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KPIs to be monitored:

SD Blocking
SD Drop

SDCCH Channel:
SDCCH channel is a dedicated channel which is using for LAC updation, Call Setup, SMS inIdeal mode. It works in U
L & DL
SD Blocking:

SD Blocking means that you are not getting SD resource for t

he call origination. When MSconnects with Network then RACH
and AGCH are provided. After AGCH, SDCCH isprovided but if S
DCCH is not provided at this time due to some problem or due
tounavailable of SD by BSC.
KPI Formula in Ericsson:
CCONGS - Congestion counter.
CCALLS - Channel allocation attempt counter (on SDCCH).

Reason for SD Blocking:

LAC Boundary
High Volume of SMS
SD utilization is high
Time Slot faulty
Adaptive configuration of logical channel switch off
Wrong SD Dimension
Incorrect CHAP Settings
Hardware Issue

Solution for Removal of SD Blocking:

Check the no of SD channels available, if less, then increase SD channel while TCHBlocking should be taken care.
Check LAC boundary, if location update is more, then change the LAC of that site and set C2and HYS.
Use of dynamic SDCCH (it is a BSC parameter)
Shift SD to new time slot
Adaptive configuration of logical channel switch ON
Check for T3212 value

Need to check which parameter:

1. CHAP (Channel Allocation Profile): Its Immediate Assignment Process on TCH, It provides different channel allocati
on strategies,
CHAP 0: Immediate assignment on TCH is not permitted,

CHAP 1: Immediate assignment on TCH is last preference, where in TCH isallocated at immediate assignment only
when there is no Idle SDCCH is available
CHAP2: Immediate assignment on TCH is first preference where in SDCCH mayonly be allocated when there are no
idle TCH is available.
2. Adaptive configuration of logical channel (ACLP): The purpose of this featuresdynamic reconfiguration of Idle TCH C
hannel to SDCCH Channel, when there isSDCCH High load
S LEVEL Defines: Reconfigure of an Idle TCH to an SDCCH will take place; Default0 Congested rate for a cell is incr
ease S LEVEL 2
S TIME Define Minimum Time Interval between SDCCH, Can be reconfigured backto TCH, Default value 20s, Range
15s to 3600s
3. T3212: Periodic update timer value: High volume of LAC Border can cause SDCongestion so optimize the periodic r
egistration timer. Irrespective of the location,coverage, activity, the mobile has to update its location to the MSC after
a definedtime/period.
4. CRH (Cell Reselection Hysteresis) :Receiving Signal strength hysteresis for requiredcell reselection over location are
a border, In order to overcome the Ping-Pongeffects in cell reselection across location area borders, CRO and PT ca
n also used todelay reselection in LAC Borders.(Location area code is an identity number given tothe site of a base st

When SD is assigned for a mobile during call connection process and during thistime due to any problem or any mis
match occurs by which SD loss occurs, It is betweenallocation of SD and before TCH allocation.
KPI Formula in Ericsson:


CNDROP- Total number of dropped SDCCH channels in a cell (for the measurementPeriod).
CNRELCONG- Total number dropped (released) connections on SDCCH due to TCH orTran-coder congestion.
CMSESTAB - Total number of successful MS channel establishment on SDCCH.

Reason for SD Drop:

Shift the SD time slot
It may be uplink or downlink issue in which cells foe UL put TMA inthat cell and DL provide tilt
HW Issue
Wrong parameter planning
Bad coverage
MAIO mismatch
High Pathless
High LAPD utilization
Wrong Power control settings
Check the Timer T 3101
Check the Timer T 200(20ms)

Solution for Removal of SD Drop:

Check the BCCH Plan(C/I or C/A)
To find out proper frequency to reduce interference

LAC Planning
If a cell is picking call from long distance, check the sample logaccording to TA
Cell orientation need to defined according to clutter

Bad Coverage:

If the drop call is due to low signal strength uplink, check the receivepath of this particular TRX. Check receiver sensi

tivity, VSWR, feederconnection and etc. Drops due to Low Signal Strength.
If the drop call reason is due to low signal strength downlink, then,check the transmit path. Check cards, feeder and

