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Locomotory system

Movement: it is the ability of organism to change its position


from a place to another.

- Movement is one of the characteristics that distinguish between living


organisms and non living organisms.
- Movement occurs with the participation and integration of special

organs and systems such as the skeletal, the muscular and the nervous
system.
- The system that responsible for movement is the locomotory system.

The structure of the locomotory


system:

The skeletal The musclar


system system
1- The skeletal system:
- It consists of:

a- Axial skeleton. b- Appendicular skeleton.

Axial skeleton:
- It consists of:

a- The skull.

b- The backbone.

c- The rib cage.

a-The skull:
Structure:

-It is a bony box contains cavities for eyes , ears and nose.

Function:
-It protects the brain.
b-The backbone
Structure:

- It consists of 33 vertebrae.

- It contains cartilages between vertebrae


to prevent

their friction during motion.

Function:

1- It allows the body to bend in different directions.

2- It protects the spinal cord.

3- It represents the axis of the skeleton.

The ribcage:
Structure:

- It consists of 12 pairs of ribs .

- The first 10 pairs are connected to the


sternum (breast bone) anteriorly.
Function:
1-It protects the lungs and the heart.

2-It helps in the inhalation and exhalation process.( breathing).


Appendicular skeleton:
- It consists of:

1- Bones of upper limbs. 2- Bones of lower limbs.

Points of comparison Bones of upper limbs Bones of upper limbs

It consists of 3 parts : It consists of 3 parts :

Structure a Humerus bone. a-Femur bone.

b- Fore arm bones. b- Shaft bones.

c- Hand bones. c- Foot bones.

Function Allowing eating, drinking, Allowing walking running,


and holding things.
standing and carrying the

rest of thebody.

Figure
Joints and their significance to movement:-
The joint: It is the location at which bones meet each other.
Their function:
-They allow the movement between bones.
Types of joints:
There are three types of joints which are:
1- Immovable. 2- Slightly movable joints (limited movement).
3- Freely movable joints.(wide movement)

Immovable joints. Slightly(limited) movable Freely(wide) movable joints.


Joints.
They dont allow any They allow movement in They allow movement in
movement. one direction only. All direction.
Examples:- Examples:- Examples:-
The joints between Knee and elbow joints. Shoulder, wrist and
the bones skull. thigh (hips) joints.

2- The muscular system:


The role of muscles in performing movement:
-The muscular system is the engine that moves our body , where the muscles
generate the mechanical energy and movement to the body.(G.R)

- Due to the ability of muscles to contract

and relax.

Tendons: it is a structure by which muscles are


fixed to the bones.
Types of muscles:
There are two types of muscles which are :

1- Voluntary muscles. 2- Involuntary muscles.

Points of comparison voluntary muscles Involuntary muscles.

They are the muscles that can They are the muscles that can
Definition
move willingly and you can move automatically and you
control its movement. can't control or even aware of
their movement.
The limbs muscles. The gastrointestinal tract.
Examples
Trunk muscles. The blood vessels.
Face muscles. The bladder muscles.
Abdominal wall
muscles.

The role of muscles in the movement of hand wrist:


In figure (a):
The front muscle contract and back muscle relax,

This cause the moving up bending of arm.

In figure (b)
The front muscle relax and the back muscle contract, This cause the moving
down extending of arm.

How can you maintain your locomotory system?


1- The commitment on vaccinating children with the polio vaccination at
accurate time.

2-Eating healthy food rich in calcium, phosphorous and vitamin D. (G.R)

-To prevent bones disease such as osteomalacia and rickets.

3- Avoiding any behavior that leads to fracture and sprains.

(such as jumping from high places and making violent movement).

4- A void carrying heavy things that exceed your ability..(G.R)

-To protect the backbone.

5- Sitting and standing correctly during studying or reading. .(G.R)

-To avoid straining the neck and backbone.

6- Exposing the body to sunlight for suitable periods..(G.R)

-Because sunlight provides the body with vitamin D.

7-Exercising regularly.