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May 05, 2017

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John D. Plaxco Charles S. Myers Thomas M. McCauley

Southern Services, Inc. Westinghouse Electric Corporation Westinghouse Electric Corporation

Birmingham, Alabama Atlanta, Georgia East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Abstract-Careful analysis of diesel generator voltage characteristics is pendent on its short circuit capacity. As can be seen from Fig. 1, the

becoming an important aspect in the selection of units for use in high currents and, consequently, low voltages will continue until the

nuclear power plants. This paper will describe a dynamic stability motor has accelerated close to rated speed. But since motor torque is

analysis of an emergency power system, containing a number of large proportional to the square of its terminal voltage, the acceleration

induction motors, supplied by a diesel driven generator unit. period is lengthened thus prolonging the low voltage condition. Further-

more, while the motor is still accelerating there is the possibility that

INTRODUCTION the load torque and motor torque become equal long before rated speed

is reached. If this happens, the motor will run at this low speed and

Engineers involved in the licensing and design of nuclear power continue to draw extremely high currents from a source whose voltage

plants are well aware of the importance of the electrical system required is severely depressed.

for the safe shutdown of the reactors. The emergency service portion of

the station service auxiliary system must be able to start and supply the

emergency safeguard loads during an accident condition, start and 3.0

supply those required to safely shutdown the reactor, as well as main-

tain the shutdown condition and operate all auxiliaries necessary for

plant safety. R_U. MOTOR CURRENT 6.0

At a nuclear plant, the critical engineered safeguard loads are so

divided among several busses that the failure of any one bus would not o 2-0

prevent a safe shutdown. Each bus is usually supplied from either of

two independent offsite sources. On loss of both offsite sources, each RU. MOTOR TORQUE 4 w

c

emergency bus would be energized from a diesel driven generator.

Since the protection of equipment and the safety of life is de- 1.0

pendent on the emergency power supplies, the diesel units for a nuclear 2JD a:

plant should be selected with great care. The units must have high re- P. U. LOAD 1TOROU

liability, fast starting capability, sufficient capacity to carry the speci-

fied loads for long lengths of time and have the voltage capability to

0.0 0.5 1.0

accelerate motors quickly and provide for a stable system. To insure

that a diesel unit has this capability, it is essential that an indepth R U. SPEED

study be made. Such a study is described and the results shown in this Fig. 1. Typical induction motor characteristics.

paper, using a digital dynamics stability program.

Induction Motor Starting Studies The analysis is further complicated if there are other running

motors connected to the starting bus. Their torques will also be re-

In any induction motor application two questions always arise: duced during the low voltage period which, if it continues for sufficient

Will the motor start and, if so, how long does it take to reach rated time, will result in their deceleration. Fig. 1 shows that as they slow

speed under various load conditions? The first question is always im- down they will start to draw high currents from the source further

portant. The second is important when there are limitations on the aggravating the low voltage condition.

length of the starting period. The answers to both questions are largely Source voltage regulating devices, motor reactances and inertia all

dictated by the electrical source from which the motors must be started. interact during this starting period in a nonlinear manner that defies

If the source is infinite and the motor torque is greater than load fast accurate analysis of starting performance by hand methods. In

torque at standstill and remains so until motor rated speed is reached, fact, the only methods which can be used successfully to analyze this

the motor will start and accelerate at a rate dependent upon fhe differ- problem require the use of either analogue or digital computers. In the

ence between motor and load torques. The entire analysis can be former case the system is modeled electronically and may be cumber-

carried out with a desk calculator using a simple step-by-step pro- some if several machines and associated controls are involved.

cedure. Other running motors on the starting bus will not affect start- Digital computer dynamic stability programs are well suited to the

ing performance nor will they themselves be affected by the starting analysis of induction motor performance since in addition to model-

motor since the source is infinite. ling the motors themselves, such programs can accurately represent

If, however, the source is weak, the analysis of motor starting system generators, voltage regulating devices, governors and sys-

performance becomes much more complicated. The induction motor tem loads.

characteristics presented in Fig. 1 indicate the cause of this difficulty. The system studied in this paper involves a weak source and is

The starting current drawn from the source by a starting motor which analyzed by means of a digital computer dynamic stability program.

does not have any starting current limiting devices can be as high as The system, machine models and special computational requirements

7 times rated motor current and have a power factor as low as 0.25. are treated in the following sections.

