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# 18/9/2014 Oasis, Online Abstract Submission and Invitation System - Review

Control 25
Number:
Title: Minimizing Grit Disposal Costs
Presenter: Markus Roediger, Dr. Roediger Consult; Wolfgang Branner, Huber SE
Topic 1: F. Solids Minimization
Topic 2: H. Residuals and Product Issues (Quality, Marketing, and Use)
Keyword 2: Grit Treatment
Keyword 3: Grit washing
Presentation Podium
Preference:
Abstract Minimizing Grit Disposal Costs
Body: M. Roediger, W. Branner
Problem
Grit slurry from grit chambers contains organic solids. Grit classifiers separate some organic
solids and water from the slurry, but the product still contains around 20 % organic dry solids
and 50 % water (by weight). It is odorous and attractive to pathogen vectors. Transport and
disposal are expensive.
Goals and Objectives
If virtually all organic solids could be removed from the grit slurry, the product would be
virtually odourless and its mass would be reduced by 70% to 90 % depending on their organic
content.
Solution
Fluidized bed grit washers (Fig. 1) achieve the stated goals and objectives. They remove
organics from grit particles due to turbulent flow and high shear forces within the fluidized bed.
Stratification of layers in a fluidized bed does not depend on the size and settling velocity of
particles, but only on their specific density. Mineral grit particles have a far higher density than
organic solids. Even very small grit particles thus accumulate in the bottom layer of a fluidized
bed while organic particles are either washed out at the top or form another layer above the grit
layer. Washed grit is periodically removed from the bottom and organic slurry is returned near
the top. A screen removes larger organic particles from this slurry before it is returned to the grit
chamber.
Well washed grit (Fig 2) contains less than 3 % organics and below 10 % water. The capture
rate of 0.2 mm diameter (approx. 75 mesh) grit particles is above 95 %. Grit washers must have
at least the same grit capture rate as grit traps. The clean grit does not need to be disposed, it can
be used as construction material, e.g. for road or pipe bedding.
Conclusions
An exemplary cost and savings calculation will also be presented. Typical return of
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## investment periods are 3 to 5 years.

Figure 1: Principal sketch of a fluidized bed grit washer
Figure 2: Washed grit product at a wastewater treatment plant

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Control 53
Number:
Title: Effect of Ultrasonic and Ozone Pre-treatments on Pharmaceutical Waste Activated Sludge
Presenter: Jin Pei, Beijing Jiaotong University; Hong Yao, Beijing Jiaotong University; Lanqianya Ma,
Beijing Jiaotong University; Xiaohua Yu, Beijing Jiaotong University; Hui Wang, Beijing
Jiaotong University
Topic 1: F. Solids Minimization
Topic 2: C. Bioenergy from Residuals
Keyword 1: ultrasounds
Keyword 2: ozone
Keyword 3: anaerobic digestion
Presentation Poster
Preference:
Abstract In order to enhance the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, the effects of ultrasonic and ozone
Body: pre-treatments have been studied on pharmaceutical waste activated sludge. The feature of this
study was to carry out the comparison of the two pre-treatments on their optimum conditions
(ultrasound energy of 420,000 kJ/kg TS; ozone dose of 0.1 g O3/g TS), when the disintegration
degrees were almost the same (30.01% and 28.10%, respectively). Batch anaerobic digestion
tests were carried out with three parallel digesters: one reactor, as control unit, was fed with
untreated pharmaceutical waste activated sludge, and the other two was fed with disintegrated
sludge by pre-treatments. In terms of sludge reduction, after ozonation the sludge solid
concentration and volatile solid concentration decreased by 12.4% and 25.46%, respectively,
while sonication had little influence on mineral matter. In terms of batch anaerobic
biodegradability, best result was obtained with sonicated sludge, while the result of ozonated
sludge was even worse than that of the untreated one. In order to explore the reasons why ozone
pre-treatment inhibited the anaerobic biodegradability, changes of oxidation-reduction potentials
(ORPs) and release of heavy metals from solid phase into liquid phase by the pre-treatments
were investigated. During sonication, ORP of the sludge remained around -180mV. During
ozonation, ORP of the sludge increased dramatically to 359mV, and a little dropped to 157mV 8
hours later after the end of reaction. This value was much higher than the optimum value for
anaerobic digestion (<-100mV). Results of several heavy metals changes in the liquid phase
showed that both pre-treatments released heavy metals in different extent, and some elements,
such as Fe, Cu, could be high due to the original high concentration in the pharmaceutical waste
sludge. The biggest difference after the two pre-treatments was the concentration of Cu in the
liquid phase: 0.530mg/L in the untreated sludge, 0.991mg/L in the sonicated sludge and
6.640mg/L in the ozonated sludge. Batch anaerobic digestion then was carried out to investigate
the effect of copper concentrations on anaerobic biodegradability. Results suggested copper
concentrations of 1mg/L had positive effect on cumulative methane production, but 6mg/L
showed negative effect compared to the control one (untreated sludge with Cu concentration of
0.5mg/L). Moreover, treatments had effects on median diameter of sludge sample, which was
reduced after sonication and had little change after ozonation.

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Control 85
Number:
Title: Sludge Degrading Worms Are Driven By Their Intestinal Bacterial Community
Presenter: S L. De Valk, Delft University of Technology; A F. Khadem, Delft University of Technology;
M K. de Kreuk, Delft University of Technology; J B. van Lier, Delft University of
Technology
Topic 1: F. Solids Minimization
Topic 2: D. Nutrient and Resource Recovery
Keyword 1: worm predation
Keyword 2: sludge reduction
Keyword 3: enzyme activity
Presentation Podium
Preference:
Abstract Sludge degrading worms are driven by their intestinal bacterial community.
Body: Introduction
Excess activated sludge is a by-product of the widely used activated sludge process for waste
water treatment. In order to reduce the costs associated with the amount of excess sludge that
has to be disposed of, several processes have been developed in order to minimize the amount of
excess sludge by lyse-cryptic growth techniques and/or maximize the biogas potential of excess
sludge by increasing hydrolysis rates through pre-treatment processes (Appels et al., 2011;
Khursheed & Kazmi, 2011). One of these is excess sludge reduction by aquatic worms.
The implementation of aquatic worms such as Tubefix tubefix, Lumbriculus variegatus,
Aulophorous furcatus and Lumnodrilus hoffmeisteri have been studied by various authors in
different reactor designs in order to reduce the amount of excess sludge ((Elissen et al., 2010;
Guo et al., 2007; Hendrickx et al., 2011; Rodriguez et al., 2001; Tamis et al., 2011) While most
of the research focuses on implementation of worm technologies, little is known about the
mechanisms behind the increased sludge reduction rates. As aquatic worms contain intestinal
bacteria (Whitley & Seng, 1976) who also contribute to hydrolysis by excreting enzymes, it is
unclear what part of this hydrolytic activity can be attributed to the intestinal bacteria or to the
activity of the aquatic worms themselves. In this presentation the results will be shown
regarding the dependence of T. tubifex on intestinal bacteria for the hydrolysis.
Results and Discussion
Validation of the worm process, where Activated Sludge (AS) was fed to T. tubifex and
compared to Endogenous Respirated (ER) sludge in an aerated batch, revealed that Worm
Predated (WP) sludge had similar characteristics and degradation (table 1 and 2) levels as
reported by other authors: 8 - 60% degradation based on total suspended solids (TSS)
accompanied by an increase in ammonia, nitrite, phosphate and soluble chemical oxygen
demand (COD) (Elissen et al., 2007; Hendrickx et al., 2009; Li et al., 2013; Tamis et al., 2011).
The difference between similar batches can be described to possible differences in feed
activated sludge and the maturity of the worms used.

Table 1: Results of 4 days worm predation on the solid degradation of activated sludge. Total
Suspended Solids (TSS) and Volatile Suspended Solids (VSS) values are expressed as
percentual change compared to the feed activated sludge. Errors are represented as percent point
standard deviations.

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Table 2: Nutrient release after 4 days worm predation of activated sludge. Values are expressed
as the averaged percentual changes compared to the feed activated sludge. Measurements where
done in duplicate.
The rate of sludge degradation is highly dependent on its rate limiting hydrolysis step (Jain et
al., 1992; Vavilin & Rytov, 1996) that in turn is dependent on the enzymatic activity of the exo-
enzymes. Therefore, the activity of several hydrolytic enzymes were measured using
colorimetric substrates (table 3). In correspondence with the increased NO3-NH4-N
concentrations in worm predated sludge samples, the activity of protease in worm predated
samples are higher than the activity in control sludge samples.

Table 3: Results of the enzymatic activities essay. Enzymatic activity values are presented as
absorbance/min/gVS. Error margins were calculated as R2 values in the range of 0.95 - 0.99 and
are omitted for clarity reasons.
Increased activity was associated with the sludge flocs, while the measured activity in the
supernatant was low, 0.001- 0.005 absorbance/min/gVS in all samples. This is in line with the
observations made by, Frlund, et al.1995 and Confer et al., 1998 who concluded that the
enzyme activity is bound to the solid fraction rather than in the bulk liquid. Interestingly, the
activity of the other enzyme classes tested (lipase, -and -glucosidase and phosphatase) was
higher in the original activated sludge that was fed to the worms than in the worm predated
sludge. This suggests that the worms fed on EPS containing the adhered enzymes and/or on the
microorganisms that produced these enzymes.
In order to find the source of the measured enzyme activity, worms were treated with the
antibiotic Streptomycine, where after proteolytic activities were measured, using azocasein as a
substrate (figure 1). Preliminary results using antibiotic treated (but not sterile) worms revealed
a dependence on intestinal bacteria for hydrolysis. Up to 50 hours the absorbance of the
azocasein blanc remains stable. The increased absorbance in the blanc after 50 hours indicates
degradation and thus biological activity in the blanc. Untreated worms showed a faster
azocasein conversion than the treated worms, suggesting that the amount of bacteria affects the

rate of hydrolysis.
Figure 1:Preliminary results of the effect of antibiotic treated worms on the hydrolysis of
azocasein. Graph is the averaged result of duplicate measurements which are represented as
dots.
Conclusion
It appears that the intestinal bacterial community of T. Tubifex, plays an important role in the
degradation of excess activated sludge and that the aquatic worms provide a niche for hydrolytic
bacteria. Sludge is concentrated in the worm intestines and contact between bacteria and sludge
is maximized due to peristaltic movement, resulting in the increased degradation rates
mentioned in literature. In the presentation we will show more data on completely sterile worms
and bacterial community analysis, that should provide the evidence to support the results
presented in this abstract.
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Control 89
Number:
Title: In-situ Sludge Reduction In An Alternating Anaerobic-Anoxic-Microaerobic-Aerobic System
By Lysis-cryptic Growth For Performance Optimization
Presenter: Shanshan Yang, Harbin Institute of Technology, State Key Laboratory of Urban Water
Resource and Environment
Topic 1: F. Solids Minimization
Keyword 1: Sludge reduction
Keyword 2: O3/US lysis-cryptic growth
Keyword 3: effluent organic matter (EfOM)
Presentation Podium
Preference:
Abstract In-situ Sludge Reduction In An Alternating Anaerobic-Anoxic-Microaerobic-Aerobic
Body: System By Lysis-cryptic Growth For Performance Optimization
Yang Shanshan, Guo Wanqian*, Feng Xiaochi, Zhou Xianjiao, Zheng Heshan, Ren Nanqi
*State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of
Technology, Harbin 150090, PR China, catyss@126.com (Yang S.S.).
**State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of
Technology, Harbin 150090, PR China, guowanqian@hit.edu.cn (Guo W.Q.).
Abstract: Enhanced effect of sludge reduction which was induced by an ozone-ultrasound
technology combining an alternating anaerobic-anoxic-microaerobic-aerobic (AAMA+O3/US)
system was found in this study. Cell lysis-cryptic growth metabolism was realized by recycling
the ozone/ultrasound (O3/US) sludge lyses into the anoxic and microaerophilic phases of the
AAMA+O3/US systems. Results indicated that the reduced cumulative discharged sludge yields
in AAMA2,3,4#+O3/US systems (sludge return ratios (r)=30, 60, 90%) were respective 55.94%,
60.48%, and 64.38% more than AAMA1# without O3/US sludge lyses return. Compared to
nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies in AAMA1#, TN and TP removal efficiencies for
AAMA2# were increased by 23.07% and 2.05%, respectively. While the effluent TP removal
efficiencies for both AAMA3# and AAMA3# all showed different degrees of downward trends.
According to the excitation-emission matrix (EEM) and fourier transform infrared (FTIR)
spectra results, the observed effluent fluorescence signal in all the four combined AAMA
systems are associated with soluble microbial products (SMP). Analyses of EEM and FTIR
spectra demonstrated that less refractory SMP which were found to be the fatal defects for
effluent quality were generated from AAMA2# than from AAMA3# and AAMA4#. Noticeable
improvement in the 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride electron transport system (TTC-ETS)
activity could also be observed in AAMA2#. This observation indicated that the microorganisms
acclimatized with a relative low sludge lyses have stimulated the activity of microbe in activated
sludge. For a better-developed sludge reduction system, consideration must be given to both the
excess sludge production and the effluent quality. In this study, considering the process
treatment performances and economic benefits, r of 30% in this AAMA+O3/US system was
recommended.
Keywords: Sludge reduction, O3/US lysis-cryptic growth, effluent organic matter (EfOM)
Introduction
Widespread application of the conventional activated sludge (CAS) process has been employed
to deal with a variety of municipal and industrial sewage. This process has taken an
irreplaceable role in sewage treatment domestic and abroad, however, the generation of waste
activated sludge (WAS) was considerably high, and the management and disposal expenses of
the WAS were costly (Mahmood and Elliott, 2006). According to Guo et al. (2013), in China,
the selected/preferred in-situ sludge reduction processes are sludge reduction technologies based
on uncoupling metabolism; lysis-cryptic growth; worms' predation; and other improved/novel
sludge reduction processes. This study proposed an O3/US lysis-cryptic growth technology
combining an alternating anaerobic-anoxic-microaerophilic-aerobic system (AAMA). Research

