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NAME: Lynsay Saunders

#1 Intervention Website Review- 15 pts.


Review a website with intervention strategies related to your topic. Only 1 is
required, recommend you look at more than one for greater learning.
Website and Link:
The website is Teen Driver Source-
https://www.teendriversource.org/more_pages/page/distracted_driving_research

APA citation of website:

McDonald, Catherine (Oct. 7, 2016) Distracted Driving Research. Retrieved from


https://www.teendriversource.org/more_pages/page/distracted_driving_research

General Purpose of the Website

This website is created by Catherine McDonald who works at the University of Pennsylvania
and she is conducting a number of studies to test different interventions that are aimed at
reducing distracted driving. Her focus is on young adults and teens but she doesnt
specifically say an age. She wanted to focus on the category of young adults to teens
because she states that 20 percent of young drivers motor vehicle crashes that lead to
death are from cellphones and other passengers causing a distraction ( McDonald, 2016).
She presents a web- based educational intervention and different ideas on how to implement
no distracted driving.

What did you learn about effective interventions for your topic? Answer the
questions below and add additional comments.

Catherine McDonald has some unique intervention tools that target one of the main objects
that cause distracted driving. She talks about different ways that we can implement
technological solutions such as automated blocking of cell phones use and silencing of
notifications while the vehicle is in motion ( McDonald, 2016). Her top recommendation
interventions were measured by the use of driving simulator and/or smartphone application
and paired in vehicle-devices, and they included ways on how to limit handheld cell phones
while driving. They are in the process of testing out these interventions and studies to be able
to say that these work and then have some evidence base facts to back them.

Some of these implementations include there interventions called - Way to safety 3.0: the
Teen- Parent Study and the Way to Safety 2.0 : opt- in vs. opt-out Cellphone Blocking
Notifications. In way to Safety 3.0, it is a teen- parent study where they have both the teen
and parent enroll in a program on their phones that tracks cell phone use while driving and
will notify the parents when the teen overrides the cell phone blocking and vice versa when
the parent overrides their cell phone blocking ( McDonald 2017).

The other Intervention is the Way to Safety 2.0: opt- in Vs. Opt- out Cellphone Blocking
Notifications. This is a study where they are testing difference apps that will block any
notifications that the drivers receives while the car is in motion. This believe this will lead to
less distractions for drivers.
Critical thinking and relation to your health promotion topic

What did you learn from the website that you can apply to your project? Organize by
answering # 1-3 below:

1) The intervention strategies that Catherine McDonald is implementing to parents and young
adults is very appropriate for my project, The Way to Safety 3.0 and Way to Safety 2.0
involves both parties taking responsibly and the parents holding the young drivers
accountable, and also the young adults holding the parents accountable. This makes sense
because when doing the study young adults said that their parents will urge them to not text
and drive but they are constantly seeing their parents text and drive (McDonald, 2017).
Thats why Way to Safety 3.0 makes sure both parities are accountable and they can reduce
rates of cell phone use and distractions among the whole families. Also the Way to Safety
2.0: opt- in vs Opt-out Cellphone Blocking is also an intervention that is appropriate for my
project. Since we know that distracted driving caused by a cellphone is highest among young
drivers, having the option to the block their phone from receiving notifications. This will help
reduce the chance of getting the urge to check your phone, causing a distraction.

2) The website offers a lot of tools to help reduce distracted driving. There is a tool called
Driving through the eyes of teens, a closer look which is put on by the National Young Driver
Survey with support from State Farm Automobile Insurance Company. It is where they connect
a devise to the back of an automobile that tracks how the driver is operating the vehicle. It
tracks things such as high speeds, sharp turns, and when they brake quickly which can all be
a response that comes from distracted driving. There is also a tool called Miles to Go which
is a national report on teen driving that examines all the impacts of teen crashes and sets
benchmarks that everyone needs to focus on to make progress and reduce crashing rates
until the next report comes out.

