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doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.1014.169 Online: 2014-07-28

1

School of Automation, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xian, Shaanxi, China

a

xuxingzhi1976@163.com, bgaoyakui@126.com, czhangwg@nwpu.edu.cn

substitution method.

Abstract. Nonlinear aeroelastic characteristics of a rudder with a hydraulic booster are investigated,

including the structural nonlinearity and dynamics of the hydraulic booster. The component mode

substitution method is used to establish the nonlinear governing equations based on the fundamental

dynamic equations of the hydraulic booster and rocker arm. Simulations are carried out when the

control command is not zero and further analysis is conducted when the freeplay angle is changed.

The results show that the effects of the actuator and the structural nonlinearity have a significant

influence on the flutter characteristics. In the nonlinear condition, the phase and frequency of the

control command have both an influence on the flutter characteristics.

Introduction

When subject to high velocity flight condition, flutter of flexible structures may occur. In many

cases, flutter is mainly affected by structural nonlinearities or aerodynamic properties of control

fins[1-4]. However, the nonlinear aeroelastic characteristics of a rudder with an actuator should

consider both the dynamics of the actuator and the structural nonlinearity[5-6]. The purpose of the

article is to study the flutter characteristics of the rudder system possessing structural nonlinearity

and dynamics of hydraulic boosters. The influences of frequency and phase of control command on

flutter characteristics are investigated.

Theoretical Analysis

A. Governing equations of booster system

The rudder system is composed of a hydraulic booster, a rocker arm, load links and a rudder, as

shown in Fig. 1 where is the pitching angle of rudder, f ( ) is the preload freeplay.

The hydraulic booster's dynamic equations consist of motion equation of valves (Formula (1)),

equilibrium equations of location system (Formula (3) and Formula (4)), flow rate equation

(Formula (5)) and continuity equation (Formula (2)).

e = ni xi n f x0 n A x A (1)

All rights reserved. No part of contents of this paper may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without the written permission of Trans

Tech Publications, www.ttp.net. (ID: 128.210.126.199, Purdue University Libraries, West Lafayette, USA-03/06/15,06:07:42)

170 Advanced Research on Industry, Information System and Material

Engineering IV

V

Q = A( x0 + xA ) + p (2)

4N

Ap = K A xA (3)

Ap = mx + F

0 (4)

Q = cee cp p (5)

Where e is the displacement of the sliding valve relative to the shell; n f is the feedback ratio of

booster; ni is the input ratio of booster; nA is the displacement feedback ratio of bracing structures of

booster; x0 is the output displacement of booster; xi is the input displacement of booster; xA is the

displacement of the support at the fixation position of booster; Q is the booster's flow rate; A is the

effective area of piston; V is the effective volume of actuator cylinder of oil circuit; N is the elastic

modulus of oil level; p is the pressure difference of two cavities of booster; K A is the stiffness of the

support at the fixation position of booster; m is the mass of rotational inertia from booster to control

surface converted to booster's output end; F is the output force of piston; ce is the sliding valve's

flow rate-aperture gain, and cp is the sliding valve flow rate-pressure gain.

The transmission consisting of rocker arm and load links. The dynamic equations are

n x = x =

x 0 0

F = nF

F = F

m (6)

Where nx is the transmission ratio of displacement of rocker arm; n is the transmission ratio of

force of rocker arm; F is the output force of rocker arm; Fm is the force of rotating shaft moment of

rudder converted to output end of the rocker arm; x0 is the output displacement of rocker arm; is

the transmission coefficient from output end of rocker arm to the deflection angle of rudder, and

is the deflection angle of load links.

Eq. (1)-Eq. (6) are combined to obtain the governing equation of the booster system, which

consists of a hydraulic booster, a rocker arm, and load links.