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on the optimization of the returned sludge lyses ratio for the stable operation was conducted.
The objectives of this study are (1) to optimize the impacts of different O3/US sludge lyses
return ratios on sludge reduction and ENPR, (2) to analyze the effects of effluent organic
matters (EfOM) composition on system performance by FTIR spectra, and (3) to investigate the
relationship between the activities of microorganisms and the performances of activated sludge
during sewage treatment process. It is expected that the results obtained in this study can
provide a comprehensive basis for the future investigation of an O3/US pretreatment-based
wastewater treatment and sludge reduction system.
Material and Methods
In the AAMA+O3/US system, the DO concentration controlled in the microaerobic phase and
the aerobic phase were respective 0.5 mg/L and 3-4 mg/L. The nitrate from the aerobic phase
was recycled back into the anoxic phase. The effective volumes of the alternating anaerobic,
anoxic, microaerobic and aerobic reactors were respective 0.8, 0.8, 0.8 and 1.6 L. After sludge
domestication period, four identical AAMA+O3/US systems numbered 1#, 2#, 3# and 4# were
maintained in stable states. AAMA1# was performed as the control system without O3/US
sludge lyses return. AAMA2#, AAMA3#, and AAMA4# were performed as the "
AAMA+O3/US systems" with different proportion O3/US sludge lyses return ratios (30%, 60%,
and 90% of discharged excess sludge) recycled into the anoxic and microaerophilic phases by
controlled the sludge return ratio of 1:1. The mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS)
concentration of 3500 mg/L was maintained in four AAMA systems. Excess sludge withdrawal
started when the MLSS concentration exceeded 3500 mg/L. Continuous influent was conducted
by controlling a flow rate of 0.5 L/h.
Results and Conclusions
In this study, comprehensive investigations on the performances of sludge reduction and process
treatment in the AAMA+O3/US systems were conducted. Enhanced sludge reduction and better
effluent qualities were achieved. Compared with AAMA1# (the cumulative discharged excess
sludge of 169.07 g), results indicated that 55.94%, 60.48%, and 64.38% of the reduced
cumulative discharged sludge yields were achieved in AAMA2,3,4#+O3/US systems by coupling
mechanisms of cell lysis-cryptic growth. With the O3/US sludge lyses returned into the anoxic
and microaerophilic phases of the AAMA+O3/US systems, enhanced TN and TP removal
efficiencies were all achieved in the AAMA2#. Considering the overall treatment performances
and economic benefits, r of 30% was recommended in this AAMA+O3/US system. Analyses of
EEM and FTIR spectra indicated that the generation and accumulation of refractory humic-like
and protein-like substances concentrated in the AAMA2# with lower r of 30% had obviously
reduced the adverse impact of effluent quality compared with AAMA3# and AAMA4#. Further
investigations showed that significant positive correlations between the NH4+-N removal
efficiencies and TTC-ETS activities were observed. Different O3/US sludge lyses return ratios
in AAMAs exhibited different TTC-ETS activities. In this study, the comparison of the overall
biological activities in the four combined AAMAs was: AAMA2# > AAMA3# > AAMA4# >
AAMA1#. Noticeable improvement in the TTC-ETS activity in AAMA2# indicated that a small
percentage of sludge lyses returning had stimulate the microbial activity in the AAMA+O3/US
systems.
References
Guo, W.Q., Yang, S.S., Xiang, W.S., Wang, X.J., Ren, N.Q. (2013), Minimization of excess
sludge production by in-situ activated sludge treatment processes-A comprehensive review.
Mahmood, T., Elliott, A. (2006), A review of secondary sludge reduction technologies for the
pulp and paper industry. Water Res., 40(11), 2093-2112.
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Control 96
Number:
Title: Effects of A Metabolic Uncoupler, 3,3,4,5-tetrachlorosalicylanilide (tcs) on Microbial
Electronic Transport System Activity in Sequence Batch Reactors
Presenter: Xiaochi Feng, Harbin Institute of Technology; Wangqian Guo, Harbin Institute of
Technology; Shanshan Yang, Harbin Institute of Technology; Heshan Zheng, Harbin Institute
of Technology; Juanshan Du, Harbin Institute of Technology; Nanqi Ren, Harbin Institute of
Technology
Topic 1: F. Solids Minimization
Keyword 1: sludge reduction
Keyword 2: metabolic uncoupler
Keyword 3: INT-ETS
Presentation Podium
Preference:
Abstract Effects of a metabolic uncoupler, 3,3,4,5-tetrachlorosalicylanilide (TCS) on microbial
Body: electronic transport system activity in sequence batch reactors
Xiao-Chi Feng, Wan-Qian Guo*, Shan-Shan Yang, He-Shan Zheng, Juan-Shan Du, Nan-Qi Ren
State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of
Technology, Harbin 150090, PR China
Abstract
Six parallel sequence batch reactors (SBRs) were operated, with and without TCS addition, to
research the effects of TCS on microbial metabolism. Compared with control reactor, 2-(p-
iodophenyl)-3-(p-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyltetrazolium chloride electronic transport system (INT-
ETS) activities of TCS reactors were apparently inhibited. COD removal efficiencies would be
affected when the concentration of TCS was more than 10 mg/L.
Keywords: sludge reduction, metabolic uncoupler, TCS, INT-ETS
Introduction
In China, wastewater treatment plants generated over 3.48107 tons of dewatered sludge, with
80% water in 2011 , and the currently widely method of excess activated sludge which is limited
for the transportation and treatment fee is difficult to accept in many circumstances. The
metabolic uncoupler addition method is promising because it can be easily fed to the aeration
tank of a wastewater treatment plant and do not need to modify the conventional wastewater
treatment processes or installing expensive facilities.
In previous study, the metabolic uncouplers were considered can inhibit the production of
activated sludge by combining with H+ and destroying the proton gradient. Under normal
conditions, there is a tightly relationship between proton gradient and electron transport system
(ETS) in microorganisms. Therefore, the ETS activity in microorganisms may be obviously
affected by the presence of metabolic uncoupler. In the studied uncouplers, 3,3,4,5-
tetrachlorosalicylanilide (TCS) has been widely investigated and used as a gentle and
environmental benign metabolic uncoupler. The overall aims of this study are to investigate the
effects of TCS on 2-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(p-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyltetrazolium chloride electronic
transport system (INT-ETS) of sludge microorganisms.
Materials and methods
2.1 Cultivation of activated sludge
The activated sludge applied in the investigation was taken from a secondary sedimentation tank
of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (Harbin, China). It was cultivated in a 40-L reactor
using a feed and draw manner with an anoxic-oxic mode at room temperature of 252 oC. The
synthetic wastewater was applied to feed on the cultivation that composed of glucose
(200mg/L), dissolved starch (200 mg/L) (final concentration equal to 400 mg COD mg/L),
NH4Cl (final concentration 25 mg N/L), KH2PO4 (final concentration 12 mg P/L), and other
minerals which contained: MnSO4H2O (1.25 mg/L), MgSO4 (40 mg/L), CaCl2 (5 mg/L),
FeSO47H2O (1.25 mg/L), ZnSO47H2O (1.25 mg/L) and CuSO4 (0.25 mg/L).
2.2 Operation of six sequence batch reactors
Six 2-L batch reactors inoculating with the cultivated activated sludge were operated in batch
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mode in parallel. Reactor 1 (R1) conducted as the control reactor without uncoupler addition.
Reactor 2 (R2), reactor 3 (R3), reactor 4 (R4), reactor 5 (R5) and reactor 6 (R6) were operated
with 1, 10, 20, 40, 60 mg/L TCS. TCS additions were conducted three times per day. The six
SBRs were operated for 7 days at a room temperature of 25 5 oC in 8 h cycle with 15 min for
filling phase, 6 h for aeration phase, 1.5 h for settling phase and 15 min for drawing phase.
2.3 The INT-ETS activity test
According to the modified method, estimate the effects of TCS on the ETS activity of INT-ETS
in the 6 reactors. The homogenized sludge samples of 6 reactors were measured 1h after TCS
Results and discussion
3.1 Inhibitory effects of TCS on microbial INT-ETS activity
Although ETS activity is regarded as an useful indicator to assess the impacts of environmental
substrates, such as Cu2+, Cd2+ and Ni2+, on activated sludge system, up to now, little
information has been reported about the effects of metabolic uncouplers on the ETS activity in
aerobic sludge microorganisms. In this research, INT, was applied as activity indicator to deep
investigate the effects of TCS on ETS activity in sludge microorganisms and to reveal the
changes of microbial metabolism.
Fig. 1 illustrated the different values of INT-ETS in six SBRs and the inhibitory effects of TCS
at different concentrations on INT-ETS activity at 7th day of the continuous operation. Easily
found the apparent decrease of INT-ETS activity caused by TCS addition that implied TCS had
a significant capacity to limit the INT-ETS activity of sludge microorganisms. TCS at 1 mg/L
could effectively inhibit INT-ETS activity about 39.23% and the inhibition gradually weakened
when the concentration of TCS more than 10 mg/L. Additionally considering ETS activity was
significant for the energy synthesis of sludge microorganisms, the energy synthesis should be
also apparently affected by TCS addition. Therefore, the apparent decrease of INT-ETS activity
implied TCS could induce the occurrence of energy uncoupling of sludge microorganisms.
Conclusion
INT-ETS activity was apparently reduced by TCS addition, which implied TCS could
effectively affect ETS activity and induce the occurrence of energy uncoupling of sludge

microorganisms.

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Control 126
Number:
Title: Solar Stabilization and Drying of Sewage Sludge in Small WWTPsA new Process for Energy-,
Cost-, Pathogen and CO2-Reduction
Presenter: Markus Bux, Thermo-System; Reinhard Waimer, PW Plan Consulting
Topic 1: F. Solids Minimization
Topic 2: A. Advances in Stabilization
Keyword 1: Drying
Keyword 2: Stabilization
Keyword 3: Solar
Presentation Podium
Preference:
Abstract By-product of all commercial waste water treatment processes is sewage sludge. This sludge
Body: needs to be stabilized, dewatered and further treated if it shall be used in a beneficial way.
Otherwise a strong smell, a high pathogen content, a low heating value and a sticky nature of the
sludge may be causing significant problems and costs during handling, transportation and
disposal. However, sludge stabilization, dewatering, eventual drying, pathogen reduction and
disposal are causing a high energy consumption, significant CO2-emissions and high costs of up
to 40 % of the total costs of the waste water treatment process.
This situation is especially problematic for smaller waste water treatment plants with aerobic
sludge stabilization because the specific electrical energy consumption and the costs for
dewatering and further treatment are here even higher than in bigger plants. Especially the
blowers of the aeration tanks are causing high costs and CO2-emissions due to the related
energy consumption. For this reason the city of Obersontheim (FRG) has decided to go a
completely new way, when the existing WWTP had to be extended.
Instead of adding a new aeration tank and more blowers a new so called Solar Stabilization
Process (SSP) will be installed. In this new process the sludge will be removed from the existing
aeration tank after a retention time of only 10-15 days. This is sufficient to clean the water to the
required tolerance limits. However, this retention time is not sufficient to stabilize the produced
sludge. The sludge is therefore expected to show a significantly higher content of easy
degradable organics and a high content of typical pathogens. On the other side the reduction of
the retention time from the 25 days claimed by the German Waste Water Association (DWA)
for full stabilization of the sludge to 12,5 days on average is reducing the required tank capacity
and energy consumption by 50 %.
In the following Solar Stabilization Process the not fully stabilized sludge will be continuously
removed from the aeration tank, thickened and dewatered by a small screw press. From the
press the sludge will be directly pumped into a closed solar drying plant at 15-20 % DS. Within
the plant the freshly dewatered sludge is automatically mixed with dried sludge already present.
That way the structure and thus the porosity of the sludge cake is significantly improved and the
fresh material is inoculated by aerobic microorganisms present in the already dried material.
This allows an easy access of oxygen to the whole sludge layer. Furthermore the sludge layer in
the dryer is frequently mixed, turned and aerated by a mechanical mixing device (Electric
Mole). Furthermore air is blown to its surface by speed-controlled ventilators installed in the
drying chamber. Compared to the blowers of an aeration tank the energy consumption is
significantly less, because it is not necessary to overcome the pressure of the water column.
The exhaust air which is removed from the drying chamber is treated in a washer combined with
a biofilter to avoid any potential emission of odors.
Due to the favorable conditions an aerobic degradation of the easy degradable organics and thus
an aerobic solid-stabilization of the sludge takes place. At the same time water is evaporating
from the drying bed and the DS is increasing to up to 90 % DS. The energy required for the
drying process is delivered by solar radiation and the heat produced by the biological
stabilization process. Therefore, the end-product of this so called Solar Stabilization Process is a
fully dry and stabilized sludge.
For reducing the required interactions of the operator to a minimum each process cycle takes up
to one full year. During this cycle time the sludge remains in the dryer. At the end of the cycle
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the continuous sludge feeding process is stopped for about 2-3 weeks to fully dry the whole
batch. Then all the sludge is removed by a wheel loader before the process is started again. If
the process is stopped at the end of the summer, the sludge can easily be dried to 90 % DS or
more. Furthermore timing is then perfect for a use in Agriculture. Each batch can be tested for
pathogens and other which keeps laboratory tests low.
First results from other operating plants where this process is currently tested indicate, that the
content of degradable organics and pathogens can be reduced to a great extent. The end product
is fully dry, stabilized and below the Class A tolerance limits defined by the US-EPA. Also in
terms of total costs, energy consumption and CO2-emissions significant advantages are
expected. However, up to date no results from field measurements have been published.
The full paper will present the process, a cost-comparison, an energy balance and first
operational data from the plant in Obersontheim which is expected to start operation in March
2015.
Authors
Markus Bux is CEO of Thermo-System GmbH (Filderstadt, FRG) and associated Professor
(Privatdozent) at the University of Hohenheim (Stuttgart, FRG). He holds a Ph.D. in Drying
Technology and a State Doctorate Degree (Habilitation) from Hohenheim University. With
more than 50 scientific publications on Solar Sludge Drying he is one of the leading experts in
that field. Contact: mab@thermo-system.com
Reinhard Waimer is CEO of PW Plan Consulting. He is Civil Engineer working in the Waste
Water Business for more than 40 years. Contact: info@pw-plan.de
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Control 141
Number:
Title: Biosolids Reduction At Source Through Process Manipulation-a Step Towards Sustainability
Presenter: Ramesh K. Goel, University of Utah; Pei Huang, University of Utah; Sachiyo Tanaka,
University of Utah
Topic 1: F. Solids Minimization
Topic 2: E. Emerging Issues
Keyword 1: Anaerobiosis
Keyword 2: Sludge reduction
Keyword 3: nutrients
Presentation Podium
Preference:
Abstract SUMMARY: Activated sludge process is the widely used liquid waste treating option that is
Body: being used around the globe. A consortium of organisms, known as prokaryotes, is used to
remove a variety of contaminants from the liquid waste such as the municipal wastewater.
Eventually, after the treatment, the organisms, collectively represented as volatile suspended
solids, need to be separated from the treated wastewater. The separation process generates huge
quantities of solids known as sludge or biosolids. For example, Approximately 8.2 million tons
of sludge was generated in 2010 in the United States, which increased to over 10 million tons in
2012 (Wang et al., 2012). The access sludge generated needs further processing which is cost
and energy intensive. Anaerobic digestion of sludge is a common practice with useful byproduct
in the form of the methane gas but anaerobic digestion can reduce the volume of access sludge
by roughly 50 % thus leaving the other portion for further handling.
Sludge reduction at source through preteartment or anaerobiosis of returned sludge has been
practiced over the past few decades. A very recent development along the same concept was the
Cannibal activated sludge process marketed by SIEMENS Water Technology. The Cannibal
operation basically employs extended digestion of the returned activated sludge and induced
fasting and feasting conditions by recycling a portion of the returned biomass between the main
bioreactor and an anaerobic sidestream reactor. However, inconsistency in sludge reduction and
the lack of nutrient removal component have recently being questioned about Cannibal type of
activated sludge process or in general the processes which aim to achieve a net reduction in
sludge through anaerobiosis.
In this research we report simultaneous sludge reduction and nutrient removal as the basic
theme but alongside, we also report the mechanisms of sludge reduction, the effect of feed
composition (synthetic versus real) and the microbiology. Lastly, we also present a plan about
how the concept like Cannibal can be integrated into todays changing society where the thrust
is to implement source separation of waste and employ decentralized treatment scheme. This
research presents an innovation towards sludge reduction and nutrient removal. The overall
objective of this research was to demonstrate sustainable sludge reduction and nutrient removal,
evaluate mechanisms of sludge reduction and microbial ecology and, finally demonstrate the
usefulness of the developed concept to treat source separated high strength wastewater.
Status of the project: The reactors have been in operation for the past 4 years. The experiments
related to the effect of feed composition on sludge reduction and nutrient removal, carbon mass
balance using C13 and microbial ecology have been completed. The reactors are currently fed
with 100 % real primary effluent from a local wastewater treatment plant. The research is
funded by the National Science Foundations GOALI program.
Important findings: Two 2L bench scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) are operated in
parallel; with conventional mode at 10-day SRT (control-SBR) and sludge minimization mode
(modified-SBR). The details of the SBR setups and the operation protocols are provided
elsewhere (Huang et al., 2014). Both SBRs were initially fed with the synthetic wastewater
following the composition used in Datta et al. (2009). The influent was then changed to primary
effluent from Central Valley Water Reclamation Facility (CVWRF, Utah) in a step-wise manner
(i.e., synthetic/primary effluent of 25/75, 50/50 and 100/0, v/v). Samples were routinely
collected at the end of each period, filtered (0.45m) and analyzed for NO2--N, NO3--N, NH3-
N, PO43--P and COD by the standard methods (APHA, 1985). Carbon mass balance using C13
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spiking and oxygen uptake rates were also performed on biomasses to estimate the possible
mechanisms of sludge reduction. The notion that the sludge minimization activated sludge
processes harvest special bugs was investigated using high throughput whole community
metagenomics. The process is currently being evaluated to treat high strength waste with lots of
inert material in it to simulate the source separation of feces and treating it separately.
When both SBRs were fed with the synthetic wastewater, both reactors achieved an average
PO43--P removal of 85%, NH3-N removal of 100%, approximately 80% total inorganic
nitrogen (TIN) removal, and 100% COD removal. More complete nitrification was observed in
the modified-SBR during the aerobic phase. The modified-SBR generated 60% less biomass
than the control-SBR. When SBRs were fed with CVWRF primary effluent, both reactors
achieved an average 98% NH3-N removal, and 30% TIN removal. In this period, the modified-
SBR yielded almost 48% less biomass (as compared to 60 % with synthetic feed) than the
control-SBR with efficient nitrogen and phosphorus removal demonstrating the effect of feed
composition. After establishing the baseline, the feed to both reactors was slowly changed to the
real primary effluent in a stepwise manner. C13 spiked carbon mass balance results shows that
the sludge minimizing modified SBR was producing more CO2 than in the control SBR. This
demonstrates that the organisms in the modified-SBR were conditioned to assimilate more
carbon quickly (faster metabolism) over a given time period. Furthermore, less C13 partitioned
into the biomass in the modified-SBR than in the control-SBR. Specific oxygen uptake rates
demonstrated the ability of biomass from the modified-SBR to consume more oxygen than the
one from the control-SBR, which aligns well with the finding that the modified-SBR generates
more CO2.
The preliminary results from metagenome analysis show raw nucleotide sequence datasets for
control and modified-SBR fed with synthetic wastewater containing 1,867,162 and 3,259,883
reads, respectively, with an average length of 258 bps were uploaded to MG-RAST. According
to the result at the phylum level, the Proteobacteria was the most predominant phylum in both
SBRs, 86.5% in control-SBR and 56.8% in modified-SBR. Modified-SBR contained more than
twice (34.1%) alphaproteocateria compared to the control-SBR (14.9%), while control-SBR had
more betaproteobacteria than modified-SBR. There were 3.9% and 27.8% Bacteroidetes in
control-SBR and modified-SBR, respectively. These results clearly demonstrates that the sludge
minimizing reactors running in sludge anaerobiosis mode selects for different community. This
is the first research showing such a finding.
Currently, we are conducting the batch tests to evaluate the Monod biokientic parameters such
that design practices can be employed. Once determined, the operation of the reactors will be
switched to high strength wastewater containing tissue paper waste to simulate source
separation of feces.
New technology applications: The successful demonstration of this research will enable the
wastewater community with operational strategies and design parameters which could be
incorporated into design practices for future uses. The is research diverted from the concept of
no sludge production initially marketed for Cannibal type of research to small sludge
production and as a result, we demonstrated that the process operation is sustainable for
nutrient removal and sludge reduction.
Conclusions: This research demonstrated the possibility of simultaneous sludge reduction and
nutrient removal using real primary effluent. The concept of small sludge wastage really
worked well to sustain simultaneous sludge reduction and nutrient removal. Some underlying
mechanisms which were missing previously have been highlighted in which case, data clearly
demonstrate that more carbon in case of the modified SBR is converted to CO2 and less carbon
is partitioned into the biomass. The whole community metagenomics revealed that indeed, the
sludge minimizing bioreactor harvests different microbial ecology than in the control reactor
and this may also be a contributing factor to the low sludge production in the modified-SBR.
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7, 2015?
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Control 165
Number:
Title: Septage, Fog And Scum Handling
Presenter: Timothy W. Wolfe, KCI Technologies, Inc.; Amit Bhusal, KCI Technologies, Inc.; Stephen
Braks, AECOM; David Rankin, AECOM; Joseph Belardo, City of Baltimore
Topic 1: F. Solids Minimization
Topic 2: G. Thickening and Dewatering
Keyword 1: SEPTAGE
Keyword 2: FOG
Keyword 3: SCUM HANDLING
Presentation Podium
Preference:
Abstract SEPTAGE, FOG AND SCUM HANDLING
Body: Timothy Wolfe, PE, KCI; Amit Bhusal, PE, KCI; Stephen Braks, PE, AECOM;
David Rankin, PE, AECOM; Joseph Belardo, Baltimore City CMD
ABSTRACT
Septage, Fats, Oils and Grease (FOG) and scum enter the 180 MGD Back River Wastewater
Treatment Plant in large amounts flushed from the collection system during storm events, and
from trucked-in septic haulers and grease trap pump-outs. Currently primary scum, including
FOG, is collected from the surface of the primary settling tanks (PST), and is pumped with
flushing water to the Anaerobic Digesters for breakdown with the digesting sludge. This
increased liquid volume reduces the hydraulic detention time in the Anaerobic Digesters, which
reduces their effective capacity, as well as resulting in a disproportionate level of operational
attention and resources. Scum and Grease handling system design at the Back River Plant will
provide improvements to better receive, convey, treat, and thicken trucked-in septage and FOG,
as well as thicken primary scum, prior to anaerobic digestion.
The planned improvements at the plant are under the last leg of construction, with three Septage
Receiving Stations (SRS) housed in a building that consists of a 20,600 gallon FOG pit, which
is pumped with two 500 gpm double disc diaphragm pumps. Pumped FOG and scum will be
thickened along with waste activated sludge in two retrofitted Dissolved Air Flotation
Thickeners.
The thickened FOG and scum that consists primarily of readily digestible material will be
pumped to a two phase acid-gas anaerobic digester system that will create a rapid breakdown of
the FOG and scum, increase gas production in the digesters, and thereby increase the onsite
energy production at the plant.
FOG and scum make up a relatively small fraction of the material separated from the
wastewater flow in relation to the amount of screenings, grit, and sludge in the Back River
Plant. Table 1 shows record of the average amount of FOG and scum between June 2007 and
May 2008. However, through the onsite energy facility, the value of FOG and scum separation
and digestion could result in approximately \$300,000 in annual cost avoidance due to the
electricity produced from it.
Table 1: FOG and Scum Records between June 2007 and May 2008
Plant operational data after completion of the facility by the end of 2014 will dictate the
efficiency and ease of septage receiving and separating, and efficiently managing it for energy
generation. Figures below show the design and construction of the SRS facility.
Figure 1: SRS Facility Design Section View.
Picture 1: Septage Receiving Station at the Back River WWTP (Existing Egg-Shaped Anaerobic
Digester in the Background).
Picture 2: Two of Three Septage Receiving Stations Inside SRS Facility.