Such high reactive currents depress the source voltage to a degree de-

System and Machine Models

Paper T 72 583-3, recommended and approved by the Power Generation

Committee of the IEEE Power Engineering Society for presentation at the IEEE The System. Fig. 2 shows the emergency power system in a nuclear

PES Summer Meeting, San Francisco, Calif., July 9-14, 1972. Manuscript submitted

February 15, 1972; made available for printing May 16, 1972. power station. It consists of a diesel driven generator of about 4 MVA

330

0.0089 + jO. 0089 I @M MOTOR I

1.09 MVA

TABLE II. GENERATOR, EXCITATION SYSTEM

AND GOVERNOR DATA

GENERATOR DATA

STARTING 0.0084 + jQ0088 _M MOTOR 2 A B C

GENERATOR 0.863 MVA

I XD 1.320 1.140 1. 820

0.0084+ jO.0088 Q

eM MOTOR 3

0.61 MVA Xi 0.235 0.135 0.480

D

Xi 0. 746 0. 658 1.100

0.01 + jO.0108 MOTOR 4 Q

1.0 p. u.

I 1.09 MVA 0.130 0.085 0. 320

IMPEDANCES ON 4 MVA BASE. Q

Motors 2 and 4 do not operate simultaneously. X 0. 077 0.050 0. 173

L

Fig. 2. Emergency power system. X 0.260 0.210 0. 357

p

and four induction motors whose ratings range from 0.6 MVA to RG 0. 012 0. 010 0. 009

1.09 MVA. The generator is required to start the motors according to T I

4. 780 4. 080 4.340

the sequence of Table I. Three different generator designs and two DO

different exciter ceiling voltages are being considered. TD 0. 090 0.080 0. 030

DO

0.290 0.390 0. 034

TABLE I. STARTING SEQUENCE

H 1.6 2.5 0. 9

Time Load

S* 0.08 0.14 0.08

1

0.0 sec. start motor 1, 1250 hp

10. 0 sec. start motor 2, 1000 hp S ** 0.28 0.33 0.31

20.0 sec. start motor 3, 700 hp 2

10. 0 min. stop motor 2, 1000 hp MVA BASE 4. 063 4. 063 3.56

12.0 min. start motor 4, 1250 hp

SI is saturation at rated voltage

*

Generator Representation

EXCITATION SYSTEM DATA

Each of the three generators under consideration is represented in A B C

as detailed a manner as the available data permits. Transient and sub- 200 200

transient circuits are represented on the direct axis and subtransient KA 200 200

circuits are modeled on the quadrature axis. Generator saturation is 0.02 0.02 0.08 0.08

also taken into account. This degree of detail is necessary because it is TA

important for the correct reproduction of motor terminal conditions 5.0 5.0 6.0

to take account of the generator flux variations due to the interaction VFMAX 5.0

between the heavily demagnetizing motor starting current and the flux 0.18

forcing action of the voltage regulator. Modelling of saturation is also VFMIN 0.25 0.25 0.18

important because it limits generator flux, attenuates the corrective KF 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05

action of the voltage regulator and hence affects generator internal

voltage which directly influences the power transfer capability between TF 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

the generator and the motor. Table II lists the data for each of the

three generators.

