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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

Needs Assessment Report

Migration of Math and Science Teachers in Jamaica

Group Project

By:

Genevieve Cox

Gloria Butcher

Rachele Wagstaffe

Ayanna Phillips-Stewart

Nyeisha George-Minott

A Paper Presented in Partial Fulfilment of

EDID 6507 Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

Date of submission: April 30, 2017

University: University of the West Indies (UWI) Open Campus

Course Coordinator: Dr. Laura Gray

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

Table of Contents

Title Page Nos.

A. Executive Summary..................................................................................... 3

B. Introduction and Background...................................................................... 4-5

C. Scope and Problem.......................................................................................6

D. Profile of population/audience.................................................................... 6

E. Organizational Analysis............................................................................. 7-11

F. Environmental Analysis............................................................................. 12-17

G. Data analysis and Key findings.................................................................. 13-25

H. Gap Analysis............................................................................................. 26-28

I. Cause Analysis........................................................................................... 29-32

J. Recommendations and Solutions............................................................... 33-36

K. Conclusion and Lessons learnt................................................................... 37

Appendices

Appendix A............................................................................................................. 38-39

Appendix B.............................................................................................................. 40-41

Appendix C.............................................................................................................. 42-43

Appendix D.............................................................................................................. 44

Appendix E............................................................................................................... 45-47

References.................................................................................................................. 48-49

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

Executive Summary
Needs Assessment Report: Migration of Jamaican Qualified Teachers

The Migration of Jamaican Teachers Needs Assessment was carried out as a

systematic process to determine and address the needs or gaps between current

performance conditions of teachers migration practices and the desired performance based

on the goals and strategic objectives of Jamaicas Ministry of Education. The goal connected

to this needs assessment is to retain qualified Jamaican teachers for providing quality

education. After using researched needs assessment tools and strategies to measure the

conditions, it was found that the goal of retaining qualified Mathematics and Science teachers

is not currently being met because 54% of Jamaicas Mathematics and Science teachers have

migrated in 2016. Secondary data sources further forecasted that within the next two years

there will be a mass exodus of Mathematics and Science teachers.

Consequently, a cause analysis was done using a criticality scale to rank the drivers.

The most critical cause was rooted in the environment- inadequate tools and resources. In

order to eliminate the existing gap, a cache of interventions were proposed applying the

process of team collaboration. The proposed interventions are non-instructional based on Van

Tiem, Moseley and Dessinger (2012), intervention selection guide. Some of the proposed

interventions include: Talent Management - retention, Advanced and Strategic Education

Policy and Job Enrichment.

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

A. Introduction and Background

The migration of teachers has been a phenomenon for years within the Caribbean.

Teachers especially those who specialize in Mathematics and Science are being targeted by

lucrative teaching agencies abroad. In addition, a thrust towards science and innovation in the

field of medical research has seen the advancement for Science and Mathematics teachers

outside of the classroom in other developed countries. This is detrimental to the Caribbean

educational context since countries such as Jamaica is noting a drop in the number of students

who are signing up for CSEC Science subjects. The Minister of Education in Jamaica laments

on the status of the migration of Mathematics and Science teachers stating that ... the

disappointing number of students registering for subjects in the sciences as well as the

reduction in science passes in the 2015 Caribbean Examination Council exams was enough

evidence that the issue needs to be addressed urgently. (Honeyghan, 2016). For any country

to be able to add to its cadre of innovators, critical thinkers and developers, students must

have a solid foundation in the classroom.

Teachers who have attained a Bachelors or Masters degree in their respective fields

are the most likely candidates who are being recruited, and are migrating. This leaves

secondary schools grades 7- 12 without qualified teachers. Consequently, students suffer from

lack of continuity in the curriculum delivery, leading to a lack of interest in the subject area

and poor exam results. The teachers who remain have doubled class time because they have

to fill the gap left by teachers who have migrated. Students lose confidence in the school

system and may drop out of school.

This problem forces school administrators and Ministry of Education to continuously

seek new teachers to fill vacant posts. These newly recruited teachers are most often teachers

who have recently graduated from college or university and therefore lack the experiences

and skills of a more mature teacher.

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

Reasons why teachers leave?

Globalization: The process of globalization has led to the establishment of a series of global

and regional trade liberalization agreements which affect, either directly or indirectly, the

economic and social development of Caribbean Small Island Developing States.

Better Incentives in other countries


Aggressive recruiting
Very small populations compared to the larger nations
Well equipped science labs and research centers
Very little innovation and technological improvement in the Caribbean
Poor working conditions
Large classroom sizes (current classroom size is 35:1)
Opportunities for higher standard of living.

