Sie sind auf Seite 1von 6



John D. Plaxco Charles S. Myers Thomas M. McCauley
Southern Services, Inc. Westinghouse Electric Corporation Westinghouse Electric Corporation
Birmingham, Alabama Atlanta, Georgia East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Abstract-Careful analysis of diesel generator voltage characteristics is pendent on its short circuit capacity. As can be seen from Fig. 1, the
becoming an important aspect in the selection of units for use in high currents and, consequently, low voltages will continue until the
nuclear power plants. This paper will describe a dynamic stability motor has accelerated close to rated speed. But since motor torque is
analysis of an emergency power system, containing a number of large proportional to the square of its terminal voltage, the acceleration
induction motors, supplied by a diesel driven generator unit. period is lengthened thus prolonging the low voltage condition. Further-
more, while the motor is still accelerating there is the possibility that
INTRODUCTION the load torque and motor torque become equal long before rated speed
is reached. If this happens, the motor will run at this low speed and
Engineers involved in the licensing and design of nuclear power continue to draw extremely high currents from a source whose voltage
plants are well aware of the importance of the electrical system required is severely depressed.
for the safe shutdown of the reactors. The emergency service portion of
the station service auxiliary system must be able to start and supply the
emergency safeguard loads during an accident condition, start and 3.0
supply those required to safely shutdown the reactor, as well as main-
tain the shutdown condition and operate all auxiliaries necessary for
plant safety. R_U. MOTOR CURRENT 6.0
At a nuclear plant, the critical engineered safeguard loads are so
divided among several busses that the failure of any one bus would not o 2-0
prevent a safe shutdown. Each bus is usually supplied from either of
two independent offsite sources. On loss of both offsite sources, each RU. MOTOR TORQUE 4 w
emergency bus would be energized from a diesel driven generator.
Since the protection of equipment and the safety of life is de- 1.0
pendent on the emergency power supplies, the diesel units for a nuclear 2JD a:
plant should be selected with great care. The units must have high re- P. U. LOAD 1TOROU
liability, fast starting capability, sufficient capacity to carry the speci-
fied loads for long lengths of time and have the voltage capability to
0.0 0.5 1.0
accelerate motors quickly and provide for a stable system. To insure
that a diesel unit has this capability, it is essential that an indepth R U. SPEED
study be made. Such a study is described and the results shown in this Fig. 1. Typical induction motor characteristics.
paper, using a digital dynamics stability program.

Induction Motor Starting Studies The analysis is further complicated if there are other running
motors connected to the starting bus. Their torques will also be re-
In any induction motor application two questions always arise: duced during the low voltage period which, if it continues for sufficient
Will the motor start and, if so, how long does it take to reach rated time, will result in their deceleration. Fig. 1 shows that as they slow
speed under various load conditions? The first question is always im- down they will start to draw high currents from the source further
portant. The second is important when there are limitations on the aggravating the low voltage condition.
length of the starting period. The answers to both questions are largely Source voltage regulating devices, motor reactances and inertia all
dictated by the electrical source from which the motors must be started. interact during this starting period in a nonlinear manner that defies
If the source is infinite and the motor torque is greater than load fast accurate analysis of starting performance by hand methods. In
torque at standstill and remains so until motor rated speed is reached, fact, the only methods which can be used successfully to analyze this
the motor will start and accelerate at a rate dependent upon fhe differ- problem require the use of either analogue or digital computers. In the
ence between motor and load torques. The entire analysis can be former case the system is modeled electronically and may be cumber-
carried out with a desk calculator using a simple step-by-step pro- some if several machines and associated controls are involved.
cedure. Other running motors on the starting bus will not affect start- Digital computer dynamic stability programs are well suited to the
ing performance nor will they themselves be affected by the starting analysis of induction motor performance since in addition to model-
motor since the source is infinite. ling the motors themselves, such programs can accurately represent
If, however, the source is weak, the analysis of motor starting system generators, voltage regulating devices, governors and sys-
performance becomes much more complicated. The induction motor tem loads.
characteristics presented in Fig. 1 indicate the cause of this difficulty. The system studied in this paper involves a weak source and is
The starting current drawn from the source by a starting motor which analyzed by means of a digital computer dynamic stability program.
does not have any starting current limiting devices can be as high as The system, machine models and special computational requirements
7 times rated motor current and have a power factor as low as 0.25. are treated in the following sections.
Such high reactive currents depress the source voltage to a degree de-
System and Machine Models
Paper T 72 583-3, recommended and approved by the Power Generation
Committee of the IEEE Power Engineering Society for presentation at the IEEE The System. Fig. 2 shows the emergency power system in a nuclear
PES Summer Meeting, San Francisco, Calif., July 9-14, 1972. Manuscript submitted
February 15, 1972; made available for printing May 16, 1972. power station. It consists of a diesel driven generator of about 4 MVA
0.0089 + jO. 0089 I @M MOTOR I
1.09 MVA
STARTING 0.0084 + jQ0088 _M MOTOR 2 A B C
I XD 1.320 1.140 1. 820