GOVERNOR DATA

A B C

Excitation System 0. 053 0. 053 0. 053

K1

Both generators A and B are equipped with high speed static 0.150 0. 150 0.150

exciters with ceilings of 5.0 per unit. Two static exciters are considered

for generator C with ceilings of 5.00 and 6.00 per unit respectively. 0.0 0.0 0. 0

The exciters are modeled according to the block diagram of Fig. 3 P0

which is consistent with IEEE recommendations for stability studies [ 1] . 4.36 4.36 4.36

Table II lists the exciter data for each generator. MAX

331

Speed Governor

RI iX XB XA

The simple speed governor representation of Fig. 3 is employed

merely to permit the generator to pick up the load of each starting

motor. The correct adjustment of the governor is not critical to success- ET1, XM S s

S

However, without some sort of governor the generator speed would (a)

decay rather rapidly and lead to incorrect results. Table II lists the

governor data. RI XI XEO

VT EFD (b)

Fig. 4. Induction motor equivalent circuits.

parameters of the equivalent circuit. Using the equivalent circuit of

Fig. 4(b), one form in which the torque equation can be written is

EXCITATION SYSTEM

TE = XM ( SRIRI ,ISiIRR) (1)

where ISR and ISI are the real and imaginary components of the stator

P current in per unit, and IRR and IRI are the corresponding components

of rotor current.

GOV. V Load torque is usually speed dependent and it will be assumed to

have the form:

GOVERNOR T

M

=A+BW+CW2 (2)

Fig. 3. Excitation system and governor block diagrams. where is per unit motor speed and A, B, and C are chosen to fit the

load characteristics.

Motor acceleration is given by the following differential equation:

Induction Motor Representation 2H dW-T

dt E

-T M

(3)

The rotor slot design of most induction motors is such that there where H is the combined inertia constant of the motor and its load.

is significant dependence of rotor resistance and leakage reactance on Table III lists the inertia constants, the parameters for the equiva-

speed. This effect must be accounted for in any motor model intended lent circuit of Fig. 4(a), and the coefficients A, B, and C in equation 2

for use over the entire speed range. The equivalent circuit of Fig. 4(a) for each of the four motors.

permits, by an appropriate choice of parameters, the adequate repre- To simulate induction motors by these equations, certain com-

sentation of a variety of motor designs [2]. These parameters will be putational requirements, which will be discussed in the next section,

provided by the motor designer who will, also, usually supply torque- must be met.

speed and current speed curves for rated voltage similar to those shown

in Fig. 1. To complete the motor model, the combined inertia constant

for the motor and its load, and the load torque-speed curve are re- Special Computing Requirements for Induction Motor Studies

quired. Comparison of the load torque-speed and motor torque-speed

curves indicates the accelerating torque available from standstill to Stability studies require load flow and integration calculations,

rated speed if rated motor voltage is assumed. and the accuracy of simulation depends on computing methods, con-

It is worthwhile to have an auxiliary computer program which vergence tolerances, and real time intervals for both load flow and

can develop curves of motor torque and current as functions of speed integration. Induction motor studies generally impose the need for

from the motor constants supplied. Such a program is available to the extra care in performing calculations. An examination of the systems in

authors and its use revealed that the motor constants supplied were in- which induction motors are usually installed and the motor character-

compatible with the torque and current curves supplied. Further work istics will make this clear.

with this program allowed the authors to develop motor constants Typically, induction motors are installed in systems where feeder

which fitted these curves with reasonable accuracy. lengths are measured in hundreds of feet rather than miles, so that net-

The equivalent circuit of Fig. 4(a) can be reduced to the more work impedances tend to be much smaller than machine impedances.

familiar form of Fig. 4(b) if the two rotor circuits of Fig. 4(a) are re- For example, in the system studied here, the parallel impedance from

placed by one whose parameters, REQ and XEQ, are functions of both the generator terminal bus toward the motor buses is approximately

the original values and speed. 0.0043 on the generator base, while the largest generator Xj is 0.480

Induction motor simulation in a digital computer dynamic stability on the same base. In many situations, the ratio of machine impedance

program requires the numerical solution of three basic equations: the to network impedance at machine terminal buses may be several orders

motor electrical torque equation, the load torque equation and the of magnitude. Tkis results in very slow convergence for nodal-iterative

motor accelerating equation. load flow methods, and convergence criteria based on incremental bus