B. Scope and Problem

The perennial migration of Mathematics and Science teachers at the high school level

each academic year is leaving many schools without these teachers. Schools have to advertise

throughout the academic year for these critical teachers. In an effort to increase its current

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

Mathematics and Science teacher population the Ministry of Education has embarked on a

scholarship program to entice individuals who are seeking to be trained in these specialized

areas. Recently the Ministry has put forward an advertisement (see Appendix A) for these

individuals.

C. Profile of population/audience

The main stakeholders who comprised this study included:

Mathematics and Science teachers


School administration (principal and vice-principal)
The Ministry of Education.

D. Organizational Scan

Historical perspective

The increase in globalization has resulted in the migration of skilled and unskilled

professionals seeking to better their economic condition. Historically, migration has played

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

an important role in the economies of the Caribbean in general, and has been a feature of

island life for generations. Thomas-Hope (2002, p.2) notes that approximately 814, 106

Jamaicans have migrated since the 1970s from a total population of 2.7 million people. In

addition, according to The Planning Institute of Jamaica (PIOJ) cited in (Sives Morgan,

Appleton & Bremmer 2006) in the past 20 years, Jamaica has lost 54,288 highly skilled

professionals to North America alone, representing 30.2 per cent of Jamaicas education

system (Jamaica Observer, April 08, 2003).

As in many other small states, migration in Jamaica provides funds for schooling,

health, and other expenses through remittances, and aids in diversifying local employment

opportunities (UNESCO, 2012). In 2004, Jamaica received US$1.4 billion in remittances

from migrants living and working overseas, and a research done by (Sives et al., 2006 ) on

Jamaican teachers in England revealed that the average remitted per month is 9.47% of their

salary. International Labour Organization, 2007 notes, the recent upsurge in international

migration has occurred in conjunction with a general increase in flows of trade, investment,

finance, cultural products, information and technology.

In recent times, the migration of teachers from Jamaica to developed countries has

raised major concerns. The impact of the emerging implications of migration in this sector of

the skilled labour force, and how it affects the future of social and economic development in

the progressive growth of the country is of much concern. (Skeldon, 2005) cited in Sives et

al. (2006) notes that teachers and schools are part of the social and cultural infrastructure of

all societies, but they are particularly relevant to developing countries. A good education

system is central to the creation of human capital and a fundamental element contributing to

successful economic development. Globalization and the movement towards the

liberalization of the movement of people across borders have resulted in the demand for

skilled labour in specific sectors such as education and health in developed societies, as noted

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

by Sives et al. (2006). This movement has resulted in the organized recruitment of skilled

seasoned teachers, especially in English, math and science to developed countries.

Profile of Migrant Teachers

The major impact of the effects of teacher migration is felt at the high school level.

Migrants are predominantly female teachers of English, Mathematics, Science and

Information Technology. According to Sives et al.(2006) the majority of migrants were

classroom teachers (68%); Senior teachers (19%) and Heads of Departments or Vice-

principal's (13%). The quantitative impact of migration and the highest level of attrition was

present in the high schools that experienced teacher shortages. The qualitative impact relates

to being able to replace the knowledge, but not the experience of the teachers who have

migrated resulting in a reduction in the quality of education and mentoring provided to

Jamaican children, when migrant teachers, are replaced by young teachers with no

experience in teaching teenagers (Sives et al. 2006).

Organizational Analysis

Characteristics such as values, culture, leadership and guidance influence the

performance of an organization (VanTiem, Moseley and Dessinger, 2012; Hale & Chapman,

1998), hence to gather information for the gap analysis the goals and strategic leadership

policies of the Jamaican Ministry of Education (see Appendix A) were reviewed through

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

secondary data sources as provided on the internet. This was carried out for the purpose of

finding out optimal performance expectations. Van Tiem, Mosley and Dessinger (2012) noted

that an organizational scan provides direction by setting the expectations for the desired

optimal performance.

According to VanTiem, Moseley and Dessinger (2012, p.133-4) an organizational

analysis looks into the heart of the organization...its vision, mission, values, goals, strategies

and critical issues. The organisation scan is an integral element in trying to improve the

organization performance. The Ministry of Education in Jamaica should ensure that an

organisation scan is undertaken to improve its overall performance with regards to migration

of Science and Mathematics teachers. Heracleous (1998, p. 482) notes that an organisation

scan should seek direction; direction need to be identified early in the performance analysis

process because they set expectations for desired and optimal performance. Therefore, it

must be the first step for any performance analysis.

Tosti (2008) puts forward three main environmental elements the pre-existing

conditions:

The physical environment the tools, equipment, plant or store, raw materials to be worked,

goods to be sold, etc.

The social environment The behaviours and conduct of the people. They are the cultural,

collaborative, leadership, followership practices, etc.