3) http://www.enddd.org/

This was another helpful resource that Teen Driver Source website sent me to. The whole
point of this website is for people to join and become a member by vowing to end distracted
driving. The website provides facts, workplace presentations, school presentations, and
community projects, along with sending out people to share their stories on real life
experiences on how they were effected from distracted driving.

https://www.nhtsa.gov/research-data/fatality-analysis-reporting-system-fars

The Fatality Analysis Reporting System was also an important recourse that the website
referenced and led me to because it is basically a database that shows accidents that have
happened and detailing the factors behind traffic fatalities on the roads. To see first hand
reasons that there has been accidents and to be able to share those numbers with people
who dont see the risk with distracted driving can be very beneficial to try to change their
mind.

#2 Intervention Research Readings- 15 pts.


General Intervention Considerations- Answer the following using lectures and
readings. 1 paragraph for each.

1. Health Behavior Theory- Identify the theory (or theories) that is most important to
guide your intervention and discuss how that theory will guide interventions. (See
Theories at a Glance).

I think the most important theory found in Theory at a Glance , that will reduce the
number of young adults driving distractedly is the Theory of Planned Behavior. This
theory deals with the relationship between behaviors and beliefs, attitudes, and
intentions. Theory at a Glance talks about how a persons attitude toward performing a
behavior is based off of if the individuals think it is important, and that they think they
can control a specific behavior ( Theory at a Glance). A lot of young drivers are new to
the road and dont think that a fatal crash will happened to them, or that they can
control any vehicle they drive but with inexperienced drivers there is a lot to learn, and
especially when you are adding in the factors of distracted driving.

The theory of planned behavior touches on the behavioral intention, attitude, subject
norms, and the perceived behavior control (Theory at a glance). These all directly
relate to what needs to happen if we want distracted driving to end. Young drivers need
to change their intentions, and attitude about distracted driving and realize the risk.
Then there is the factor of subjective norm, where they have beliefs whether key
people will approve or disapprove of whether they dont pick up their phone when they
are driving. Then there is also the perceived behavior control, which is the belief that
one has and can exercise, control over performing behaviors, which is up to the driver
deciding if they believe that behavior is bad and what actions they are going to take
(Theory at a Glance 201).

2. Spectrum of Prevention- Based on the reading from the Prevention Institute-what levels
of prevention are most important for your topic/target and location? The type/level of
change desired will direct you to types of interventions that will have the most impact.

When discussing the Spectrum of Prevention I think the one that will have the most
effect on reducing the number of deaths from distracted driving is influencing policies
and legislation. If there is an increase in the amount of tickets that is given each day to
young drivers that are texting and driving then the society will realize the law is getting
more strict so they need to make changes in order to avoid fines. There could also be
policy changed within the phone companies where the phones wont work, and the
notification will be turned off if the vehicle is in motion. Creating stricter policies and
having cities stand behind them will show young drivers the seriousness that surrounds
distracted driving.

3. Discuss what you learned about the predisposing, enabling and reinforcing factors that
are most related to the health behaviors you are trying to change.

A predisposing factor that all drivers face is environmental factors such as what are the
roads conditions like, what is the weather like and will it affect my driving condition,
how safe is the area Im driving in, these are all predisposing factors that go into
distracted driving.

Some enabling factors are factors that make it easier for individuals or populations to
change their behaviors or their environment is when people make changes based off of
other individuals. With distracted driving this could be either a positive or negative. If
someone is driving with a friend who encourages texting and driving and is easily
distracting, then this could be negative. In other cases if they have been riding with a
really cautious friend who encourages them to pull over to make calls and is enabling
them in a positive way.

The reinforcing factors that distracted driving focuses on are the law and policies. I
think it is important to have reinforcing factors because sometimes that it the only way
people will obey and listen. If there is a group such as police officers, that will ticket
you for distracted driving that is enough of an incentive for some people to never risk
the chance of getting a ticket by distracted driving.

