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GEC-31X Excitation Control System

User Manual (v1.0)


GEC-31X-YHSC010 200707

Beijing Jisi Electric Co., Ltd.


July, 2007
Summary

Summary
1. Title
GEC-31X Excitation Control System User Manual V1.0

2. Scope
GEC-31X excitation control system is applicable to static excitation system.

3. Terms, Definitions and Abbreviations


GEC-300 The general designation of GEC-300 series excitation system.
GEC-31X Applied to static excitation control system of GEC-300.
NOTE: The number 1 denotes that there is one generator under this excitation mode, which is similar
hereinafter.
GEC-311 The static excitation system with 1 Intelligent Power Rectifier Cubicle
(IPRC), where are two rectifier bridges in the cubicle.
GEC-312 The static excitation system with 2 IPRCs, where is one rectifier bridge
in each cubicle.
GEC-313 The static excitation system with 3 IPRCs, where is one rectifier bridge
in each cubicle.
GEC-314 The static excitation system with 4 IPRCs, where is one rectifier bridge
in each cubicle.
GEC-32X Applied to separate self-shunt excitation control system of GEC-300.
(Generator,AC/DC Exciter).
GEC-33X Applied to three-machine excitation control system of GEC-300. (Generator,AC
Exciter,Pilot Exciter).
GEC-34X Applied to excitation control system using IGBT of GEC-300.

4. Software Version
Monitoring software: ECU300soft (v1.0)
Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) control software: AVR300soft (v1.0)
IPRC control software: IPU300soft (v1.0)
IPRC LCD software: LCD300soft (v1.0)

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Summary

5. Safety information

CAUTION is used to indicates a special operation, situation or statement which, if not be


conformed to, may result in human injury or device damage and run-time accidents.

is used to indicates a potentially situation which, if not be conformed to, may result in an
undesirable result or state.

6. Manual Version
Release. GEC-31X-YHSC010 200505 GEC-31X-YHSC010 200707(Y)
Data 05/15/2005 07/15/2007
Writer Zeng Min, Li Fulong Zhang Xin
Auditor Li Xiong, Zhang Lingjun Zhang Lingjun

NOTE: GEC-300 is used to denote GEC-31X excitation control system in this manual.

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Manufacturers information

Manufacturers information

The information given in this manual includes the installation, debugging, operation and
maintenance of GEC-31X. The principles, hardware and software design of GEC series can
refer to the technical manual and the principle manual. As there may be minor differences
between different types of excitation controllers, welcome to contact us when ordering. The
following is our contact information.

Beijing Jisi Electric Co., Ltd.


Http//www.GEC168.com.cn
Email jisidianqi@163.com
Address 1st floor3rd buildingNo.3 of Haiying roadFengtai district
BeijingChina
Post number100070

Technique instructor phone number


Tel: 086-10-6379694683681992
Fax: 086-10-63797019
Mobile 086-136013322611391181041613601399384

Market phone number


Tel: 086-010-8367085183681993
Fax: 086-010-63722998
Mobile 086-13801365240138010635601351100545613501056148

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Contents

Contents

SUMMARY............................................................................................................................... I
MANUFACTURERS INFORMATION............................................................................III
CHAPTER 1 HARDWARE STRUCTURE ..........................................................................1
1.1 BASIC CONFIGURATION ........................................................................................................................ 1
1.1.1 GEC-300 Excitation Regulator Cubicle(AVR)..................................................................................... 2
1.1.2 GEC-300 Intelligent Power Rectifier Cubicle (IPRC).......................................................................... 3
1.1.3 GEC-300 Field De-excitation and Over-voltage Protection Cubicle(FDC).......................................... 4
1.2 GEC-300 REGULATOR CUBICLE(AVR)................................................................................................ 5
1.2.1 Cubicle Door Layout ............................................................................................................................ 5
1.2.2 Operation in Cubicle............................................................................................................................. 6
1.3 GEC-300 INTELLIGENT POWER RECTIFIER CUBICLE(IPRC) ................................................................ 8
1.3.1 Door Layout of Single IPRC ................................................................................................................ 8
1.3.2 Door Layout of Dual Rectifier Bridges Cubicle(Refer to 1.3.1)........................................................... 9
1.4 GEC-300 DE-EXCITATION AND OVER-VOLTAGE PROTECTION CUBICLE(FDC) ................................... 9
1.4.1 Cubicle Door Layout ............................................................................................................................ 9

CHAPTER 2 BASIC OPERATION.....................................................................................10


2.1 POWER-ON OPERATION....................................................................................................................... 10
2.1.1 Power-on Operation of GEC-300 Regulator....................................................................................... 10
2.1.2 Power-on Operation of GEC-300 IPRC.............................................................................................. 10
2.1.3 Power-on Operation of GEC-300 FDC............................................................................................... 10
2.1.4 Device Test after Power-on ................................................................................................................ 10
2.2 OPERATION OF ECU UNIT .................................................................................................................. 11
2.2.1 Main Page ........................................................................................................................................... 11
2.2.2 State Waveform Page.......................................................................................................................... 12
2.2.3 Current Distribution Page ................................................................................................................... 14
2.2.4 AVR State Page .................................................................................................................................. 15
2.2.5 IPU State Page .................................................................................................................................... 16
2.2.6 Alarm/Fault Information Page ............................................................................................................ 17
2.2.7 Control Parameters Page..................................................................................................................... 18
2.2.8 Generator Parameters Page................................................................................................................. 20
2.2.9 Debugging Page.................................................................................................................................. 21
2.3 OPERATION OF IPU LCD .................................................................................................................... 22
2.3.1 Field Current Waveform..................................................................................................................... 22
2.3.2 Analogue Values................................................................................................................................. 23
2.3.3 Digital Inputs ...................................................................................................................................... 24
2.3.4 Digital Outputs.................................................................................................................................... 25
2.3.5 Running State...................................................................................................................................... 25

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Contents

2.3.6 Alarm/Fault Information..................................................................................................................... 27


2.3.7 Operation Command........................................................................................................................... 27
2.3.8 Parameter Settings .............................................................................................................................. 28
2.3.9 Parameter Meanings and Modification ............................................................................................... 29

CHAPTER 3 TECHNICAL INSTRUCTION OF IPRC....................................................31


3.1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................... 32
3.1.1 National Standards and Industry Standards ........................................................................................ 32
3.1.2 Basic Configuration of GEKL Series ................................................................................................. 32
3.2 TYPE DESCRIPTION ............................................................................................................................. 33
3.3 ENVIRONMENT CONDITIONS ............................................................................................................... 33
3.4 TECHNICAL CONDITIONS .................................................................................................................... 33
3.5 TYPES, SPECIFICATIONS AND PARAMETERS........................................................................................ 33
3.6 FUNCTIONS AND FEATURES ................................................................................................................ 34
3.7 MAIN COMPONENTS ........................................................................................................................... 35
3.7.1 Thyristor ............................................................................................................................................. 35
3.7.2 Fast Fuse ............................................................................................................................................. 36
3.7.3 AC Input Switch ................................................................................................................................. 36
3.7.4 DC Output Switch............................................................................................................................... 37
3.7.5 Fan ...................................................................................................................................................... 37
3.7.6 Pulse Trigger Monitoring Circuit........................................................................................................ 37
3.7.7 Wind Pressure Relay........................................................................................................................... 37
3.7.8 Overtemperature Relay ....................................................................................................................... 38
3.7.9 Temperature Monitoring (High Cost Option)..................................................................................... 38
3.8 MAINTENANCE.................................................................................................................................... 38
3.8.1 Daily In-process Check....................................................................................................................... 38
3.8.2 Semiyearly Check............................................................................................................................... 38
3.8.3 Annual Check ..................................................................................................................................... 38
3.8.4 Periodic Temperature Rise Measurement ........................................................................................... 39
3.8.5 Current distribution Test..................................................................................................................... 39
3.9 INSTALLATION AND DISASSEMBLY ..................................................................................................... 39
3.9.1 Disassembly of Fast Fuses.................................................................................................................. 39
3.9.2 Disassembly of Power Unit ................................................................................................................ 40
3.10 PACKING AND TRANSPORTATION ..................................................................................................... 40
3.11 ATTACHED FIGURES ......................................................................................................................... 40

