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Design Criteria
Strength requirement
Workability requirement
Durability requirement
Other Criteria
- Maximum Size of Aggregate (MSA)
- Uses of Admixtures
Design Criteria (contd.)

Strength requirement Strength of

concrete required at certain age.
- Determines w/c ratio
- Determines cement content
Workability requirement The ease
of placement by various methods.
- Determines water content
- Relates cement with w/c ratio

Design Criteria (contd.)

Durabilityrequirement How far the

concrete is resistant to harmful
environment & exposures.
- Controls water cement ratio
- Controls cement content
- Controls uses of mineral
Design Criteria (contd.)
Other Criteria, MSA Cover and
spacing of re-bars controls the MSA.
- Determines water content
- Controls entrapped air
- Controls aggregate gradation
- Controls cement content
Other Criteria, Admixtures Special
requirement to enhance properties of
green concrete like
- Set retardation, accelerate setting,
air entrainment etc.

Design Data
Type and Grade of Cement (28 day
Specific Gravity of Cement
Aggregate Grading
Specific Gravity of Aggregates
Water Absorption of Aggregates
Bulk Density of aggregates
Specific Gravity of Mineral Admixtures (if
%ge replacement of Mineral Admixtures
Design Steps
Step 1 :
- Depending on the MSA, determine
a suitable proportion of all the
coarse and fine aggregates to suit
the All-in-aggregate grading of IS:
- Calculate arithmetically with all
individual %ge passing.
- Single Sized aggregates are

Design Steps (contd.)

Design Steps (contd.)
-Determine the water requirement
from MSA and required workability
(slump) from Table 32 of SP 23.
- Note down the air entrainment %ge
corresponding to MSA.

Design Steps (contd.)

Design Steps (contd.)
Step 3 :
- Calculate Target Mean Strength from
Characteristic Strength, Standard
Deviation & Statistical Constant.
- ftr = fck + sd X t
- t is considered as 1.65 for 1 in 20 low
- Standard Deviation is assumed as per
IS:456 2000 in absence of actual data.

Design Steps (contd.)

IS: 10262 -1982 (1999)

IS: 456 - 2000
Design Steps (contd.)
Step 4 :
- Considering TMS as required strength
determine required water cement ratio from
graph. (IS 10262 fig 1 or SP 23 fig 46).
- For known cement strength fig 2 of IS
10262 or fig 47 / 48 of SP 23 can be used.
- Such relation of w/c ratio and strength is
advisable to plot at site with available
materials & conditions by trial mix.

Design Steps (contd.)

Design Steps (contd.)

Design Steps (contd.)

Design Steps (contd.)
Step 5 :
- Calculate cement content from water and
w/c ratio. (cem. = wtr / w/c ratio)
- From Table 5 & 6 of IS 456 2000,
check the acceptance of w/c ratio and
cement content for the considered
- Re calculate the cement content / water
content in case of any limitations.

Design Steps (contd.)

Design Steps (contd.)
- Calculate the vol. of aggregate
Vagg = 1 (Vcem + Vair + Vwtr )
- Convert the volume of aggregate into
weight by multiplying weighted average
specific gravity (WASG) of all-in-
WASG = 100 / {(Agg1 % / Sagg1) + (Agg2
% / Sagg2) + (Sand% / Ssand)}

Design Steps (contd.)

Step 6 : (contd.)
- Distribute the weights of individual
aggregates as per the proportion of
- Calculate the amount of water
required to compensate the
absorption of aggregates and add to
get total water.
Design Steps (contd.)
Step 7:
- Take trial batches & check the
properties of fresh and hardened
- Weights of the ingredients can be
converted into volumes by DLBD.
- Report the mix details with all the
criteria & data taken into account.

Final Notes
The cement content can be reduced by
reducing free water and adding
To obtain the W/C ratio Vs. Strength graph
steps 3, 4 & 5 not required.
Retention of workability can be checked as
per the actual time required to place the
Setting time and other properties can be
changed by adding suitable admixtures.
Few references
IS : 383 1970 (1997) For Aggregates
IS : 456 2000 For concrete practice
IS : 516 1959 for Concrete strength test
IS : 1199 1959 (1999) For Concrete Sampling
& analysis
IS : 1489 For PPC
IS : 8112 1989 For 43 Gr. OPC
IS : 9103 1999 For Concrete Admixture
IS : 10262 1982 (1999) Mix design
IS : 12269 1987 for 53 Gr. OPC
SP 23 1982 Handbook on concrete mix