Hardware Fault:

Check Alarms.
TRX condition.
Check Path Imbalance.
VSWR of the Cell.
Connector Connection.
Sometimes you will find issues on BCCH TRX. In this case BCCHshift from one to other TRX will reduce SD drop

Need to check Which Parameter:

Drop Reason mainly Low signal strength (UL & DL), Bad Quality (UL & DL) and ExcessTiming Advance
And High Interference (Co-BCCH & Co-BSIC), Wrong Power control Settings and Too Highof CRH Can result in SDC
CH drops
Power control settings: Lack of good power control settings for SDCCH can lead to excessdrop. Two types of power c
ontrol 1.MS Power control 2.BTS Power Control
SDCCHREG: Function of this parameter Enable (1)/Disable (0), Enable the power control tominimize the drops
INIDES (Initial desires signal strength): For the SDCCH UL and DL, Default value -70dbm,especially UL impact of dro
p rate, because extremely sensitive to interference, for INDIESfrom -70 dbm to -85dbm this will reduce the cumulative
power emitted by mobile closer tobase station (which need not transmit at very high power to communicate with the B
S) andthis will reduce the interference
Due to ICM Band (CDMA):
Some time SD drops takes place due to near sites of CDMA.
Check the ICM band value of that site.

Use BPF (Band pass filter).

What is SIR?

SIR is the Signal-to-Interference Ratio the ratio of the energy in dedicated physical control channel
bits to the power density of interference and noise after dispreading.

What is RSCP?

RSCP stands for Received Signal Code Power the energy per chip in CPICH averaged over 512 chips.

What is Eb/No?

By definition Eb/No is energy bit over noise density, i.e. is the ratio of the energy per information bit
to the power spectral density (of interference and noise) after dispreading.

Eb/No = Processing Gain + SIR

For example, if Eb/No is 5dB and processing gain is 25dB then the SIR should be -20dB or better.

What are the Eb/No targets in your design?

The Eb/No targets are dependent on the service:

on the uplink, typically CS is 5 to 6dB and PS is 3 to 4dB PS is about 2dB lower.

on the downlink, typically CS has 6 to 7dB and PS is 5 to 6dB PS is about 1dB lower.

Why is Eb/No requirement lower for PS than for CS?

PS has a better error correction capability and can utilize retransmission, therefore it can afford to a
lower Eb/No. CS is real-time and cannot tolerate delay so it needs a higher Eb/No to maintain a
stronger RF link.

What is Ec/Io?

Ec/Io is the ratio of the energy per chip in CPICH to the total received power density (including CPICH

Sometimes we say Ec/Io and sometimes we say Ec/No, are they different?

Io = own cell interference + surrounding cell interference + noise density

No = surrounding cell interference + noise density

That is, Io is the total received power density including CPICH of its own cell, No is the total received
power density excluding CPICH of its own cell. Technically Ec/Io should be the correct measurement
but, due to equipment capability, Ec/No is actually measured. In UMTS, Ec/No and Ec/Io are often
used interchangeably.

What is RTWP? What is the significance of it?

Received Total Wide-band Power

It gives the Total Uplink Power (Interference) level received at NodeB

WCDMA Handover
23:28 Posted by

Handover: call transfer one cell to another cell without disconnecting

There are three types of handover used in WCDMA.
1. Intra frequency Handover (Soft & Softer )
2. Inter frequency handover
3. IRAT Handover
Soft Handover:
WhenHandover between two NodeB within same carrier frequency and add in active set.
Soft handover means that the radio links are added and removed in a way that the UE always keeps at
least one radio link to the UTRAN. Soft handover is performed by means of macro diversity, which
refers to the condition that several radio links are active at the same time.
Softer Handover:
When Handover between two cells within same NodeB and ADD in active set.
IRAT Handover:
When handover between WCDMA to GSM and GSM to WCDMA.

What are the three sets in handover?

The 3 sets in handover are:
Active set the list of cells which are in soft handover with UE.

Monitored set the list of cells not in active set but RNC has told UE to monitor.

Detected set list of cells detected by the UE but not configured in the neighbor list.