CHAPTER 4 OPERATION INSTRUCTION OF FDC .....................................................42


4.1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................... 43
4.1.1 Application Range .............................................................................................................................. 43
4.1.2 Application Environment Conditions ................................................................................................. 43
4.1.3 Technical Standards............................................................................................................................ 43
4.1.4 Technical Parameters.......................................................................................................................... 44
4.1.5 Installation Dimensions ...................................................................................................................... 44

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Contents

4.1.6 Main Configuration and Functions ..................................................................................................... 44


4.2 OPERATION INSTRUCTION................................................................................................................... 45
4.2.1 Operation Instruction .......................................................................................................................... 45
4.2.2 In-process Check ................................................................................................................................ 46
4.3 JUDGEMENT AND HANDLING OF ABNORMAL SIGNALS ....................................................................... 46
4.3.1 Abnormal Events ................................................................................................................................ 46
4.3.2 Judgement and Handling of Field-flashing Failure............................................................................. 46
4.4 DEVICE INSTALLATION ....................................................................................................................... 46
4.4.1 Device Installation .............................................................................................................................. 46
4.5 MAINTENANCE.................................................................................................................................... 47

CHAPTER 5 INSTALLATION AND PUTTING INTO OPERATION ..........................49


5.1 INSTALLATION .................................................................................................................................... 49
5.2 STATIC CHECK .................................................................................................................................... 49
5.3 TEST AND PROCEDURE BEFORE PUTTING INTO OPERATION ............................................................... 49
5.3.1 Short-circuit Test of Generator ........................................................................................................... 49
5.3.2 Close-loop Test under No-load........................................................................................................... 50
5.3.3 Frequency Characteristic Test (Optional) ........................................................................................... 50
5.3.4 Preparation before Connecting to Grid ............................................................................................... 50
5.3.5 Test after Connecting to Grid ............................................................................................................. 51

CHAPTER 6 OPERATION AND OVERHAUL ................................................................52


6.1 PREPARATION BEFORE START-UP ....................................................................................................... 52
6.1.1 Check GEC-300 Excitation Control System....................................................................................... 52
6.1.2 Check GEC-300 Regulator Cubicle.................................................................................................... 52
6.1.3 Check GEKL IPRC and Related Switches ......................................................................................... 52
6.1.4 Check GEMC Field De-excitation Cubicle ........................................................................................ 52
6.2 NORMAL START-UP OPERATION ......................................................................................................... 52
6.3 NORMAL DE-EXCITATION OPERATION ............................................................................................... 53
6.4 FAULTY STOP OPERATION .................................................................................................................. 53
6.5 ALARM/FAULT AND HANDLING METHODS ......................................................................................... 54
6.6 NORMAL IN-PROCESS CHECK ............................................................................................................. 56
6.6.1 In-process Check Content................................................................................................................... 56
6.7 OVERHAUL .......................................................................................................................................... 57
6.7.1 Annual Maintenance ........................................................................................................................... 57
6.7.2 Maintenance during Major Overhaul.................................................................................................. 59

CHAPTER 7 REPLACEMENT METHOD OF GENERAL COMPONENTS ...............60


7.1 GEC-300 REGULATOR CUBICLE ......................................................................................................... 60
7.1.1 Replacement of CPU Board (CPU32) of SetA ................................................................................... 60
7.1.2 Replacement of Interface Board (PTCT16) of SetA........................................................................... 60
7.1.3 Replacement of AC Power Supply Board (PWR24_A) of SetA ........................................................ 61
7.2 GEC-300 POWER RECTIFIER CUBICLE ............................................................................................... 61

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7.2.1 Replacement of IPU 1 Control Board (IPU16) in One Cubicle with Two Bridges ............................ 61
7.2.2 Replacement of Fan ............................................................................................................................ 62
7.2.3 Replacement of Fast Fuse of Bridge 1 ................................................................................................ 62
7.2.4 Replacement of Thyristor of Bridge 1 ................................................................................................ 62

APPENDIX .............................................................................................................................64
APPENDIX 1: ORDER PARAMETERS........................................................................................................... 64
A1.1 Nameplate Parameters of Generator ................................................................................................... 64
A1.2 Parameters of Signal Interface ............................................................................................................ 64
A1.3 Other Technical Parameters and Requirements .................................................................................. 64
APPENDIX 2: RUNNING CONDITIONS ........................................................................................................ 65
APPENDIX 3: MANUFACTURER GUARANTEE ............................................................................................ 65
APPENDIX 4: DIGITAL VALUES AND PARAMETER DEFINITIONS OF GEC-300 REGULATOR CUBICLE ...... 66
Digital Values of AVR Controller ............................................................................................................... 66
Control Parameters of AVR Cubicle ........................................................................................................... 67
APPENDIX 5: DIGITAL VALUES AND PARAMETER DEFINITIONS OF GEC-300 IPRC ................................ 70
Digital Values of IPU Cubicle ..................................................................................................................... 70
Control Parameters of IPU Cubicle ............................................................................................................. 70
APPENDIX 6: GEC-300 PARAMETER MODIFICATION INSTRUCTION ......................................................... 72
A6.1. AVR PID Parameters......................................................................................................................... 73
A6.2. FCR PID Parameters.......................................................................................................................... 74
A6.3. PSS Parameters .................................................................................................................................. 75
A6.4. OEL Parameters................................................................................................................................. 76
A6.5 UEL Parameters.................................................................................................................................. 77
A6.6 V/Hz Limiter Parameters .................................................................................................................... 78
A6.7 Excitation Operation Parameters ........................................................................................................ 80
A6.8 Correction Parameters......................................................................................................................... 81
A6.9 Temperature Parameters ..................................................................................................................... 82
APPENDIX 7: STANDARD DESIGN DRAWINGS OF GEC-31X..................................................................... 83
APPENDIX 8: MAIN PARAMETERS AND COMPONENTS OF GEC-31X ........................................................ 84
A8.1 System Performance ........................................................................................................................... 84
A8.2 Excitation Transformer ....................................................................................................................... 84
A8.3 Field-flashing Parameters ................................................................................................................... 84
A8.4 Rectifier Device .................................................................................................................................. 85
A8.5 De-excitation Device .......................................................................................................................... 85
A8.6 Excitation Regulator ........................................................................................................................... 86

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Chapter 1 Hardware Structure

Chapter 1 Hardware Structure


1.1 Basic Configuration
GEC-31X excitation control system is mainly applied to static excitation system. The static excitation
system generally consists of Excitation Transformer, Excitation Regulator Cubicle(AVR), AC Bus
Connecting cubicle (for unit above 200MW), Power Rectifier Cubicle (1 to 4 cubicles),Field De-excitation
and over-voltage protection Cubicle (FDC,1 to 2 cubicles). Furthermore, the system with Spare Exciter
should also have Switch Operation Cubicle. The main part of the Excitation Regulator Cubicle is excitation
controller, which is the core of excitation feedback control. The main part of Power Rectifier Cubicle is
three-phase fully-controlled rectifier bridge composed of thyristors, and several IPRC can simultaneously
supply field current to generator according to the magnitude of field current. The main parts of FDC are
Field Circuit Breaker, nonlinear or linear de-excitation and over-voltage protection devices. The main
function of Switch Operation Cubicle is to switch field current between main excitation system and spare
exciter. Please refer to Appendix 7 for GEC-300 standard design drawings.

This Manual mainly introduces the hardware configuration, operation methods and maintenance of
GEC-300 regulator cubicle, IPRC and FDC. Please refer to GEC-300 Excitation Control System Technical
Instruction for the device principles.

Fig 1-1 the layout of GEC-313 static excitation system


Fig 1-1 shows the layout of GEC-313 system. From left to right, there are GEC-300 excitation regulator
cubicle(AVR), No.1~3 IPRC, FDC in turn.

NOTE 1: According to different generator capacities, excitation parameters and technical requirements,
there could be one power rectifier cubicle with two bridges, or 2 to 4 power rectifier cubicles, and the
number of FDC could be 1 or 2.

NOTE 2: The unit above 200MW may have AC Bus connecting cubicle, and the unit with spare exciter

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Chapter 1 Hardware Structure

system should have switch operation cubicle.