The organizational environment the structure, reporting relations, policies, regulations,

decision-making, distribution, etc.

Below is the proposed Organisation Scan adapted from Tosti (2008)

Performance System Factor Questions

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

Organizational Environment Is the organization structured in a way


that contributes to effective and efficient
performance of the work?

Functional divisions Are the outcomes of the MOE clearly


communicated that will be beneficial to
other units?

Degree of centralization Are regional offices geographically located


so that separate groups can easily obtain
information that supports their need?

Reporting relationships Do principals in the organization have a


reasonable span of control?

Decision authority Do teachers have the authority to make


decisions that would directly affect their
work performance or life?

Physical Work Environment Is the work environment set up to make it as


easy as possible to work efficiently and
effectively?

Equipment, tools and information Are teachers provided with the necessary
equipment, tools and information?

Are they designed for the cultural context of


the country, can be easily used and to
effectively support the work?

Are they cost-effective?

Support services Are support services available for teachers?

Accessibility of Are equipment, tools and information


resources frequently given to schools?

Are supplies and raw materials readily


accessible when needed?

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

Physical environment Are classrooms built with adequate space,


light, and temperature to work effectively?

Is the physical environment suitable for


effective work to take place?

Social Work Environment Do people throughout the organization


typically behave in a way that supports
effective performance?

Cultural Does the attitude of policy makers in


providing teachers with more incentives
undermine the culture and tradition of
dedication and morale in the teaching
profession?

Leadership Do leaders perform and act in a manner that


is exemplary?

Fellowship practices Are teachers provided with opportunities to


share best practices?
E. Environmental Scan

According to the Society for Human Resource Management (2012), environmental

scanning is a process that systematically surveys and interprets relevant data to identify

external opportunities and threats. An organization gathers information about the external

world, its competitors and itself. The company should then respond to the information

gathered by changing its strategies and plans when the need arises. Environmental scanning

also involves an assessment and analysis of the conditions, circumstances that influences both

internal and external to the organization which can affect the organizations ability to reach its

objectives (Vascellari, 2014). In rapidly changing environments, organizations must adapt to

changes in their environments to ensure that they stay relevant and survive. That's the central

idea behind environmental scanning.

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

Coates (1985) cited in Morrison (1992) identified the following objectives of an

environmental scanning system:

Detecting scientific, technical, economic, social, and political trends and events important to

the institution,
Defining the potential threats, opportunities, or changes for the institution implied by those

trends and events,


Promoting a future orientation in the thinking of management and staff
Alerting management and staff to trends that are converging, diverging, speeding up, slowing

down, or interacting.

The environmental scan on the migration of Science teachers in Jamaica offered the

researchers an opportunity for an objective look at the educational issue that exists and

inform the direction with regard to intervention strategies needed to bring the countrys

teacher migration issue closer to acceptable national standards. The Ministry of Education in

Jamaica should make environmental scanning a continuous activity recognizing the

importance of regularly developing, monitoring, and bettering the working conditions and

salaries of Science and Mathematics teachers as key incentives to encourage teachers to stay

in their appointed positions. The ministry should recognize that all key stakeholders in the

nations schools need to be thinking about the future and sharing thoughts about the

implications of this migration trends in an organized manner. An ongoing scan is better than a

periodic one, but a periodic scan, such as the one conducted by the researchers, is the place to

start if no formal-analytical scanning is happening at all (Dalton, 2017). To conduct this scan

the PESTLE model was adopted.

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

Diagram illustrating PESTLE Model for conducting an environmental scan

The table below highlights the results from the environmental scan conducted by the

researchers.

Table illustrating Environmental Scan

Critical Issues Type of information Information Sources of


sought gathered Information

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

Political What involvement, if Nothing can be done Interview with


any, does the Ministry to stop persons from officials from the
of Education have on leaving the service at Ministry of
the moment. Education
teacher migration
which may restrict the A contractual Review of school
ability of teachers to agreement between teacher
randomly leave their the Ministry of
employment
jobs to pursue job Education and the
opportunities abroad? scholarship
department is in
effect.

Teachers who were


granted scholarships
to pursue studies in
the Sciences must
serve for a capacity of
three (3) years after
they have completed
their studies.

After this three (3)


years tenure
Government cannot
restrict their desire to
pursue other career
opportunities abroad.

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

Economic What is the cost factor There is a distinct Interview with


on the national drain in the countrys officials from the
education budget when financial resources Ministry of
teachers migrate to when trained teachers
Education
overseas job in the Science and
opportunities? Mathematics
departments
resign/leave their Review of financial
jobs. reports

Post graduate Review of budget


diploma studies are
reports
free for teachers
pursuing the Post
Graduate Diploma in
Mathematics and
Science.