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## Will the Yes

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information
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7, 2015?
If so, where Design Phase of the Project under 2011 WEF Residuals and Biosolids
and when?
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Control 166
Number:
Title: Evaluation Of Bioenergy Production From Algae Biomass Under Mesophilic And
Thermophilic Conditions
Presenter: Frank Rogalla, Aqualia; Marta Alzate, Valladolid University; Fernando Fernandez
Topic 1: F. Solids Minimization
Topic 2: B. Thermal Processes and Energy Recovery
Keyword 1: Resource Recovery
Keyword 2: Biomethane Production
Keyword 3: Algae Biomass
Presentation Podium
Preference:
Abstract
Body: Abstract: To avoid biosolids production and the associated electricity consumption in
wastewater treatment, high rate fotobioreactors were used to produce algae, and the
resulting biomass was used for biomethane production. The biochemical methane
potential (BMP) of various types of Scenedesmus sp. and Coelastrum , under mesophilic
and thermophilic conditions was investigated in batch tests and through continuous
digestion.
In a first step, the temperature and residence time (RT) of thermal hydrolysis (TH) was
optimised, using 110, 140 and 170C and 5 and 15 min, respectively. The highest methane
productivities were obtained with microalgae pretreated at 170C regardless of the pre-
treatment time. The increase on the final CH4 productivity of fresh microalgae digested at
55C was almost the same than the improvement reached by the microalgae pretreated a
170C and digested at 35C (24 and 28%, respectively). Thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment
of microalgae (170C) resulted in BMP enhancements of 28 and 7% at 35C and 55C,
respectively, compared to fresh microalgae.
In a second step, thermophilic digestion was compared to mesophilic operation. The BMP
methane productivities obtained at 55C were 47% higher compared to those reached at
35C, regardless of the SIR, microalgae concentration and inoculum used. As expected,
BMP results proved to be very influenced by inoculum activity. Finally, in continuous
operation, the mesophilic digester showed higher stability and double OLR (5gCOD/L.d)
and productivity compared to the thermophilic.
Introduction
For more sustainable wastewater treatment and resource recovery, new microalgae
biorefinery concepts are proposed, with anaerobic digestion as a core technology (Sialve
et al., 2009; Alzate et al., 2012) to recover energy (methane) and nutrients (Alcntara et
al., 2013) from residual microalgae biomass.
However, there is a lack of information regarding anaerobic digestion of microalgae, and
most of the references correspond to the evaluation of biochemical methane potentials
(BMP). Three new key aspects are studied in this work:
- First, the influence of the BMP tests conditions and pre-treatment with hydrolysis
should be the first stage of any research on anaerobic digestion of a new substrate in
order to analyze methodology bottlenecks.
- The second unexplored aspect is the operation of continuous digesters fed with
microalgae, crucial to detect issues with toxicity or inhibition at high loadings.
- Finally, the digestion temperature (mesophilic or thermophilic) is responsible of
degradation rates and methane productivities, but also digester stability.
This study aimed at covering these issues, comparatively assessing the BMP of the model
microalga Scenedesmus sp. under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, first in batch
tests conducted under different conditions (ratio substrate/inoculum SIR, microalgae
concentration, inoculum acclimation), and second in continuous digestion. Material and
Methods
Microalgae and Inoculum: The microalgae Coelastrum sp was cultivated in an open
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## raceway in the south of Spain (Chiclana) and received at a concentration of 140gTS/kg

(0,83VS/TS). Fresh mesophilic and thermophilic inocula were taken from pilot anaerobic
digesters treating Scenedesmus sp at 35C and 55C, respectively
Thermal hydrolysis pretreatment: Thermal hydrolysis was performed in a laboratory
device as described in Alzate et al. (2012). Three treatment temperatures (110, 140 and
170C and two treatment times (5, 15min) were tested. The efficiency of the pre-treatment
was evaluated by the solubilization degree (SD) as described in Alzate et al. (2012).
BMP tests: The BMP assays were performed in triplicate in 160 ml serum bottles. The
CH4 productivity was calculated as the ratio of microalgae CH4 production to the
experimental set-up to evaluate different SIR (test 1), different substrate concentrations
(test 2) and the influence of inoculum acclimation (test 3). For this last test, the inocula
acclimated to microalgae were obtained from previous batch BMP assays conducted with
Scenedesmus sp. at 35C and 55 C.
Continuous anaerobic digesters: Mesophilic and thermophilic digestion was performed in
two parallel reactors of 30L, provided with temperature control and biogas measurement.
Apart from the biogas composition, the performance and stability of both reactors was
followed by measuring twice a week COD, VS, TKN, NH4, VFA and alkalinity inside the
digesters. While the desired hydraulic retention time was 20 days, the control parameter
Results and Conclusions
The values of SD in table 3 show the positive effect of TH to solubilize organic matter of
Coelastrum sp. The higher the temperature and time in the pretreament, the greater the
solubilization degree.
BMP test 1: Influence of the SIR: The highest final CH4 productivities were achieved
under thermophilic conditions regardless of the SIR tested. These final CH4
productivities were on average 47 % higher compared to those reached under mesophilic
conditions (26710 mlCH4/gVSalgae compared to 1814 mlCH4/gVSalgae) (Figure 1).
These results point to the fact that thermophilic anaerobic digestion supports higher
organic matter decomposition efficiency (Zamalloa et al., 2012).
BMP test 2: Influence of microalgae concentration: No significant differences in the final
CH4 productivity were recorded at the microalgae concentrations evaluated during
anaerobic digestion at 35C (Figure 2). The final methane productivities at 10, 40 and
100gTS/kg were 1805, 1783 and 1690 mlCH4/gVSalgae, respectively. The thermophilic
anaerobic digestion exhibited the largest CH4 productivity variations among the
microalgae concentrations tested, supporting a maximum productivity of 33115
mlCH4/gVSalgae at 10gTS/kg.
BMP test 3: Influence of inoculum acclimation: The anaerobic digestion of Scenedesmus
sp. using microalgae-acclimated inoculum (Figure 3) yielded similar productivities
compared to the tests with sludge-acclimated inoculum (test 2). However, the kinetics
were much faster for the sludge-acclimated tests, which is explained by the low hydrolytic
activity of the microalgae-acclimated inoculum drawn from the final stages of BMP tests
(therefore, not representative inoculum).
Continuous digesters performance: Figure 4 presents the evolution of both digesters
during one year operation. In a first period (until day 160), the OLR was kept at
2gCOD/l.d, and the performance of both reactors in terms of CH4 production and
stability (VFA and ammonium) was similar (around 5.5lCH4/lreactor.d).
However, when increasing the OLR in the second period (by increasing the concentration
of the microalgae fed), the thermophilic digester appeared to be more unstable. While
NH4+ increased gradually in both digesters, the VFA rapidly accumulated in the
thermophilic reactor (reaching 8000mg/l), causing inhibition detected by a reduction in
the quantity and quality of biogas generated. Therefore, the mesophilic digester has
proven to support nearly double OLR compared to the thermophilic (5 vs. 3 gCOD/l.d),
therefore yielding double methane productivity (14 vs. 6 LCH4/Lreactor.d).
Preliminary energy balances showed that compared to conventional wastewater
treatment, where about half of the energy used in aeration can be recovered by biosolids
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digestion, the biogas production from algae digestion allows to produce more energy than
needed in its cultivation. Figures and Tables
Table 1 Characterization of the samples of microalgae Scenedesmus sp. used
Parameter BMP tests Continuous digesters
Total Solids (g/kg) 105 102
Volatile Solids (g/kg) 94 77
Total Chemical Oxygen Demand (gO2/kg) 162 116
Total TKN (mg-N/kg) 6716 7130

## Table 2 Experimental set-up for the BMP tests.

[TS] SIR
Test (gVSalgae/gVSinoculum) Inoculum
(g/kg)
1 40 0,5 / 1.0 / 3.0 Sludge acclimated
2 10 / 40 / 100 0.5 Sludge acclimated
3 10 / 40 / 100 0.5 Microalgae addapted

Table 3: Productivity and biodegradability increase of Coelastrum sp. after anaerobic digestion
of fresh and pretreated microalgae.
Productivity
Temp. (C) Time (min) SD(%) Biodegradability (%)
Increase (%)
Temperature of AD 35C 55C 35C 55C
Blank 80g/l 49 1 60 1
Blank 140g/l 47 0 59 0
110 5 6,2 44 0 57 1 -2 2

15 7,5 52 1 62 1 7 4
140 5 9,0 53 1 62 0 12 6
15 16,0 55 0 62 0 17 4
170 5 21,9 62 0 67 1 28 11
15 26,2 63 1 67 1 28 10

Figure 1. Time course of methane productivity of Scenedesmus sp. under mesophilic (a) and
thermophilic (b) conditions using sludge-acclimated inoculum at a SIR of 0,5 (*), 1.0 () and 3
() and a microalgae concentration of 40gTS/kg. Vertical bars represent the standard deviation.
Figure 2. Time course of methane productivity of Scenedesmus sp. under mesophilic (a) and
thermophilic (b) conditions using a sludge-acclimated inoculum at a SIR of 0.5 and microalgae
concentrations of 10gTS/kg (), 40gTS/kg () and 100gTS/kg (). Vertical bars represent the
standard deviation.
Figure 3. Time course of methane productivity of Scenedesmus sp. under mesophilic (a) and
thermophilic (b) conditions using a microalgae-acclimated inoculum at a SIR of 0.5 and
microalgae concentrations of 10gTS/kg (), 40gTS/kg () and 100gTS/kg (). Vertical bars
represent the standard deviation.

Figure 4. Performance of pilot anaerobic digesters, mesophilic (), and thermophilic (n) during
the experimental period
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Control 177
Number:
Title: Operation of WASSTRIP Process on Nutrient Recovery and Dewatering Characteristics
Presenter: Peter Schauer, Clean Water Services
Topic 1: G. Thickening and Dewatering
Topic 2: D. Nutrient and Resource Recovery
Keyword 1: WASSTRIP
Keyword 2: Cation
Keyword 3: Nutrient Recovery
Presentation Podium
Preference:
Abstract Operation of WASSTRIP Process on Nutrient Recovery and Dewatering Characteristics
Body: Peter Schauer
Following the installation of the first full-scale wastewater nutrient recovery installation in
North America in May, 2009, Clean Water Services introduced a refinement to the process to
increase the mass of phosphorus to the nutrient recovery process and reduce the potential for
nuisance struvite formation in the digesters. The Waste Activated Sludge Stripping To Remove
Internal Phosphorus process (WASSTRIP U.S Patent No. 7,604,740) strips phosphorus and
magnesium from the waste activated sludge (WAS) stream prior to digestion. With less
magnesium entering the digester, the driving force to form struvite in the tank and piping is
reduced. Bench-scale and pilot-scale testing were conducted in 2009 - 2011. The WASSTRIP
process was implemented full-scale in summer 2011. Over the course of a year, refinements
were made to the process and impacts to the overall treatment process were assessed.
The WASSTRIP process greatly increased the amount of phosphorus load to the nutrient
recovery facility. On average the mass of phosphorus increased by over 80% once the
WASSTRIP process was implemented. The increased loading translated to a greater yield of
recovered phosphorus in the form of struvite. Figure 1 shows the increase in struvite recovered
from the recovery process before and after the WASSTRIP process was implemented.
In the enhanced biological phosphorus removal process (EBPR), specific bacteria take up high
amounts of phosphorus from the liquid stream process. This phosphorus is then released during
digestion processes. The WASSTRIP process causes the biomass to release phosphorus prior to
digestion so that it can be sent directly to a nutrient recovery facility. This phosphorus- and
magnesium-rich stream is combined with the dewatering recycle stream that is ammonia-rich.
Beneficial struvite is formed in the recovery process. As part of the uptake and release of
phosphorus, the bacteria also uptake and release magnesium and potassium.
Typically, the magnesium that is released during the anaerobic digestion process precipitates
with phosphorus and magnesium to form struvite. This form of struvite either robs the digester
of active volume or coats piping, causing pumping problems. At Durham the predicted
reduction in struvite formation in the digestion and dewatering process is between 125 kg/d and
400 kg/d.
The potassium that is released during the digestion process impacts the overall cation balance in
the digester. Research by Higgins (2014) suggests that the fate of potassium and magnesium in
the digester impacts the dewaterability of the sludge. As the monovalent to divalent cation ratio
(M/D) increases the ability to dewater decreases. In typical EPBR processes, both monovalent
(potassium) and divalent (magnesium) are released in equal amounts during digestion. However,
the divalent species tends to precipitate as struvite. Overall, the M/D ratio increases. One
suggestion is that the use of WASSTRIP can alter the fate of the cations in the digester, thus
improving dewaterability.
To evaluate the potential impact from the WASSTRIP process on dewaterability, Clean Water
Services has tracked the cations in the dewatering system and compared the ratio with the
dewaterability in terms of polymer requirements and cake percent solids.
The WASSTRIP process has been installed at the Durham AWWTF, and is planned for
installation at the Rock Creek AWWTF during the summer of 2015. Figure 2 show the M/D
ratio at the Rock Creek AWWTF over time. Because the effluent permit only requires nutrient
removal during the summer, alum is only added to the treatment system for half of the year. The
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impact of this alum on the M/D ratio can be seen at the beginning of the graph. The M/D ratio
decreases as the alum makes its way through digestion. The polymer demand also reduces at the
same time. As WASSTRIP will be introduced in the next year, the data will be used to
determine if the potassium routed around the digester will impact the dewaterability of the
sludge. Figure 3 shows the M/D ratio of the Durham M/D ratio over time. In general, the
Durham M/D ratio and polymer use are much higher than Rock Creek. The WASSTRIP process
was brought online in 2011. Success of this process has increased over time. The figure shows
tha the M/D ratio has decreased since starting WASSTRIP. The solids cake concentration has
also increased thus indicating an improvement in dewaterability.
Continued refinements are being made to increase mass, concentration, and reduce the caustic
requirements of the struvite recovery facility while operating in a WASSTRIP process
configuration.
REFERENCE
Higgins, M.J. (2014) Does Bio-P Impact Dewatering after Anaerobic Digestion? Yes, and not in
a good way! WEF Biosolids and Residuals Conference, Austin TX
Figure 1. Tons of Struvite Produced with WASSTRIP Process
Figure 2. Rock Creek AWWTF M/D Ratio
Figure 3. Durham AWWTF M/D Ratio
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Control 178
Number:
Title: The Residuals Costs have been Going Up and the Product
Quality Going Down
Presenter: Chris Maher, Clean Water Services; Peter LaMontagne, The Centrifuge Guys; Tom Stow,
Clean Water Services
Topic 1: G. Thickening and Dewatering
Topic 2: L. Biosolids Science, Fundamentals, and Advances
Keyword 1: Optimization
Keyword 2: Polymer
Keyword 3: Evaluation
Presentation Podium
Preference:
Abstract Abstract, 2015 WEF/IWA Biosolids Conference,
Body: Washington Convention Center
Washington DC, June 7-10, 2015
The Residuals Costs have been Going Up and the Product Quality Going Down
Clean Water Services (CWS) owns and operates the Rock Creek Advanced Wastewater
Treatment Facility (AWTF), a 170 MLD (45 MGD) (dry weather) facility serving Washington
County, west of Portland, Oregon, USA. Rock Creek consists of an A2O process for
nitrification and biological phosphorus (P) removal, tertiary chemical P removal, filtration, and
disinfection by hypochlorite. Solids are anaerobically digested and dewatered by
centrifugation, and land applied at various sites within 200 miles of the plant. Phosphorus is
recovered from the centrate through struvite precipitation.
The Rock Creek AWTF is seasonally permitted for P removal having to meet a limit of 0.10
mg/L total P from May to October. This removal is currently accomplished by multipoint alum
addition, which adds large quantities of inert sludge to the solids processing stream. In turn,
the characteristics of the anaerobically digested sludge change from summer to winter,
generally requiring more polymer per ton dry solids in the winter. (Figure 1) CWS replaced
the scroll assembly of the dewatering centrifuge, but this had little effect on the quality of
cake. As inert solids were purged from the digester, polymer consumption rose dramatically to
maintain cake total solids.
We realized that we needed training on the finer points of the centrifuge, and retained a
consultant who could provide this training and conduct an audit of the residuals. We were able
to reduce the polymer consumption 29% and at the same time increasing the cake dryness 1-2
percentage points. (Figure 2) The training allowed our operators to drop our combined
polymer-hauling cost 27%! The paper will discuss what specifically was done to achieve this.
With our centrifuge operation tuned up, and our current polymer contract expiring in 10
months, we wanted to evaluate polymers on the winter sludge. In the past we worked with the
polymer suppliers to evaluate the products. We referenced papers published by DC Water on
evaluating polymers and writing the contract and emulated them.
1.
We contacted all of the polymer manufacturers, and to encourage competition allowed
manufacturers to submit one dry and one emulsion product for testing. To lower the cost to
compete, we purchased the trial polymers at the same price (active) of our present polymer.
2.
All polymers were mixed to the same active concentration, aged for an hour or more, and
3.
We made several runs at various cake drynesses, all at captures around 90-95%
4.
The testing was done double blind so the operators had no idea whose polymer they were
testing, and when management reviewed the data, they did not know whose data they were
looking at.
5.
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We evaluated them on the total cost; recycle, polymer and haul cost.
6.
We put in place quality control procedures to assure that what is delivered matches what was
tested
7.
We have both a primary and a secondary supplier, making it easy to change if costs rise or
performance suffers unexpectedly.
Evaluated costs ranged from \$257/ton to \$217/ton. The successful bidder's price was 10% less
than his bid price four years ago. This saves us 10% of our \$500,000 annual polymer budget.
The goal of this paper is to encourage others to better control costs and increase performance.

