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EXPLANATION TEXT

How Earthquakes Happen

Earthquake is one of the most destroying natural disasters. Unluckily it often happens in

several regions. Recently a horrible earthquake has shaken West Sumatra. It has brought great

damages. Why did it occur? Do you know how an earthquake happens?

Earthquakes are usually caused when rock underground suddenly breaks along a fault.

This sudden release of energy causes the seismic waves. It make the ground shake. When two

blocks of rock or two plates are rubbing against each other, they stick a little. They don't just slide

smoothly. The rocks are still pushing against each other, but not moving. After a while, the rocks

break because of all the pressure that's built up. When the rocks break, the earthquake occurs.

During the earthquake and afterward, the plates or blocks of rock start moving, and they

continue to move until they get stuck again. The spot underground where the rock breaks is called

the focus of the earthquake. The place right above the focus is called the epicenter of the

earthquake.

TSUNAMI

The term of tsunami comes from the Japanese which means harbour ("tsu") and wave

("nami"). A tsunami is a series of waves generated when water in a lake or a sea is rapidly

displaced on a massive scale.

A tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces

the overlying water. Such large vertical movements of the earth's crust can occur at plate

boundaries.

Subduction of earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunami, and occur

where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates.


As the displaced water mass moves under the influence of gravity to regain its equilibrium, it

radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond.

Tsunami always bring great damage. Most of the damage is caused by the huge mass of

water behind the initial wave front, as the height of the sea keeps rising fast and floods

powerfully into the coastal area.

How does Rain Happen?

Rain is the primary source of fresh water for most areas of the world, providing suitable

conditions for diverse ecosystems, as well as water for hydroelectric power plants and crop

irrigation.

The phenomenon of rain is actually a water circle. The concept of the water cycle

involves the sun heating the Earth's surface water and causing the surface water to evaporate. The

water vapor rises into the Earth's atmosphere. The water in the atmosphere cools and condenses

into liquid droplets. The droplets grow until they are heavy and fall to the earth as precipitation

which can be in the form of rain or snow.

However, not all rain reaches the surface. Some evaporates while falling through dry air.

This is called virga, a phenomenon which is often seen in hot, dry desert regions.

Why Eiffel Tower was Built

If we talk about the Wonders of the World buildings, then we will see Eiffel Tower as one

of them. However many of us do not know the towers past history on why it was build.

Everything has the reasonable background, especially for the tower which is to be one of the most

recognized buildings in the world.


Primarily, the Eiffel Tower was built for the World Exhibition. It was called Paris Exposition in

1889. The exhibition was organized to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the French Revolution.

The purpose of building Eiffel Tower in such structure was to show to the world Frances

advancement of technology and beauty. The Eiffel Tower was designed by Gustave Eiffel. It

seemed that then the name of the tower was derived from the designers last name, Eiffel

Another reason on why the tower was built was for scientific progress. Although few

realized it, the Eiffel Tower would become the prominent structure in terms of science and

technology. Many experiment with temperature, pressure and pendulums were performed atop

the unique famous building. Additionally the Eiffel Tower was used for radio transmission tower.

Many experiments were conducted atop the Eiffel Tower for radio transmission advancement.

Once the Eiffel Tower was proposed to be demolished but it was spared because the tower had

the promising future as a radio

Why Summer Daylight is Longer than Winter Daylight

In the summer, the amount of daylight that we get is more than we get in winter. This is

not because as much people think we are closer to the sun but because of the tilt of the earth.

The earth is actually closer to the sun in winter than it is in summer but you would be

forgiven for thinking that this can not be true after looking out of your window on a cold and

frosty morning.

It seems strange that as the earth get closer to the sun during its orbit then the amount of

daylight that we get decrease. But that is the case. It is the tilt of the earth that determine the

amount of daylight that we get and so the length of time that for us the sun is above the horizon.
How Cell Phone Work

A cell phone is a great gadget in this modern world. What is a cell phone? A cell phone is

actually a radio in certain way. Like a radio, by a cell phone we can communicate to other people

in real time. Million people use cell phone for their communication. Even nowadays, people use

cell phones to communicate in voice, written and data. Alexander Graham Bell is the person who

make great change in the way people communicate to each other. He invented a telephone in

1876. While wireless radio was formally known in 18994 presented by Guglielmo Marconi. By

these two technologies, then a cell phone was born. However do you know how actually cell

phones work?

This short explanation on how a cell phone work is really wonderful. A cell phone or in

long term "cellular telephone' works by transmitting signals of radio to towers of cellular. The

towers are networked to a central switching station. The connection usually uses wire, fiber optic-

cables, or microwave.

Then the central switching station which handles calls in certain given area is directed

connected to the wire-based telephone system. Cellulars are pick up by the towers and relayed to

another cellular telephone user or the user of wire-based telephone network.

The towers vary in the capacity and capability to receive signals. Some can receive the

signal from short distance and the others can receive more distance. However, there are usually

more than one tower in certain given area so that the system can handle the increasing telephone

traffic.
How do seasons happen?