1.1.1 GEC-300 Excitation Regulator Cubicle(AVR)

The excitation regulator cubicle is denoted by AVR cubicle for short, which consists of Extended
Communication Unit (ECU), two sets of Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR32), operation circuits, digital
input/output circuits and analogue input/output circuits. In the three-layer structure of GEC-300 excitation
control system, the AVR cubicle includes two layers: the middle layer AVR and the top layer ECU. Please
refer to Appendix 7 for more design information.

Fig 1-2 GEC-300 Controller (AVR32)

Fig 1-3 Extended Communication Unit (ECU)

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Chapter 1 Hardware Structure

1.1.2 GEC-300 Intelligent Power Rectifier Cubicle (IPRC)

The intelligent power rectifier cubicle is denoted by IPRC cubicle for short, which consists of
intelligent control unit IPU16, dual power supply, pulse amplifier, thyristors, fans and operation circuits.
The main function of IPU cubicle is to rectify the secondary voltage of excitation transformer to control the
voltage and current of the generator rotor. In the three-layer structure of GEC-300 excitation control system,
the IPRC includes the bottom layer IPU(Intelligent Power Unit).

There are two rectifier bridges in the IPU cubicle of GEC-311 excitation system. For GEC-312,
GEC-313 and GEC-314, there is only one rectifier bridge in each IPU cubicle.

The IPU16 in IPU cubicle can achieve current distribution intelligently, and every IPU16 can works in
manual mode to keep constant field current without AVR, which enhances the system reliability. Please
refer to Appendix 7 for more design information, and refer to Chapter 3 for detailed information about the
operation and maintenance of IPU cubicle.

Fig 1-4 GEC-300 Intelligent Power Rectifier Unit Controller (IPU16)

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Chapter 1 Hardware Structure

1.1.3 GEC-300 Field De-excitation and Over-voltage Protection Cubicle(FDC)

The FDC consists of Field Circuit Breaker, nonlinear or linear de-excitation resistor, and over-voltage
protection devices on AC and DC side.

The main function of this cubicle is fast and safe de-excitation via inverted rectifier mode during
normal stop.

For hydro power unit above 50MW or thermal power generator unit above 200MW, centralized
blocking R-C absorber is installed to restrain the over-voltage of the rectifier bridge on AC and DC side.
For small generator unit, surge absorber circuit is installed to restrain the over-voltage on AC side, and
spike pulse absorber circuit is installed to restraint the over-voltage on DC side.

The use of nonlinear de-excitation resistor (linear de-excitation resistor is also available for thermal
power unit) is to absorb the reverse over-voltage of rotor during accidental stop. (FR1 de-excitation
over-voltage protection circuit).

For hydro power unit above 50MW or thermal power unit above 200MW, Non-all-phase or large slip
protector is installed to absorb the obverse and reverse over-voltage during running. (FR2 Non-all-phase
absorber circuit)

The use of field circuit breaker is to cut the field current loop and transfer the energy to de-excitation
resistor. Considering different rated excitation voltage, current and de-excitation capacity, the field circuit
breaker can be unipolar or bipolar, and has 1 to 4 fractures.

Please refer to Appendix 7 for schematic information, and refer to Chapter 7 for detailed information
about the operation and maintenance of FDC.

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Chapter 1 Hardware Structure

1.2 GEC-300 Regulator Cubicle(AVR)

1.2.1 Cubicle Door Layout

Fig 1-5
Working indicator is ON: The hardware of GEC-300 controller (called AVR32 for short, whose CPU is
32-bit DSP) is in normal state, and close loop regulating and following is available.
Working indicator is OFF: The hardware of AVR32 is in error state.
Fault / Alarm indicator is ON: The regulator cubicle is in error state, and the error information can be
found in ECU.
SetA In Effect indicator is ON: Set A is master controller and it controls CAN bus (the thyristor trigger
angle is transmitted by CAN bus).
SetA In Effect indicator is OFF: Set A is slave controller and it listens to CAN bus.
SetB In Effect indicator is ON: Set B is master controller and it controls CAN bus.
SetB In Effect indicator is OFF: Set B is slave controller and it listens to CAN bus.
ECU Unit: This is a touchable panel computer with Windows operation system. By ECU unit, all state
information of regulator can be found and all operations of regulator can be achieved. Please refer to
section 2.2 for detailed information about ECU unit.
Normal State: One and only one indicator of SetA In Effect and SetB In Effect is ON.
Master Controller: The master controller calculates the control voltage Uc and transmits it to IPU16
through CAN bus. IPU16 calculates the thyristor trigger angle from Uc.
Slave Controller: The slave controller follows Uc of the master and keeps in hot standby state.

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Chapter 1 Hardware Structure

1.2.2 Operation in Cubicle

Fig 1-6

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Chapter 1 Hardware Structure

AVR Controller: Use standard 6U chassis and plugboard structure. Each controller
consists of two AC/DC power boards, one CPU board and one PT/CT
board. Usually two sets of AVR are equipped as SetA and SetB.
INC button: When pressed, the setpoints (stator voltage or field current) of SetA and
SetB are increased simultaneously. This button has anti-blocking
function, and the step length can be set by parameter P04.
DCR button: When pressed, the setpoints of SetA and SetB are decreased
simultaneously. This button has anti-blocking function, and the step
length can be set by parameter P04.
Start-up button: When pressed at rated rotate speed, the excitation is started and the
stator voltage is increased to setpoint presetted.
De-excite button: When pressed under no-load, the excitation is stopped and the stator
voltage is decreased to zero.
Signal Reset button: When pressed, the alarm/fault signals of AVR and IPRC will be reset.
Master/Slave button: When pressed, the master/slave state of SetA and SetB controllers will
be switched if both of them are in gear.
PSS is ON: The excitation system adopts PSS+PID control law.
PSS is OFF: The excitation system adopts PID control law.
Manual is ON: The excitation system adopts constant field current control law to keep
the field current constant(FCR). Under this state, V/F limiter, field
current limiter and underexcitation limiter are disabled automatically.
Manual is OFF: The excitation system adopts constant stator voltage control law to keep
the stator voltage constant(AVR).
Protection is ON: V/F limiter, field current limiter and underexcitation limiter are enabled.
Protection is OFF: During test, clear Protection On to disable V/F limiter, field current
limiter and underexcitation limiter.
Debug is ON: Set Debugging to enter debugging state, under which the regulator can
be operated by ECU.
Debug is OFF: Under this state, ECU can display the excitation system state but operate
AVR.
ICD is ON: The Intelligent Current Distribution (ICD) of IPU is enabled.
Set ZK6 to MVAr: If Set Manual is OFF and ZK6 is set to Constant MVAr(Q), the
excitation system adopts constant reactive power control law to keep the
reactive power constant.
Set ZK6 to PF: If Set Manual is OFF and ZK6 is set to Constant PF(Cos), the
excitation system adopts constant power factor control law to keep the
power factor constant.
Normal Working State: Protection is ON; Set Manual and Debugging are OFF.
NOTE 1: Both of SetA and SetB controllers are supplied by AC and DC power, and they are standby to
each other.

NOTE 2: The operations such as Increase Excitation, Decrease Excitation, Start-up, De-excite, Signal
Reset, PSS and Set Manual are available only when the operation power switch 61DK (in FDC) is close
and its voltage is normal.

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Chapter 1 Hardware Structure

1.3 GEC-300 Intelligent Power Rectifier Cubicle(IPRC)

1.3.1 Door Layout of Single IPRC

Fig 1-7
Working indicator is ON: IPU16 is in normal state and can generate trigger pulse normally.
Fault /Alarm indicator is ON: The IPU cubicle is in error state, and the error information can be found
in LCD or ECU.
ICD Good indicator is ON: The intelligent current distribution coefficient is not less than 95%.
Pulse Power indicator is ON: The pulse power of IPU cubicle is normal.
1# SCR Cur: Display the output field current value of IPU cubicle.
IPU: By LCD display unit, all state information of IPU can be found and all
operations of IPU can be achieved. Please refer to section 2.3 for
detailed information about LCD operation.
Pulse Pow switch: The power supply switch of the pulse amplifier.
Fan Oper switch: The switch to launch fan manually during test or local control.
Self Fun switch: Self Function, when closed, the single IPU will run independently
without AVR control.