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Control 179
Number:
Title: Overall Solid Retention Time Is Important For Sludge Reduction, The Impact Of The Electron
Acceptor Availability Is Case Specific
Presenter: Jonathan Habermacher, Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology;
Antonio D. Benetti, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul; Nicolas Derlon, Eawag,
Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology; Eberhard Morgenroth, ETH
Zuerich
Topic 1: F. Solids Minimization
Keyword 1: net solids yield
Keyword 2: side stream reactor
Keyword 3: extracellular polymeric substances
Presentation Podium
Preference:
Abstract Overall solid retention time is important for sludge reduction, the impact of the electron
Body: acceptor availability is case specific
Jonathan Habermacher1,2,*, Antonio D. Benetti3, Nicolas Derlon1, Eberhard Morgenroth1,2
1Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, 8600 Dbendorf,
Switzerland
2Institute of Environmental Engineering, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
3Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul CNPq, Brazil
*Corresponding author: Jonathan Habermacher, jonathan.habermacher@eawag.ch
Key Words: net solids yield, activated sludge model, side stream reactor, extracellular
polymeric substances, active biomass
The treatment of wastewater is associated with a significant production of excess sludge.
Reducing the excess sludge production is thus a key aspect of wastewater treatment and many
technologies were established toward this objective, e.g. anaerobic digester. Most of these
strategies were developed for centralized wastewater treatment plants. But these technical
solutions are not adapted to decentralized plants where the aim is to reduce on-site the excess
sludge production. Other approaches to minimize excess sludge production integrated into the
treatment process must be investigated to match requirements of decentralized plants.
One approach is to implement a side stream reactor (SSR) into the return activated sludge line
of an activated sludge plant. The addition of a SSR was shown to decrease the net solids yield
(Yobs) and thus the net sludge production for a given treatment plant (Semblante et al. 2014).
However, design and operation principles of this treatment scheme remain unclear because the
important process parameters are not yet well known. Novak et al. (2007) decreased the Yobs by
60 %, by operating a system with a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) coupled to an anaerobic
SSR instead of operating the system as a SBR followed by an aerobic digester, thus suggesting
that anaerobic conditions are crucial for sludge degradation. However, Chon et al. (2011)
compared a SBR coupled to an anaerobic SSR with a SBR coupled to an aerobic SSR and found
equal Yobs for a similar SRT. Therefore it remains unclear if the reduced sludge production
results from (i) an increase of the SRT due to the addition of a SSR or from (ii) specific
mechanisms that occur in the SSR.
Also, it is not clear which decay processes happen in the SSR and whether they are affected by
the operational mode of the SSR. Park et al. (2006); Novak et al. (2007); Chon et al. (2011)
suggested that different sludge fractions are degradable under different redox potentials (ORPs).
However, these different sludge fractions were not clearly identified yet. Knowledge of the
processes in the SSRs will help to improve the choice of operational mode.
The overall objective of this study was to understand the effect of the SSR on the Yobs by a
distinction of the SRT-effect from the effect of degradation processes in the SSRs. The specific
questions were:
1.
Can very long SRT conditions help to reduce the net solids yield Yobs?

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2.
At similar SRT, how does the redox condition in the SSR influence the Yobs?
3.
Is the degradation rate of conceptual sludge fractions, i.e. active biomass and extracellular
polymeric substances (EPS), or the degradation rate of different polymeric fractions (EPS-
proteins, EPS-polysaccharides), affected by the choice of the ORP in the SSR?
Three continuous systems, each containing an activated sludge (AS) reactor coupled to an SSR,
were operated at particular SRTs, ranging from 25 to 80 days. Two different aeration conditions
were tested in the SSR: (i) a scare aeration condition, leading to an ORP of -250 mV, which was
supposed to lead to low Yobs (Saby et al. 2003; Semblante et al. 2014), and (ii) fully aerobic
conditions. The lab-scale AS reactors were treating a synthetic wastewater in sequencing batch
reactor (SBR) mode. The SSRs were operated as continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs)
with a hydraulic residence time (HRT) ranging from 12 to 20 days. Besides the overall Yobs, the
local sludge degradation rates in the SSRs were calculated. Also the sludge composition in
terms of active biomass (measured via measurement of cellular ATP) and EPS (extracellular
proteins, extracellular polysaccharides) was characterized for the different reactors of each
system.
Our results indicate that increasing the SRT from 25 to 80 d helped to reduce the Yobs, for both
of the aeration conditions applied in the SSR (Figure 1). A significant Yobs reduction of 20-30
% was observed even when the SRT was increased from long value (40 d) to very long value
(80 d). A simulation of the same systems with ASM3 (Gujer et al. 1999), for the fully aerobic
condition, showed a similar relative decrease in Yobs when increasing the SRT. Also, the fully
aerobic condition in the SSR decreased the Yobs in comparison to the scarce aeration conditions,
on average by 20%. This result is different to a number of studies that have suggested that low
redox potentials are important to reduce the Yobs (Saby et al. 2003; Novak et al. 2007; Coma et
al. 2013; Semblante et al. 2014). However, our results are in line with ASM3 which suggests
lower sludge degradation rates under oxygen limited conditions, and hence higher Yobs in
systems with oxygen limitation.
A significant solid degradation was measured in the SSRs. The SSRs reduced the organic solids
in their influent by 36 %, 31 % and 28 % under fully aerated conditions, for the systems with
SRTs of 25, 40 and 80 d,
respectively. This solid reduction decreased then by a factor of two to three when aeration
conditions in the SSRs were changed to scare aeration. This shows that the solids degradation
takes place in the SSR to significant extents and a low degradation performance of the scarce
aerated SSRs was responsible for the increased Yobs.
The sludge composition was not strongly affected when passing through the SSR, even though
important sludge degradation occurred in the SSRs, especially in the case of aerobic conditions.
This was shown by measurements of the active biomass (as indicated by ATP measurements,
Figure 2) in the SBRs and SSRs, which show clearly more similar values than what was
expected by simulations of the active biomass with ASM3 (data not shown). Data for the scarce
aerated condition is similar.
The sum of EPS-proteins and EPS-carbohydrates was degraded with similar rates as the overall
organic sludge (results not shown), hence EPS degradation can be considered as being part of
the endogenous processes in the SSRs. The similar rate of EPS and active biomass degradation
is different to the previously stated idea that EPS was slower degradable than active biomass,
but on the other hand EPS solubilization was also thought to be triggered by active biomass
degradation, especially by cell lysis (Laspidou and Rittmann 2002).
EPS-protein to EPS-carbohydrate fractions were consistently lower in the sludges of the SSRs,
as compared to the sludges of the SBRs (Figure 3, Figure 4). Thus, the EPS-proteins decayed
faster than the EPS-polysaccharides, in the SSRs, independent of the aeration condition. The
EPS fractions, together with the ATP data, suggest that similar processes were ongoing in the
fully aerobic and in the scarce aeration operation, but at different rates.
The present study shows that subjecting excess sludge to low redox potentials cannot in every
case enhance its degradation rate or extent. Two type of factors could determine the success of
the low redox potential application for sludge minimization, (i) operational parameters, such as
the way of controlling the redox potential or the sludge recirculation rate, or (ii) the composition
of the excess sludge, which itself is strongly influenced by the wastewater characteristics.
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In addition, the analysis of sludge fractions suggests that both type of technologies, aiming for
active biomass lysis, such as ozonation (Zhang et al. 2009), as well as destabilization of floc
structure for polymer release, e.g. by addition of cation chelators (Wawrzynczyk et al. 2008),
would be efficient to increase sludge degradation rate or extent.
Conclusions

Increasing the SRT is a reliable way to decrease waste activated sludge production

Subjecting the sludge to alternating redox conditions does not always increase the sludge
degradation rate or extent. Mechanistic insights have to be further researched to explore this
technology for reliable application.

Sludge degradation under fully aerobic conditions and under scarce aerated conditions did not
indicate complementary sludge degradation processes, suggesting that the benefit of alternating
conditions may only show up under specific conditions.
References
Chon, D.-H., Rome, M., Kim, Y. M., Park, K. Y. and Park, C. (2011). "Investigation of the
sludge reduction mechanism in the anaerobic side-stream reactor process using several control
biological wastewater treatment processes." Water Research 45(18): 6021-6029.
Coma, M., Rovira, S., Canals, J. and Colprim, J. (2013). "Minimization of sludge production by
a side-stream reactor under anoxic conditions in a pilot plant." Bioresource Technology 129(0):
229-235.
Gujer, W., Henze, M., Mino, T. and Loosdrecht, M. v. (1999). "Activated sludge model no. 3."
Water Science and Technology 39(1): 183-193.
Laspidou, C. S. and Rittmann, B. E. (2002). "A unified theory for extracellular polymeric
substances, soluble microbial products, and active and inert biomass." Water Research 36(11):
2711-2720.
Novak, J. T., Chon, D. H., Curtis, B.-A. and Doyle, M. (2007). "Biological solids reduction
using the cannibal process." Water Environment Research 79(12): 2380-2386.
Park, C., Muller, C. D., Abu-Orf, M. M. and Novak, J. T. (2006). "The effect of wastewater
cations on activated sludge characteristics: Effects of aluminum and iron in floc." Water
Environment Research 78(1): 31-40.
Saby, S., Djafer, M. and Chen, G. H. (2003). "Effect of low orp in anoxic sludge zone on excess
sludge production in oxic-settling-anoxic activated sludge process." Water Research 37(1): 11-
20.
Semblante, G. U., Hai, F. I., Ngo, H. H., Guo, W., You, S.-J., Price, W. E. and Nghiem, L. D.
(2014). "Sludge cycling between aerobic, anoxic and anaerobic regimes to reduce sludge
production during wastewater treatment: Performance, mechanisms, and implications."
Bioresource Technology 155(0): 395-409.
Wawrzynczyk, J., Recktenwald, M., Norrlw, O. and Dey, E. S. (2008). "The function of
cation-binding agents in the enzymatic treatment of municipal sludge." Water Research 42(67):
1555-1562.
Zhang, G., Yang, J., Liu, H. and Zhang, J. (2009). "Sludge ozonation: Disintegration,
supernatant changes and mechanisms." Bioresource Technology 100(3): 1505-1509.

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and when?
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Control 180
Number:
Title: Airprex - Sludge Treatment Optimization by MAP-crystallization
Presenter: Wolfgang Ewert, P.C.S. GmbH - Pollution Control Service GmbH; Gerhard Forstner, CNP -
Technology Water and Biosolids Corp.
Topic 1: G. Thickening and Dewatering
Topic 2: D. Nutrient and Resource Recovery
Keyword 1: AirPrex
Keyword 2: Struvite
Keyword 3: Phosphorus elimination
Presentation Podium
Preference:
Abstract AirPrex - Sludge Treatment Optimization by MAP-Crystallization
Body: >Introduction
Biological Phosphorus elimination processes represent an attractive solution to eliminate
phosphorus from the wastewater. In Bio-P processes, phosphorus is eliminated from the
wastewater stream by the bacterial cells which adsorb the phosphorus through a process called
luxury uptake. This can be accomplished without the need for costly precipitation chemicals
such as ferric or alum.
One central problem with Bio-P processes however is that the phosphates are being remobilized
and released under anaerobic conditions (typically anaerobic digestion). Hence the economic
benefits derived from the Bio-P process often is negated by the release of the phosphates under
anaerobic conditions. The remobilized and released phosphates have the following three main
negative effects on the sludge treatment process:
Unwanted precipitation and deposits of Magnesium-Ammonia-Phosphates (MAP) in pipes and
process equipment
Lower dry solids content of the dewatered cake and higher polymer consumption
Higher Phosphorus recycling loads straining the biological treatment process
These effects might come into effect all at once or individually, thereby creating operational-,
maintenance and financial problems for the personnel of the wastewater treatment plant. These
negative effects might also negate the benefits of the Bio-P process and possibly lead to inferior
results when compared to a classic chemical precipitation process.
Controlled Phosphorus Precipitation
The solution used to prevent uncontrolled phosphorus precipitation at treatment plants is
typically governed by both economical- and safety aspects and consists of:
Cleaning of pipes and process equipment
Prevention of utilizing additional chemicals such as crystal inhibitors
Lowering of the pH-Value
Process improvements (Reduction of ion concentration through controlled precipitation)
AirPrex has demonstrated to be a viable process to reduce the ion concentration through
controlled phosphate precipitation after the anaerobic digestion by dosing magnesium chloride
and elevating pH-levels in a reactor. The AirPrex process was developed and patented by the
Berlin Water Works (Berliner Wasserbetriebe) for wastewater treatment plants using biological
P-removal. CNP-Technology Water and Biosolids Corp. (and GmbH respectively) have
acquired the worldwide rights to promote and build the AirPrex system.

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## Picture 1: AirPrex Process Diagram

AirPrex reduces the Orthophosphate (PO4-P) levels through controlled precipitation to less than
< 20 mg/l. This significantly reduces the P-recycling loads coming back to the biological step of
a treatment plant.
The reduction of the phosphate ions and the increase of divalent metal ions furthermore reduce
the water binding ability of the sludge. That leads to more stable sludge flocs, which contain
less water, allowing for 3-6 % drier cake solids (from e.g. 22% DS to 26% DS).
AirPrex enhances and completes the Biological Phosphate Elimination process. The
controlled P-precipitation in conjunction with the sludge treatment steps eliminates the
disadvantages of the Bio-P process and offers the following advantages to a wastewater
treatment plant operator:
Higher dry solids of the dewatered cake and reduced polymer dosage
Reduction of the Phosphate recycling loads by 80 - 90%
Prevention of MAP (Struvite) crystallization in the sludge and centrate lines
Production of a slow release phosphorous fertilizer in form of MAP
Summary
The AirPrex process was developed as a sludge optimization process for plants using Bio-P
processes. The existing AirPrex installations all have shown favorable Return of Investment
calculations. The initial capital outlay and O&M costs for AirPrex lay below the cost savings
realized by these plants.
The MAP or Struvite recovered by the AirPrex process can only be partially recovered from the
sludge and therefore cannot be compared with the MAP recovery from the centrate. However,
in most cases, favorable ROIs for such systems are not realized with the proceeds derived from
fertilizer sales but with the cost saving associated with dryer cake solids and a lower polymer
dosage. Therefore looking from an economic point of view, the MAP recovery is a secondary
goal. The main goal should be a) to improve the dry solids content of the sludge to be dewatered
b) to reduce the polymer consumption for that process and c) to eliminate uncontrolled Struvite
precipitation between the anaerobic digester and the dewatering equipment.
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Control 188
Number:
Title: An Innovative Way Of Sludge Dewatering Enhancement : Fenomag Process
Presenter: Berrak Erol Nalbur, Uludag University, Engineering Faculty; Kadir Kestioglu, Uludag
University, Engineering Faculty; Erdem Kestioglu, Ulutek; Ozcan Yavas, Uludag University,
Engineering Faculty
Topic 1: G. Thickening and Dewatering
Keyword 1: Dewatering, magnetite, Fenton
Keyword 2: stabilization, conditioning, magnetite
Keyword 3: thickening, dewatering, FENOMAG
Presentation Either Podium or Poster
Preference:
Abstract The dewatering and disposal of sewage sludge in municipal wastewater treatment plants,
Body: account for approximately 50% of all costs in wastewater treatment. This high cost is mainly
caused by the high water content of raw sludge. However, dewaterin of raw sewage sludge to a
favorable level for the following transport and disposal processes is difficult.
After stabilization and conditioning to improve its dewatering properties, excess sludge from
wastewater treatment systems is usually dewatered mechanically. Conventional Fenton process
(CFP) is one of the most known advanced oxidation processes which is applied for the efficient
oxidation of organic compounds. Fenton process application destroys organic compounds in
activated sludge and thus filterability of the sludge increases. Fentons reagent can also be used
to improve the dewatering of excess sludge efficiently.
Sludge stabilization is a process to accelerate the biochemical hydrolysis reactions , whereby
sludge solids are treated with chemicals or various other means prior to dewatering processes.
These processes disrupt the sludge flocs, disintegrate the bacteria cells and transfer the
extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), intracellular organic matters and divalent cations into
the liquid phase of the wastewater activated sludge. In theliterature, many different sludge pre-
treatment methods were previously investigated to increase the sludge solubilization such as
ultrasonication, microwave irradiation, thermalization, ozonation, and Fenton oxidation
methods. Among these, ultrasonication, microwave irradiation, thermalization and ozonation are
very effective sludge disintegration methods; but they are high priced methods due to their high
capital and operating costs. On the other hand, Fenton oxidation process and its modifications
have been rarely studied so far as a new alternative sludge disintegration method, compared to
other methods (Sahinkaya, Kalpc and Aras, 2014).
The classic Fenton process involves aqueous ferrous ions and H2O2 that react together to
formOH. The production ofOH, a powerful reactant that is able to degrade a wide variety of
organic compounds at diffusion-limited reaction rates, accounts for the widespread use of the
Fenton reaction among advanced oxidation processes.
The Fenton reaction can solve the problem of eliminating and re-using Fe from the reaction
system at the end of the process, but the separation of the solid phase is still a research area. The
separation problem is even more important in the case of oxide nanoparticles, which are
potentially more reactive because of the favorable surface-to-volume ratio. From this point of
view, the fact that magnetite undergoes very easy magnetic separation from aqueous systems
makes it a very interesting material to be tested for Fenton reactivity. Moreover, it is very
interesting to check whether, as for sludge conditioning the stabilization activity of magnetite
would overcome the need of highly dewatered sludge cake. Very few data are available about
the use of magnetite in sludge dewatering. The present work aims to study the Fenton reactivity
of magnetite toward the sludge conditionig before sending it to dewatering unit (filter press,
decantors, etc.).
Various ballasted wastewater flocculation processes uses magnetite to ballast conventional
chemical floc for enhanced settling rates and increased performance of wastewater and water
treatment operations while substantially reducing capital and life-cycle costs. Such systems
provide superior contaminant removal by reducing total suspended solids (TSS), total
phosphorus (TP), turbidity, color, pathogens and metals far below conventional treatment. The
system enables designers and plant operators who have space constraints to economically

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## expand treatment capacity and limit the footprint of planned facilities.