Therefore, it is a drain
in the national budget
when a teacher leaves
especially after
receiving all this
training.

What budget allocation Monies have been


is set aside for allocated by the
professional training Ministry of Education
in the yearly national
workshops for Science
budget to train and re-
and Mathematics train teachers.
teachers?

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

Sociological Organizational Teachers have several Survey


climate: Do teachers in issues as it pertains to questionnaire
the Science and their conditions of administered to
employment such as a teachers
Mathematics
need for:
department feel as if Better salaries
their concerns as it v
pertains to their Improved working
conditions of conditions
employment are being v
considered by the Smaller class sizes
v
relevant authorities?
Better quality
equipment available
for the school labs

Technological What professional Professional Internal training


development courses development training records and
and training are offered and re-training training
and attended by courses are made management
Science and available for teachers systems
Mathematics teachers by both the Ministry
conducted under the of Education and the Data Capture
auspices of the Ministry various school Sheets on teachers
of Education and administrations. qualification and
school administration? professional
training courses
undertaken.
Are there any
technological Science labs are still Survey
innovations in place for deficient in adequate questionnaires
Science and tools and resources. administered to
Mathematics teachers teachers
in their field?

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

Legal Can the government Movement of Interview with


legally prevent teachers teachers cannot be officials from the
from migrating to other impeded due to Ministry of
countries via regional and Education
contractual restrictions international
or otherwise? agreements such as
CSME (Caribbean
Single Market and
Economy) which
allows for the free
movement of
professionals seeking
job opportunities.

Environmental What is the percentage Staff turnover is not Review of records


of teachers who are within acceptable of Science and
leaving the job to standards. There is a Mathematics
pursue other career growing concern teacher resignation
options abroad? about the number of at the Ministry of
Science and Education
Mathematics teachers
leaving their teaching
positions in Jamaica.

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

Data Analysis and Key Findings

Methodology:

This study needs assessment was conducted utilizing the following instruments:

individual interviews (principal and teachers)


survey questionnaires (teachers)

Data was collected using a mixed methods approach which infused both quantitative and

qualitative research approaches. This is often the best method of data collection since it

allows for a greater triangulation of data captured.

The primary data collection instruments utilized were interviews (see Appendix B) and

survey questionnaires (see Appendix C). Thirty (30) survey questionnaires were administered

to teachers. Of the thirty (30) survey questionnaires handed out to teachers twenty-nine (29)

were answered and collected between 04th 13th April, 2017. The responses were then sorted

and raw results tabulated, placed in graphs and charts. The principal, vice principal and

Secretary in the Ministry of Education agreed to a series of interviews with the researchers.

Data analysis

During the data collection process, surveys were distributed and interviews were

conducted with the relevant stakeholders. Mathematics and Science teachers were surveyed

and School administrators were interviewed. This information gathered has been analysed

and presented in meaningful format utilizing tables, charts and narratives to convey the data

findings obtained.

Interviews

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

Nine school administrators which include principals and vice principal were

interviewed to get their perspective on teacher migration within their school organization.

When asked about how frequently teachers migrate 78% of respondents indicated that

teachers leave yearly. While an equal number of respondents 11% stated rarely and

occasionally.

With regards to how migration has affected students performance 100% of

respondents have stated that students are negatively impacted because the results for math

and science are less than ideal.

Replacement of teachers can take from 2 - 3 weeks to one school term.

The respondents were asked What plans do you have in place if a teacher migrates during

the school term?. The responses are shown in the table 1

Responses Number of respondents %

Use database of previous 1 11%


applicants

Principal teaches class 1 11%

Other teachers take classes 4 44%

Vice principal 1 11%

Head of Department 2 22%


Table 1 indicating the contingency plan in place when a teacher migrates.

Surveys

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

A representative sample of the teacher population was selected. Thirty (30) secondary

school teachers were surveyed, all teach at public schools in Jamaica. Of the sample however,

29 questionnaires were returned. This represents a 96% return rate.

The demographic data has more females respondents than males due to the fact that in the

teaching service there are significantly more female staff members employed than males. Of

the 28 teachers, 22 were females and 6 males, 1 unidentified. Figure 1.0 show that 38 percent

of the teachers are between the ages of 31 and 40 years.

Figure 1.0 - Age of respondents

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

In terms of work experience, as seen in table 1.0, the majority, 24% of respondents

have been teaching for 5-10 years. 20% have been teaching for 10-15 years and 15-20 years.

4 respondents have been teaching for 1-5 years and 25-30 years respectively. 1 respondent

has been teaching for 20-25 year and none of the respondents have been teaching for over 30

years. There was one with no response to the question.