X 0.746 0. 658 1.100

0.0084+ jO.0088 Q
0.61 MVA Xi 0.235 0.135 0.480
Xi 0. 746 0. 658 1.100
0.01 + jO.0108 MOTOR 4 Q
1.0 p. u.
I 1.09 MVA 0.130 0.085 0. 320

0.130 0. 085 0.640

Motors 2 and 4 do not operate simultaneously. X 0. 077 0.050 0. 173
Fig. 2. Emergency power system. X 0.260 0.210 0. 357

and four induction motors whose ratings range from 0.6 MVA to RG 0. 012 0. 010 0. 009
1.09 MVA. The generator is required to start the motors according to T I
4. 780 4. 080 4.340
the sequence of Table I. Three different generator designs and two DO
different exciter ceiling voltages are being considered. TD 0. 090 0.080 0. 030
0.290 0.390 0. 034
H 1.6 2.5 0. 9
Time Load
S* 0.08 0.14 0.08
0.0 sec. start motor 1, 1250 hp
10. 0 sec. start motor 2, 1000 hp S ** 0.28 0.33 0.31
20.0 sec. start motor 3, 700 hp 2
10. 0 min. stop motor 2, 1000 hp MVA BASE 4. 063 4. 063 3.56
12.0 min. start motor 4, 1250 hp
SI is saturation at rated voltage

** S2 is saturation at 120% of rated voltage

Generator Representation
Each of the three generators under consideration is represented in A B C
as detailed a manner as the available data permits. Transient and sub- 200 200
transient circuits are represented on the direct axis and subtransient KA 200 200
circuits are modeled on the quadrature axis. Generator saturation is 0.02 0.02 0.08 0.08
also taken into account. This degree of detail is necessary because it is TA
important for the correct reproduction of motor terminal conditions 5.0 5.0 6.0
to take account of the generator flux variations due to the interaction VFMAX 5.0
between the heavily demagnetizing motor starting current and the flux 0.18
forcing action of the voltage regulator. Modelling of saturation is also VFMIN 0.25 0.25 0.18
important because it limits generator flux, attenuates the corrective KF 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
action of the voltage regulator and hence affects generator internal
voltage which directly influences the power transfer capability between TF 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5
the generator and the motor. Table II lists the data for each of the
three generators.
Excitation System 0. 053 0. 053 0. 053
Both generators A and B are equipped with high speed static 0.150 0. 150 0.150
exciters with ceilings of 5.0 per unit. Two static exciters are considered
for generator C with ceilings of 5.00 and 6.00 per unit respectively. 0.0 0.0 0. 0
The exciters are modeled according to the block diagram of Fig. 3 P0
which is consistent with IEEE recommendations for stability studies [ 1] . 4.36 4.36 4.36
Table II lists the exciter data for each generator. MAX
Speed Governor
The simple speed governor representation of Fig. 3 is employed
merely to permit the generator to pick up the load of each starting
motor. The correct adjustment of the governor is not critical to success- ET1, XM S s

ful starting and no attempt is made here to optimize its performance.