In order to relate the booster with the rudder, the component mode substitution method[7] is

adopted. The motion equation of the rudder is

m ee m ea q k ee 0 q 1 2 q

+ = U Q

m ae m aa 0 k 2

(7)

Where mee is the modal mass corresponding to elastic mode; maa is the modal mass corresponding

to pitching mode; mea and mae are the coupled modal masses; kee is the modal stiffness

corresponding to elastic mode, and k is the modal stiffness corresponding to pitching mode. is the

atmospheric density at the flight height; V is the flight speed, and Q is the generalized aeroelastic

coefficient matrix, obtained by the doublet-lattice method (DLM)[8], q is the generalized

coordinates of elastic modes.

There is a transmission error between the output end of rocker arm and the load axis.

Transmission error can be written as follows:

= + (8)

In the present study,a preload freeplay structural nonlinearity is assumed in the load links shown

in Figs. 1.The preload freeplay f ( ) is expressed as

Advanced Materials Research Vol. 1014 171

k

Ep

f ( ) = kE p E p < < E p + Es

k ( E ) E + E

s p s

(9)

Where E p is the preload angle, Es is the freeplay angle, H is amplitude, and k is the stiffness of

linear part.

B. Nonlinear governing equations of rudder system

The state-space equation of booster system consisting of hydraulic booster and rocker arm is

Anx nnx

0 0 0

d m m

F

= 1 0 0 + 0 0

dx

xi

p 4NAK A 4NK c n

A e f 4N (c n

e A A + K c )

A p p 0 4NK c n

A e i

4NA +V KA 4NA +V KA

nx (4NA +V KA ) (4NA +V KA )nx

F

= [ 0 1 0] +[ 0 0] x

p i

(10)

In order to establish the state-space equation of the rudder, the aerodynamic calculation uses the

method of fitting aerodynamic rational function from aerodynamic calculation results in the

frequency domain[9] .

The expression of Laplace domain of aerodynamic coefficient matrix Q is

l d l d2

Q = Q0 + Q1 + Q2 ( )2 2

V dt V dt (11)

Where Q0 , Q1 and Q2 can be obtained through the fitting of aerodynamic rational function.

The motion equation of rudder system can be written as

0

d M 1 B M 1 K M

x = x + 1 Fm

dx I 33 0

0

= [ 0 0 0 1] x

(12)

Where

1 2

1

M = M 2 l Q2 , B = 2 VlQ1

K = ee

k 0 1

0 0 2 V Q0 , x = [ q q ]

2 T

Finally, the state-space equations (19) and (20) are coupled based on the relationship which is

shown as

F = Fm

(13)

Equations (13) and (10)-(12) are combined to form the equation for the combined system, which

is used for nonlinear analysis. Fig. 2 is the function block diagram of the combined system.

172 Advanced Research on Industry, Information System and Material

Engineering IV

In the present study, the model used is a low-speed proof control fin which is shown in Fig. 3.

Linear flutter speed UL is 20.5 m / s .

When the flight condition needs to be changed, the control surface will change based on the

control command, and the response of the control surface is relevant to control command. The

relationship between the response amplitude of control surface and the phase of the control

command is shown as Fig. 4.

Fig. 4 Relationship between amplitude of control commands and responses of pitch angle: (a) phase

angle 0, freeplay 0.2 (b) phase angle 90, freeplay 0.2(c) phase angle 90, freeplay 0.4.

Fig. 4 shows the changes of response amplitude when the phase of control command changes.

From Figure. 4(b), it can be seen that the change of response amplitude is consistent with that

before phase change in the first 3 / 4 period, but the response amplitudes are consistent in the later

1/ 4 period. It can be seen that the response amplitudes are same and equivalent to 4.3 when the

freeplay angles are 0.4 and 0.2 in the later 1/ 4 period. That is because in the later 1/ 4 period, the

input signal of control command changes to 0 due to the change of phase. At this time, it is

equivalent to the response without control command. The response simulation in the time domain is

shown in Figures 5.

