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Advanced Materials Research Vol 1014 (2014) pp 169-174 Submitted: 2014-05-30

(2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland Accepted: 2014-06-10


doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.1014.169 Online: 2014-07-28

Nonlinear Aeroelastic Analysis for a Rudder with a Hydraulic Booster

XingZhi Xu1,a, Yakui Gao1,b,WeiGuo Zhang1,c


1
School of Automation, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xian, Shaanxi, China
a
xuxingzhi1976@163.com, bgaoyakui@126.com, czhangwg@nwpu.edu.cn

Keywords: Flutter; Hydraulic booster; Dynamics; Structural nonlinearity; Component mode


substitution method.

Abstract. Nonlinear aeroelastic characteristics of a rudder with a hydraulic booster are investigated,
including the structural nonlinearity and dynamics of the hydraulic booster. The component mode
substitution method is used to establish the nonlinear governing equations based on the fundamental
dynamic equations of the hydraulic booster and rocker arm. Simulations are carried out when the
control command is not zero and further analysis is conducted when the freeplay angle is changed.
The results show that the effects of the actuator and the structural nonlinearity have a significant
influence on the flutter characteristics. In the nonlinear condition, the phase and frequency of the
control command have both an influence on the flutter characteristics.

Introduction
When subject to high velocity flight condition, flutter of flexible structures may occur. In many
cases, flutter is mainly affected by structural nonlinearities or aerodynamic properties of control
fins[1-4]. However, the nonlinear aeroelastic characteristics of a rudder with an actuator should
consider both the dynamics of the actuator and the structural nonlinearity[5-6]. The purpose of the
article is to study the flutter characteristics of the rudder system possessing structural nonlinearity
and dynamics of hydraulic boosters. The influences of frequency and phase of control command on
flutter characteristics are investigated.

Theoretical Analysis
A. Governing equations of booster system
The rudder system is composed of a hydraulic booster, a rocker arm, load links and a rudder, as
shown in Fig. 1 where is the pitching angle of rudder, f ( ) is the preload freeplay.

Fig. 1 Schematic of rudder system and freeplay nonlinearity.

The hydraulic booster's dynamic equations consist of motion equation of valves (Formula (1)),
equilibrium equations of location system (Formula (3) and Formula (4)), flow rate equation
(Formula (5)) and continuity equation (Formula (2)).
e = ni xi n f x0 n A x A (1)

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Engineering IV

V 
Q = A( x0 + xA ) + p (2)
4N
Ap = K A xA (3)
Ap = mx + F
0 (4)
Q = cee cp p (5)
Where e is the displacement of the sliding valve relative to the shell; n f is the feedback ratio of
booster; ni is the input ratio of booster; nA is the displacement feedback ratio of bracing structures of
booster; x0 is the output displacement of booster; xi is the input displacement of booster; xA is the
displacement of the support at the fixation position of booster; Q is the booster's flow rate; A is the
effective area of piston; V is the effective volume of actuator cylinder of oil circuit; N is the elastic
modulus of oil level; p is the pressure difference of two cavities of booster; K A is the stiffness of the
support at the fixation position of booster; m is the mass of rotational inertia from booster to control
surface converted to booster's output end; F is the output force of piston; ce is the sliding valve's
flow rate-aperture gain, and cp is the sliding valve flow rate-pressure gain.
The transmission consisting of rocker arm and load links. The dynamic equations are
n x = x =
x 0 0

F = nF
F = F
m (6)
Where nx is the transmission ratio of displacement of rocker arm; n is the transmission ratio of
force of rocker arm; F is the output force of rocker arm; Fm is the force of rotating shaft moment of
rudder converted to output end of the rocker arm; x0 is the output displacement of rocker arm; is
the transmission coefficient from output end of rocker arm to the deflection angle of rudder, and
is the deflection angle of load links.
Eq. (1)-Eq. (6) are combined to obtain the governing equation of the booster system, which
consists of a hydraulic booster, a rocker arm, and load links.
In order to relate the booster with the rudder, the component mode substitution method[7] is
adopted. The motion equation of the rudder is
m ee m ea q k ee 0 q 1 2 q
+ = U Q
m ae m aa  0 k 2
(7)
Where mee is the modal mass corresponding to elastic mode; maa is the modal mass corresponding
to pitching mode; mea and mae are the coupled modal masses; kee is the modal stiffness
corresponding to elastic mode, and k is the modal stiffness corresponding to pitching mode. is the
atmospheric density at the flight height; V is the flight speed, and Q is the generalized aeroelastic
coefficient matrix, obtained by the doublet-lattice method (DLM)[8], q is the generalized
coordinates of elastic modes.
There is a transmission error between the output end of rocker arm and the load axis.
Transmission error can be written as follows:
= + (8)
In the present study,a preload freeplay structural nonlinearity is assumed in the load links shown
in Figs. 1.The preload freeplay f ( ) is expressed as
Advanced Materials Research Vol. 1014 171

k

Ep
f ( ) = kE p E p < < E p + Es
k ( E ) E + E
s p s
(9)
Where E p is the preload angle, Es is the freeplay angle, H is amplitude, and k is the stiffness of
linear part.
B. Nonlinear governing equations of rudder system
The state-space equation of booster system consisting of hydraulic booster and rocker arm is
Anx nnx
 0 0  0
d m m