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Chapter 1 Hardware Structure

1.3.2 Door Layout of Dual Rectifier Bridges Cubicle(Refer to 1.3.1)

1.4 GEC-300 De-excitation and Over-voltage Protection Cubicle(FDC)

1.4.1 Cubicle Door Layout

Fig 1-9
Oper Pow indicator is ON: The operation power supply of excitation system is normal.
Pre Clos indicator is ON: The FMK closing power supply is normal.
Over volt indicator is ON: The rotor is over-voltage once.
Over volt Rest button: When pressed, the over-voltage signal will be cleared.
Closing indicator is ON: The operation power supply is normal and the FMK switch is close.
Trip indicator is ON: The operation power supply is normal and the FMK switch is open.
Set FMK Opor to Close: Close the FMK switch if the operation power supply and the FMK
closing power supply are both normal.
Set FMK Oper to Open: Open the FMK switch if the operation power supply is normal.
Field Volt: Display the output field voltage.
Field Cur Meter: Display the output field current.
Earthing Test button: To test rotor.
Earthing Rest button: When pressed, the rotor earthing signal will be cleared.

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Chapter 2 Basic Operation

Chapter 2 Basic Operation


2.1 Power-on Operation
When external wiring is connected correctly, power-on operation of GEC-300 excitation control
system is available.

2.1.1 Power-on Operation of GEC-300 Regulator

1. Close the power supply switch of ECU unit (The ON/OFF switch on the back of ECU).

2. Close the power supply switches of SetA controller: DC power supply switch A (1DK) and AC power
supply switch A (2DK).

3. Close the power supply switches of SetB controller: DC power supply switch B (3DK) and AC power
supply switch B (4DK).

2.1.2 Power-on Operation of GEC-300 IPRC

The switches are installed in each power rectifier cubicle. For example, 11FDK, 11DK and 12DK are
installed in IPRC 1, and the rest may be deduced by analogy. All switches of GEC-311 (two bridges in one
cubicle) are installed in IPRC.

1. Close the power supply switch of the fans, such as 11FDK and 12FDK, or 21FDK and 22FDK, or
31FDK and 32FDK.

2. Close the DC power supply switch of IPU cubicles, such as 11DK, 21DK and 31DK.

3. Close the AC power supply switch of IPU cubicles, such as 12DK, 22DK and 32DK.

2.1.3 Power-on Operation of GEC-300 FDC

1. Close the operation power supply switch (61DK).

2. Close the closing power supply switch (62DK).

3. Close the field-flashing power supply switch (63DK).

2.1.4 Device Test after Power-on

1. After power-on, the regulator cubicle and IPRC enter initialization and self-test procedure, and all
alarm/fault indicators should be off. If any alarm/fault indicator is ON, please refer to section 6.5 for
detailed information.

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Chapter 2 Basic Operation

2. Close and open Launch Fan Manually switch of IPRC, and check whether the fan runs correctly.

3. Set FMK Oper to Open and Close, and check whether the field circuit breaker operates correctly.

2.2 Operation of ECU Unit


The monitoring software of GEC-300 excitation control system, which has powerful monitoring
functions, is installed on the industrial touchable panel computer. The panel computer and the monitoring
software compose the extended communication unit (ECU). This software is re-developed by LabVIEW,
and the user interface is friendly and easy to use. Press the shortcut ECU300soft.exe on desktop to enter
GEC-300 monitoring software, which has 9 pages such as: Main page, State waveform page, Current
distribution waveform page, AVR state page, IPU state page,Alarm/fault information page,Control
Parameter page, Generator parameter page and Debugging page.

The underside of each page is status bar, which displays the running state and communication state of
SetA and SetB controllers, and the current time. There are two meters and one slider on the right of each
page except main page. The two meters display the stator voltage and reactive power transfered by the
master controller, and the slider displays the stator voltage setpoint. There are several operation buttons
beneath the meters and slider, and different pages have different operation buttons. The buttons such as
start-up, de-excite, signal reset, positive step, negative step and parameter modification are only available
when Debugging is ON. The function of start-up, de-excite and signal reset buttons are the same as that in
section 1.2.2. The step length of positive and negative step can be set in control parameter page (excitation
operation parameter -> step length) and the default value is 5%.

The monitoring software can also be installed on PC and users can learn it through simulated operation.

2.2.1 Main Page

Main page is the default page when software runs, which includes the basic information of GEC-300
excitation control system such as: the stator voltage and reactive power transferred by the master controller,
the current distribution coefficient and PSS state.

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Chapter 2 Basic Operation

Fig 2-1

2.2.2 State Waveform Page

Fig 2-2

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Chapter 2 Basic Operation

State waveform page has two graphs, which can respectively display the stator voltage, field current,
active power, reactive power and unit frequency in 20 seconds. The software calculates and displays the
overshoot of each waveform instantly.

The value information of the five waveforms is displayed on the left, including maximum value,
minimum value and current value. Move the cursor on graph, the cursor will be displayed as a magnifier.
Then click and drag the cursor, the waveform could be zoomed in.

Last Waveform: Switch to last waveform. There are the stator voltage, unit frequency,
reactive power, active power and field current in turn.
Next Waveform: Switch to next waveform. The sequence is in reverse compared with
Last Waveform.
Restore Coordinates: Restore the waveform coordinates to the default value.
Copy Waveform: Copy the current waveform to clipboard as picture, which could be
pasted in other programs.
Pause: Pause the waveform update. Save Waveform is available during pause to
save current waveform to data file. Click Update to update waveform
again after save is completed.
Save Waveform: Save the current five waveforms to appointed data file. The default file
type is *.rcd which needs less disk space. The data file can be opened by
notepad if it is saved as *.dat type.
Open Waveform: Open a waveform data file. Two or more data files can be opened, and
then the waveforms of different data files will be displayed with overlap.

Under conditions such as forcing excitation alarm, underexcitation alarm, V/F alarm, PT wire break,
load shedding and de-excitation, the monitoring software records waveform automatically and the start
time of recorded waveform is 4 seconds before the condition starts. This automatic record function
cyclically denominates the recorded data file from 000 to 999 and saves it to hard disk. User can copy
recorded data files to PC for detailed analysis.

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Chapter 2 Basic Operation

2.2.3 Current Distribution Page

Fig 2-3
The Intelligent Current Distribution (ICD) is one of the original technologies of GEC-300 excitation
control system, which achieve dynamic output current balance of IPRCs without additional hardware. The
effect of intelligent current distribution can be observed on current distribution page.

The graph of this page shows the field current waveform and the setpoint waveform of every IPRC,
and it also shows the current sharing factor on top right corner.

ICD On/Off: Enable or disable ICD. By observing the field current changes when
enable/disable ICD, the current distribution effect can be realized.
Open Waveform: Open a waveform data file.

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Chapter 2 Basic Operation

2.2.4 AVR State Page

All digital input values and digital output values of regulator cubicle can be found on AVR state page.
Please refer to Appendix 4 for detailed definition of DI/DO values.

Fig 2-4

DO Test: Press this button continuously to test whether the wirings of digital
outputs are correct.
Exit Test: Exit DO test.
NOTE 1: DO Test and Exit Test are only available when Debug Switch is ON.

NOTE 2: Remember to press Exit Test after DO test; otherwise the digital outputs of regulator are
incorrect.

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Chapter 2 Basic Operation

2.2.5 IPU State Page

All states of IPRCs can be found on IPU state page, which are transmitted from IPU16 to regulator.
Please refer to section 2.5.3 for detailed information about IPU operation state.

Fig 2-5

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Chapter 2 Basic Operation

2.2.6 Alarm/Fault Information Page

Fig 2-6

When the fault/alarm indicator on the AVR door is ON, further alarm/fault information can be found
on alarm/fault information page. Please refer to section 6.5 for detailed information about alarm/fault. The
left of this page shows the software running log and the log files are saved in the folder <Installed
Dir>/Log.

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Chapter 2 Basic Operation

2.2.7 Control Parameters Page

NOTE: The regulator parameters can only be modified by qualified personnel.

The regulator parameters can be displayed and modified on control parameters page, and parameter
modification is available when Debugging is ON. This page divides the parameters of GEC-300 excitation
control system to 9 groups with 6 parameters each group: AVR PID parameters, FCR PID parameters, PSS
parameters, OEL(Over excitation limiter) parameters, UEL(Underexcitation limiter) parameters, V/Hz
limiter parameters, excitation operation parameters, correction parameters, and Temperature
Parameter.Please refer to Appendix 6 for detailed information about parameter modification.

