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INSTITUT PENDIDIKAN GURU MALAYSIA, KAMPUS PERLIS

01000 KANGAR, PERLIS

SCIENCE 2 BIOLOGY
(PRACTICAL 1)

TOPIC: LIVER AND KIDNEY

EXPERIMENT: Examining slides of liver and kidney

TIME ALLOTMENT: 2 hours

OVERVIEW:

The liver has vital roles in regulating, synthesizing, storing, secreting,


transforming, and breaking down many different substances in the body. The liver's
unique ability to regenerate helps maintain these functions, even in the face of moderate
damage or old age. Place your right hand over the area under your ribs on the right side
of your body and it will just about cover the area of the liver. The liver is the largest
gland, and solid organ in the body, weighing some 1.8 kg in men and 1.3 kg in women. At
any time it holds approximately 13% (over 500ml) of the total blood volume, and uses
12-20% of our total energy to perform over 500 estimated functions.

The kidneys remove urea and other toxic wastes from the blood, forming a dilute
solution called urine in the process. The two kidneys have a very extensive blood supply
and the whole blood supply passes through the kidneys every 5 minutes, ensuring that
waste materials do not build up. The renal artery carries blood to the kidney, while the
renal vein carries blood, now with far lower concentrations of urea and mineral ions,
away from the kidney. The urine formed passes down the ureter to the bladder.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

To observe and draw the major structures of liver and kidney with appropriate
magnification
To compare and contrast structures observed with diagrams of liver and kidney from
books

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APPARATUS AND MATERIALS:

Microscope
Microscope slides ; liver and kidney

Biology reference books

PROCEDURE:

1. Examine slides of liver and kidney under microscope.


2. Draw labeled diagram of liver and kidney with appropriate magnification.
3. Compare and contrast parts observed with the diagrams of liver and kidney from
books.
4. Answer the related questions given.

RESULTS:

Slide 1: Liver Slide 2: Kidney

Drawing of
major
structures of
liver and
kidney
observed

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Liver under microscope Liver based on books

Compare and
contrast the
major
structures

Kidney under microscope Kidney based on books

Compare and
contrast the
major
structures

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QUESTIONS

1. Name any one major structure of liver observed and state its function.

Structure:

Function: .

2. List three functions of liver.

i)

ii) ..

iii) ..

3. Name the important part of the kidney which is in the form of folded tube.

..

4. Name the three processes involved in urine formation.

i.

ii.

iii.

DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION:
1 Describe briefly the role of liver and kidney in homeostasis

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