Years of service No. of Respondents %

1-5 4 13

5-10 7 24

10-15 6 20

15-20 6 20

20-25 1 3

25-30 4 13

Over 30 0 0

No response 1 3
Table 1.0 - frequency table of the years of experience of the teachers

When asked about their qualifications the data reveals that teachers have at least a

teacher's certificate. The majority 19 teachers have obtained a bachelor's degree. Very few

have a Masters degree. One teacher had a teacher's certificate, Bachelors and Masters degree.

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

Figure 2.0 Chart showing teachers qualifications

The data reveals that there is an equal number of Mathematics teachers as there are

Science teachers, 13 each; with only 10% or 3 respondents teaching both Mathematics and

Science as seen in Figure 3.0 below.

Figure 3.0 - Pie chart showing subject areas being taught by teachers.

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

When respondent were asked Have you ever been enticed by overseas recruiters to migrate

for teaching job opportunities? 54% said no and 46% said yes.

Figure 4.0 - Pie chart showing teachers response enticements by overseas recruiters.

As a follow up to the response above, teachers were then asked to select what reasons

would encourage them to migrate. The chart below indicates the responses given. All the

respondents indicated that Adequate tools and resources was a reason to migrate.

Twenty-six of the respondents indicated an increase in salary followed by 20 responses for

professional development and better working conditions respectively. However, only 5

respondents thought that research development was a reason to migrate.

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

Figure 5.0 - graph showing teachers response enticements by overseas recruiters.

Teachers were asked to respond on a likert scale their feeling on the remuneration

package currently offered. They were to indicate whether it was substantial enough to keep

them motivated to work within the service? Table below indicates their response and clearly

the teachers strongly disagree and disagree to the question posed.

Strongly disagree 16

Disagree 10

Unsure 2

Agree 0

Strongly agree 0

No response 1
Table 2.0 - table indicating teachers feeling on remuneration and its motivational

influence

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

The Respondents were asked to indicate their feelings on whether there were

opportunities for promotion within their field. The data seen in figure 6.0 reveals that the

majority of teachers (12) disagree and 2 strongly disagree. However 7 agreed and 2 strongly

agreed. Five respondents were unsure and 1 gave no response.

Figure 6.0 - Line graph showing teachers response to Opportunity for Promotion.

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

G. Gap Analysis

Gap analysis is a technique used to determine the steps needed to be taken to move

from a current situation or outcome to a desired or optimal outcome (Van Tiem et al., 2012).

The desired performance is to retain the services of qualified mathematics and science

teachers. The current performance: 46% of Mathematics and Science teachers were retained

in 2016.

Gap Analysis Summary

In Jamaica, the goal of providing quality education to Jamaican students between the

ages of 11 to 18 is not being met because 54% of qualified Mathematics and Science

secondary school teachers migrated in 2016. If this trend continues, the percentage of

Jamaican children ages 11-18 who have access and/or attachment to quality education will

decrease. Consequently, Jamaicas education system will fail to live up to its responsibility

for providing students with quality education.

The gap in this Needs Assessment was confirmed after analyzing the data collected

from an Organizational and Environmental scan.

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

Gap Analysis

Strategic Objectives Current Standing Deficiency Action Plan

1. To maximize the percentage of 46 % of qualified 54% of the qualified Provide better incentives for
Jamaican children ages 3-18 who have Mathematics and Science Mathematics and Science teachers; improve access to
access and/or attachment to quality teachers are retained in the teachers have migrated quality resources; provide written
education system document with expectations with
regard to adequate notice for
unavailability

2. To maximize the percentage of the Insufficiently qualified Lengthy interview process Revise interview process for
work force that is trained and certified teachers replace migrant replacement of teachers during the
to satisfy labour market demands. teachers school year

Offer incentives to encourage


young scholars to become
qualified Mathematics and
Science teachers

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

3. To maximize the percentage of Mathematics and science Insufficient replacement Provide students with online
Jamaican educational programs that programs are affected resources when teachers are resources and a guide for self-
meet prescribed standards of education. negatively by teachers unavailable directed learning in the absence of
migrating during the teachers
school year

Unexpected reduction of No policy in place for Develop a policy for at least three
4. To maximize the percentage of adequate number of advance notice of availability months notice for teachers
schools and other institutions that are mathematics and science unavailability
provided with staffing, equipment, teaching staff
materials, curriculum offerings, support
services and physical facilities that
meet standards of sufficiency.

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

H. Cause Analysis

Cause analysis is a systematic process used to determine which processes, procedures,

tools or policies are limiting performance in an organization (Watkins, et. al. 2012). Its

objective is to recognise an issue and its origins, resolve the issue so that it is not repeated

and improve the quality of the product or processes. Cause analysis should be carried out

immediately when an issue has been recognised and should not be postponed allowing the

issue to grow in severity since it is a time critical procedure (Lennox Hill Ltd, 2017).