Seasons come to us regularly. We have probably noticed that it gets warmer in summer or

dry season while it get colder in the winter or wet season. However do we know how these

seasons change?

Seasons happen and change every year. This happens because the earth tilts back and

forth as it goes around the sun. During the summer, the earth tilts toward the sun. It makes half of

the earth hotter. this condition is what we call summer. During the other half of the year, the earth

tilts away from the sun. As a result, it makes that half of the earth cooler. This cool condition is

then what we call winter.

The different parts of the world have the same season at different times. In the northern

half of the world , winter happens during the months of December, January and February. The

regions are such North America and Europe. In the other hand, the southern half of the world

have winter during the months of June, July and August.The regions are like South America and

Australia. How does this difference happen? The same season happens at different times because

the top and bottom halves of the earth tilt away from the sun at different times.

How Chocolate is Made

Have we wondered how we get chocolate from? Well this time we will enter the amazing

world of chocolate so we can understand exactly we are eating.

Chocolate starts a tree called cacao tree. This tree grows in equatorial regions, especially

in place such as South America, Africa, and Indonesia. The cacao tree produces a fruit about the

size of a small pine apple. In side the fruits are the tree's seeds. They are also known as coco

beans.
Next, the beans are fermented for about a week, dried in the sun. After that they are

shipped to the chocolate maker. The chocolate maker starts by roasting the beans to bring out the

flavour. Different beans from different places have different qualities and flavour. So they are

often shorted and blended to produce a distinctive mix.

The next process is winnowing. The roasted beans are winnowed to remove the meat nib

of the cacao bean from its shell. Then the nibs are blended. The blended nibs are ground to make

it a liquid. The liquid is called chocolate liquor. It tastes bitter.

All seeds contain some amount of fat and cacao beans are not different. However, cacao

beans are half fat, which is why the ground nibs from liquid. It is pure bitter chocolate.

How is a Kite Flying?

A kite is an object which is made from a light material stretched over a frame. Due to its

light material a kite will lift off the ground and fly when it is tilted into the wind.

A kite is uses wind to make it fly because it is heavier than air. When wind travels over

the surface of the kite, it is split into two streams of air. One stream of the air goes over the kite

while the second stream goes under the kite.

The upper stream creates an area of low pressure above the kite. The lower stream hits the

kite at a shallow angle and creates an area of high pressure.

The high pressure area has a pushing effect while the low pressure area has a pulling

effect. The combination of push and pull can creates enough force to lift the kite into the air.

Kites have been known for thousand of years. They are used for military or scientific

purposes. To days kites are much used for leisure and competition.

Photosynthesis
What is photosynthesis? Photosynthesis is a food-making process that occurs in green

plants. It is the chief function of leaves. The word photosynthesis means putting together with

light. Green plants use energy from light to combine carbon dioxide and water to make sugar and

other chemical compounds.

How is the light used in photosynthesis?

The light used in photosynthesis is absorbed by a green pigment called chlorophyll. Each

food-making cell in a plant leaf contains chlorophyll in small bodies called chloroplasts. In

chloroplast, light energy causes water drawn form the soil to split into hydrogen and oxygen.

What are the steps of photosynthesis process? Let me tell you the process of

photosynthesis, in a series of complicated steps, the hydrogen combines with carbon dioxide from

the air, forming a simple sugar. Oxygen from the water molecules is given off in the process.

From sugar together with nitrogen, sulphur, and phosporus from the soil-green plants can make

starch, fat, protein, vitamins, and other complex compounds essential for life. Photosynthesis

provides the chemical energy that is needed to produced these compounds.

Social Cultural

At the society Java, the culture centre of ofthen in mention culture Adiluhung. Which

difficult and elegen mentioned become are wrong the sign culture centre in society Java.

Language krama inggil along with very soft, cant be pulled, and polite also very in carry hight in

environment centre culture Java.

Royal palace Java become centre care culture in order manner to dress traditional Java.

Regulation raw also are at order manner to dress in centre culture Java. At the time to pass, kind

Jarik clots with motive of course only may in put by king. All the common people not may to use
in order that not seem with king motive cloth also can become direction and rand people who to

put on moment they to there in environment royal place.

Cancer

What is cancer? It is actually a group of more than one hundred separate diseases. Most of

us are fear from cancer It is reasonable because next to heart disease, cancer is the second leading

cause of death.

Cancer cells come from normal cells because of mutations of DNA. Those mutations can

occur spontaneously. The mutations may be also induced by other factors such as: nuclear and

electromagnetic radiation, viruses, bacteria and fungi, parasites, heat, chemicals in the air, water

and food, mechanical cell-level injury, free radicals, evolution and ageing of DNA, etc. All such

factors can produce mutations that may start cancer.