#3 RESEARCH ARTICLES PEER REVEIWED- 1 of 3


3 peer reviewed research articles needed- 1 can be a review article. You do not
need to use this box format, you can use a word doc and include the headings
below. 10 pt. each -30 pt. total
APA Citation of article

Klauer, S. G., Guo, F., Simons-Morton, B. G., Ouimet, M. C., Lee, S. E., & Dingus, T. A. (2014). Distracted
Driving and Risk of Road Crashes among Novice and Experienced Drivers. New England Journal of Medicine,
370(1), 54-59. Retrieved from http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMsa1204142#t=article

Participants or population reached

This research article was focused on drivers 15 to 20 years old.

Describe the intervention and its effectiveness

Briefly describe the intervention what did they do? What was unique or most
interesting to you?

In this research article it talks about how the Naturalistic Teenage Driving Study
(NTDS), which used data recording devices that were in stalled in participants vehicles
to assess their behaviors while driving and during crash and near crash ( Klauer 2014).
They collected data from June 2006 through September 2008, in 42 newly licensed
drivers, where 22 was female and 20 was male ( Klauer 2014).

What was unique to me was that the participants involved in the study received a total
of $1,800 for participating in this study. The equipment they used included four
cameras, and a suite of vehicle sensors that included a mutiaxis accelerometer,
forward radar. A global positing system, and a machine vision lane tracker ( Klauer
2014).

What did you learn about the effectiveness of the intervention?

What I learned about the effectiveness of this intervention was that it was successful.
The analysis showed that drivers who tried to perform secondary task while driving
which includes, reaching for a cell phone, dialing cell phone, texting, looking at road
side objects, and eating decreased once they received the devices on their cars. We
know that 14% of all motor vehicle crashes in ages 15-21 years old are from distracted
driving, so giving these drivers the devise on their car to monitor them decreased the
amount of times they reached for/ had distractions.
If a health behavior theory was identified, briefly discuss which one was used and how
it shaped the intervention?

Although I think this intervention could have used a couple of the health theorys to
shape the intervention of ending distracted driving the main one that sticks out t0 me
was the levels of influence theory. There was a focus on the Intrapersonal level. The
participants knew that they had these new devices on their cars that were tracking
how they were behaving while driving so it changed their attitudes of how they were
driving, and it influenced their behavior when behind the wheel, and as a result we saw
less distracted driving from the 15- 21 years olds in this study. ( Theory at a glance)

For what were the main conclusions about the interventions reached by the author(s)
including limitations?

The main conclusions on this article that the author discusses that is the risk of a crash
or near crash among young drivers increased with the performance of secondary
distractions they had, which included texting, eating, talking to others, and reaching for
their phone. ( Klauer 2014). The limitations with this study could be that maybe the
young drivers were driving more cautious because they knew the devises were tracking
their driving behavior, but at the end that doesnt matter as long as they are making
the choice to not be distracted.

Critical thinking and relation to your project

What did you learn from this research/intervention that can be applied to you project?

What I learned from this research intervention is that if people dont understand the
risk of their actions that sometimes there needs to be higher authority involved. By
putting the devices of their vehicles it made the young drivers change the way they
were driving and as a result had less distractions on the road. There is no way to tell if
they hadnt of had there driving monitored if it would of made a difference or not, but
through this intervention I learned that if there is consequences, or you know you're
being watched some people will make changes for the better.

What would you need to do to adapt the intervention to fit your population and why?

I do not think I would need to do anything to adapt the intervention to fit my population
because it already does. The level of influence theory fit my population of young
drivers well because ages to 15-25 is the range of people that is easily influenced by
what their friends are doing and celebrities they look up to. People at this age are also
usually scared by authority and getting in trouble so knowing someone is monitoring
them through a devise on their car, and they could be punished if they dont follow
guidelines is a successful intervention for this age group.