4 events associated with soft (or softer) handover: UE view

1A Add
1B Remove
1C Replace
1D Change of best cell
1E A Primary CPICH becomes better than an absolute threshold
1F A Primary CPICH becomes worse than an absolute threshold Intrafrequency reporting events
for TDD

WCDMA - Power Control

23:27 Posted by

Power Control:
We know all users are in same frequency at same time soPower control is used to controlled the level

of the transmitting power in order to minimize interference,improve quality of connection, reducing of

NEAR-FAR effects and increase capacity of system.

There are three type of power control

Open loop power control

Inner loop Closed loop power control

Outer loop closed loop power control

Open loop power control:

The UE determine an estimation of the downlink path-loss between thee base

station and the UE by the measuring of UTRA carrier received signal strength at the mobile through the

medium of the SI message on the P-CCPCH.

Outer loop closed loop power control:

It is used to compare the received BLER (Block error rate) and target the


Inner loop Closed loop power control:

It is used to compare the received SIR (Signal to interference ratio) and target

the SIR

Power control Parameter:

Primary CPICH Power: Power to be used for transmitting the PCPICH.

BCH Power: BCH power is the power to be used for transmitting on the BCH, relative to the primary

CPICH Power value.

Primary SCH Power:

Secondary SCH Power:

AICH Power: AICH power to be used for transmitting on AICH, relative to the primary CPICH Power

The value range is set in a short term to cover both the RRC and NBAP spec

WCDMA Congestion Control and Its

23:25 Posted by

What is Congestion Control?

Congestion Control monitors the dynamic utilization of specific cell resources and insures that overload
conditions do not occur. If overload conditions do occur, Congestion Control will immediately restrict
Admission Control from granting additional resources. In addition, Congestion Control will attempt to
resolve the congestion by either down switching, or terminating existing users. Once the congestion is
corrected, the congestion resolution actions will cease, and Admission Control will be enabled.
Parameter of congestion control:
Admission limit for admission on DL cell carrier power.

Relative admission limit on DL cell carrier power.

Used by Congestion Control.

Hysteresis time setting for detection of congestion in the DL transmitted carrier power.

Threshold at which UL congestion is detected in the cell.

Offset that, together with parameter iFCong, determinesthe RTWP measurement level at which UL
congestionis to be resolved.
Hysteresis time setting for detection of congestion in theUL RTWP in a cell.

Layer 3 Message in GSM

19:24 Posted by

GSM Layer III Messages

Signaling Protocol In GSM

In telecommunication system, signaling is required to coordinate the distributed entities of the


The signaling protocol in GSM is structured into three general layers as shown in the following
Layer 1 (Physical layer)
It uses the data channel structures over the air interface
Layer 2 (Data link layer)
It provides error-free transmission between adjacent entities, based on the ISDNs LAPD protocol
for the Um and Abis interfaces, and on SS7s Message Transfer Protocol (MTP) for the other Layer
Layer 3 (Networking or messaging layer)
Responsible for the communication of network resources, mobility, code format and call-related
management messages between various network entities

Layer III is the GSM signaling protocol, which is divided into 3 sub-layers:
Radio Resource Management to control the setup, maintenance, and termination of radio and
fixed channels, including handovers;
Mobility Management to manage the location updating and registration procedures, as well as
security and authentication; and
Connection Management to handles general call control and manages Supplementary Services and
the Short Message Service.

System Information Type 1

When MS need to know which frequency band to use and which frequencies within the band it
should use during frequency hopping
The ARFCN for all frequencies used in the cell.

RACH control parameters

Information is also provided instructing the MS how to perform access to the system. This
information is provided in the RACH control parameters information element

Cell Bar access (CBA, CELL_BAR_ACCESS)

Cell barred for access is denoted by using one bit only (yes/no).
Call reestablish permitted (RE)
MAXRET (Max retransmissions)
Access control class ( ACC) is described using a bit map with 16 bits. All MSs are spread out on ACC
0-9. Priority group MSs use ACC 11-15. A bit set to 1 indicates that the class is barred for access.
Emergency calls EC=0 means that all MSs are allowed to make emergency calls, while EC=1 means
that only MSs belonging to priority classes 11-15 are allowed to make emergency calls.