Fig 2-7
The regulator controller has three types of parameters: FLASH parameters, EEPROM parameters and
RAM parameters.

FLASH parameters: The default factory parameters.Cant be modified and preserve after
power-off. FLASH parameters are displayed as default parameters.
EEPROM parameters: After power-on the regulator initializes RAM parameters according to
EEPROM parameters. Can be modified and preserve after power-off.
EEPROM parameters are displayed as save parameters.
RAM parameters: The current running parameters of regulator. RAM parameters are
displayed as running parameters and will be lost after power-off.
By parameter select buttons, user can select the parameter to be modified.

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Chapter 2 Basic Operation

SetA: When selected, the parameters of SetA controller will be displayed and
can be modified.
SetB: When selected, the parameters of SetB controller will be displayed and
can be modified.
+ 0.1: Increase selected parameter by 0.1.
- 0.1: Decrease selected parameter by 0.1.
+ 0.01: Increase selected parameter by 0.01.
- 0.01: Decrease selected parameter by 0.01.
Instant Modification: Instantly modify the running parameters after user modifies parameters
on this page.
Default Parameter: Restore EEPROM parameters and RAM parameters using FLASH
parameters. Use this function carefully because all modified parameters
will be lost.
Restore Parameter: Restore RAM parameters using EEPROM parameters.
Save Parameter: Save RAM parameters to EEPROM.
Confirm Modification: If Instant Modification is not selected, press this button to modify the
running parameters.
If there is any unsaved parameter (the save parameter and running parameter is different), the Unsaved
Parameter indicator will blink, and when user exits this page the software will remind user to save
parameters.

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Chapter 2 Basic Operation

2.2.8 Generator Parameters Page

On generator parameter page, the unit parameters and DCS slave address (1~255) can be set, and
variable display mode can be selected as per-unit value or real value. When pressing any parameter, a
digital keyboard will pop up. Then input the value to be modified and press OK, and the parameter will be
modified. When pressing Confirm Modification, the modified generator parameters will replace current
generator parameters, and be saved to setting file.

Fig 2-8

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Chapter 2 Basic Operation

2.2.9 Debugging Page

Fig 2-9
Debugging page is used for plant debugging. All analogue values of SetA and SetB controllers can be
found on this page. In the system picture, ECU represents extended communication unit, AVR represents
control unit of excitation regulator, and IPU represents IPRCs. ECU and AVR communicate by serial
communication, and AVR and IPU communicate by CAN bus communication.

The system picture also shows some running states such as: the running states of SetA and SetB
controllers, the running states of IPRCs, the states of field circuit breaker, synchronization breaker, DC and
AC switches of IPRCs.

When the picture of AVR is red, current AVR is master set; when the picture of AVR is green, current
AVR is slave set; when the picture of AVR is yellow, current AVR is error or isnt online.

When the picture of IPU is blue, current IPU is online and is controlled by AVR; when the picture of
IPU is yellow, current IPU is error or isnt online.When the picture of switch is red, current switch is close;
when the picture of switch is green, current switch is open.

When regulator is running and Debugging is OFF, maintainers can observe this page. Remember
switch to main page after observation.

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Chapter 2 Basic Operation

2.3 Operation of IPU LCD


IPU LCD is used to monitor and control the running state of IPU, including the field current waveform,
state variables, digital values and simple operations. There are 6 operation buttons on the LCD panel:
(Up), (Down), (Left), (Right), Esc (Cancel) and Enter (OK).

After IPU16 is power-on, the LCD lights and displays Beijing Jisi Electric Co., Ltd., which indicates
that regulator is running normally. Press any to enter catalog, as shown in fig 2-10.

Fig 2-10 Catalog

There are 8 items in the catalog: If(field current) waveform, analogue values, digital inputs, digital
outputs, running state, alarm/fault information, operation command and parameter settings. Press or
to move the cursor, and press Enter to enter next catalog. Esc, and are invalid in this page.
At the bottom of LCD is the rectifier bridge number that indicates which bridge is monitored and
controlled.

If no button is pressed in three minutes, LCD will enter screen saver. Then the back light turns off and
a company icon is displayed as screen saver picture, as shown in fig 2-11.

Fig 2-11 Icon of Beijing Jisi Electric Co., Ltd.

2.3.1 Field Current Waveform

The instant waveform of the field current is displayed in this page, and the value is expressed in
per-unit. The graph coordinates can be adjusted automatically to fit the field current value. Under local
mode, press or can increase or decrease the field current setpoint by 1. Press Esc to return to
catalog page. Enter, and are invalid in this page.

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Chapter 2 Basic Operation

Fig 2-12 Field Current Waveform

2.3.2 Analogue Values

All analogue values are displayed in this page, and there are two pages in total. Press , , or
to turn page. These analogue values are displayed in per-unit and are updated every 0.5 second. The
rms. value of stator voltage is displayed in both pages. Press Esc to return to catalog page. Enter is
invalid in this page.

Fig 2-13 Analogue Values

Analogue Values
Name Symbol and meaning
Field Current Setpoint If SetPT(Ir): The filed current setpoint under local mode
Control Voltage Uc: The control voltage after ICD control
Control compensation DUc: The deviation of Uc after ICD control
Trigger Angle Alp: The trigger angle of thyristor
Frequency Fw: Synchronous voltage frequency, which equals to unit frequency
Synchronous Voltage Ut: The anode voltage of thyristor, which equals to stator voltage
Control SetPT UcR: The control voltage transmitted from AVR
ICD Setpoint IfR: The ICD setpoint transmitted from AVR
Fan Power Supply 1 FU10: The 1st section of fan power supply voltage
Fan Power Supply 2 FU20: The 2nd section of fan power supply voltage

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Chapter 2 Basic Operation

Benchmark Voltage Usd: The benchmark voltage used to test AD in IPU.


Field Current Iff: The instant value of field current

2.3.3 Digital Inputs

The digital input values of IPRC are displayed in this page, and there are two pages in total. Press ,
, or to turn page, as shown in fig 2-14. If an input node of IPU is short circuit, the
corresponding digital input value is blink. Press Esc to return to catalog page. Enter is invalid in this
page.

Fig 2-14 Digital Inputs


Digital Inputs
Name Meaning and Condition of ON
IPRC 1 Indicates that current IPRC No. is 1. Set by parameters.
IPRC 2 Indicates that current IPRC No. is 2. Set by parameters.
IPRC 3 Indicates that current IPRC No. is 3. Set by parameters.
Launch Fan Manually Fan test. On when the fan test switch is turned to Close.
The trigger pulse has lost, and the pulse monitoring circuit generates
Pulse Lost (Optional)
pulse lost node signal to controller.
Decreases excitation setpoint. On when local or remote Decrease
DCR Excitation
Excitation node is close.
Increases excitation setpoint. On when local or remote Increase
INC Excitation
Excitation node is close.
Indicates running state of fan. On when fan is stop or Wind Pressure
Wind (Pressure) Low
node is still close after fan runs.
Indicates DC fuse failed node of thyristor. On when any DC fuse of
Fuse Failed
thyristor is failed, and IPU will stop running.
The bridge temperature is too high and the temperature relay in
SCR Overtemp
rectifier bridge is close.
AC Switch Off Indicates the AC switch state in IPRC.
DC Switch Off Indicates the DC switch state in IPRC.
Self Function IPU runs in local mode. On when Self Function switch is turned to On.
Field circuit Breaker Off Indicates the breaker is open.

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Chapter 2 Basic Operation

2.3.4 Digital Outputs

All digital output values of IPRC are displayed in this page. If there is an output node such as alarm or
launching fan, the corresponding digital output value is blink. Press Esc to return to catalog page. Enter
is invalid in this page.