Conducting a cause analysis process ensures that organizations would be able to identify

which procedures will need to be changed, which documents describing those procedures will

require modifying and if training or re-training of employees is needed (Lennox Hill Ltd,

2017).

Van Tiem et. al. (2012) propose the following steps which can be adopted to conduct a

cause analysis:

1. Identify the driver or cause of the performance gap.


2. Classify the driver
3. Prioritise the driver
4. Generate as many causes as possible by looking at the problem in several ways
5. Verify causes and examples with clients

A cause analysis was done to determine the drivers of this problem of mathematics and

science teacher migration in Jamaica after conducting the various scans and collecting the

data for this case study. A criticality scale was used to prioritize the drivers since a number of

drivers were identified. The data from this analysis was utilized to determine the possible

solutions to the issue affecting schools in Jamaica.

Explanation of the findings

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

The Updated Behaviour Engineering Model (Adapted from Gilbert, 1978, p. 88) was

adapted in the table below to conduct the cause analysis for the migration of Science and

Maths teachers in Jamaica. The table illustrates the results from the cause analysis. The

researchers utilized the same participants from the environmental, organizational and gap

analyses previously conducted. The environmental and individual performance drivers were

determined as well as the possible barriers to the performance drivers. The data was collected

utilizing two (2) data collection instructions namely survey questionnaire and personal

interviews from two (2) school principals, one (1) vice principal and Secretary for Education

at the Ministry of Education. Below is a summary of the data collected.

Table illustrating Cause Analysis: Updated Behaviour Engineering Model (Adapted from

Gilbert, 1978, p. 88).

Performance drivers Questions asked to Barriers to Verification


identify drivers performance drivers

Data, information Does the Secretary Lack of immediate Interview


and feedback for Education provide feedback to teachers
(environmental) regular feedback to concerns
teachers on their lack
of resources
concerns?

Instruments, Do Science and Inadequate tools and Survey


resources and tools Maths teachers have resources. Schools questionnaire
(environmental) all the necessary tools Science labs lack up-
and resources needed to-date teaching aids
to carry out their jobs
efficiently and
effectively?

Incentives, Are teachers No direct incentives Survey


consequences and adequately for performance; questionnaire
rewards remunerated and Inadequate salary
(environmental) rewarded with compensation
incentives?

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

Skills and knowledge Are teachers able to Lack of professional Survey


(individual) showcase their skills advancement questionnaire
acquired through
training professional Limited research
development opportunities
workshops?

Individual capacity N/A N/A N/A


(individual)

Motivation and Are teachers Lack of professional Survey


expectation motivated to stay advancement questionnaire
(individual) within the teaching
service in Jamaica? Limited research
opportunities

Low salaries

Summary and Prioritizing of Causes

Causes Impact Levels Priority

Lack of professional advancement High 3

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

Limited scholarship opportunities Low 8

Limited research opportunities Low 9

Lack of innovative labs and research Low 6

Inadequate tools and resources High 1

Large class sizes Low 6

Poor working conditions High 5

Inadequate salary compensation and incentives High 2

No written standard policy for indicating unavailability High 2

The results from the cause analysis revealed that the environmental factors are the

biggest performance deficiencies affecting teacher migration. Generally speaking, teachers

are willing to stay on in the service. However, inadequate tools and resources, inadequate

salaries compensation coupled with lack of professional advancement in the field of Science

and Maths are the main drivers which are fostering an exodus of teachers to seek better job

opportunities abroad. There is an urgent need the Ministry of Education in Jamaica to review

some of its educational policies in these areas highlighted above.

I. Recommendations and Solutions

Interventions, as defined by Van Tiem, Mosley, and Dessinger (2000), are deliberate,

conscious acts that facilitate change in performance (p. 62). Interventions can be classified

as instructional or non-instructional. Based on the results from the data analysis and cause

analysis it is clear that teachers do not require any form of instructional interventions. In

order to curtail the migration of teachers the Ministry of Education will have to implement

non -instructional interventions to assist in this endeavour. Choosing the right intervention is

critical for the Ministry of Education in order to solve the performance problem.

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

Van Tiem, Moseley, & Dessinger, (2000) suggested using the following questions as a guide

for selecting the most appropriate interventions:

Does the intervention system target the specific causes of the performance gap?
Is the focus on solutions to performance problems, not a particular intervention?
Are non-instructional interventions considered?
Have a variety of interventions been considered?
Will the interventions have both short- and long-term effectiveness?
Will the intervention be sustained by the organizational culture?

Based on the questions above the following interventions are suggested as possible solutions

to the performance problem.