332

TABLE III. INDUCTION MOTOR, AND LOAD TORQUE DATA Test Cases and Results

MOTOR DATA Table I shows that Motor 4 is to be started about 12 minutes after

the other motors have started and 2 minutes after Motor 2 has been

MOTOR 1 MOTOR 2 MOTOR 3 MOTOR 4 stopped. This suggests that for study purposes the starting operation

can be broken into two sequences. The first of these will span the time

R1 0.011' 0.011 0. 011 0.011 required to start Motors 1, 2, and 3 and the second will start at 12

minutes and continue until Motor 4 has started. Furthermore, estimates

x1 0. 079 0.083 0. 083 0.079 of the motor starting times (less than 2 seconds) indicates that a 5

second interval between starts in the first sequence would be adequate.

XM 4.25 4.25 4.25 4.25 Each of the three generators under consideration was required to

carry out two starting sequences to allow a decision to be made on the

x 0. 052 0.052 0.052 0. 052 final choice of machine and excitation system. The load torque of each

B

motor as a function of speed is given by equation 3 and the appropriate

R 0.043 0. 043 0. 043 0. 043 constants in Table II.

B

In the first sequence the generator is required to start motor 1 at

x 0. 071 0.071 0. 071 .0.071 t = 0.0 and at 5 second intervals motors 2 and 3. Fig. 5 summarizes the

A

R 0.011 0.011 0. 011 0. 011

A SECONDS

15

H 0.6 0.682 0. 682 0. 6

w 1.4

0

MVA 1.09 0.863 0.61 1.09

BASE

Coefficients for load-torque equation -J

4

z

i

A 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05

0:

B - 0.13 - 0. 13 - 0. 13 - 0. 13

4

w

C 1.09 1.09 1.09 1.09 z

w

0

0.5

voltage change may cause significant errors. The problem may be re- 1.0

lieved by combining buses, but on large systems this may require con-

siderable additional data preparation effort. More importantly, branch MOTOR J

flows may not be available when buses are combined. The use of

Newton-Raphson techniques for load balance in the stability program 0o0

virtually eliminates this problem even when very small convergence LO

U) / M OTOR 2

loads have relatively small mechanical time constants. This is due to the 0.0

w

fact that inertia constants are small, and the rate-of-change of torque 0

is high. A formula for estimating the minimum mechanical time con- 1.0

stant, which occurs for a running motor ait zero slip, is derived in n:

Appendix A and is: MOTOR 3 y -

0.0 L

0 5 to 15

T = 2H R

TMECH. EQ SECONDS

Fig. 5. Performances of the starting motors with each of the generators

where H is the inertia constant of combined motor and its load and in the first starting sequence.

REQ is the equivalent rotor resistance at zero slip, both on a common

mva base. Motor inertia constants are frequently in the neighborhood results of this sequence for each generator. It is evident that both

of 0.5 (compared to 3 which is typical of turbine-generators) and REQ generators A and B with exciter ceilings of 5.0 p.u. successfully com-

is typically 0.01 for low slip motors. Thus the mechanical time con- plete the starting sequence, while generator C with a ceiling of 6.0 does

stant may be about 10 milliseconds. For this study, a numerical integra- not. Generator C is unable to start motor 3 quickly enough and con-

tion interval of one millisecond and a load flow interval of two milli- sequently the depressed voltage conditions indicated in Fig. 5 persist

seconds were used. long enough to cause motors 2 and 3 to slow down. The voltage

From these considerations it is evident that the successful applica- excursions experienced by the system are most severe when generator

tion of digital computer dynamic stability programs in induction motor C is used. Of the two generators which successfully completed the

studies requires that a fine tolerance Newton-Raphson load flow solu- starting sequence, generator B produces the smallest voltage fluctuation

tion technique be employed and that account be taken of motor charac- 14.0% compared to 22% for generator A. Generator B also starts

teristics in specifying load flow interval and integration step size. the motors slightly faster than does A.