Fig 2-15 Digital Outputs

Digital Outputs
Name Meaning and Condition of ON
When alarm or fault happens, the controller generates output to central control
Fault Alarm room, and the alarm/fault indicator on panel is ON. Detailed alarm/fault
information can be found in alarm/fault page.
Clear Pulse Lost
Clear pulse lost signal if there is a pulse lost alarm signal.
(Optional)
Launch Fan 1 Launch fan 1.
Launch Fan 2 Launch fan 2
Indicates the ICD effect. The current distribution coefficient is above 95% when
ICD Ok
ICD is running.
When alarm or fault happens, the alarm/fault indicator on panel is ON. Detailed
Alarm/Fault
alarm/fault information can be found in alarm/fault page.
Indicates that IPU is running normally and can generates trigger pulse under AVR
Working
control or independently.

2.3.5 Running State

All running state flags of IPU are displayed in this page, and there are two pages in total. Press , ,
or to turn page. The meanings of these flags are similar with the IPU state flags of ECU. If a flag
is ON, the corresponding value is blink. Press Esc to return to catalog page. Enter is invalid in this
page.

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Chapter 2 Basic Operation

Fig 2-16 Running State

IPU Running State


Name Meaning and Condition of ON
Self Function IPU runs in local mode. On when Self Function switch is turned to on or
IPU turns into local mode due to fault.
Online/No Load Indicates whether generator runs online. On when synchronization breaker
is close.
IPU Working Indicates that IPRC is running normally. There is no alarm and fault, and
IPU can generate trigger pulse.
FMK (Field circuit Indicates that field circuit breaker is close.
Breaker) On
Pulse Lost The trigger pulse has lost, and the pulse monitoring circuit generates pulse
(Optional) lost signal to IPU.
SCR Overtemp The bridge temperature is too high and the temperature relay in rectifier
bridge is close.
False Forcing IPRC forces excitation mistakenly due to short circuit and so on. Then
current IPRC stop running.
Wind Low IPU detects that the field current larger than 0.1 and the Wind Pressure
Low node is close.
AC Switch On Indicates the AC switch is on.
DC Switch On Indicates the DC switch is on.
Fan Working The field current larger than 0.1, the fan is running automatically and no
Wind Pressure Low signal.
Fan Power OK Indicates that the dual power supply of fan are both normal.
Synchronous Sign The two channels of synchronous voltage inputted into IPU are not
Lost balanced.
Fuse Failed On when any DC fuse of thyristor is failed.
ICD On AVR sends ICD command to IPU, and IPU enables ICD.

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Chapter 2 Basic Operation

2.3.6 Alarm/Fault Information

Detailed alarm/fault information can be found in this page, if the alarm/fault indicator on IPU panel is
ON or remote receives the alarm/fault signal. There are 8 alarm/fault items in total. When there is any an
alarm/fault signal, the corresponding item blinks. Press Esc to return to catalog page. , , ,
and Enter are invalid in this page. Please refer to section 6.5 for detailed information about alarm/fault.

Fig 2-17 Alarm/Fault Information

IPU Alarm/Fault Information


Name Condition of ON
Synchronous Signal The two channels of synchronous voltage inputted into IPU are not
Lost balanced.
Fuse Failed On when any DC fuse of thyristor is failed.
The bridge temperature is too high and the temperature relay in rectifier
SCR Overtemp
bridge is close.
False Forcing IPRC forces excitation mistakenly due to short circuit and so on.
Frequency measurement fault, pulse generation fault or A/D fault
Internal Fault
happen more than 10 times in a second.
Fan Fault Including power supply fault of fan and Wind Pressure Low fault.
CAN fault Regulator cant receive data from IPU in a specific time.
Power Supply Fault AC power supply or DC power supply are faulty.

2.3.7 Operation Command

There are 4 general operation commands in this page. When regulator stops running or IPU runs in
local mode, these operation commands are available. Press or to select operation command, and
press Enter to confirm operation. Press Esc to return to catalog page. and are invalid in this
page.

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Chapter 2 Basic Operation

Fig 2-18 Operation Commands

Operation Commands
Name Meaning Description
Signal Reset Reset all alarm/fault signals.
Increase Excitation by Increase the field current setpoint by
0.5% 0.5% Available under local mode and
Decrease Excitation by Decrease the field current setpoint the step length can be modified.
0.5% by 0.5%
De-Excite Set the field current setpoint to zero. Available under local mode.

2.3.8 Parameter Settings

In catalog page, selecting Parameters Settings item and pressing Enter six times, user can enter
parameter settings page. There are two pages in total. Press or to select parameter, and press
Enter to enter parameter modification page. In parameter modification page, press or to select +/-
operations, and press Enter to confirm modification. The modified parameters will take effect instantly,
and they are stored in RAM, so remember to save parameters.

Save Parameters: Writes modified parameters to EEPROM.


Restore Parameters: Restore RAM parameters using EEPROM parameters.
Default Parameters: Restore EEPROM parameters using factory default parameters.
Parameter Value: The modified parameter value.

Fig 2-19 Parameter Settings

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Chapter 2 Basic Operation

Fig 2-20 Parameter Modification

NOTE: Remember to learn parameter meanings and modification method before modifying parameters.
Improper modification may result in running error of IPU16. Please contact us before modifying
parameters.

2.3.9 Parameter Meanings and Modification

(1). SCRnumber(IPU number): The IPU number if there are two or more IPUs, and the value range is
1~4. There cant be two same IPU numbers in an excitation system. In system with two bridges
in one cubicle, the value range is 1~2.

(2). If base(Base value of field current): The base value of the field current. The default value is 20.48.
The field current is acquired from shunt (75mV), and then is transmitted to voltage signal ranging
between 0V and 5V by transducer, and this voltage signal is sampled directly. So, the rated
current of shunt should be 1.5~2 times (forcing excitation multiple) of the rated field current to
avoid that the voltage signal is beyond AD range during forcing excitation.

Supposing the shunt ratio is 2000A/75mV, the rated field current is 1200A, the transducer ratio is
75mV/5V and current base value of field current is 20.48, then the new base value is

1200/2000*20.48 = 12.29

(3). Filter time: IPU filters the field current value and transmits it to AVR, and then AVR transmits
ICD setpoint to IPU, so the filer time determines current distribution effect. The default value is
5s, and it can be set according to actual conditions.

(4). Gain: The amplification of PI control loop. The default value is 20, and the value range is 0~30.

(5). Integral time: The integral time of PI control loop. The default value is 5s.

(6). If SetPT MAX(Maximum setpoint of field current): The maximum setpoint of field current
during running. This value is expressed in per-unit, and the default value is 1.100.

(7). Uc convert(Correction factor of Uc): The correction factor of Uc, and this parameter is important
in dynamic test. When the generator runs under rated no-load condition, Uc of GEC excitation
regulator should be about 1.000, which can be adjusted by this parameter. The value range is

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Chapter 2 Basic Operation

0~0.3.

Correction factor of Uc = Uf0/1.35/Uz

where Uf0 is the rated excitation voltage under no-load, Uz is the anode voltage of thyristor (the
secondary voltage of excitation transformer). Trigger angle can be calculated from correction
factor of Uc as following equation:

Trigger angle = arcos (correction factor of Uc)

For example, if Uf0 = 100V and Uz = 280V, then

Correction factor of Uc = 100/1.35/280 = 0.13

Trigger angle = arcos (0.13) = 82.5. Then user can adjust correction angle to fit the calculated
value.

(8). Base value of synchronous voltage: Used to convert synchronous voltage to per-unit value. The
default value is 8.121, and 100V (line voltage) corresponds to 1.000 p.u.

Measurement method: supposing current stator voltage Ut1 = 0.780, the actual secondary voltage
of PT Utx = 80V, the rated no-load secondary voltage of PT Ut0 = 100V, and current base value
UBB = 8.121, then the new base value is

UBB = UBB*Ut1/Utx*Ut0 = 8.121*0.780/80*100 = 7.918

(9). Fan voltage Base value: Used to convert fan voltage to per-unit value. The calculation method is
similar to that of synchronization voltage.

NOTE: This base value influences the automatic launch and stop of fan, and it should be adjusted
above 0.8.

(10). Correction(Correction of trigger angle): Corrects the trigger angle delay caused by hardware.
The default value is 5 degree.

(11). ICD Calc.INT (ICD Calculation Interval): the calculation interval of ICD, which influences the
current distribution effect. The default value is 5s, and it can be set according to actual condition.

(12). Setpoint limit during overtemperature: When IPU is overtemperature, the field current setpoint
should be limited below this value. This value is expressed in per-unit and the default value is 0.2
p.u.