#3 RESEARCH ARTICLES PEER REVEIWED- 2 of 3

APA Citation
McCartt, A. T., Kidd, D. G., & Teoh, E. R. (2014). Driver cellphone and texting bans in
the United States: evidence of effectiveness. Annals of Advances in Automotive
Medicine, 58, 99-114.

Participants or population reached

The participants and population reached was everyone that is effected from the cell phone
texting laws In the 41 states that now have the law of no texting and driving. There is a
strong focus on teenage drivers up until 25 years old, because they are commonly more
known to drive distractedly ( McCartt 2014).

Describe the intervention and its effectiveness

Briefly describe the intervention what did they do? What was unique or most
interesting to you?

In this intervention they used the law and stricter policies to create a decrease in
distracted driving. The article talks about when New York decided to be the first state to
make texting and driving illegal. They created strong laws with publicized strong
enforcements that are proven countermeasures for changing drivers behaviors ( McCartt
2014). Cell phones became a growing product in the late 1900s and a number of studied
found that there was an increase in accidents revolving around someone using a hand
held device, and this has been a growing problem since now it is common for most people
new to driving ages 16-25 have cell phones. It is interesting to me that there is still states
that havent made texting and driving illegal yet especially after the positive results that
states who have ben enforcing it are seeing.

What did you learn about the effectiveness of the intervention?

In this case I learned that this intervention was one of the first steps the U.S took to
decrease distracted driving. Since cell phone use wasnt as popular 20 years ago the
article talks about how this is an emerging topic and the first intervention they can do
to try to reduce crashes and deaths caused by distracted driving is create stricter laws
enforcing it. The article states that enforcing the stricter laws has been effective in the
states that are enforcing it, especially the ones that focus on young adult drivers ages
16- 25 ( McCartt 2014).

If a health behavior theory was identified, briefly discuss which one was used and how
it shaped the intervention?

One health behavior theory that was identified was the ecological perspective theory
and this article focused especially on the community level and public policy ( Theory at
a Glance). The community level focuses on rules, regulations and policies that may
control behaviors, which is exactly what these 41 states are doing when cracking down
on the no texting when driving to minimize crashes that come from it. The second one
is similar being public policies, which focus on local and state laws. Since this has been
in affect the states are seeing an increase in young adults traffic accidents ( McCartt
2014). .

For what were the main conclusions about the interventions reached by the author(s)
including limitations?
The authors main conclusions was that forced traffic laws have been highly effective
countermeasures for reducing risky driving associated with crashes, deaths, and
injuries ( McCartt 2014). The law that you cant text and drive has made consequences
to follow the action if caught and police have seen the difference it is making especially
in young adults.

Critical thinking and relation to your project

What did you learn from this research/intervention that can be applied to you project?

At the end of the article the author goes into detail about how creating laws and
policies that prevent texting and driving is the first type of intervention they have
taken. Now they will focus on creating other ways to keep people from distracted
driving that doesnt just involve texting while driving but all different types of
distracted driving such as, eating, talking to a friends, and simply not paying attention
( McDonald 2016).

What would you need to do to adapt the intervention to fit your population and why?

I think this intervention fits my population of college students and young adults ages
16-25 because they are the people that are getting targeted most for distracted driving
because they are involved in the most accidents of distracted driving ( McDonald 2016).

#3 RESEARCH ARTICLES PEER REVEIWED 3 of 3

APA Citation

Schlehofer, M. M., Thompson, S. C., Ting, S., Ostermann, S., Nierman, A., &
Skenderian, J. (2010). Psychological predictors of college students cell phone use
while driving. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 42(4), 1107-1112.
Participants or population reached

The population this article reached was college students and the psychological predictors cell
phone use while driving has.

Describe the intervention and its effectiveness

Briefly describe the intervention what did they do? What was unique or most
interesting to you?