However, without some sort of governor the generator speed would (a)
decay rather rapidly and lead to incorrect results. Table II lists the
governor data. RI XI XEO


VT EFD (b)
Fig. 4. Induction motor equivalent circuits.

Motor electrical torque is dependent on terminal voltage and the

parameters of the equivalent circuit. Using the equivalent circuit of
Fig. 4(b), one form in which the torque equation can be written is
TE = XM ( SRIRI ,ISiIRR) (1)

where ISR and ISI are the real and imaginary components of the stator
P current in per unit, and IRR and IRI are the corresponding components
of rotor current.
GOV. V Load torque is usually speed dependent and it will be assumed to
have the form:

=A+BW+CW2 (2)
Fig. 3. Excitation system and governor block diagrams. where is per unit motor speed and A, B, and C are chosen to fit the
load characteristics.
Motor acceleration is given by the following differential equation:
Induction Motor Representation 2H dW-T
dt E
-T M
The rotor slot design of most induction motors is such that there where H is the combined inertia constant of the motor and its load.
is significant dependence of rotor resistance and leakage reactance on Table III lists the inertia constants, the parameters for the equiva-
speed. This effect must be accounted for in any motor model intended lent circuit of Fig. 4(a), and the coefficients A, B, and C in equation 2
for use over the entire speed range. The equivalent circuit of Fig. 4(a) for each of the four motors.
permits, by an appropriate choice of parameters, the adequate repre- To simulate induction motors by these equations, certain com-
sentation of a variety of motor designs [2]. These parameters will be putational requirements, which will be discussed in the next section,
provided by the motor designer who will, also, usually supply torque- must be met.
speed and current speed curves for rated voltage similar to those shown
in Fig. 1. To complete the motor model, the combined inertia constant
for the motor and its load, and the load torque-speed curve are re- Special Computing Requirements for Induction Motor Studies
quired. Comparison of the load torque-speed and motor torque-speed
curves indicates the accelerating torque available from standstill to Stability studies require load flow and integration calculations,
rated speed if rated motor voltage is assumed. and the accuracy of simulation depends on computing methods, con-
It is worthwhile to have an auxiliary computer program which vergence tolerances, and real time intervals for both load flow and
can develop curves of motor torque and current as functions of speed integration. Induction motor studies generally impose the need for
from the motor constants supplied. Such a program is available to the extra care in performing calculations. An examination of the systems in
authors and its use revealed that the motor constants supplied were in- which induction motors are usually installed and the motor character-
compatible with the torque and current curves supplied. Further work istics will make this clear.
with this program allowed the authors to develop motor constants Typically, induction motors are installed in systems where feeder
which fitted these curves with reasonable accuracy. lengths are measured in hundreds of feet rather than miles, so that net-
The equivalent circuit of Fig. 4(a) can be reduced to the more work impedances tend to be much smaller than machine impedances.
familiar form of Fig. 4(b) if the two rotor circuits of Fig. 4(a) are re- For example, in the system studied here, the parallel impedance from
placed by one whose parameters, REQ and XEQ, are functions of both the generator terminal bus toward the motor buses is approximately
the original values and speed. 0.0043 on the generator base, while the largest generator Xj is 0.480
Induction motor simulation in a digital computer dynamic stability on the same base. In many situations, the ratio of machine impedance
program requires the numerical solution of three basic equations: the to network impedance at machine terminal buses may be several orders
motor electrical torque equation, the load torque equation and the of magnitude. Tkis results in very slow convergence for nodal-iterative
motor accelerating equation. load flow methods, and convergence criteria based on incremental bus
MOTOR DATA Table I shows that Motor 4 is to be started about 12 minutes after
the other motors have started and 2 minutes after Motor 2 has been
MOTOR 1 MOTOR 2 MOTOR 3 MOTOR 4 stopped. This suggests that for study purposes the starting operation
can be broken into two sequences. The first of these will span the time
R1 0.011' 0.011 0. 011 0.011 required to start Motors 1, 2, and 3 and the second will start at 12
minutes and continue until Motor 4 has started. Furthermore, estimates
x1 0. 079 0.083 0. 083 0.079 of the motor starting times (less than 2 seconds) indicates that a 5
second interval between starts in the first sequence would be adequate.
XM 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.25 Each of the three generators under consideration was required to
carry out two starting sequences to allow a decision to be made on the
x 0. 052 0.052 0.052 0. 052 final choice of machine and excitation system. The load torque of each
motor as a function of speed is given by equation 3 and the appropriate
R 0.043 0. 043 0. 043 0. 043 constants in Table II.
In the first sequence the generator is required to start motor 1 at
x 0. 071 0.071 0. 071 .0.071 t = 0.0 and at 5 second intervals motors 2 and 3. Fig. 5 summarizes the
R 0.011 0.011 0. 011 0. 011
H 0.6 0.682 0. 682 0. 6
w 1.4
MVA 1.09 0.863 0.61 1.09
Coefficients for load-torque equation -J
A 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05
B - 0.13 - 0. 13 - 0. 13 - 0. 13
C 1.09 1.09 1.09 1.09 z