(13). EXC Step(Increase/decrease excitation step): The step length when increasing/decreasing
excitation. This displayed value is the increased/decreased value in 1 second when
increase/decrease excitation node is close. This value is expressed in per-unit and the default
value is 0.5%.

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Chapter 3 Technical Instruction of IPRC

Chapter 3 Technical Instruction of IPRC


Intelligent Power Rectifier Cubicle for Excitation System

Beijing Jisi Electric Co., Ltd.


July, 2007

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Chapter 3 Technical Instruction of IPRC

This instruction is applicable to the excitation rectifier devices made by Beijing Jisi Electric Co., Ltd.,
which is used for turbine generators with capacity from 50MW to 1000MW or hydraulic generators with
capacity from 10MW to 700MW.

Intelligent rectifier device (including independent micro-controller unit) has different number to
non-intelligent rectifier device, and it is applicable to cooperate with GEC-300 excitation regulator made by
Beijing Jisi Electric Co., Ltd. In this instruction, the description about intelligent rectifier device generally
means the specific function of intelligent rectifier device.

3.1 Introduction
GEKL (intelligent) rectifier device made by Beijing Jisi Electric Co., Ltd. is applicable to excitation
system of turbine or hydraulic generator with large and medium size.

3.1.1 National Standards and Industry Standards

GEKL series of rectifier devices accord with following national standards and industry standards:

GB7409-1997: Excitation systems for synchronous electrical machines


GB/T3859-93: Semiconducting convertor
GB3797-83: Electric-driving control gear Part 2: Electric-driving control gear
incorporating electronic devices
IEC2A (secret 13-1978) Technical requirements of excitation systems for turbine generator
IEC2A (secret 593-1982) Prescriptions of excitation systems for synchronous generator
DL/T583-1995 Specification for static commutated excitation systems and devices for
large and medium hydraulic generators
DL/T650-1998 Specification for potential source static exciter systems for large turbine
generators

3.1.2 Basic Configuration of GEKL Series

The main circuit is three-phase thyristor rectifier bridge, which has good operation characteristics and
certain overload capability.

The control circuit has protection function. When fault happens, the control circuit generates
alarm/fault signal and the fuse instantly fuses, and then controller stops generating trigger pulse to protect
device.

This intelligent rectifier device can receive pulse control signals through CAN bus or external
terminals, and it composes a whole control system with other devices.

The dimension of this device is 2260mm*800 (or 1000)mm*1000mm (height*width*depth).

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Chapter 3 Technical Instruction of IPRC

3.2 Type Description


GEKL (Z) A/V type
Z ------ Function code, intelligent
GE ------ Company code
K ------ Phase-controlled thyristor
L ------ Rectifier Device
A ------ Rated output current
V ------ Rated output voltage

3.3 Environment Conditions


z Ambient temperature: -10 ~ +45
z Installation altitude 2000m
z Relative humidity 90% (25)
z Environment: Clear. No explosion and no biggish vibration. No corrosive gas and conductive
dust which may destroy metal and insulation.
z Vertical gradient 5%

3.4 Technical Conditions


z Installation position: indoor.
z Noise level: 70dB
z Overload capability: 200% of rated current for 30 seconds
z Dielectric strength: The factory test voltage, field acceptance test voltage, repeating test voltage
and test voltage after maintenance are all power-frequency. The voltage values accord with the
corresponding standards in 3.1.1, and the time of voltage withstand test is one minute.

3.5 Types, Specifications and Parameters


GEKL-(Z)-1000 GEKL-(Z)-1600 GEKL-(Z)-2500 GEKL-(Z)-3500
Device Type
(800) (1250) (2000) (3150)
Input AC Voltage
800/50(60) 1000/50(60) 1000/50(60) 1000/50(60)
(V/Hz)
Rated/MAX
220,440/ 440,600/ 600/ 600/
Output DC
800 1000 1000 1000
Voltage (V)
Rated Output DC
Current per 1000 1600 2500 3500
Cubicle (A)
Overload Current
for 30s per Cubicle 2000 3200 5000 7000
(A)
1~2
Shunt Cubicle
(1 cubicle with 2 23 34 34
Number
bridges available)

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Chapter 3 Technical Instruction of IPRC

3.6 Functions and Features


The appearance of GEKL series of intelligent rectifier cubicles is as shown in attached figure 1 and 2.

1) Particular Features of Intelligent Rectifier Cubicle

GEKL series of intelligent rectifier cubicles has intelligent control unit (IPU). DSP chip of TI or MCU
chip of Intel are used as CPU and PSD chip of ST is used as periphery interface chip.

IPU communicates with AVR by CAN bus, which is high-speed and reliable. It receives the control
command from AVR and sends the state of current rectifier cubicle. Due to the layered structure of IPU and
AVR, the reliability of whole excitation system is enhanced. A single rectifier cubicle can run
independently to implement manual regulation, which can avoids excitation loss fault when AVR has fault.
The short-circuit test of generator is also easy to carry out.

IPU can implement pulse trigger, manual regulation, current limiter, intelligent monitoring (including
fuse failed, overtemperature alarm, temperature monitoring and launch/stop of fan), intelligent current
distribution, and so on.

2) Power Thyristor
Following power thyristors are available in the device: the stressless, 3 inch power thyristors made by
ABB, the power thyristors made by DYNEX/MITEL in UK, CNR Yongji Electric Machine Factory in
China, and CSR Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Institute in China. These thyristors have stable performance
and reliable quality. Because the single capacity of these thyristors is large, the shunt thyristor number is
small to achieve the same device capacity. Then the current distribution coefficient is high, and device
volume is reduced.
3) Structure
The device has half-closed cubicle structure. Air flows into thyristors from the bottom of cubicle.
Low-noise centrifugal fan is used for cooling, and the noise of rectifier device is less that 70dB. Dual AC
power supplies are used to enhance the system reliability.
4) Protection
The device has protection circuits such as: over-voltage (RC absorber), fuse failed, overload of fan, low
wind pressure and overtemperature.
5) Redundancy Design

The device is designed according to N-1 principle. Even if a rectifier cubicle stops running, the rest
rectifier cubicles can afford normal excitation and forcing excitation to generator.

6) Intelligent Current distribution (Particular Feature)

The intelligent rectifier cubicle communicates with AVR through IPU, and AVR centrally controls the
output current of all rectifier cubicles. AVR sends pulse control command to each rectifier cubicle to

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Chapter 3 Technical Instruction of IPRC

achieve intelligent current distribution. Intelligent current distribution is applicable to the current
distribution control with 2~6 rectifier cubicles, and the current distribution coefficient is above 98%.
Intelligent current distribution dont need additional devices, and the instant current of each thyristor dont
increase, so it has unmatched advantages compared with other current distribution methods such as
long-line current distribution, reactor current distribution and thyristor triggering in turn.

7) Dual Power Supplies of Fan and Dual Fans (For Large Unit)

In IPRC, IPU automatically monitors whether the dual power supplies of fan are normal, and if voltage
of a power supply is low IPU generates alarm signal and switches to another power supply. If user needs
high reliability, dual fans can be installed. IPU monitors the wind pressure and power supplies of fans to
achieve automatic switch of power supplies and fans.

8) Lamp can be installed in every cubicle for convenience, which lights when cubicle door is opened.

9) The device has temperature monitoring and protection function.

10) The device has passed temperature rise test with rated current and other tests prescribed in national
standards and industry standards.

3.7 Main Components

3.7.1 Thyristor

Imported thyristors including 5STP series of ABB in Switzerland and DCR series of DYNEX/MITEL
in UK, and homemade thyristors made by Yongji Electric Machine Factory and Zhuzhou Electric
Locomotive Institute are available.

The main parameters of thyristors such as average on-state current, repetitive peak forward and reverse
voltage and on-state voltage drop are chosen by calculation, and all these parameters have large margins.
All thyristors have test report.

Fig 3-1 Appearance of Thyristors and their radiators

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Chapter 3 Technical Instruction of IPRC

(1) The repetitive peak voltage of thyristors is

U RRM > K u K cg K e U ARM

where K u is the over-voltage margin factor, and its default value is 2.0; K cg is the over-voltage

impact factor, and its default value is 1.5; K e is the rise factor of power supply voltage, and its value is

between 1.05 and 1.10; U ARM is the maximum reverse working voltage of bridge, and it also is the peak
value of anode voltage.