This study was an intervention on the psychological predictors of cell phone use while
driving and involved 69 college students. They had to complete a survey where they
predicted their driving performance with and with out using their phone, then there
actual performance was assed ( Schlehofer 2009). It was assed by a number of test
and they were moved to the next round if they passed. The first phase was a illusory
control , where the participants perceived their ability to compensate for cell phones
distractions while driving. The second phase included the students driving on a
program as they were driving in a rural area and have them obey certain traffic
laws( Schlehofer 2009). In this study I found interesting that on a college campus they
handed out a large survey and found that 86% of drivers said that they talked on a cell
phone while driving as least occasionally, and cell phones were involved in at least
21% of accidents ( Schlehofer 2019).

What did you learn about the effectiveness of the intervention?

The way the author undergoes the procedure and how he test it on the students had a
great deal with how effective of an intervention it was. The student participating in the
test were student who stated they talk on the phone and text and that felt confident
about it. This method was so effective it showed the students first hand just how much
worse of a driver and how many collisions/ accidents that can happen when you take
yours eyes on the road because of a distraction.

If a health behavior theory was identified, briefly discuss which one was used and how
it shaped the intervention?

This whole intervention was about becoming aware of why we ignore safety
implications and use cell phones while driving ( Schlehofer 2014). This fits under the
health theory behavior of precaution adoption process model. Which is seven stages
from an individuals journey from awareness to action . It starts with the lack of
awareness and advances through stages where they become more aware, deciding
whether to act or not, and then maintaining the behavior ( Theory at a Glance).

For what were the main conclusions about the interventions reached by the author(s)
including limitations?

The main conclusions that the author reaches about the intervention is that driving
distracted is a major cause of motor vehicle accidents, and the dangers posed by
driving while distracted are just increasing in the coming years as cell phones become
even more commons and there is always another app, or mapping program coming out
that can lead to even more distractions, so his study was a great first step on helping
researchers figure out why people ignore safety implications when it comes to
distracted driving ( Schlehofer 2014).

Critical thinking and relation to your project

What did you learn from this research/intervention that can be applied to you project?

What I learned from this research intervention that can be applied directly to my
project is one of the main and most important steps when trying to stop a public from
doing something is finding out why they are doing it in the first place. It is important to
find out why a behavior is happening and then you will have a better understanding on
how to approach the situation and exactly what needs to be done to get the public to
decide to start making changes . This can also be important when trying to figure out
what theories to use to help you get your point across.

What would you need to do to adapt the intervention to fit your population and why?

This intervention focuses specially on a study of college students and involves what
psychological predictors of cell phone use while driving so this intervention already
focuses on my population.
Pulling it All Together- 35 pts.

1. Performance measure target based that Healthy people 2020 has an objective to is to
reduce the amount of motor vehicle traffic related deaths per 100,000 population in
2007.

2. End distracted driving (Information Campaigns)

(Strategies examples)

- Create campaigns to educate the community on the dangers of distracted driving.


Have something like end distracted driving.org, that focuses on going around and
giving talks to community about personal experiences and trying to spread the word
about how distracted driving has ruined someone close to them live.

- There is the use of Public service announcement when helping with information
campaigns. You strong, well known people in the community that are admired to
make a service announcement and encourage people to stop any form of distracted
driving.

- Advertisements are a big one as well. I know the commercials I see on television that
have powerful message about distracted driving and share real life experiences, or
put you through a virtual accident always have had that fear factor that stick with
me.

- Finding a speaker also goes along with Information campaigns. If there is a group of
educated speakers that can go around to local communities and share facts about
distracted driving, and would it all entails this could help the public become more
knowledgeable on exactly what is expected of them when they are in operating a
vehicle.

End distracted driving (Regulatory- laws, policies, ordinances)

- I know we have talked about this one a lot but studies show and all the research
articles I used state that implementing interventions will reduce the amount of
distracted driving that goes on. So having our government and city officials make
clear the states policies on texting and driving so everyone is aware will help to
improve deaths caused by distracted driving.

- Having police and law officials become more strict on handing out tickets for
distracted driving, and having their focus be on college aged/ young adult drivers
since we are the population that is caught distracted driving the most and target us
until it becomes less common.
- Having all the states in the America get on board with the no texting and driving ban
will show the seriousness of the problem so that people who arent changing there
driving behaviors start to see how much it matters.