Cancer cells are formed continuously in the organism. It is estimated that there are about

10,000 cancer cells at any given time in a healthy person. Why do some result in macroscopic-

level cancers and some do not? First, not all damaged cells can multiply and many of them die

quickly. Second, those which potentially divide and form cancer are effectively destroyed by the

mechanisms available to the immune system. Therefore cancer develops if the immune system is

not working properly or the amount of cells produced is too great for the immune system to

eliminate.

How a Plante Files

Today, Everyone must see a plane flying. Even Some of the people have flown with an

airplane. Have you ever thought why this heavy metal object can be lifted in the air? How can the

airplane fly?

An airplane flies because it can generate a force. The force is scientifically called Lift. It

normally moves that heavy airplane upward. So, how does the Lift happen? Well. Lift occurs by
the generating of the forward motion of the airplane through the air. please note that this motion

of the airplane is produced by what we call the Thrust of the engines.

There are four forces which act on a flying airplane. They are Thrust, Lift , Drag and

Weight. How do these four forces work? When the Thrust which is produced by the engines is

greater than the force of Drag which is produced by the resistance of the air, the airplane will

moves forward. When the forward motion is enough to produce a force of Lift which is greater

than the force of Weight, the airplane will moves upward.

How Roman Roads were Built

The system of roads for mobility has been begun early decades. It was started since the

Roman Empire conquered the world. The roads in Roman era were known as the best

construction.

The Romans built roads are for the purpose of mobility, especially for the army. Having

the best road, the army could march from one place to another. They built the roads as straight as

possible, so that the army could take the shortest route.

It is interesting to know how the roads were built, which some of them are still in use

today. First, the Romans builders would clear the ground of rocks and trees. Then they dug a

trench where the road was to go and filled it with big stones. Next, they put in big stones,

pebbles, cement and sand which they packed down to make a firm base. After that, they added

another layer of cement mixed with broken tiles. On top of that rough construction, then they put

paving stones to make the flat surface. These stones were cut so that they fitted together tightly.

As the finishing touch, kerb stones were put at each sides of the road to hold in the paving stones.

It was also used to make a channel for the water to run away.
How Does The Fan Work?

The Fan is an electronic device that everybody use it in their house. People use the fan to

make the air in the room cooler, especially in hot day. And how does the fan work?

An electric fan is an electric motor with some fan blades attached to its rotating shaft. As

the motor spins, the fan blades rotate. Each blade is angled a bit, and as the inclined plane of the

blade moves through the air, it forces the air ahead of it forward. Each blade does this on a

continuous basis, and the result is a moving air stream. The fan is taking air from the area behind

itself and blowing it out the front.

The fan generates a movement of air, causing the warm dense air to descend, and the cool

dense air to rise, thus creating a feeling of coolness in the air.

How Venus Eclipse Happens

On May 16, 2010, people in most regions in the world have seen a very rare natural

phenomenon. It was Venus eclipse. It was very rare amazing natural event. It was reported that

the Venus eclipse will seen again in the future in 2050. Do you know how this rare Venus eclipse

happens?

Well, actually Venus eclipse is like Sun eclipse. Venus eclipses occurs when the position

of the earth, moon and Venus is parallel. Venus planet will slowly disappear for a moment

because it is covered the surface of the Moon. Venus planet seems to move to the back side of the

Moon.

The moon and planets are sharing a similar apparent path in the sky. That is why, it is not

unusual for the moon to appear to pass close to Venus. In fact, the moon appears somewhere near

it about once a month. However, most people dont see these events because they are visible in
the evening sky only half the time, and then only for a short period after sunset. The apparent

closeness varies from month to month as well.

The effects of acid soil

Soils with a pH of less than 7.0 are acid. The lower the pH, the more acid the soil. When

soil pH falls below 5.5, plant growth is affected. Crop yields decrease, reducing productivity

Soils provide water and nutrients for plant growth and development. Essential plant

nutrients include phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium and sulfur. Plants require other elements such

as molybdenum, in smaller quantities. Some elements eg aluminium and manganese, are toxic to

plants.

Nutrients become available to plants when they are dissolved in water. Plants are able to

take up phosphate, nitrate, potassium and sulfate ions in solution.

The solubility of nitients changes with pH. In acid soils (low pH), molybdenum becomes

less soluble and aluminium becomes more soluble. Therefore, plant growth may be affected by

either a deficiency of molybdenum or too much aluminium.

Both crop and pasture plants are affected by acid soils. there may be a range of symptoms.

Crops and pastures may be poorly established resulting in patchy and uneven growth. Plant

leaves may go yellow and die at the tips. The root system of the plant may be stunted. Crops may

yield less.

Plants vary in their sensitivity to low pH. Canola and lucerne are very sensitive to acid

soils so do not grow well. Lupins and triticale are tolerant to soils of low pH so they still perform

well.

Land can become unproductive if acid soil is left untreated. Incorporating lime into the

soil raises the pH. Therefore, liming soil can reverse the effects of acid soil on plants and return a

paddock to productivity.