System of managed migration (Retention)


Advanced and strategic educational policy planning
Offer combined incentives for teachers to work/study abroad to attain further professional

development.
Job Design- Job Aid booklet on Terms of Employment
Human Resource Development (Compensation/Benefits)

System of managed migration/ Talent Management (Retention):

Hiring and selecting the right person for the job is crucial for the success of any

school. In fact, Van Tiem et al. (2000) states that, finding desirable candidates is the number

one employment challenge (p. 14). This is precisely what overseas recruiting agencies are

currently doing in Jamaica. Hence it is up to the Ministry to develop policies and initiatives

that are geared towards retaining teachers. For instance, Grant & Murray, (1999) suggested

the following policies that have been proven to assist in the retention of teachers including:

policies that embrace teachers in school-based decision making, administration participation

in school policy making and increased teacher autonomy in the classroom. These policies

should encourage teachers to stay on the island. A large body of research confers that

employee retention is very valuable to schools because teachers with at least three to five

years of experience are much more effective than less experienced teachers (Boivie 2011).

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

Organizational Pro-Action

Strategic Planning: (Advanced and strategic educational policy planning):

Since the Ministry is the sole decision and policy maker they could implement

policies that support reduction of class size and increase funding for quality resources,

facilities, and materials in schools. Implementing these policies could have a positive effect

on teacher migration since these were some of the main reasons why teachers migrate.

Outsourcing: Combined incentives for teachers to work or study abroad to attain

further professional development:

This would lessen the allure for teachers to leave their jobs since there are

opportunities for professional development. This would impact on their job satisfaction levels

and also increase their motivation to stay within the teaching service. According to NSES,

(1996, p.67-68) professional development creates opportunities for teachers to confront new

and different ways of thinking; to participate in demonstrations of new and different ways of

acting...to try out new approaches in different situations and get feedback on the use of new

ideas, skills, tools and behaviours to reflect on the experiments and experiences of teaching

science, and then to revise and try again. The government can seek to partner with other

regional and international research institutes and peg this to their teacher training/professional

development reform policy.

Job Design

Presently, the working document which guides teacher code of ethics and terms of

employment needs some revision. In the Jamaica Teachers' Association- Handbook for

Beginning Teachers Code of Ethics- Principle 4- in Relation to Employers. According to this

document, iii. The teacher, intending to terminate his employment with a school authority,

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

gives notice of his/her intentions according to regulations laid down by the authorities. The

term 'teacher' also refers to principals. Therefore, there is a need to the development of a Job

Aid booklet which should be offered to all teachers in the service. This document would

clearly state what is the time frame to inform the ministry and the school administration of a

teachers intention to migrate abroad. The researchers are suggesting at least a three (3)

months notice.

Human Resource Development focus on Compensation/Benefits

A review of the salary scale for teachers can be considered by the Jamaican

Government. Teachers who are holders of qualifications beyond the entry requirements

should be given an additional stipend on their basic salary.

Teachers can be offered compensatory incentives such as:

Lower mortgage rates


Low cost land for housing
Duty concessions
Better healthcare plans

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

J. Conclusion and Lessons learned

In summary, it is evident that the recruiting agencies have far reaching hold on Jamaican

teachers as they are capable of enticing teachers to migrate. Teachers are willing and

committed to the educational development of students on the island as seen from the Cause

Analysis results. Although low salary remuneration is an issue their major concern lies in the

lack of proper equipment and tools to be able to work in their work environments efficiently

and effectively. To avoid impending loss of the countrys academia the Government should

take note of the concerns of Science and Mathematics teachers and work towards remedying

this issue in a timely manner.

Some lessons learned from engaging in the process of this needs assessment are as

follows:

A gap analysis is crucial to creating a successful performance improvement plan


The methods used to the identify current performance was key to the cause analysis
After in-depth review of the information gathered, it was found that questions relating to

migration trends per school were not surveyed in the questionnaires. This is an illustration

that the thoroughness of questions asked and their suitability supersedes the rigor of analysis.

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

Appendices

Appendix A

Below is the Ministry of Education (Jamaica) Mandate on education

Mission - Providing quality care and education in an innovative, inclusive and enabling

environment thereby creating socially conscious and productive Jamaicans.

Vision- A nation empowered by a dynamic system of care, education and training

Values- The Ministry is guided by the Philosophy Every Child Can Learn, Every Child

Must Learn

Policy Priorities

Child and Youth Development

Child Care and Protection

Lifelong Learning

Governance and Accountability

Information and Communication

Quality Education and Training

Stakeholder Engagement

Goals/Strategic Objectives

STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES

The goals and objectives as relevant to the Migration of Jamaican Mathematics and Science

Teachers Needs Assessment are as follows:

Goal: Quality education and training through the retention of qualified teachers

Objectives:

1. To maximize the percentage of Jamaican children ages 3-18 who have access and/or

attachment to quality education.