F
= 1 0 0 + 0 0

dx
xi
p 4NAK A 4NK c n
A e f 4N (c n
e A A + K c )
A p p 0 4NK c n
A e i

4NA +V KA 4NA +V KA
nx (4NA +V KA ) (4NA +V KA )nx




F
= [ 0 1 0] +[ 0 0] x
p i
(10)
In order to establish the state-space equation of the rudder, the aerodynamic calculation uses the
method of fitting aerodynamic rational function from aerodynamic calculation results in the
frequency domain[9] .
The expression of Laplace domain of aerodynamic coefficient matrix Q is
l d l d2
Q = Q0 + Q1 + Q2 ( )2 2
V dt V dt (11)
Where Q0 , Q1 and Q2 can be obtained through the fitting of aerodynamic rational function.
The motion equation of rudder system can be written as
0
d M 1 B M 1 K M
x = x + 1 Fm
dx I 33 0
0

= [ 0 0 0 1] x
(12)
Where
1 2
1
M = M 2 l Q2 , B = 2 VlQ1


K = ee

k 0 1

0 0 2 V Q0 , x = [ q  q ]
2 T

Finally, the state-space equations (19) and (20) are coupled based on the relationship which is
shown as
F = Fm
(13)
Equations (13) and (10)-(12) are combined to form the equation for the combined system, which
is used for nonlinear analysis. Fig. 2 is the function block diagram of the combined system.

Fig. 2 Flowchart of booster-rudder system.


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Engineering IV

Results and Discussion


In the present study, the model used is a low-speed proof control fin which is shown in Fig. 3.
Linear flutter speed UL is 20.5 m / s .

Fig. 3:Geometry of the rudder model

When the flight condition needs to be changed, the control surface will change based on the
control command, and the response of the control surface is relevant to control command. The
relationship between the response amplitude of control surface and the phase of the control
command is shown as Fig. 4.

Fig. 4 Relationship between amplitude of control commands and responses of pitch angle: (a) phase
angle 0, freeplay 0.2 (b) phase angle 90, freeplay 0.2(c) phase angle 90, freeplay 0.4.

Fig. 4 shows the changes of response amplitude when the phase of control command changes.
From Figure. 4(b), it can be seen that the change of response amplitude is consistent with that
before phase change in the first 3 / 4 period, but the response amplitudes are consistent in the later
1/ 4 period. It can be seen that the response amplitudes are same and equivalent to 4.3 when the
freeplay angles are 0.4 and 0.2 in the later 1/ 4 period. That is because in the later 1/ 4 period, the
input signal of control command changes to 0 due to the change of phase. At this time, it is
equivalent to the response without control command. The response simulation in the time domain is
shown in Figures 5.
In the above, the effect of control command amplitude on response is analyzed. In the same way,
its frequency change also affects the response frequency. Fig. 6 shows the changes of response
frequency when the frequency of control command changes. From Fig. 6(b) and (c), it can be seen
that the change of response frequency is consistent with the frequency change of control command.
Fig. 6(b) and (d) shows the response frequency at different freeplay angles when the preload angle
is a fixed value. It can be seen that the response frequencies are the same when the freeplay angles
are 0.2 and 0.4. Hence, the effects of the amplitudes and frequencies of the control command on the
flutter characteristics should be seriously considered.
Advanced Materials Research Vol. 1014 173

(a) control command (command 0.4, phase angle 0) (b) control command (command 0.4, phase angle 90)

(c) (comman 0.4, phase angle 0) (d) (command 0.9, phase angle 0) (e) (command 1.7, phase angle 0)

(f) (comman 0.4, phase angle 90) (g) (command 0.9, phase angle 90) (h) (command 1.7, phase angle 90)

(f) (comman 0.4, phase angle 90) (g) (command 1.3, phase angle 90) (h) (command 2.8, phase angle 90)
Fig. 5: Control command and response of pitch angle: (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) freeplay 0.2; (f) (g) (h)
freeplay 0.4
Conclusion
In this study, the component mode substitution method is used to set up the system model with
dynamics and structural nonlinearity. Moreover, the influence of control command on system's
vibration characteristics is analyzed. Under the influence of freeplay, the phase change of control
command results in consistent response amplitudes, which are the same as those without control
command. The response frequency is not affected by the freeplay angle, only related to the
frequency of control command, and the change are the same as that of control command.

(a) control command (amplitude 1, frequency 0.5rad/s) (b) amplitude 1,frequency 0.5 rad/s, freeplay 0.2
174 Advanced Research on Industry, Information System and Material
Engineering IV

(c) amplitude 1, frequency 1 rad/s, freeplay 0.2 (d) amplitude 1, frequency 0.5 rad/s, freeplay 0.4
Fig. 6: Control command and response of pitch angle

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Advanced Research on Industry, Information System and Material Engineering IV
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Nonlinear Aeroelastic Analysis for a Rudder with a Hydraulic Booster


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