The objective of this study is the use of Fenton oxidation and magnetite conditioning sludge
disposal system which is named as FENOMAG as our research group. Fenton process has been
selected in order to enhance sludge stabilization within FENOMAG process. The main purpose
of Fenton proces is chemical oxidation of organic content of the sludge. By reducing COD,
TOC and VSS content of the sludge, it becomes suitable to be stored in Solid Waste Storage
Plants, water content of the sludge decreases and drying costs of the sludge decreases.
Magnetite which is suggested for conditioning, decreases the chemical use for sludge
conditioning upto 90% and causes a sludge with a very high solid content and lowers the excess
sludge caused by additive chemicals with the recovery of magnetite.
Due to its high specific weight and floc-making structure magnetite increases the weight of flocs
and accelerates the settlement, and also its unsolubility in water matrix, it can be recovered and
reduces the excess sludge formation. Magnetite can be recovered from wastewater in ballasted
flocculation systems. Another target of this study is magnetite recovery from the conditioned
sludge.
To achieve the targets of this project, with the support of The Scientific and Technological
Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK), a pilot plant with a flow scheme shown in Figure 1 .
for conditioning and dewatering has been built in the area of a West Municipal Treatment Plant
(WMTP) area in Bursa, Turkey. WMTP treats approximately 87.500 m3/day wastewater using a
primary, secondary and a tertiary treatment steps ensuring phosphorus and nitrogen removal
also. The research studies have been planned to be completed within one year time.
The main frame of this study is to maintain a sustainable stablization of sewage sludges, to
reduce DOC value of the sludge, to provide the recovery and reuse of the conditioning chemical
aid and finally reduce the dewatering / drying costs of ultimate sludge and also ultimate disposal

costs of sludges.
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Control 194
Number:
Title: Dewatering of Thermally hydrolyzed Sludges and the Characterization and Removal of
Refractory Dissolved Organic Nitrogen
Presenter: Trung Le, DC Water
Topic 1: G. Thickening and Dewatering
Topic 2: D. Nutrient and Resource Recovery
Keyword 1: CAMBI
Keyword 2: Thermal Hydrolysis
Keyword 3: Dewatering
Presentation Either Podium or Poster
Preference:
Abstract Dewatering of Thermally hydrolyzed Sludges and the Characterization and Removal of
Body: Refractory Dissolved Organic Nitrogen
Trung Le2, Sudhir Murthy1, and Matthew Higgins5, John Novak2,
1DC Water, 2Virginia Tech, USA, 5Bucknell University, USA
Introduction and Objective
DC Waters Blue Plains Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant is one of the worlds largest
advanced treatment facilities. An average of 370 million gallons of treated water leaves the
facility every day and a maximum of over one billion gallons can be treated during peak flow.
The large flow generates a significant amount of biosolids with great potential for resource and
energy recovery. To take advantage of that potential, DC Water designated the installation of
the CAMBI process in conjunction with the construction of Mesophilic Anaerobic Digesters
(MAD). This process train allows for the generation of a third of the plants energy consumption
and the categorization of class A biosolids. CAMBI is a pre-treatment stage for digestion to
improve the characteristics of the sludge for greater biodegradability and dewatering. This
technology is based on the concept of thermal hydrolysis, a process that heats and pressurizes
wastewater sludge followed by a rapidly depressurization stage. This process results in cell
lysis, breakdown of carbohydrates, proteins and polysaccharides. Many benefits can be derived
from this pre-treatment including reduction in viscosity, improved dewaterability, and increase
in biogas production.
THP has several drawbacks that include an increase in nitrogen components in the dewatered
filtrate and an increase in polymer consumption. Greater polymer demand is believed to be a
result of the higher concentrations of biocolloidal material generated from cell lysis. The degree
of cell lysis and formation of negatively charged components vary based on different parameters
established in THP. Therefore part of the investigation attempts to evaluate polymer
consumption while testing different Cambi reaction temperatures and flashing point as well as
different digestion solids retention time (SRT).
One of the other main concerns of THP is the formation of refractory dissolved organic nitrogen
(rDON) and carbon (rDOC) as well as an increase in color post-digestion. These characteristics
remain in the filtrate post-mechanical dewatering and is often recycled to the liquid side of the
treatment plant. This can be problematic for municipality with nitrogen effluent limits.
The objectives of this research are as follows:
-Examine the impact of different Cambi temperatures and flashing pressures and how they
affect polymer demand and filtrate quality through the formation of rDON, rDOC, and color.
-Develop and scale-down a bench level dewatering method and optimize it with the full scale
system found at the Hias plant in Oslo, Norway.
METHODOLOGY
A two stage pilot system was operated for this research. Thermal pretreatment was conducted on
a mixture of dewatered centrifuged cake solids (24-30%) that was reconstituted with a blend of
primary sludge and waste activated sludge (3-5%) using the CAMBI pilot located at Blue
Plains. The hydrolyzed sludge was then digested at Bucknell Unversity in several 10 L
anaerobic digesters and maintained at 38 C. The digested sludge was then shipped back to Blue
Plains to be dewatered.
To best simulate full-scale mixing, a three stage mixing program was developed to mimic
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similarities to Blue Plains final dewatering facilities. The stages included rapid mix, belt press
shear, and flocculation and are associated with different mixing intensities. A 35% charge,
linear polyacrylamide polymer was added during the rapid mix stage. After the sludge had been
conditioned, it was transferred to a funnel fitted with a belt filter cloth to conduct a gravity free
drainage test. The liquid filtrated was analyzed for rDON, rDOC, TSS/capture rate, and color.
The remaining solids was mechanically dewatered using centrifuge and a modified centrifuge
cup to simulate the tension of a belt press. Gravity free drainage, cake solids, and capture rates
were used to gauge performance of the polymer dose.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Traditional polymer dosing bench test have largely been dependent on Capillary Suction Time
(CST) which acts as surrogate parameter to determine dewaterability. Initial, results using CST
as a surrogate measurement for dewaterability suggested that TH sludges vastly increased
polymer demand to ranges above 40 lbs per dry ton. CST seems to over predict polymer doses
in thermally hydrolyzed sludges due to the high concentration of biocolloids which inhibits
capillary action. Even when testing low polymer doses with high CSTs (>200s), cake solids
were relatively high (>25%). The trio of tests (Gravity free drainage, cake solids, and capture
rates) for dewatering suggests that polymer doses sit closer to a range of 25-35 lbs per ton.
Cambi parameters affected the dewaterability of the sludges and results indicated that as
temperature increases cake solids increases (Figure 1). The benefits in terms of cake solids are
similar in gravity free drainage as well as capture rates. Flash pressure also had a negative effect
on cake solids at higher pressures.
Figure 1: Different Cambi Temperatures
Work is ongoing to test the removal of rDON using coagulants and developing methods to
accurately analyze DON fractions. Full-scale comparisons with bench-scale at Hias in Olso,
Norway will be presented in the full paper.
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Control 200
Number:
Title: Performance of Belt Filter Presses on Thermal Hydrolysis/Digested Biosolids at DC Water
Presenter: Salil Kharkar, DC Water; Christine DeBarbadillo, DC Water; Marialena Hatzigeorgiou,
DC Water; David Oerke, CH2M HILL; Paul Schlegel, CH2M HILL
Topic 1: G. Thickening and Dewatering
Topic 2: F. Solids Minimization
Keyword 1: Thermal Hydrolysis
Keyword 2: Belt Filter Presses
Keyword 3: DC Water
Presentation Podium
Preference:
Abstract PERFORMANCE OF BELT FILTER PRESSES ON THERMAL
Body: HYDROLYSIS/DIGESTED BIOSOLIDS AT DC WATER
By Salil Kharkar (Principal Author)
DC Water, Washington, DC;
Christine DeBarbadillo, Marialena Hatzigeorgiou, DC Water; and David Oerke and Paul
Schlegel, CH2M HILL
ABSTRACT
The implementation of the current Biosolids Management Plan (BMP) at the Blue Plains
Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant (AWTP) has resulted in the stabilization of the
processing of 300 dry dtpd of solids to a Class A level through the thermal hydrolysis
Cambi process (THP) followed by anaerobic digestion.
Thickened solids from gravity thickeners (primary) and dissolved air floatation tanks (waste
activated) are blended and pre-dewatered using centrifuges to approximately 16.5% solids
concentration and sent to Cambi THP process. The Cambi process solubilizes approximately 50
percent of the incoming volatile solids quantities. Post anaerobically digested biosolids are
stored in two storage tanks and dewatered at the Final Dewatering Facility (FDF).
The FDF project included a new dewatering building with an operator-friendly layout of 16
(plus room for 4 future) enclosed 2-meter wide high-solids BFPs, sludge feed and conditioning
systems, blend tanks, belt conveyor system, truck loading (on the floor below the BFPs),
chemical wet scrubber odor control facilities and integration with the existing mechanical,
structural, electrical and control systems. The controls were connected to the state-of-the-
practice plant Process Control System (PCS) which provides a high degree of automation for the
solids dewatering facilities.
This presentation will summarize why BFPs were chosen and the performance of the BFPs on
the thermal hydrolysis digested biosolids, including feed and cake solids concentration, polymer
and energy consumption and solids capture. The THP, digested and FDF facilities were started
up during the October-November, 2014 timeframe.
Many features on BFPs were evaluated prior to selection. Although open BFPs have many
advantages and represent the preferred configuration by operators and maintenance (O&M)
staff, the Cambi biosolids were anticipated to have an ammonia concentration in the
downstream anaerobic digester tanks in excess of 2,500 mg/L and a relatively high pH. These
two characteristics of the Cambi biosolids would result in release of high concentrations of
ammonia and negatively impact operating conditions in the vicinity of an open press in a closed
building. This is why the majority of European THP BFP installations include enclosed BFPs. A
detailed evaluation of BFP features, design criteria, and advantages and disadvantages was
performed. In addition, six WWTP tours were performed and detailed discussions with DC
Water O&M personnel and representatives from the major BFP manufacturers were completed.
Based on the compilation of information, the DC Water staff chose high solids BFPs with an I-
beam frame
and integral enclosures for odor containment that had a smaller footprint than other external
enclosure arrangements.
Enclosed BFPs that were used extensively in Europe at THP Cambi and other installations such
as Aberdeen and Bran Sands, UK and Naestved, Denmark were investigated. In addition, full-
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scale belt filter press and centrifuge pilot testing of CAMBI THP digested biosolids from the
Chertsey, Cotton Valley and other WWTPs in the United Kingdom were performed prior to the
design phase of the project. The high-solids BFPs achieved cake solids concentrations of 28 to
34 percent (the same or better than centrifuges) with much lower energy, polymer consumption
and cake odor compared to centrifuges. High (over 97%) solids capture was consistently
achieved if a combination of a static mixer and a flocculation tank (with a variable speed drive)
was used to optimize sludge/polymer mixing and the feed solids were diluted from 6-8% to 3-
4% solids concentration. The high-solids BFPs included the maximum amount of filtration area
for the gravity, wedge and pressure zones, extra heavy-duty bearings and rollers and a frame
designed for a belt tension of 56-70 pounds per linear inch of belt width (PLI) and 200 PLI in
the pressure zone for higher performance and longer press and belt life. In addition, the BFPs
included separate filtrate and washwater trays and piping to minimize sidestream impact on the
Blue Plains AWTP. These features gained from the European experience were included in the
design of the BFPs on the FDF project for DC Water.
This presentation will be useful to and benefit municipal wastewater managers and staff, as well
as engineers who focus on solids processing design facilities.
KEYWORDS
Dewatering, Open and Enclosed Belt Filter Presses, Polymer, Filtrate, Thermal Hydrolysis

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Figure 1. DC Water BFP Installation Phase with Odor Control Hoods Figure 2. Large Gravity
Zone with Sludge/Polymer Flocculation Tanks Figure 3. Separate Filtrate and Washwater
Piping
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Control 214
Number:
Title: Quantifying Solids Handling Characteristics for an Adsorption-style A-stage High Rate
Activated Sludge Process that Precedes a Shortcut Nitrogen Removal Process
Presenter: Jon DeArmond, Old Dominion University; Mark W. Miller, Virginia Polytechnic Institute
and State University; Dave Kinnear, HDR Inc; Bernhard Wett, ARA Consult GmbH; Sudhir
Murthy, DC Water Authority; Charles B. Bott, Hampton Roads Sanitation District
Topic 1: G. Thickening and Dewatering
Topic 2: C. Bioenergy from Residuals
Keyword 1: A-stage
Keyword 2: HRAS
Keyword 3: Solids Handling
Presentation Podium
Preference:
Abstract Quantifying solids handling characteristics for an adsorption-style A-stage high rate
Body: activated sludge process that precedes a shortcut nitrogen removal process
Jon DeArmond1, Mark W. Miller2, Dave Kinnear3, Bernhard Wett4, Sudhir Murthy5,
Charles B. Bott6
1Civil and Environment Engineering Department, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia
2Civil and Environment Engineering Department, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia
3HDR Inc, 440 S Church Street Suite 1000, Charlotte, North Carolina
4ARA Consult GmbH, Unterbergerstrae 1, Innsbruck, Austria
5DC Water Authority, 5000 Overlook Ave. SW, Washington DC
6Hampton Roads Sanitation District, 1436 Air Rail Ave., Virginia Beach, Virginia
Keywords: High Rate Activated Sludge; A/B Process; A-stage; Energy Recovery
Introduction
The ability of a water resource recovery facility (WRRF) to obtain energy self-sufficiency is
dependent on maximizing biogas production and reducing energy consumption by process
optimization. However, many WRRFs are required to remove nitrogen, which is generally
energy and resource intensive. As a way to reduce these requirements for nitrogen removal,
many research groups have been developing short cut nitrogen removal technologies that aim at
reducing energy consumption and optimizing the use of influent carbon for denitrification (Al-
Omari et al., 2012, Regmi et al., 2014, Winkler et al., 2012). Efficient use of the influent carbon
provides the opportunity to capture and redirect excess carbon to energy recovery processes like
anaerobic digestion. Generally, these short cut nitrogen removal processes include an
adsorption-style high rate activated sludge process similar to the A-stage of an A/B process. In
the A/B configuration, the high rate process is operated in such a way (i.e., SRT<1 day, 30 min
HRT) that carbon capture by bioflocculation of organic particles and internal storage of readily
degradable organic carbon is maximized while carbon mineralization is minimized.
While the A/B process has been well established in Europe for several decades now,
implementation in the US has yet to occur. Part of the scepticism is because there is very little
literature available on the A-stage process. It is known that the sludge produced by an A-stage
has better digestion characteristics compared to normal secondary sludge (van Loosdrecht et al.,
1997), however, most of the performance data in terms of thickenability, dewaterability, and
digestability of the A-stage solids has largely gone unpublished. This work aims at evaluating
the methane production potential, thickenability, and dewaterability of A-stage solids that are
generated in an A-stage pilot study being conducted at the Hampton Roads Sanitation Districts
(HRSD) Chesapeake-Elizabeth Treatment Plant (CETP). The full-scale 25 MGD design flow
CETP process is a conventional HRAS (i.e, SRT=1.5-2.5 days) process without primary
clarifiers.
Material and Methods
The A-stage pilot consists of two parallel trains of three tanks in series with each train followed
by an intermediate clarifier. The pilot is fed screened and degritted municipal wastewater that is
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first adjusted to the desired operating temperature. The influent for one of the trains can also be
bypassed through a primary clarifier. Influent, return (RAS), and waste (WAS) flows are flow-
based controlled and aeration is provided through motorized valves and membrane disc
diffusers. Process automation is achieved using various on-line sensors and a programmable
logic controller (PLC).
Results and Conclusions
The A-stage mixed liquor had consistently good SVI values with a typical range of 50-100
mL/g, which is consistent with values reported for full-scale A-stages (Bhnke 1994). Zone
settling velocity tests (Fig. 1) showed that unhindered settling velocities were rapid (1.4-2.0
m/hr) and the transition from discrete to hindered settling subsequently occurred after a short
time period (5-10 mins). When compared to the full-scale CETP RAS, A-stage RAS also has a
higher limiting solids flux (Fig. 2), allowing for smaller intermediate clarifier volumes than is
possible for typical BNR process secondary clarifiers. CETP RAS had a limiting flux of around
1.5 kg/m2hr whereas the A-stage RAS had a limiting flux of 3.8-6.0 kg/m2hr.
Capillary suction tests have consistently concluded that the A-stage sludge requires for
thickening an optimal polymer dose of 7 lbs dry polymer/ton dry solids (using Zetag 7583
polymer) at a capillary suction time (CST) of around 10 seconds. This is a reasonably low
polymer dose for primary solids with activated sludge, which typically ranges between 4-16
lbs/ton (Metcalf and Eddy, 2003). Good dewaterability has been attributed to optimal EPS
production (Subramanian et al., 2010), which the A-stage HRAS process may be roughly
matching. Higher EPS concentrations, which occur in higher SRT systems (Jimenez et al.,
2007), hinders dewaterability performance. To evaluate this in the A-stage pilot, additional work
to quantify and characterize the EPS content of the mixed liquor is currently being conducted
and will be included in the final paper.
Conclusions
The sludge produced by the A-stage process had good handling characteristics in every trial of
every test conducted. Settleability, thickenability, and dewaterability were all shown to be
superior in A-stage HRAS sludge over that of CETP sludge. SVI results taken daily show A-
stage sludge can consistently achieve a value less than 100 mL/g. Zone settling and solids flux
testing show equally optimistic results as do capillary suction tests. From a sludge handling
operations standpoint, the A-stage HRAS portion of the A/B process has been shown to be
advantageous over the typical HRAS process. Biochemical methane (BMP) tests are currently
being conducted to compare A-stage HRAS sludge methane producing potential to that of CETP
sludge and CETP primary sludge (from a pilot scale primary clarifier).
References
1.
Al-Omari, A., Wett, B., Han, H., Hell, M., Bott, C. and Murthy, S. (2012) Full-plant
deammonification based on nob-repression, aob seeding, anammox seeding, and successful
retention, Harbin, China.
2.
Bhnke, B. (1994) Stickstoffelimination in adsorptions-belebungsanlagen (ab-anlagen).
Korrespondenz Abwasser 6(41), 900-907.
3.
Jimenez, Jose; La Motta, Enrique; Parker, Denny. (2007) Effect of Operational Parameters on
the Removal of Particulate Chemical Oxygen Demand in the Activated Sludge Process. Water
Environment Research 79(9), 984 990.
4.
Metcalf and Eddy, Inc. (2003) Wastewater Engineering Treatment and Reuse, 4th Ed. McGraw
Hill. New York City, NY. (685, 1556).
5.
Regmi, P., Miller, M.W., Holgate, B., Bunce, R., Park, H., Chandran, K., Wett, B., Murthy, S.
and Bott, C.B. (2014) Control of aeration, aerobic srt and cod input for mainstream
nitritation/denitritation. Water Research 57, 162-171.
6.
Subramanian, S., Yan, S., Tyagi, R.D., and Surampalli, R.Y. (2010) Extracellular polymeric
substances (EPS) producing bacterial strains of municipal wastewater sludge: Isolation,
molecular identification, EPS characterization and performance for sludge settling and
dewatering. Water Research 44, 2253 2266.
7.
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van Loosdrecht, M.C.M., Kuba, T., van Veldhuizen, H.M., Brandse, F.A. and Heijnen, J.J.
(1997) Environmental impacts of nutrient removal processes: Case study. Journal of
Environmental Engineering 123(1), 33-40.
8.
Winkler, M.K.H., Kleerebezem, R. and van Loosdrecht, M.C.M. (2012) Integration of
anammox into the aerobic granular sludge process for main stream wastewater treatment at
ambient temperatures. Water Research 46(1), 136-144.