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

2. To maximize the percentage of the work force that is trained and certified to satisfy labour

market demands

3. To maximize the percentage of Jamaican educational programs that meet prescribed

standards of education

4. To maximize the percentage of schools and other institutions that are provided with
staffing, equipment, materials, curriculum offerings, support services and physical facilities
that meet standards of sufficiency.

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

Appendix B

Sample Interview questions for school administrators (principals and vice-principal)

1. How long have you been in this position?


2. How has the migration of teachers affected the school's academic performance?
3. How often do teachers migrate from your institution?
4. How long is the replacement process when teachers resign their post?
5. What plans do you have in place if a teacher migrates during the school term?

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

Appendix B

Questionnaire (Interview) for Ministry of Education (Director of Education, Permanent

secretary, Minister of Education)

1. How long have you been in this position?


2. What is the percentage of teachers resigning their teaching posts in Science and Mathematics

per academic year?


3. What measures have your ministry put in place to curb this movement of teachers for the

nations schools?
4. What is the cost factor on the national education budget when teachers migrate to overseas

job opportunities?
5. Does your ministry have any plans to put tighter measures in place to keep teachers obligated

to their contracts/positions?

Appendix C

Questionnaire for Teachers (Mathematics and Science teachers)

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

Your assistance in completing this survey would be greatly appreciated.

1. Gender

Male Female

2. Age

21 - 30

31- 40

41 - 50

51 - 60

3. Number of years teaching?

1-5 years

5-10 years

10-15 years

15-20 years

20-25 years

25 - 30 years

Over 30 years

4. Qualifications

Teacher's Certificate Associate Degree Bachelor of Science Masters of Science

5. What subject area do you teach?

Mathematics Science

6. In which school type do you teach?

Private Public

7. Have you ever been enticed by overseas recruiters to migrate for teaching job

opportunities?

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

YES NO

8. Which of the following reasons would encourage you to migrate?

Increased salary

Better working conditions

Smaller class sizes

Adequate tools and resources

Innovative labs and research centers

Research opportunities to showcase your work

Scholarship opportunities

Professional Advancement

9. Is the remuneration package currently offered to you substantial to keep you motivated to

work within the service?

Strongly disagree Disagree Unsure Agree Strongly Agree

10. Are there opportunities for you to be promoted within your field?

Strongly disagree Disagree Unsure Agree Strongly Agree

Appendix D

Scholarship Opportunities for Science and Mathematics teachers

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

Appendix E

Table showing Interventions and Justifications

Root Cause Intervention Intervention Description Justification Ministry of Education


Category Goals

Inadequate Human System of managed Organization fully To stem the flow of the To retain qualified
Tools and Resource migration/ Talent supports an integrated set current teacher mathematics and science
resources development Management (Retention) of processes, programs migration practices teachers
and cultural norms to
attract, develop, deploy
and retain talent.

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

Organizational Advanced and strategic Provides direction focus Need for appropriate To maximize the
Pro-Action educational policy and clear well accepted tools and resources in percentage of schools and
planning. goals as the basis for the classroom other institutions that are
departmental and provided with staffing,
individual planning. equipment, materials,
curriculum offerings,
support services and
physical facilities that
meet standards of
sufficiency.

Outsourcing The organization


enhances productivity,
decreases operating costs, To maximize the
and leverages talent by Lessens teachers desire percentage of Jamaican
entering into contractual to migrate permanently educational programs that
agreements identifying meet prescribed standards
the exchange of labour. of education.
To retain qualified
mathematics and science
teachers.

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

Job Analysis Job Design Formal job description is Cost effective and adds To maximize the
/ available with terms of value Ministry of percentage of schools and
Work Design employment- Education Policy. other institutions that are
Interventions Documentation for Current Document does provided with staffing,
expectation with regard not include stipulated equipment, materials,
to ample notice for time frame for notice curriculum offerings,
unavailability. this affects the goal for support services and
retention-teachers physical facilities that meet
migrate at any time. standards of sufficiency.

labour market demands

Human Compensation/Benefits Policies and practices to This will add value for To maximize the
Resource reward employees with quality expectations and percentage of Jamaican
Development salary benefits direct motivate teachers- children ages 11-18 who
and indirect currently teachers are have access and/or
compensation practices Inadequately attachment to quality
available within the compensated, so they education.
organization; a just are not motivated to
compensation system is remain in their teaching
the norm. positions in Jamaica.

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EDID 6507: Needs Assessment for Learning and Performance

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