System Information Type 2

The neighbor cells description information element denotes the frequencies of the BCCH carriers
to be monitored by the MSs in the cell.
This is a BCCH allocation sequence number indication. BAIND can have the value 0 or 1. When the
operator changes the frequency list, the BA-IND changes from 1 to 0 or vice versa.
These are absolute RF channels on which the MSs should signal strength perform measurements.
System Information Type 3

SI3 msg are showing the information of CGI, Cell selection and basic idle mode parameter.
Location Area Identification (LAI)
MCC Mobile Country Code (3 digits)
MNC Mobile Network Code (2-3 digits)
LAC Location Area Code (2 octets: 0-65535 different LACs)
Cell Selection Parameters
Maximum power level of control channel (MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH)
Minimum receiving level of MS permitted to access (RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN)
Additional reselection parameter indicator (ACS)
Half-rate supported(NECI)
Power control indication (PWRC): The power control indicator equal to 1 means set
Discontinuous transmission (DTX)
Radio link timeout (RLT)
ATT Attach/Detach allowed
AGBLK (BS_AG_BLKS_RES) This is the number of CCCH blocks reserved for the AGCH
CCCH_CONFThis is the number of Basic Physical Channels used for the CCCH
CCCH-CONF : (0) 1 basic physical channel used for CCCH, not combined with SDCCHs
MFRMS (BS_PA_MFRMS) This is the number of 51 multiframe periods for transmission of Paging
Request messages in the same paging group (2-9).
T3212 This is the time-out value for MS periodic location updating. T3212 has values from 0 to
255. (Time for periodic LU = 6min * T3212 value)

System Information Type 4

In system information type 4, MSs are informed if the cell broadcast function is used in this cell
and on what frequency the CBCH is found.
The LAI, the cell selection parameters, the RACH control parameters and rest octets are also
included in the type 4 message.
CBCH Channel Description (Optional)
In this information element, the channel used for SMS cell broadcast is described.
This is the channel combination and sub-channel used for CBCH. For example, SDCCH/4 +
SACCH/C4 or CBCH, sub channel 2
TN : This represents the time slot number
TSC : This is the training sequence code. BCC part of BSIC is recommended.
H : This is the hopping parameter, where H=0 means single RF channel and H=1 means RF hopping
type 3 rest octets. These are PI, CBQ, CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET, TEMPORARY_OFFSET, and
System Information Type 5
It describes the neighbor cell BCCH frequencies(BA2 list). It is mandatory and is transmitted on
SACCH. MS can read the frequency described in SYS INFO 5 in dedicated mode, report the relevant
information of neighbor cells in measurement report, and use it as the basis for handover.
Neighbor Cells Description
The neighbor cells description information element denotes the frequencies of the BCCH carriers
to be monitored by the MSs in the cell.

System Information Type 6

When in active mode, the MS needs to know if the LAI changes. In case the LAI changes the MS
must perform location updating when the call is released.
If the MS changes between cells (within the location area) where RDLINKOUT or DTX conditions
differ the new cell options must be reported to the MS.
NCC permitted information element is also included

System Information Type 7 & 8

System information type 7 & 8 are optionally sent on BCCH extended if system information type 4
does not contain all information needed for cell re-selection.

Measurement Report
The mobile unit always scans BCCH of up to 16 neighboring cells, and forms a list of the six best
candidates for possible handover. This information is transmitted to current Base Station at least
once per second. BSC and MSC use this information for handover algorithm.

Antenna parameters:
23:56 Posted by

Selection of Antenna parameters:

Antenna parameters such as height, orientation and tilt are so chosen to obtain the best possible

coverage with the least possible signal suppression.

Height: Height ranges from 20m to 30m (for rooftop antennas) and 35m to 50m (for ground base

towers) depending upon the height of clutter and the area in vicinity.

Orientation: Orientation of the antennas is the direction at which the specified area to be covered .

The orientation angle for the sectors is taken in the clockwise direction considering north as the
reference at 0.