- Also having phone carriers on board ad creating apps and programs that you must
use that turn your phone to a no notification setting where you cant be disturbed
while driving can eliminate the urge to be distracted while driving.

End distracted driving (direct community Interventions)

- I think it could be very impactful and we could start to see a reduced number of
distracted driving if students schools get involved early on. When students are just
starting to drive they are usually in their high school days and having the school be
involved and express how serious distracted driving can be by getting guest
speakers to come in and talk about experiences and holding informational classes on
distracted driving could be a great intervention because the schools could start
drilling it from the start of when young adults start driving.

- Get organizations involved will help reduce distracted driving as well. If the local
driving schools have a whole unit on types of distracted driving, and stories of kids
there age that have died because of distracted driving, this could help young drivers
see that if they are sharing the same behaviors as other reckless drivers then they
could believe that this actually could happen to them.

- Having direct community interventions within communities whether it is a BBQ or


community events just to show others in the community how much each life is
important and coming together as a strong community and supporting one another
will encourage everyone to make better choices, to keep their community strong.

- Create some type of competition within the community to change the norm so that
everyone views distracted driving as a bad thing. For a week whenever someone has
a passenger in the car they can observe and have them grade their driving have the
students run it themselves so they feel like they are involved in trying to make a
positive difference in their community

Potential for Success- 10 pts (critical thinking questions)

After reviewing the research in my research articles and reading about what
interventions have worked in the past I believe that the approach of having stricter
laws and policies along with making community changes in hopes to change
individuals behaviors would have a beneficial change and would reduce the amount
of young drivers/ college students who have got in accidents due to distracted
driving.
Changing the policies on phone companies so that it is way more difficult to receive
distractions on your phone while driving will help reduce the amount of accidents
just in it self. Not to mention in the cities that have had stricter cell phone policies for
drivers and cities that target young adult audience have been shown to have a
decrease number in accidents involving forms of distracted driving ( McCartt). I
believe that following these two approaches of laws and policies and community
changes as a result will change drivers behaviors and decrease the amount of
distracted driving that is taking place.

What will help this intervention be sustainable is everyone on board. It takes


communities stressing how important distracted driving is, law makers and police
official being consistent with how strict they are when giving out tickets, and I think
as a result we will start to see a change in individuals behaviors and even thinking
about picking up there phone while driving, or taking their eyes of the road to look at
their friends new necklace will not even be an option.

Include a Reference page (APA citation) - 5 pts.

McDonald, C. (2016, October). Current Research Projects; Distracted Driving


Research. Retrieved April 18, 2017, from
https://www.teendriversource.org/more_pages/page/distracted_driving_resear
ch

Strayer, D. (2016). Distracted Driving Presentations and Education from


EndDD. Retrieved April 18, 2017, from http://www.enddd.org/
Yoder, J. (2016, December 15). Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS).
Retrieved April 18, 2017, from https://www.nhtsa.gov/research-data/fatality-
analysis-reporting-system-fars

Klauer, S. G., Guo, F., Simons-Morton, B. G., Ouimet, M. C., Lee, S. E., &
Dingus, T. A. (2014). Distracted driving and risk of road crashes between
novice and experienced drivers. New England journal of medicine, 370(1), 54-
59.

Croyle, Robert. ( 2005). Theory At a Glance. U.S Department of Health and


Human Services. (2), 1-50.

McCartt, A. T., Kidd, D. G., & Teoh, E. R. (2014). Driver cellphone and texting
bans in the United States: evidence of effectiveness. Annals of Advances
in Automotive Medicine, 58, 99-114.

Schlehofer, M. M., Thompson, S. C., Ting, S., Ostermann, S., Nierman, A., &
Skenderian, J. (2010). Psychological predictors of college students cell phone
use while driving. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 42(4), 1107-1112.