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## If so, Old Dominion University

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Control 322
Number:
Title: An Investigation of New Simple Technology for Sludge Decomposition: Natural Method
Presenter: Hatem A. Fadel, Misr Higher Institute for Engineering and Technology
Topic 1: G. Thickening and Dewatering
Topic 2: D. Nutrient and Resource Recovery
Keyword 1: Sludge decomposition
Keyword 2: Natural method
Keyword 3: Nutrients
Presentation Podium
Preference:
Abstract without doubt, zero waste is a big challenge in the field of the domestic wastewater treatment
Body: because of the sludge production. Usually, sludge produced in wastewater treatment plants is
dried by using drying beds or by other mechanical methods. Sewage sludge with its high content
of nutrients is a high quality fertilizer of a relatively low price and can essentially contribute to
the improvement of the soil structure for agriculture. Moreover, direct use of sewage sludge
leads to dangerous health risks for farmers. In this paper, a simple technology for sludge
decomposition has been studied which involves an ecological and natural method without
requiring much technology or energy. The study was conducted on an existing wastewater
treatment plants. The sludge is filled in polders with drainage. Then, the sludge rests for a few
weeks time to be drained by the drainage and evaporation to make possible the sowing of grass.
The growing grass causes a further drainage, a loosening up of the sludge and increasing growth
of the microorganism including antibiotics producing actinomycetes. After a few weeks, a
biological environment with a variety of species (including higher life-forms like earthworms)
was observed. After completely penetrating the layer by the roots of the grass the colour has
changed from black to brown and the consistency has become crumbly. Now the next layer is
filled in the same way. Different types of grasses were tested for a period of 18 months and the
resultant decomposed sludge was analyzed both bacteriological and chemically. Results
obtained from the study showed that nutrient contents (N, P, K and Mg) and micro-nutrient
contents were found to increase by about 43%, 52%, and 68% respectively compared with dried
sludge. In addition, the decomposed sludge produced was almost similar to natural soil with
higher water holding capacity. Thus, this technique produces a high quality fertilizer that can be
efficiently used in desert reclamation. Hygienically investigations have been carried out too and
it was found that the number of Fecal Coliforms, salmonella and worm eggs were reduced

essentially.
Will the No
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have been
presented or
submitted
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elsewhere
before June
7, 2015?
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Are you a No
professional
under age
35 or with
less than 5
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Control 335
Number:
Title: Anaerobic Digestion with Recuperative Thickening Minimizes Biosolids Quantities and
Odors in Sydney, Australia
Presenter: John C. Kabouris; Gokul Bharambe, CH2M Hill; Heriberto Bustamante, Sydney Water
Corporation; Derek van Rys, Sydney Water Corporation; Josef Cesca, CH2MHILL; Sudhir
Murthy, DC Water
Topic 1: F. Solids Minimization
Topic 2: A. Advances in Stabilization
Keyword 1: Anaerobic Digestion
Keyword 2: Biosolids
Keyword 3: Odors
Presentation Podium
Preference:
Abstract Introduction
Body: Recuperative thickening (RT) involves removing liquid from a digester while concentrating and
returning the solids to the digester, thus increasing the digester solids concentration and the
solids retention time (SRT), biogas production and biosolids reduction. While RT enhancement
to the anaerobic digestion process and its expected benefits have been known for several
decades, there are very few recuperative thickening installations and limited experience in its
full scale performance and operational issues. This paper will reduce this information gap by
providing new and useful full-scale performance information and insights based on a critical
evaluation of the RT process as applied at Sydney Water Corporations (Sydney Water) Bondi
Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP), from the development of a plan for additional research
and from the identification of short and long-term process improvements for Sydney Waters
RT plants, focusing on the Bondi WWTP.
Methodology
CH2M HILL as part of collaborative research program performed a review of Sydney Waters
biosolids treatment facilities to extract knowledge for incorporation into a biosolids knowledge
management system (BKMS). Sydney Water has implemented RT to its anaerobic digestion of
primary sludge at Bondi WWTP. A review on the state of the industry in application of RT for
biosolids reduction and quality improvement was performed. A critical assessment of RT
process was conducted by comparing the results of this review with the operating philosophy
and process performance results at the Bondi WWTP. This was further used to identify
knowledge gaps on the effect of the key process parameters to obtain optimal RT performance.
As part of the subsequent research, five hypotheses were also developed to identify and quantify
knowledge gaps on how each knowledge gap is likely to affect the performance of RT.
Recommendations for a laboratory and full scale research program to generate additional
knowledge for incorporating into Sydney Waters BKMS tool were also developed, along with
short and long-term recommendations for further enhancing digestion performance at Sydney
Waters RT digestion facilities.
Results
Review of RT at the Bondi WWTP revealed that primary sludge has high volatile solids content,
biodegradability, and methane yield potential, however the primary sludge volatile solids load to
the digestion process without RT is variable due to limitations associated with thickening
primary sludge in the primary clarifiers. RT was implemented using rotary drum thickeners to
recycle biosolids thickened to an average of about 8% solids. The recuperative thickening
improved the digestion performance by reducing the impact of inconsistent feed sludge
concentration caused by control system and equipment limitations in the primary sludge
withdrawal system. Therefore, RT allowed operation of the primary clarifier to be optimized for
clarification performance instead of thickening and increases the performance of both primary
clarification and anaerobic digestion. The benefits to the anaerobic digestion include: (1)
increased by 45% the amount of volatile solids destroyed; (2) increased biogas production by
20%; (3) produced well stabilized low odor biosolids; and (4) increased solids storage in the
digesters and allowed discontinuing dewatering operations for several days, increasing
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operational flexibility. The digested sludge at Bondi is dewatered with centrifuges and
transported with shaftless screw conveyors to dewatered cake storage bins prior to being hauled
to land application sites. Prior to RT implementation, the cake in the storage bins generated
operations. The low odor cake following RT significantly reduced customer complaints at the
plant and out at the land application sites. The RT digestion process at the Bondi WWTP can be
further optimized, as reflected in the high variability of historical VSR data shown in Figure 1.
Even though the optimal VSR from Figure 1 is about 87%, there are periods of lower VSR, in
the order of 50 to 60%. A likely limitation in the digester heating and gas mixing system was
identified to cause suboptimal performance when the digester operating solids content exceeded
2.3 to 2.5% resulting in a significant drop in both volatile solids reduction and gas production.
This was attributed to the digester effective volume being significantly lower than the nominal
digester volume in those instances. Optimized operation with consistently high VSR is also
expected to further reduce cake odors (Figure 2) and cake concentration variability, since cake
solids concentration variability was high at lower VSRs (below 75%), ranging from 24% to 33%
solids, but it was significantly reduced in the range of 27 to 31% when VSR exceeded 75%. A
new dewatering facility is being designed that will contribute to more consistent dewatering
performance
Conclusion
Based on a detailed analysis of the process performance at the Bondi WWTP and comparison to
previous knowledge, there are still opportunities to further optimize the performance of the
recuperative thickening digestion process at the Bondi WWTP. Five key knowledge gaps with
respect to RT performance were identified. Hypotheses associated with each gap, also known as
the 5-S hypotheses were identified jointly by DC Water, Sydney Water and CH2M HILL
Sydney Water and are presented in Table 1. The gaps specifically relate to: SRT; short
circuiting; shear; sequestration of biomolecules; and selection of methanogens. The
recommended path forward for closing the key knowledge gaps via a developed laboratory
research protocol and a full-scale monitoring plan will lead to better prediction of RT process
performance prior to implementation at other facilities. In addition, short-and long-term
performance enhancing modifications have been identified and will be presented.

## Figure 1 Total VSR vs. Total Nominal SRT during RT at Bondi

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## Figure 2: Influence of RT Digestion SRT on Stored Dewatered Cake Sulfide Odors

Table 1: The Five Knowledge gaps and hypotheses (5-S Parameters and Hypotheses)
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Control 338
Number:
Title: Solids Stream Optimization in New York City Waste Water Treatment Plants
Presenter: Krishnamurthy Ramalingam, The City College of New York; Kerim Temel, The City
College of New York; John Fillos, The City College of New York; Allen Deur, New York
City Environmental Protection; Mauro Orpianesi, New York City Environmental Protection
Topic 1: G. Thickening and Dewatering
Topic 2: F. Solids Minimization
Keyword 1: anaerobic digestion
Keyword 2: thickeners
Keyword 3: process optimization
Presentation Podium
Preference:
Abstract Introduction:
Body: As we move forward with technological innovations, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs)
have to be viewed increasingly as resource recovery facilities and towards this end process
selection and operations must consider, for example, energy usage in order to attain a net zero
energy facility. Till recently, the solids stream in a treatment facility was often overlooked and
not paid the attention that was due. Now, with emphasis on energy neutrality, the solids stream
is considered a stream with immense potential to generate energy that can help offset the
power needs of a WWTP.
The anaerobic digestion process is the center piece of this solids stream where maximizing
and optimizing digester gas generation holds the gateway to energy neutrality or even to a net
positive facility. To be able to achieve this however, the whole process chain has to be
considered, starting with the quantity and quality of the primary and secondary sludges, the
solids capture efficiency of the thickeners, and most importantly the performance of the
anaerobic digesters.
Looking at the process train with a holistic view, it also makes sense to integrate a process
such as the anammox process to treat the reject water (rich in nitrogen) emanating from the
dewatering of the digested sludge to further optimize energy use and lower the carbon
footprint of the WWTP.
Sludge Handling and Stabilization:
The City College of New York (CCNY) in conjunction with New York City Environmental
Protection (NYCEP) evaluated sludge handling and anaerobic stabilization of the combined
primary settling tank, (PST), and waste activated sludge at the Red Hook WWTP in Brooklyn,
New York.
The Red Hook WWTP was designed for a dry weather flow of 60 MGD, (currently treating a
flow of 31 MGD), with four gravity thickeners, (three in operation), four primary digesters
(three in operation), two secondary digesters, and two storage tanks. Two parallel treatment
trains were analyzed and compared to establish base line performance of the associated sludge
streams and to document the volatile solids destruction that is being achieved currently.
Parameters that were tracked included COD (soluble & total), ammonia, TKN, solids (total
and volatile). Figure 1 gives a schematic of the layout of the solids flow and the sampling
locations.
Results:
Based on sampling conducted over an eight week period (approximately 12-14 samples) and
plant data for the corresponding period, data analysis was carried out to document the percent
volatile solids (VS) destruction achieved and the fermentation fraction of each of the trains
which are shown in Figure 2 where in both trains show similar trends. Additionally the fate of
the solids was tracked and quantified over the various unit operations and is shown in Table 1.
Based on this preliminary set of data, it was determined that the thickeners as they currently
operate are overloaded at 5.82.3 lbs. /d/sq. ft. against a design capacity of 4.8 lbs./d/sq.ft. as
shown in Figure 3 and the current average % VS destruction was 56%.
The total detention time in the digesters is approximately 18 days and the digested sludge is
stored in two storage tanks prior to being dewatered using centrifuges. This effort here was to
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establish a base line set-up of the current operations of the solids stream at the Red Hook
WWTP. Different operating scenarios
are being considered to further improve the solids capture and maximize %VS destruction.
This paper will present additional data on this ongoing effort and the effect of adding organic
food waste to the thickened slurry as it enters the digesters and the impact on gas production.

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Control 342
Number:
Title: Biosolids Management Within The Nano Membrane Toilet - Separation, Thickening And
Dewatering
Presenter: Peter H. Cruddas, Cranfield University; Ewan J. McAdam, Cranfield University; Athanasios
Kolios, Cranfield University; Alison Parker, Cranfield University; Ben Martin, Cranfield
University; Chris A. Buckley, University of KwaZulu-Natal
Topic 1: G. Thickening and Dewatering
Topic 2: L. Biosolids Science, Fundamentals, and Advances
Keyword 1: Archimedes screw
Keyword 2: Settlement
Keyword 3: Human faeces
Presentation Podium
Preference:
Abstract BIOSOLIDS MANAGEMENT WITHIN THE NANO MEMBRANE TOILET -
Body: SEPARATION, THICKENING AND DEWATERING

INTRODUCTION
METHODOLOGY/ PROCESS
APPLICATION AND SIGNIFICANCE
REFERENCES

INTRODUCTION
Around 2.5 billion people in developing countries do not have access to facilities that safely
dispose of human waste (WHO/UNICEF, 2012). This leads to devastating human and
environmental health problems, with an estimated 1.5 million child deaths per year attributed to
diarrheal disease as a direct consequence of insufficient sanitation (Prss-stn et al., 2008).
The conventional developed world approach to sanitation - utilising sewer networks and
centralised wastewater treatment plants - is not feasible in the majority of urban environments
due to low availability of land, inconsistent and insufficient power supply, and the prohibitively
high captial costs to install the extensive infrastructure required.
In response to this sanitation crisis, in 2011 the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene program of the
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation initiated the Reinvent the Toilet Challenge, issuing grants
to sixteen research groups to develop a new toilet design that could: treat human waste and
recover resources such as water, energy and nutrients; operate off-grid, requiring no water,
sewer, or power connections; cost less than US \$0.05 per user per day; promote sustainable and
financially profitable sanitation services and business in poor, urban environments; provide an
aspirational product attractive to both developing and developed nations. The Nano Membrane
Toilet is being developed at Cranfield University to meet the Reinvent the Toilet Challenge
requirements, providing a sanitation solution that is convenient, modern, hygienic, user-friendly,
and affordable (Nanomembranetoilet.org, 2014). The Nano Membrane Toilet incorporates a
number modular technologies that are integrated to meet the demands of treatment and resource
recovery from both the solid and liquid components of human waste (Figure 1). Human waste
that is collected in the rotating interface flush mechanism is then deposited in the separation
bowl, where odours are contained from the user by the constant maintenance of an air-tight seal.
The solids will be collected from the bottom of the separation chamber and dewatered through
an Archimedes screw, which will enable free water to drain by gravity back into the separation
bowl whilst also targetting part of the interstital water through pressing as the spacing of the
screw threads decrease. The dewatered solids will then be transferred to a briquette cutter,
where they will be divided and dried before introduction to a small-scale gassifier unit.
The development of the Nano Membrane Toilet design provides a number of research
challenges within the solids processing concept. This paper will present the latest advancements
in the design of the solids processing system and the acquired fundamental knowledge essential
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for its success. Specifically, the paper will address research in two areas:
i.
the settlement properties and rheological fate of solid human waste in an aqeuous environment,
to understand the efficiency of solids collection from the bottom of the separation bowl and the
physical properties of those solids prior to screw dewatering.
ii.
the initial design parameters for the dewatering screw in order to optimise dewatering potential
and energy efficiency.
METHODOLOGY/ PROCESS
Settlement and transformation of solid matter
In contrast to the general trend of urine diversion toilets to concentrate biosolids in new toilet
systems, the Nano Membrane Toilet collects urine and faeces in a single bowl, promoting
separation through settlement of solids to the bottom of the separation bowl. However, the
separation properties of raw faeces - and how those properties may change with time when left
in contact with urine - have not been extensively studied and their understanding is essential for
ensuring quick settlement in order to minimise solids retention time within the separation bowl
and ensure efficient transfer to the Archimedes screw. The paper will report on the study of
settlement characteristics of real faeces, with relation to physical characteristics such as
rheological properties and the Bristol Stool Chart, to understand the extent of natural variation
and its impact on liquid/solid separation and settlement potential. Gas and odour production will
also be used to determine whether the retention times of faecal matter in the separation bowl
would lead to production rates requiring further mitigation measure than are currently
incorporated. The solids that settle at the base of the separation bowl will be investigated for
changes in physical properties due to contact time with urine and the build-up effect of fresh
biosolids, in order to inform the screw design with a design envelope of biosolids characteristics
that will enter the screw. Using the knowledge acquired from the studies on the fate of the
biosolids, and their separation, settlement and thickening within the separation bowl, design
guidelines for the separation bowl - both in size and shape - will be developed to ensure solids
separation and transfer out of the bowl is optimised.
Development of a low energy dewatering screw
The establishment of the physical characteristics of the settled biosolids at the base of the
separation bowl will inform the development of the Archimedes screw for dewatering solids
during transport to the briquette cutter and gasifier unit. Three key design questions in the screw
development will be addressed in the paper. Firstly, the optimisation of the solids introduction
mechanism to the screw at the interface with the separation bowl, to ensure efficient transfer of
the solids into the screw whilst minimising disruption and potential re-suspension of solids
within the bowl. Secondly, maximising the dewatering process during transport within the
screw, in order to deliver the highest dry solids content possible to the briquette cutter. This
work will involve identifying optimal screw configurations in angle, chamber and screw size,
and rpm in order to ensure solids are successfully transported through the height of the screw
whilst allowing sufficient liquid drainage. Finally, methods to minimise the energy requirement
of the screw will be explored, which will include investigation into maximising electrical energy
efficiency for powering the screw from the gasifier unit, and the potential to utilise manual
energy for driving the screw by connection to the novel flush mechanism which is powered by
the closing of the Nano Membrane Toilet lid after use.
APPLICATION AND SIGNIFICANCE
The research outcomes of the study of faecal solids characteristics within the separation bowl,
and the dewatering potential and energy efficiency of the Archimedes screw, will be essential
components in the success of the overall Nano Membrane Toilet project. The efficient solids
settlement and transfer out of the separation bowl will reduce the potential for gas and odour
build-up within the bowl, minimising the risk of any odour escape through the seal on the flush
interface. The degree of dewatering possible through the screw, and its efficient operation, will
have significant impact on the overall energy balance of the unit, as it will affect the operating
conditions for the gasifier unit. A high dry solids content will improve the net calorific value of
the solids feed into the gasifier, whilst low electrical energy requirements - or none if the screw
can be integrated with the flush mechanism - will reduce the required energy for powering the
toilet.
In addition, the knowledge acquired through systematic study of the fate of faecal solids is of
scientific interest for all toilet or sanitation designers, as there is a clear knowledge gap in this