Tilt: This is done to carry out the process of either decreasing or increasing the coverage area of a

sector. This is done to avoid interference arising out of the fact that the sector under consideration is

radiating out of the desired area of its coverage and hence affecting other neighboring sectors.
Tilt is given by the following means:

Electrical tilt: This tilt is given by changing the phase relations in between various elements of an

antenna. If a down tilt is being given electrically, then there will be a down tilt in both the front and

the back lobe of the antenna.

Mechanical tilt: This tilt is given manually by changing the angle antenna makes with the vertical. If a

down tilt is being given mechanically, then there will be a down tilt in the front lobe but an up tilt in

the backlobe.

Mechanical tilt is more often used than electrical tilt.

After simulating the above inputs planning tool can be used to generate various images to check the

resultant network. Some of the important images that are used to analyze the network are as follows:

Downlink best signal strength: The image provides a comprehensive knowledge of the zones

receiving signal sent out by Base Transceiver Station (BTS) and the

amount of signal received. This signal is the signal received by our handsets or Mobile Stations (MS).

Downlink best Server/Sector: Different antennas of the site are called sectors. With the help of

this image an RF engineer can visualize the amount of signal that is being released by each

sector of the site.

The initial stage of planning and designing the network is followed by a second stage of
optimization of network.


21:21 Posted by

Let us now understand the difference between transmission and communication.

Transmission means physical movement of information from one point to another.
Communication means meaningful exchange of information between the
communicating devices.

Two persons, one knowing English language only and the other knowing French
language only cannot communicate with each other.

Here transmission is taking place, but communication is not there. Therefore, for
communication, we need much more than the transmission. For communication, we
must have the same language, i.e. Data codes should be understood both by
transmitter and the receiver. Moreover, receiver should be in a position to receive, i.e.
Timing is also very important.

We have two types of communication :

(1) Synchronous Communication.

(2) Asynchronous Communication.

Synchronous Communication

In Synchronous communication the exchange of information is in a well disciplined

manner, e.g. if A want to send some information to B, it can do so only when B permits
it to send. Similarly, vice-versa is true. There is complete synchronisation of dialogues,
i.e. each message of the dialogue is either a command or a response. Physical
transmission of data may be in synchronous or asynchronous mode already decided
between A and B.

Asynchronous Communication

In Asynchronous communication the exchange of information is in less disciplined

manner, e.g. A and B can send messages whenever they wish to do so. Physical
transmission of data may be in synchronous / asynchronous mode.

Thus, we see that Simplex Transmission is one way communication (OW), Half Duplex
Transmission is two way Alternate Communication (TWA), and Full Duplex Transmission
is two way Simultaneously Communication (TWS).
RF Optimization Processes
15:47 Posted by

Network Optimization process involves the following activities:








VARIOUS KPIs with Root-Cause-Analysis of problems.

Frequency Plan (BCCH & TCH)

Neighbor plan


Deliverables of an Optimization activity:

Baseline Drive test comparison with post implementation results.

Statistical comparison of baseline & improved network.

Parameter Audit report.

Physical parameter inconsistencies.

Frequency & neighbor plan inconsistencies

Recommendations for



Physical Optimization
Location Area Optimization.