All values in per unit on motor base.


voltage change may cause significant errors. The problem may be re- 1.0
lieved by combining buses, but on large systems this may require con-
siderable additional data preparation effort. More importantly, branch MOTOR J
flows may not be available when buses are combined. The use of
Newton-Raphson techniques for load balance in the stability program 0o0
virtually eliminates this problem even when very small convergence LO

tolerances are used. a

A second factor requiring attention is that many motors and their :

U) / M OTOR 2
loads have relatively small mechanical time constants. This is due to the 0.0
fact that inertia constants are small, and the rate-of-change of torque 0

is high. A formula for estimating the minimum mechanical time con- 1.0
stant, which occurs for a running motor ait zero slip, is derived in n:
Appendix A and is: MOTOR 3 y -

0.0 L
0 5 to 15
T = 2H R
Fig. 5. Performances of the starting motors with each of the generators
where H is the inertia constant of combined motor and its load and in the first starting sequence.
REQ is the equivalent rotor resistance at zero slip, both on a common
mva base. Motor inertia constants are frequently in the neighborhood results of this sequence for each generator. It is evident that both
of 0.5 (compared to 3 which is typical of turbine-generators) and REQ generators A and B with exciter ceilings of 5.0 p.u. successfully com-
is typically 0.01 for low slip motors. Thus the mechanical time con- plete the starting sequence, while generator C with a ceiling of 6.0 does
stant may be about 10 milliseconds. For this study, a numerical integra- not. Generator C is unable to start motor 3 quickly enough and con-
tion interval of one millisecond and a load flow interval of two milli- sequently the depressed voltage conditions indicated in Fig. 5 persist
seconds were used. long enough to cause motors 2 and 3 to slow down. The voltage
From these considerations it is evident that the successful applica- excursions experienced by the system are most severe when generator
tion of digital computer dynamic stability programs in induction motor C is used. Of the two generators which successfully completed the
studies requires that a fine tolerance Newton-Raphson load flow solu- starting sequence, generator B produces the smallest voltage fluctuation
tion technique be employed and that account be taken of motor charac- 14.0% compared to 22% for generator A. Generator B also starts
teristics in specifying load flow interval and integration step size. the motors slightly faster than does A.
Ideally, programs should contain checks to ensure that these values are Irt the second sequence motors 1 and 3 are assumed to be running
compatible with motor characteristics. at rated load and speed, and motor 4, which is the same size as 1, is to

be started. Fig. 6 presents the results of this sequence for each of the SECONDS
generators. Once again generators A and B successfully start motor 4. 9 5I I
Generator C with either a 5.0 p.u. or 6.0 p.u. exciter ceiling does not.
In this case also, the running motors slow down when generator C is LO -

used. The relationship between voltage fluctuations is about the same as a

LId 0.9

in the first starting sequence with generator B giving the least. IL i

Fig. 7 shows a comparison of the performance of one of the run- 0.8 -

ning motors when generator C is used as opposed to A or B. When a.