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area (Woolley et al., 2014). Furthermore, screw augers have been used previously for pit latrine
emptying (Still et al., 2013), and the development of the dewatering screw design, particularly
with low energy requirements, will be of use in the fields of low energy, decentralised
dewatering technology as well as potentially pit latrine emptying.
This abstract is submitted for consideration in theme G of the conference - thickening and
dewatering.
REFERENCES
Nanomembranetoilet.org, 2014 [online]. The Nano Membrane Toilet Blog. Available from:
http://nanomembranetoilet.blogspot.co.uk Accessed: 2nd September, 2014
Prss-stn A., Bos, R., Gore, F., Bartram, J., 2008. Safer water, better health: costs, benefits
and sustainability of interventions to protect and promote health. World Health Organization:
Geneva
Still, D., ORiordan, M., McBride, A., Louton, B., 2013. Adventures in search of the ideal
portable pit-emptying machine. Waterlines, 32 (3), pp 187-199.
WHO/UNICEF, Joint Monitoring Programme, 2012. Progress on Drinking Water and
Sanitation: 2012 Update. UNICEF: New York.
Woolley, S.M., Cottingham, R.S., Pocock, J., Buckley, C.A., 2014. Shear rheological properties
of fresh human faeces with different moisture content. Water SA, 40 (2), pp 273-276.
Figure 1: System-level sketch showing the integration of modular technologies into the nano-

membrane toilet
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Control 344
Number:
Title: The Impact of Granular Activated Sludge Processes on Biosolids Characteristics and Treatment
- A Holistic Approach
Presenter: Patricia A. Scanlan, Black & Veatch; Ed Kobylinski, Black & Veatch; Roland Jezek, Black
& Veatch; Belinda Sturm, University of Kansas; Mark Steichen, Black & Veatch; James
Barnard, Black & Veatch
Topic 1: F. Solids Minimization
Topic 2: L. Biosolids Science, Fundamentals, and Advances
Keyword 1: Granular Sludge
Keyword 2: Solids Minimization
Keyword 3: Solids Stabilization
Presentation Podium
Preference:
Abstract The Impact of Granular Activated Sludge Processes on Biosolids Characteristics and
Body: Treatment - A Holistic Approach
Patricia Scanlan1,3, Ed Kobylinski1, Roland Jezek1, Belinda Sturm2, PhD., Mark Steichen1, and
James Barnard1 PhD.
1 Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO
2University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS
3Corresponding Author
The advancement of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) is considered by many leaders in the
industry to be the future of wastewater treatment and biological nutrient removal with
significant footprint, energy, and economic advantages. AGS was first observed in 1914 by
Arden & Lockett with the discovery of the activated sludge process. The AGS process has been
further developed in the Netherlands, using both conventional microbial population and
Anammox bacteria (Winkler, et al., 2011). The AGS sludge has a compact structure with good
settling and dewatering properties that reduce washout potential making it attractive for plants
with high hydraulic loading rates. Specifically, the benefits of the liquid stream performance and
solids handling characteristics of the AGS process may be attractive for biological-only systems,
avoiding the need to construct separate primary clarification, especially for small to medium
sized plants.
Current research suggests that Nereda-type activated sludge without AGS characteristics exhibit
additional volatile solids reduction (VSr) of greater than 40 percent (Hogendoorn, 2013);
however, limited data are available on the performance of true AGS sludge. There is significant
benefit in identifying the characteristics of the AGS sludge; specifically, the longer solids
retention time (SRT) of the AGS in the liquid stream treatment process is expected to improve
the solids characteristics with respect to 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 503 pathogen and
vector attraction reduction (VAR) criteria. Previous investigation of extended air activated
sludge treatment (Shimp et al, 1994) indicated that longer SRTs associated with extended air
treatment had inconsistent impacts on pathogen content and the ability to meet Part 503
requirements without the requirements for further stabilization and treatment. While there are a
number of potential benefits from the AGS process, including reduced footprint and liquid
stream energy requirements, the elimination of the need for additional solids stabilization may
reduce energy recovery potential at a wastewater treatment plant. Currently, many mid-to large
treatment plants use anaerobic digestion to generate biogas, which can be used to offset up to 30
percent or more of the treatment plants purchased energy requirements. The potential benefits
of the AGS system need to be weighed against the plant energy and biosolids processes, to
identify the whole plant picture.
Black & Veatch is performing research on AGS treatment for a municipal wastewater plant
influent. The pilot scale system is in initial stages of operation, with research completed and
results available by December 2014. The results presented in this paper focus on the impact of
the AGS process on the characteristics of the sludge. Properties investigated in this research
include:
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## Solids pathogen content

Vector attraction reduction potential of the AGS solids (as determined through bench scale
testing of the AGS sludge in compliance with Part 503 VAR Option 3)
Dewaterability
Metal content of the AGS solids
Viscosity
Specifically, this research investigates the capability of the sludge produced through an AGS
process to comply with Part 503 requirements for pathogen and vector attraction reduction with
little additional stabilization treatment. While compliance with Part 503 requirements is critical
to beneficial use of biosolids, the physical characteristics of the solids (dewaterability, odor,
visual aesthetics) also impact the end use options and acceptance. Consequently, this research
will also quantify these physical characteristics and discuss their implications with respect to
beneficial use options. In addition, this paper will discuss the whole plant energy requirements
and impact on energy recovery associated with implementation of an AGS system.
REFERENCES
Hogendoorn, Anthonie, Enhanced Digestion and Alginate-Like-Exopolysaccharides Extraction
from Nereda Sludge, Masters Thesis, Delft University of Technology, 2013.
Shimp, Gary, Julian Sandino, and Reza ShamsKhorzani, Performance of Aerobic Digestion in
Meeting the 503 Requirements for Pathogen and Vector Attraction Reduction, Proceedings,
WEF International Residuals Specialty Conference, Washington, D.C., June 1994.
Winkler, M.-K.H., R. Kleerebezem, M.C.M van Loosdrecht, Integration of Anammox into the
Aerobic Granular Sludge Process for Main Stream Wastewater Treatment at Ambient
Temperatures, Water Research 46, 2012, pp. 136-144.

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Control 354
Number:
Title: The Ends Justify the Means: Goal-Driven Biosolids Master Planning and Process Selection
Presenter: Thomas Kochaba, HDR; Lawrence Hentz, HDR; Christopher Moline, HDR; Trudy
Johnston, Material Matters, Inc; Jeff Welty, Howard County Bureau of Utilities
Topic 1: F. Solids Minimization
Topic 2: H. Residuals and Product Issues (Quality, Marketing, and Use)
Keyword 1: Biosolids master planning
Keyword 2: Thermal drying
Keyword 3: Regulatory and end-use drivers
Presentation Podium
Preference:
Abstract The Ends Justify the Means: Goal-Driven Biosolids Master Planning and Process
Body: Selection
A case study will be presented where various anaerobic digestion, thermal hydrolysis, and
thermal drying options were evaluated for the 29 MGD Little Patuxent Water Reclamation
Plant. Volume reduction, production of a versatile Class A biosolids product, and reliable
beneficial end use were key drivers. The competing alternatives will be discussed and the
reasons for selecting the preferred option will be provided. Mesophilic anaerobic digestion and
belt dryers were selected and are currently under design; unique attributes of belt dryers and
other design issues will also be presented.
Why a New Approach to Biosolids Management Was Needed
Advanced lime stabilization, in which lime and supplemental heat are applied to dewatered
primary and waste activated solids to produce a Class A biosolids, followed by bulk agricultural
land application has provided reliable biosolids management for Howard County, Marylands
Little Patuxent Water Reclamation Plant (LPWRP). However, lime dosing has steadily escalated
to over 0.5 lb lime/dry lb dewatered biosolids to achieve the 70OC (158OF) required for Class A
stabilization, which has increased the total weight of biosolids and pass-through costs to the
County for lime and biosolids hauling and land application. Lime handling creates a very dusty
and undesirable work environment in the solids processing facility. Furthermore, new
regulations in Maryland ban the application of biosolids and other organic materials from
November through February and are likely to restrict land application on a large number of
farms due to Marylands new Phosphorus Management Tool (or P-Index). Regulatory changes
in Maryland are now sending biosolids greater distances for land application out-of-state.
Costs and work-space issues with lime stabilization coupled with Maryland Regulatory trends in
Maryland that call into question the long-term viability of bulk agricultural land application in
the state led Howard County to seek alternative biosolids stabilization and end use options for
the LPWRP. Howard Countys primary objectives in evaluating and selecting alternate biosolids
stabilization technologies and end uses were volume reduction, producing a versatile Class A
exceptional-quality biosolids suitable for multiple beneficial uses, and reliable end-use outlets.
Approach to Master Planning and Process Selection
A collaborative workshop-based approach was used in the master planning phase of the project
to screen and evaluate various combinations of biosolids products, end uses, and processing
technologies against the Countys objectives. This approach allowed the project team to
efficiently identify viable, reliable end use alternatives to replace or supplement land application
and processing technologies for producing a stabilized biosolids meeting the product
requirements of the targeted end users. Soil blending, fertilizer blending, and turf growing were
identified as viable end use alternatives to bulk agricultural land application. A dried biosolids
product of uniform size and consistency with little odor or dust is required for the targeted end
use markets. Mesophilic anaerobic digestion and direct thermal drying were identified as the
appropriate processing technologies to produce the desired product and meeting the volume
reduction objective.
The workshop-based approach was applied in the preliminary engineering phase to evaluate
options and select the final anaerobic digestion process configuration and type of direct dryer.
Anaerobic digestion options evaluated included single-phase mesophilic, two-stage acid-gas,
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and thermal hydrolysis processes. Surveys of other water reclamation facilities using anaerobic
digestion and thermal drying suggest that digester hydraulic retention time (HRT) and dried
product odor are related, and HRTs of 20 to 30 days appears are common to dried products with
low odor. Key objectives in the digester evaluation for the LPWRP included providing a 20+
day hydraulic retention time (HRT); maintaining a minimum 15-day HRT with
one digester out of service to meet Class B stabilization criteria for back-up land application
when dyers are out of service; and re-purposing existing facilities by converting two precast,
post-tensioned concrete tanks into 1.75 MG anaerobic digesters.
For heat drying, both rotary drum and belt dryers were evaluated. Selection criteria included
product characteristics, operating history at a scale similar to the LPWRP, mechanical
complexity and maintenance demands, and impacts of unscheduled down-time on overall solids
operations.
Results and Conclusions
Table 1 compares digester volumes, solids feed, and HRTs for the three digester options. As
shown, additional digester construction is required for both the single-phase mesophilic and
acid-gas phase options. The single-phase mesophilic option with a third digester meets all HRT
criteria and simplifies operations by providing three equally-sized digesters. The acid-gas option
would require additional gas-phase volume in addition to the acid phase reactor to meet the 15-
day HRT with one gas phase reactor out of service. The thermal hydrolysis option meets HRT
criteria with no additional digester construction; however, thermal hydrolysis followed by heat
drying had the highest capital and 20-year net present worth. The single phase mesophilic
anaerobic digestion option was selected for the LPWRP.
Structural design of the existing precast, post-tensioned tanks limited cover and mixing options
for the digester conversion to membrane gas holder covers and pumped mixing systems.
Structural design also required special design considerations for mixing system, digester feed
and recirculation piping.
Dryer options are sized for a total evaporative load of 7,920 lb water/hour based on single-phase
mesophilic anaerobic digestion, a 5-day/week 24-hours/day dewatering and drying operations
schedule, dewatered cake at 20% TS, and dried solids at 92% TS. Dryer options included the
following:

Drum Dryer - a single drying train with integral recycle and mixing of dried product and
dewatered cake in the dryer feed and forming a spherical dried pellet.

Belt Option 1 - two belt dryer trains, each with integral recycle and mixing of dried product and
dewatered cake in the dryer feed and forming an irregularly-shaped granular product

Belt Dryer Option 2 - two belt dryer trains without product recycle and mixing and forming a
product similar in appearance to shredded mulch, with an add-on crushing and screening
process to create a more granular product
The drum dryer is supported by an extensive operating history on wastewater treatment solids,
can handle all solids production at the LPWRP in a single drying train, and has the smallest
footprint of the three options, but also has more moving parts and a history of equipment wear
from abrasion as dried solids are carried through the system in the process air stream. Belt dryer
options require two drying trains and bring a limited operating history at a scale comparable to
the LPWRP. Compared to drum dryers, belt dryers were considered in this evaluation to have
lower maintenance demands due to fewer moving parts and less equipment wear since solids are
moved through the system on belts and conveyors rather than the process air stream. The lower
operating temperature in a belt dryer was also considered a relative safety advantage over the
drum dryer options. An important consideration in the evaluation of dryer options was added
input from targeted end users in close proximity to the LPWRP: soil blenders showed high
interest in dried biosolids and preferred the more granular belt dried products to the spherical
drum dried product, while fertilizer blenders who typically prefer a spherical product showed
little interest in taking dried biosolids from the LPWRP. Based on relative advantages of
reduced mechanical complexity and input from targeted end users, belt dryers were selected for
the LPWRP.
Final selection of the specific belt dryer system is deferred to the detailed design phase in the
first half of 2015. Key considerations to be factored into the final dryer selection include real-
world performance of belt dryers on anaerobically digested solids, for which there is European

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but no US experience at present, and final product consistency with post-processing the mulch-
like dried product from the belt dryer system without integrated product recycle and mixing.
Table 1 Design Parameters for Three Anaerobic Digestion Options
Single-Phase Acid- Thermal
Mesophilic Gas Hydrolysis
Digester volume two converted tanks,
3.5 3.5 3.5
MG
New Acid-Phase volume, MG - 0.2 -
New Gas-Phase volume, MG 1.75 - -
Total digester volume, MG 5.25 3.7 3.5
Solids to digestion, % TS 4.25 5 9
Solids to digestion, gal/day 200,000 170,000 95,000
Total HRT all units in service, days 26.2 21.8 36.8
Total HRT one unit out of service, days 17.5 11.5 18.4
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Control 367
Number:
Title: City of Richmond Dewatering Technologies Evaluation
Presenter: James A. O'Shaughnessy, ARCADIS US Inc; Ramkripa Nataragan, City of Richmond;
Clair Watson, City of Richmond; Robert Stone, City of Richmond
Topic 1: G. Thickening and Dewatering
Keyword 1: Dewatering
Keyword 2: Pilot Test
Keyword 3: Polymer
Presentation Either Podium or Poster
Preference:
Abstract The City of Richmond, Virginia owns and operates a 45-MGD (dry) / 90-MGD (wet) step-feed
Body: activated sludge wastewater treatment plant. Approximately 18 to 100 wet tons of dewatered
biosolids are produced each day from dewatering anaerobically digested sludge. The existing
five dewatering centrifuges are approaching the end of their useful life and require replacement.
The City is beginning the biosolids master planning process to identify improvements to reduce
dewatering O&M costs while improving regulatory compliance and process reliability.
In advance of the biosolids master planning process, the City conducted an extensive pilot study
for various dewatering technologies available in the marketplace. The objective of the pilot
study was to collect data on the performance of the dewatering technologies on the Citys
digested sludge before making a significant capital investment in renovation and replacement of
the existing dewatering system. In addition to understanding the cake solids and centrate quality
performance of the dewatering technologies, the City wanted to collect data on the potential for
regrowth of indicator bacteria following dewatering with each technology. Both mature and
emerging dewatering technologies were considered for inclusion in the pilot study. The
following technologies were included in the pilot study:
Centrifuge by Alfa-Laval and Andritz
Belt Filter Press by Ashbrook
Piston Press by Infilco Degremont (Dehydris Twist)
Screw Press by Schwing Bioset
Rotary Fan Press by Prime Solutions
To evaluate the dewatering technologies, a testing protocol was developed to systematically
evaluate the impact to dewatering performance from the variation of testing parameters
including polymer dose, solids-throughput and technology specific device variables. The testing
for each dewatering device was completed over a three week pilot testing period. During each
day, the dewatering devices were operated to achieve a baseline performance. Following the
establishment of the baseline conditions, a single testing parameter (eg. polymer dose) was
varied to identify the effect of the testing parameter on the performance of the dewatering
technology. Following the completion of the testing using the Citys polymer, the testing was
repeated for each testing parameter using polymer recommended by the dewatering device
vendor.
To measure the performance of each of the technologies, the Citys digested feed sludge and the
cake and centrate produced by the dewatering technology were sampled. For digested sludge,
samples were analyzed for total solids, total suspended solids, total volatile solids and total fixed
solids. The cake solids samples were analyzed for total solids, total suspended solids, total
volatile solids and total fixed solids. Centrate was analyzed for total solids, total suspended
solids, total volatile solids, total fixed solid, TKN and TP. Biological samples for pathogenic
organisms were collected for the feed sludge, the cake solids from the Citys existing
centrifuges, and the cake solids from the dewatering technologies. To evaluate regrowth, the
samples were left at ambient conditions in the laboratory and analyzed over a 20-day period.
The data collected during sampling was used to determine the performance for each dewatering
technology under varying polymer doses, throughput and machine variables. The results were
normalized to allow for the comparison of performance across technologies. Cake solids content
and solids recovery were the two primary performance metrics. The data for cake solids
performance and corresponding solids recovery for all data points collected during the study is

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shown in Figure 1. Other metrics such as nutrients in centrate were found to be closely
correlated with the calculated solids recovery. The data from biological sampling indicated that
regrowth of pathogenic indicator organisms occurred for each dewatering technology. The
centrifuges appear to trigger higher levels of regrowth when compared to the other dewatering
technologies. The data for maximum observed regrowth of E. Coli is shown in Figure 2.
As a result of the piloting of these dewatering technologies, the City was able to determine
whether or not each dewatering technology is capable of achieving the goals of the Citys
Biosolids Management Program. By performing this evaluation, the City was able to eliminate
dewatering technologies based on their performance. During the biosolids master planning
process, the City will evaluate the process benefits and life cycle costs of the remaining
technologies.
This presentation will discuss the testing protocols developed for this pilot study, the impact of
testing parameters (eg. polymer dose) on the performance of each technology, the observed
biological regrowth of pathogenic indicator organisms for each technology and a comparison of
the performance of the technologies on the Citys anaerobically digested sludge.