WCDMA Question for Interview

19:49 Posted by

1. What is the WCDMA technology?

2. What is the different between WCDMA & GSM?

3. What is the different between CDMA & WCDMA?

4. What is architecture & Interface of WCDMA?

5. What are the channel concepts of WCDMA Network?

6. What are the Logical, transport & physical channel in WCDMA?

7. What is the channel mapping in WCDMA?

8. What is the cell search procedure?

9. What are the RRC and what are the RRC states?

10. What is location registration?

11. What is the admission control & congestion control?

12. What is the power control?

13. UE TX Power

14. What are the types of handover?

15. What is Handover procedure?

16. What are the handover Parameter?

17. When Events 2A, 2B, 2C & 2E occur?

18. When Event 1A-1F events occur?

19. What are theSIR, RSCP, RSSIand EC/NO?

20. What is the CPICH?

21. What is the channelization and scrambling code?

22. What is the code tree?

23. What is the spreading factor?

24. What is the cell breathing?

25. What is the Pilot Pollution?

26. What are the near far effects?

27. What are the noise rise effects?

28. What is compressed mode?

29. What is the processing Gain?

30. What is the Pole capacity?

31. What are Rake receiver and WCDMA reception issue?

32. What is the different between CELL_PCH & URA_PCH?

33. What are the types of measurement?

34. What is the paging? What are types of paging and why paging is required?

35. What is the cell update procedure and what are the various cell update cause?

36. What is active set?

37. What is virtual active set?

38. What is the monitoring & detected cell set?

39. What are the various types of RNC?

40. What is the channel concept and channel mapping in WCDMA Network?

41. What is the SIB?

42. What are the idle mode and cell search parameter?

43. What are the admission control & congestion control parameter


02:47 Posted by

The KPI can be divided into following classes, and the counters related to the KPI should be well defined

in the PM system of the RNC.

Coverage KPIs

UL Interference Cell Ratio

Soft Handover Ratio

Accessibility KPIs

IU Paging Success Ratio

Radio Access Success Ratio

RRC Setup Success Ratio (other)

RRC Setup Success Ratio (service)

AMR RAB Setup Success Ratio

VP RAB Setup Success Ratio

CS RAB Setup Success Ratio

PS RAB Setup Success Ratio

HSDPA RAB Setup Success Ratio

HSUPA RAB Setup Success Ratio

Retainability KPIs

CS Service Drop Ratio

AMR Call Drop Ratio

VP Call Drop Ratio

AMR Traffic Drop Ratio

VP Traffic Drop Ratio

PS Service Drop Ratio

HSDPA Service Drop Ratio

HSUPA Service Drop Ratio

Mobility KPIs

Soft Handover Success Ratio

Softer Handover Success Ratio

HS-DSCH Service Cell Change Success Ratio with SHO (HSDPA to HSDPA)

Channel Handover Success Ratio (HSDPA to DCH)

Channel Handover Success Ratio (DCH to HSDPA)

Intra-frequency Hard Handover Success Ratio

Intra-frequency Hard Handover Success Ratio (HSDPA to HSDPA)

Inter-frequency Hard Handover Success Ratio

Inter-frequency Hard Handover Success Ratio (HSDPA to HSDPA)

CS Inter-RAT Handover Success Ratio (WCDMA to GSM)

PS Inter-RAT Handover Success Ratio (WCDMA to GPRS)

PS Inter-RAT Handover Success Ratio (GPRS to WCDMA)

HSDPA Inter-RAT Handover Success Ratio (WCDMA to GPRS)

SRNC Relocation Success Ratio

TRNC Relocation Success Ratio

E-DCH Soft Handover Success Ratio

E-DCH Service Cell Change Success Ratio with SHO (HSUPA to HSUPA)

E-DCH Service Cell Change Success Ratio with Inter-HHO (HSUPA to HSUPA)

E-DCH to DCH Handover Success Ratio (Intra Cell)

DCH to E-DCH Handover Success Ratio (Intra Cell)

E-DCH to DCH Handover Success Ratio (with Inter HHO)

HSUPA Inter-RAT Handover Success Ratio (UTRAN to GPRS)

Service Integrity KPIs

PS Service UL Average Throughput

PS Service DL Average Throughput

Service UL Average BLER

DL RLC Average Retransmission Ratio

HSDPA RLC Throughput

HSUPA RLC Throughput

Availability KPIs

Worst Cell Ratio

IU Paging Congestion Ratio

Admission Refused Ratio

Congested Cell Ratio

Unserviceable Cell Ratio

Average CPU Load

IUB Bandwidth Utilizing Ratio

Traffic KPIs

CS Equivalent Erlang

PS UL Throughput

PS DL Throughput
UL Traffic of Typical Radio Bearers

DL Traffic of Typical Radio Bearers

HSDPA Mean UE Number

HSDPA RLC Traffic Volume

HSUPA Mean UE Number

HSUPA RLC Traffic Volume

UL Traffic Volume of QoS Classes

DL Traffic Volume of QoS Classes

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