Ideally, programs should contain checks to ensure that these values are Irt the second sequence motors 1 and 3 are assumed to be running

compatible with motor characteristics. at rated load and speed, and motor 4, which is the same size as 1, is to

333

be started. Fig. 6 presents the results of this sequence for each of the SECONDS

generators. Once again generators A and B successfully start motor 4. 9 5I I

Generator C with either a 5.0 p.u. or 6.0 p.u. exciter ceiling does not.

In this case also, the running motors slow down when generator C is LO -

LId 0.9

t'

Fig. 7 shows a comparison of the performance of one of the run- 0.8 -

'l< ----

0.7-

either A or B is used the motor starts quickly, the terminal voltage,

after an initial drop and an almost equal overshoot at pull-in, returns to 0.6-

normal, the reactive power requirements of the starting motor, after an 0.5- III

initial 4-5 MVAR demand, returns to normal on startup and neither the I*-<-***-*--------v-----@-@

__,_

speed nor the reactive requirements of the running motors vary signifi- -- v-

cantly. By contrast when generator C is used and the motor fails to start

1.2

quickly the slip and reactive demands of the running motors increase

greatly both reaching values comparable to those of the starting motor. 0 1.0 I

g 0.8

0

SECONDS

a:

0 CL6 -

9 5 10

0 \,.& ..

L

0.4 -

Id

C'

Id as QO GEN B (VFMAX 5.0)

0.

(0 _- GEN C (VFMAX 5.0)

0.6 ..... GEN

0 . C (VFMAX =6.0)

I-

0L 0.4 1.5

0.2 O

z

4

0.0

a 1.0*

----

a

........

. 1-

1.2

-1I

I 1.0 2 Q

0

0 / _ _ _ _

b 08

0 0 10

> 0.6- SECON DS

--.

I-0.4 -

Fig. 7. Performance of Motor 3, when Motor 4 is being started with

i 0.2 each of the generators in the second starting sequence.

GEN A (VFMAX 5.0)

GEN B (VFMAX '5.0)

This study demonstrates the capability of a properly applied

dynamic stability program to analyze induction motor problems in

2 --- GEN C tVFL= z 5.0)

a industrial systems.

.GEN C (VF MAX -6.0)

a 5.0-

z REFERENCES

4.0 - &(II

:1

7-

[11 IEEE Committee Report, "Computer Representation of Excitation

Systems," IEEE Transactions Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol.

i:1

a: Cc 3.0 PAS-87, No. 6, 1460-1464 (1968) June.

4 @-.-

2 2.0- I [2] Alger, P. L., "The Nature of Polyphase Induction Machines,"

....II (book) p. 253, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., New York, 1951.

R.0 1. I III

APPENDIX A

022.0

0 5 10 Estimate of Induction Motor Mechanical Time Constant

SECONDS

The acceleration equation for an induction motor is:

Fig. 6. Performance of the starting motor, Motor 4, with each of the 2HpW =T (A-1)

generators in the second starting sequence. r a

CONCLUSIONS where H is the inertia constant of motor and load, p is the differential

operator, wr is per unit rotor speed, and Ta is per unit accelerating

Based on the test results generator B gives the best starting per- torque. Neglecting the magnetizing path, per unit power delivered to

formance for both sequences in terms of lowest voltage fluctuations the rotor resistance is approximately

and fastest motor starting. 2

The difference between the three generators' abilities to start the E S Rr (A-2)

motors successfully seems to lie in the difference in their impedances 2

R +S

and inertias rather than in the exciter ceilings used.

334

where S is slip, Rr is per unit rotor resistance, and X is the combined For a conservative estimate of mechanical time constant, assume rated

stator and rotor leakage reactance. The developed rotor torque is voltage and neglect load torque except for inertial effects. Then

given by: E2 SR r Ta = Tr and equation (A-1) may be written

T = 1 - Wr

r(l -S) (Rr2 S2 X2) (A-3)

2HpWr= r R

Rr

(A-5)

(A-6)

respect to slip is greatest and motor torque may be approximated:

2 rp) Wrr I

(I1+2HR =r

TMC

T =E S (A4) Thus

r Rr MECH r (A-7)

335

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