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Control 369
Number:
Title: A Biosolids Environmental Management System Success Story - Thirty Years of High
Performance Dewatering
Presenter: Christopher A. Wilson, Greeley and Hansen LLC; Clair Watson, City of Richmond
Department of Public Utilities; Ramkripa Natarajan, City of Richmond Department of Public
Utilities; Barbara Jackson, City of Richmond Department of Public Utilities; D'Juan
Spencer, City of Richmond Department of Public Utilities
Topic 1: G. Thickening and Dewatering
Topic 2: J. Effective Communication and Outreach
Keyword 1: Biosolids Dewatering
Keyword 2: National Biosolids Partnership
Keyword 3: Biosolids Environmental Management System
Presentation Podium
Preference:
Abstract A Biosolids Environmental Management System Success Story Thirty Years of High
Body: Performance Dewatering
The National Biosolids Partnerships Biosolids Management Program (BMP) program is highly
focused on continual improvement from current operations at a WRRF. Striving for continuous
improvement results in the development of good operations and maintenance practices, which
themselves can be the source of improved facility performance.
The paper and presentation will discuss a case study of implementing the National biosolids
Partnership biosolids Management Program philosophy, leading to the award of Platinum
certification in 2010. The presentation will focus on specific lessons learned during the process
of the BMP development that lead to measurable gains in process reliability and reduced
operational cost. In the case of the City of Richmond (the City) Department of Public Utilities
(DPU), the decision to pursue certification as a Biosolids Platinum-level BMP Organization has
resulted in a several significant and measurable benefits to the utility, including improved
digestion process operations and performance, reduced nuisance odors from solids processing,
and minimized cost of biosolids management using existing processes.
Among the more notable impacts of the City of Richmond adopting the Biosolids BMP
philosophy is the continued operation and exceptional performance of their dewatering
centrifuges, which were first installed in 1987. Having been in operation for 27 years, the City
of Richmond has been investigating the replacement of these centrifuges since 2006 when the
equipment was about to reach the end of its planned 20-year service life. Rather than
replacement at that time, the City chose to focus its philosophy of constant improvement on the
dewatering facility and equipment and prolong the life of these assets through focused
operations and selected high value maintenance activities.
Compared with the replacement of these centrifuges after 20 years in operation, plant
maintenance and capital improvement records show that \$3.8M in targeted maintenance and
upgrading has been performed on plants centrifuges between 2006-2014, averaging
approximately \$420,000/year. Alternatively, annual debt service payment (A/P, 5%, 30 years =
15.37) , estimated to cost \$5.4M in a previous study, plus routine maintenance of replacement
centrifuges (\$20,000/year each) is estimated at approximately \$450,000/year. Assuming that the
old and new equipment performs similarly in terms of power and polymer utilitization and
dewatering performance, the decision to operate the existing centrifuges over this period had a
better return on investment than a centrifuge replacement project. Additionally, not included in
this simple economic comparison is the avoidance of several years of depreciation on
replacement centrifuges that have yet to be initiated as of 2014. Nonetheless, routine
maintenance cost of the existing aging equipment has steadily increased in the past several years
(including two major contacted repairs), suggesting that the plant is nearing a point where
equipment replacement may be more advantageous (Figure 1).
Investing in existing equipment to forestall the replacement of the plants centrifuges would not
be economically viable if the performance of these systems were not upheld over the time
period or if the existing systems required undue resource inputs such as polymer and electrical
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power. Although current generation centrifuges are likely to be more than twice as efficient in
power consumption as the existing systems, potentially higher polymer demand with new
system was considered to offset reduction in power use in this analysis. Through a combination
of operations training, process monitoring, and validation of
operational changes with routine data checks, the operation of the Citys dewatering centrifuges
improved significantly as they aged from eighteen year old machines in 2005 to twenty-three
year old machines in 2011 (Figure 1). The economic impacts on the Citys of Richmond of the
6% improvement in cake solids hauled to Class B land application are significant (Figure 2).
Contracted biosolids hauling costs are the single highest cost element of residuals management
for the City of Richmond, comprising approximately 70% of the non-labor costs of biosolids
dewatering and land application operations. A shift from 20% TS to 26% TS, on average, has
resulted in a reduction in this scope of biosolids management costs between \$300,000-400,000
per year from the mid-2000s (Figure 3).
It is envisioned that this presentation will have broad appeal to utility and WRRF managers,
including those who are actively pursuing BMP certification, those who already have
certification, and those who would like to implement the philosophy of constant improvement in
their facilities to obtain comparable benefits as those described in above. The specific strategies
that the City employed, including investment in workable aging equipment until a true end of
useful life was reached and improved monitoring and validation of operational conditions and
changes, will be described in order to provide a broad framework for how a utility can identify
opportunities for improvement and to maximize return on investment in asset renewal.
Figure 1: Increasing cost of routine maintenance and major repairs to centrifuges over the
past several years. Continuation of this trend could make the replacement of the
centrifuge equipment more economically attractive.
Figure 2: Continual improvement in dewatering operations in maintenance during the
inception of the City of Richmonds NBP Biosolids Management Program resulted true
process performance gains on aging dewatering equipment.
Figure 3: Biosolids cake concentration has the largest impact on non-labor residuals
management costs for the City of Richmond. The gains observed over the course of the
NBP Biosolids Management Program implementation resulted in annual land application
cost savings of \$300,000-400,000.

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Control 376
Number:
Title: Fecal Sludge Dewatering and Drying by Novel Use of a Breathable Membrane Process
Presenter: Babak Ebrazi, University of Delaware; Steven K Dentel, University of Delaware; Shray
Saxena, University of Delaware; Paul T Imhoff, University of Delaware
Topic 1: G. Thickening and Dewatering
Keyword 1: latrine
Keyword 2: membrane
Keyword 3: drying
Presentation Either Podium or Poster
Preference:
Abstract Waterless pit toilets (privies) are used in developing areas worldwide, although there are
Body: important drawbacks to their use. Most important is the possibility of releasing pathogens or
parasites through subsurface transport to nearby sources of drinking water. Privies that must be
emptied frequently also expose sanitation workers to health risks because the fecal sludge has
not been adequately stabilized. An inexpensive modification to existing pit toilets to alleviate
these problems would thus be desirable.
Breathable membranes are plastic materials that, due to their hydrophobic properties, do not
allow passage of liquid water, or the contaminants in the water. However, they do allow water
vapor to pass. This allows water purification, because water vapor can be driven across the
membrane by a modest difference in partial pressure or humidity. In the process of membrane
distillation, a small difference in temperature causes different vapor pressures across the
membrane, leading to the transport of pure water vapor across the membrane. In addition to salt
removal, membrane distillation also effectively excludes dissolved and particulate impurities.
We have recently shown these membranes to be useful beyond the production of distilled water.
Breathable membranes can be used as a latrine pit enclosure, to protect surrounding
groundwater or floodwaters from contamination, while allowing fecal sludge to condense and
stabilize. The membrane is used under and around the fecal material so that water leaves the
fecal waste and allows it to dry, while all other contaminants remain with the sludge. Drying,
combined with the release of ammonia as a breakdown product, inactivates pathogens in
sludges, so that the material can be more safely removed from the modified latrine.
The breathable membrane is unlike either the conventional membranes used for water filtration
or ultrafiltration, or the membranes used in geotextiles for dewatering. These membrane types
permit the passage of liquid water, and thus contaminants of any size up to their pore
dimensions, and also rely on pressure to force the filtration process. Instead, a breathable
membrane has pores that fill only with air or water vapor, because the material is hydrophobic
(specifically, it has a high contact angle which makes it non-wetting). Humidity, rather than
pressure, drives the water vapor through the pores, in the direction of wetter to drier due to
differing vapor pressures.
A key difference between the breathable membrane and other membrane types is the
susceptibility to fouling or scaling. When material deposits on a conventional membrane by
these mechanisms, they eventually block the passage of water. Bench-scale desalination tests,
including electron microscopy, have shown that the hydrophobicity of a breathable membrane
mitigates such deposition, so that water passage, or flux, is maintained for many thousands of
hours. It was thus hypothesized that this resistance to fouling might extend to use in contact with
fecal sludge.
We first report on methods used to evaluate this process. Since it is an unprecedented process
we developed a method in which one side of the membrane is directly in contact with biosolids
shown in Fig.1. While water vapor passes through the membrane, the biosolids contents
increases. Temperature and humidity differences were variables for the experiments. The results
showed that biosolids drying occur completely with the minimum temperature difference
between biosolids and surrounding air which can reduce energy requirements. Our SEM
findings show that biosolids separate from the membrane as it dries, leaving a clean membrane
for re-use. Electron micrograph images of the fabric, before and after sludge drying, confirm
this, as do multiple re-uses of the same fabric, with the drying rate exhibiting no decrease with

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repeated usages. These observations are also consistent with the hydrophobic characteristics
of the membrane, which mitigate against water or solids contact with its actual surfaces; instead,
they are separated by a layer of air or water vapor. We have developed a model to predict large-
scale performance by measuring the thermal and evaporative resistances of the membrane.
These parameters, which also take into account the membrane tortuosity, porosity and thickness,
can be measured using a Sweating guarded hot plate. We show the results of these tests and
relate them to breathability and other characteristics of process performance.
This new application of these membranes is for sludge treatment, both fecal and digested, for
water removal, leading to an extremely dry product using a T as low as 2C. Applications are
expected both in the developing and developed worlds. One of the objectives of our research is
to apply these types of fabric to the management of fecal sludge in lesser developed areas of
the world. In these locations, the fabric may serve as a liner for a pit latrine or as an enclosure
for fecal sludge that will allow air drying. These applications will protect ground water from
pathogens and increase the life of a dug pit. The low cost, low maintenance, and simple design
of these toilets (with details provided in our presentation) will provide affordable sanitation for a
typical family, allowing waste drying while preventing contaminant release. Drying in situ
increases the use time before the container is emptied, with the waste being further composted

after removal.
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Control 380
Number:
Title: Squeezing The Most Out The Waco Dewatering System .
Presenter: Amanda M. Siebels, Carollo Engineers; Mike Jupe, Waco Metropolitan Area Regional
Sewerage System
Topic 1: G. Thickening and Dewatering
Topic 2: F. Solids Minimization
Keyword 1: dewatering
Keyword 2: biosolids
Keyword 3: dryer
Presentation Podium
Preference:
Abstract The Waco Metropolitan Area Regional Sewerage System (WMARSS) is located in Waco, TX
Body: and has a average influent flow of 25 million gallons per day (mgd). WMARSS is a
conventional activated sludge treatment plant and the solids handling facility includes sludge
thickening, anaerobic digestion, dewatering, sludge lagoon, and sludge drying. The sludge dryer
has been in operation since 1996 and has continually produced Class A biosolids. The result is a
biosolid pellet that is land applied. The lagoon receives Class B, anaerobically digested sludge
that are further stabilized in the lagoon to produce a Class A biosolids. Figure 1 presents a
process flow diagram of the solids handling facilities at WMARSS.
The existing dewatering facility includes two belt filter presses (BFPs) that operate with an
average cake dryness of 15% solids and are in need of replacement. The dewatering capacity of
the BFPs affects the efficiency of the sludge dryer. The existing sludge dryer can remove
approximately 8,800 pounds of water per hour. As shown in Figure 2, currently WMARSS at
annual average conditions sends approximately 80% of their sludge to the sludge dryer. The
remaining 20% bypasses dewatering and is sent directly to the sludge lagoons.
WMARSS prefers to send 100% of the dewatered cake to the sludge dryer to reduce the use of
the operation intensive sludge lagoon. If WMARSS is able to obtain a new dewatering
technology that is able to produce dewatered cake solids greater than 19% for annual average
conditions and 24% for maximum month conditions, 100% of the sludge can be sent to the
sludge dryer. An additional dewatering challenge at WMARSS is the existing BFPs capacity is
not able to handling the existing solids needs of the plant, as shown in Figure 3.
Currently WMARSS bypasses the BFPs when sending anaerobically digested sludge to the
lagoon. In the future if WMARSS is able to send 100% of the solids load to dewatering and
finally to the sludge dryer WMARSS will need a new dewatering technology with a capacity
greater than the existing BFPs.
This paper presents the key decision points for selecting a new dewatering technology at
WMARSS that increases the heat dryer and dewatering capacity, improves operational
efficiency, and decreases the use of the sludge lagoons. The evaluation included three
established sludge dewatering technologies including BFP, centrifuge, and screw press.
Table 1 compares the operational parameters of the three dewatering technologies.
Centrifuges are expected to produce a drier cake, approximately 24% solids, while the BFPs are
expected to produce a cake dryness of 18 % solids on average. A drier cake allows WMARSS to
maximum the sludge being sent to the dryer. Polymer dosage and energy consumption are
similar for BFPs and screw presses but are higher for centrifuges. However, centrifuges require
a smaller building footprint than BFPs and screw presses, to provide the same capacity.
Centrifuges and screw presses are also enclosed allowing for better odor containment and
drawoff than BFPs. To meet the rated capacity the centrifuge dewatering system requires two
centrifuges, while the BFP and screw press require three units. The existing dewatering building
at WMARSS can only fit two dewatering technology units and therefore BFPs and screw
presses would require an additional dewatering building. Centrifuges were the only dewatering
technology that allowed WMARSS to send 100% of the sludge to dewatering and finally to the
sludge dryer without the need of an additional dewatering building.

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## Will the Yes

information
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in this
abstract
have been
presented or
submitted
elsewhere
before June
7, 2015?
If so, where San Marcos, TX July 2013
and when?
Are you a No
student?
Are you a Yes
professional
under age
35 or with
less than 5
years of
experience
in the
industry?
--eoa--

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Control 381
Number:
Title: New Approach
to Dewatering Optimization
Presenter: Mario Benisch, HDR Engineering Inc; JB Beethling, HDR
Topic 1: G. Thickening and Dewatering
Keyword 1: Dewaterability
Keyword 2: Dewatering Optimization
Keyword 3: Bench scale dewatering test
Presentation Podium
Preference:
Abstract Body: New Approach to Dewatering Optimization
Mario Benisch, JB Neethling,
HDR Inc.
The approach (Figure 1) combines bench scale dewatering testing, digester chemistry
evaluation, whole plant performance review and measuring of the sludge water distribution
before and after dewatering. It was developed while investigating the impact of biological
phosphorus removal on dewaterability.
Dewatering can be more art then science. Even with the supposedly right polymer at the
right dose, performance may still vary significantly. The reason for this unfortunate fact is
that sludge dewaterability changes; often seasonably. That is due to changes in wastewater
composition itself, or permit requirements, chemical additions, and environmental.
The two main costs directly related to dewatering are polymer and biosolids hauling. The
review of more than 20 facilities showed that polymer use ranged between 12 lb/ dry ton
and 80 lb/dry ton; a dose of 15 lb/dry ton represents roughly \$10,000 per million gallons
treated per year.
For hauling the impact depends on the hauling distance. In the example shown in Figure 2
the hauling cost are reduced by nearly 25% or \$100/dry ton by improving cake by four
percentage points. Even for the average 10 mgd facility to cost difference between great and
poor dewatering performance can be as much as \$250,000/year and optimizing for great
dewatering can have a very quick payback.
This approach to optimize dewatering includes a combination of bench scale dewatering
tests (Figure 3) using different locally available polymers, measuring key ions (NH4-N,
PO4-P, K+, Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Al3+, Fe3+) and pH, as well as the historical performance and
plant operation. Currently, the direct measurement of the dewatering optimization potential
is being tested. This entails measuring the sludge water distribution (bound, interstitial,
visceral, and free) before and after dewatering (currently being tests - results will be
available before full paper is due).
Results from three dewatering testing campaigns using a pneumatic dewatering press
(Figure 3) showed that by simply switching polymers and/or adding mono, di, or trivalent
metal ions, improvements in cake TS of up to six percentage points where achieved.

## Figure 1: Dewatering Optimization Approach

Figure 2: Example Relationship of Cake TS and Truck Hauling cost
Figure 3: Bench Scale Pneumatic Dewatering Press

Will the No
information in
this abstract
have been
presented or
submitted
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elsewhere
before June 7,
2015?
Are you a No
student?
Are you a No
professional
under age 35 or
with less than 5
years of
experience in
the industry?
--eoa--

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