'l< ----
either A or B is used the motor starts quickly, the terminal voltage,
after an initial drop and an almost equal overshoot at pull-in, returns to 0.6-
normal, the reactive power requirements of the starting motor, after an 0.5- III
initial 4-5 MVAR demand, returns to normal on startup and neither the I*-<-***-*--------v-----@-@
speed nor the reactive requirements of the running motors vary signifi- -- v-

cantly. By contrast when generator C is used and the motor fails to start
quickly the slip and reactive demands of the running motors increase
greatly both reaching values comparable to those of the starting motor. 0 1.0 I

g 0.8
0 CL6 -

9 5 10
0 \,.& ..
0.4 -

LO Q2- - GEN A (VFM. 5.0)

Id as QO GEN B (VFMAX 5.0)
(0 _- GEN C (VFMAX 5.0)
0.6 ..... GEN
0 . C (VFMAX =6.0)
0L 0.4 1.5
0.2 O
a 1.0*

. 1-

I 1.0 2 Q
0 / _ _ _ _

b 08
0 0 10
> 0.6- SECON DS

I-0.4 -
Fig. 7. Performance of Motor 3, when Motor 4 is being started with
i 0.2 each of the generators in the second starting sequence.
GEN B (VFMAX '5.0)
This study demonstrates the capability of a properly applied
dynamic stability program to analyze induction motor problems in
2 --- GEN C tVFL= z 5.0)
a industrial systems.
.GEN C (VF MAX -6.0)
a 5.0-
4.0 - &(II
[11 IEEE Committee Report, "Computer Representation of Excitation
Systems," IEEE Transactions Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol.
a: Cc 3.0 PAS-87, No. 6, 1460-1464 (1968) June.
4 @-.-
2 2.0- I [2] Alger, P. L., "The Nature of Polyphase Induction Machines,"
....II (book) p. 253, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., New York, 1951.
R.0 1. I III
0 5 10 Estimate of Induction Motor Mechanical Time Constant
The acceleration equation for an induction motor is:
Fig. 6. Performance of the starting motor, Motor 4, with each of the 2HpW =T (A-1)
generators in the second starting sequence. r a

CONCLUSIONS where H is the inertia constant of motor and load, p is the differential
operator, wr is per unit rotor speed, and Ta is per unit accelerating
Based on the test results generator B gives the best starting per- torque. Neglecting the magnetizing path, per unit power delivered to
formance for both sequences in terms of lowest voltage fluctuations the rotor resistance is approximately
and fastest motor starting. 2
The difference between the three generators' abilities to start the E S Rr (A-2)
motors successfully seems to lie in the difference in their impedances 2
R +S
and inertias rather than in the exciter ceilings used.
where S is slip, Rr is per unit rotor resistance, and X is the combined For a conservative estimate of mechanical time constant, assume rated
stator and rotor leakage reactance. The developed rotor torque is voltage and neglect load torque except for inertial effects. Then
given by: E2 SR r Ta = Tr and equation (A-1) may be written
T = 1 - Wr
r(l -S) (Rr2 S2 X2) (A-3)
2HpWr= r R

In the vicinity of zero slip, the rate-of-change of developed torque with or

respect to slip is greatest and motor torque may be approximated:
2 rp) Wrr I
(I1+2HR =r
T =E S (A4) Thus
r Rr MECH r (A-7)