In the above, the effect of control command amplitude on response is analyzed. In the same way,

its frequency change also affects the response frequency. Fig. 6 shows the changes of response

frequency when the frequency of control command changes. From Fig. 6(b) and (c), it can be seen

that the change of response frequency is consistent with the frequency change of control command.

Fig. 6(b) and (d) shows the response frequency at different freeplay angles when the preload angle

is a fixed value. It can be seen that the response frequencies are the same when the freeplay angles

are 0.2 and 0.4. Hence, the effects of the amplitudes and frequencies of the control command on the

flutter characteristics should be seriously considered.

Advanced Materials Research Vol. 1014 173

(a) control command (command 0.4, phase angle 0) (b) control command (command 0.4, phase angle 90)

(c) (comman 0.4, phase angle 0) (d) (command 0.9, phase angle 0) (e) (command 1.7, phase angle 0)

(f) (comman 0.4, phase angle 90) (g) (command 0.9, phase angle 90) (h) (command 1.7, phase angle 90)

(f) (comman 0.4, phase angle 90) (g) (command 1.3, phase angle 90) (h) (command 2.8, phase angle 90)

Fig. 5: Control command and response of pitch angle: (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) freeplay 0.2; (f) (g) (h)

freeplay 0.4

Conclusion

In this study, the component mode substitution method is used to set up the system model with

dynamics and structural nonlinearity. Moreover, the influence of control command on system's

vibration characteristics is analyzed. Under the influence of freeplay, the phase change of control

command results in consistent response amplitudes, which are the same as those without control

command. The response frequency is not affected by the freeplay angle, only related to the

frequency of control command, and the change are the same as that of control command.

(a) control command (amplitude 1, frequency 0.5rad/s) (b) amplitude 1,frequency 0.5 rad/s, freeplay 0.2

174 Advanced Research on Industry, Information System and Material

Engineering IV

(c) amplitude 1, frequency 1 rad/s, freeplay 0.2 (d) amplitude 1, frequency 0.5 rad/s, freeplay 0.4

Fig. 6: Control command and response of pitch angle

References

[1] S. K. Paek and I. Lee: Flutter analysis for control surface of launch vehicle with dynamic

stiffness. Computers and Structures, vol.60, no.4(1996), pp. 593-599.

[2] I. Lee and S. H. Kim: Aeroelastic analysis of a flexible control surface with structural

nonlinearity. Journal of Aircraft, vol.32, no.4(1995), pp. 868-874.

[3] B. H. K. Lee and A. Tron: Effects of structural nonlinearities on flutter characteristics of the CF-

18 aircraft. Journal of Aircraft, vol.26, no.8(1989), pp. 781-786.

[4] J. S.Bae, , D. K.Kim, W. H.Shin, I.Leeand S. H.Kim: Nonlinear Aeroelastic Analysis of a

Deployable Missile Control Fin. Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, vol. 41, no. 2(2004), pp. 264

271.

[5] W. H. Shin and I. Lee: Nonlinear aeroelastic analysis for a control fin with an actuator. Journal

of Aircraft, vol. 44, no. 2(2007), pp. 597-605.

[6] N. Yang, Z. G. Wu and C. Yang: Structural Nonlinear Flutter Characteristics Analysis for an

Actuator-fin System with Dynamic Stiffness. Chinese Journal of Aeronautics, vol. 24, no. 5(2011),

pp. 590-599.

[7] W. L. Wang: Vibration and substructure methodology. Shanghai: Fudan University Press, 1985,

pp. 229-233.

[8] E. Albano and W. P. Rodden: A doublet-lattice method for calculating lift distributions on

oscillating surfaces in subsonic flows. AIAA journal, vol. 7, no. 2(1969), pp. 279-285.

[9] M. Kapel: Time-domain aeroservoelastic modeling using weighted unsteady aerodynamic

forces. Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics, vol. 13, no. 1(1990), pp. 30-37.

Advanced Research on Industry, Information System and Material Engineering IV

10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.1014

10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.1014.169

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