rhythm.
Alternatively, use a consonant onset that the students often have a challenge
producing. Pair with a neutral vowel sound. This allows your students to practice
sounds that they may not feel comfortable producing in a safe environment.

Choral rehearsal 2
(est. 15 minutes)

Review what was accomplished in the last rehearsal. Ensure melodic and
rhythmic accuracy before words are added. After everyone is comfortable with
the melody and rhythm, then add words one verse at a time with everyone singing
melody.

Choral rehearsal 3
(est. 15-20 minutes)

Review what was accomplished in the last rehearsal. Add multiple voice parts.
Arrangements are available for two (SA or TB), three (SAB) and four part
(SATB) voicings. Rehearse harmony slowly to ensure everyone understands
where her or his part fits in the chord.

Choral rehearsal 4 and performance


(est. 15-20 minutes) and (est. 5 minutes)

Review what was accomplished in the last rehearsal. Build their confidence!
Perform the piece! Invite an audience to your classroom (perhaps another class,
friends, family members or other administrative and teaching staff). Or, go to
another teachers classroom to perform. Enjoy!

References

Kryszewska, H, (2010) Ideas from the Corpora, Humanising Language Teaching


Magazine for teachers and teacher trainers, Year 12/Issue 3/June 2010.

Lennon, J, (1971) Imagine, Lenono Music, All rights controlled and administered by EMI
Blackwood Music INC.

Potts, M, (2002) Arun Gandhi Shares the Mahatmas Message, India-West, San Leandro,
Vol. XXVII/No. 13/ pp A34.

Please check the Creative Methodology for the Classroom course at Pilgrims
website.
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Pilgrims website.