(2) The average on-state current is

I f max
I T = 0 . 43 K a
n p1

where n p1 is the shunt thyristor number of commutated device; K a is the current margin factor,

and its value is between 1.5 and 2.5; I f max is the maximum continuous current of single cubicle; I T is

the average on-state current of thyristor.

3.7.2 Fast Fuse

Fast fuses made by Xian Rectifier Factory are chosen. The main parameters of fuses such as rated
voltage, rated current and I2t are chosen by calculation.

(1) Rated voltage should be higher than the peak value of anode voltage.

(2) Rated current is

IRN=IRK

Where IR is the rms. value of rated working current of single cubicle; K is synthesized factor which
synthesizes the margin factor, experiential factor of radiation, correction factor of wind speed and
environment temperature factor, and its value is between 1.3 and 1.7.

3.7.3 AC Input Switch

HD13 series switches made by Shanghai Jingong Electrical Wholeset Company are chosen, which
have good operation mechanism, close contact and good appearance.

The rated voltage of switches should be higher than the rated anode AC voltage of rectifier, and the
rated current should be higher than the rated AC current of rectifier.

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Chapter 3 Technical Instruction of IPRC

3.7.4 DC Output Switch

HD13 series switches made by Shanghai Jingong Electrical Wholeset Company are chosen. The rated
voltage of switches should be higher than the rated DC output voltage of rectifier, and the rated current
should be higher than the rated DC current of rectifier.

3.7.5 Fan

R4E series of low-noise fans made by EBM Company in Germany are chosen. Take R4E-400-AB for
example, and its main parameters are as follows:

Amount of wind: 3150m/h

Noise: 61dBA

Parameters of motor: 230V, 0.27kW

Fig 3-2 Appearance of Imported Low-noise Fan

3.7.6 Pulse Trigger Monitoring Circuit

Pulse trigger monitoring circuit, which uses stable circuit, is chosen when excitation system requires
high reliability. If the trigger pulse loses, the monitoring circuit generates alarm signal.

3.7.7 Wind Pressure Relay

Gravity auxiliary wind pressure relays, the patent of Jisi Company, are chosen, and their core
components use imported micro switch. The technical conditions are:

Wind speed 5.5m/s

Wind Pressure 80Pa

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Chapter 3 Technical Instruction of IPRC

Fig 3-3 Appearance of Gravity Auxiliary Wind Pressure Relay

3.7.8 Overtemperature Relay

Eld-3 temperature relays of Elmwood Company in USA are chosen, which has good insulation and
works stably and reliably. When the temperature of detected point is higher than 75, alarm signal is
generated, and controller stops pulse trigger or limits load.

3.7.9 Temperature Monitoring (High Cost Option)

1~3 groups of platinum resistors for temperature measurement are installed in each cubicle, and the
installation positions are thyristor radiator, wind entrance and wind exit. IPU measures the temperature and
temperature deviation of these three positions by transmitters.

3.8 Maintenance

3.8.1 Daily In-process Check

Check whether the devices are clean, and whether abnormal noises or smells exist.

3.8.2 Semiyearly Check

Check whether the terminals of control circuit loose, and whether the insulated conductors are
conglutinated with hot body and break.

3.8.3 Annual Check

Dust-removal in cubicle: remove dust in cubicle by compressed air, and the radiator and wind pressure
relay should be cleaned with emphasis.

Control circuit: check whether the insulation resistors are normal, and whether the insulation terminals
change color abnormally.

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Chapter 3 Technical Instruction of IPRC

Main circuit: check whether the bus connection bolts are loose or overtemperature, whether the surface
of insulators breaks or changes color abnormally, and whether the insulation resistors work normally.

3.8.4 Periodic Temperature Rise Measurement

The temperature rise of thyristor surface (combination position with radiator) should be less than 45,
and the temperature distribution of shunt components should be even. If a component has higher
temperature than others, user should check and replace it with a new component.

The temperature rise of fast fuse joint should be less than 50. If the temperature rise is too height,
user should check whether the contact is good and clean the interface of conductors.

The temperature rise of conductor should be less than 35, and the temperature rise of joint should be
less than 55

3.8.5 Current distribution Test

Current distribution test should be carried out during major overhaul, and the current distribution
coefficient should not be less than 0.98 (intelligent current distribution) or 0.95 (non-intelligent current
distribution).

Equation: KI =
Ia
Np Ia M

where KI is the current distribution coefficient, Ia is the total current of all branches, Np is the shunt
branch number; IaM is the maximum branch current.

If separate branch current is too large or too small, the component should be replaced or exchanged
with another one.

3.9 Installation and Disassembly


Please refer to assembly drawings for installation information. The relay control part is too simple to
repeat below.

3.9.1 Disassembly of Fast Fuses

Firstly remove the announciator and its connections of fast fuse, and then remove the bolts connecting
copper-bus. The installation sequence is reverse.

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Chapter 3 Technical Instruction of IPRC

3.9.2 Disassembly of Power Unit

Remove the bolts connecting branch copper bar to bus bar, remove the bolts connecting radiator to AC
copper bar, and then draw out the whole power unit from the front of cubicle. The installation sequence is
reverse.

3.10 Packing and Transportation


1) Each cubicle is packed independently and spare parts are packed independently.

2) Every package is dustproof, dampproof and shockproof.

3) Cant be swung with only two swinging rings. The swing angle should be less than 90.

3.11 Attached Figures

Attached Fig 1 Appearance of IPU

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Chapter 3 Technical Instruction of IPRC

Attached Fig 2 Appearance of Rectifier Cubicle

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Chapter 4 Operation Instruction of FDC

Chapter 4 Operation Instruction of FDC


De-excitation and Over-voltage Protection Cubicles

Beijing Jisi Electric Co., Ltd.


July, 2007

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Chapter 4 Operation Instruction of FDC

4.1 Introduction

4.1.1 Application Range

This product is applicable to excitation systems of hydraulic and turbine generators with large, medium
or small size in power system, which can achieve field-flashing, de-excitation and over-voltage protection.

4.1.2 Application Environment Conditions

1. Installation altitude 2000m


2. Ambient temperature: -10 ~ +50
3. Relative humidity 90% (25)
4. No corrosive gas and conductive dust which may destroy metal and insulation in surroundings.
5. No biggish vibration and impact, and the vertical gradient 5
6. The AC power supply is three-phase symmetric sinusoidal waveform, and the frequency fluctuation
is less than 3%.

4.1.3 Technical Standards

GB3797-89: Electric-driving control gear Part 2


GB4064-83 General guide for designing of electrical equipment to satisfy safety
requirements
GB4208-93 Protection level of enclosures (IP Code)
GB6162-85 Electric disturbance tests for static relays and protection equipments
GB/T7064-1996 Requirements for turbine synchronous machine
GB/T7409-1997 Excitation system of synchronous electrical machine
GB14285-93 Technical code for relay protection, security and automatic equipment
IEC2A (secret 13-1978) Technical requirements of excitation systems for turbine generator
IEC2A (secret 593-1982) Prescriptions of excitation systems for synchronous generator
GB/T14598.9-1995 Electric disturbance tests for measuring relays and protection
equipments
GB50150-91 Electric equipment installation engineering
DL/T583-1995 Specification for static commutated excitation systems and devices for
large and medium hydraulic generators
DL/T650-1998 Specification for potential source static exciter systems for large turbine
generators
SD152-87 Fundamental technical requirements for hydraulic turbine generators
with large and medium size
DL490-92 Specification for installation and acceptance of static commutated

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Chapter 4 Operation Instruction of FDC

excitation systems and devices for large and medium hydraulic


generators
DL489-92 Specification for test of static commutated excitation systems and
devices for large and medium hydraulic generators
DL/T491-99 Specification for operation and maintenance of static commutated
excitation systems and devices for large and medium hydraulic
generators

4.1.4 Technical Parameters

The types of this product include GEMC-400, GEMC-630, GEMC-800, GEMC-1000, GEMC-1600,
GEMC-2500, GEMC-4000 and GEMC-6000, and their main technical parameters are as follows.

Table 1 Main Technical Parameters of FDC


Maximum
Type Rated Voltage Rated Current Forcing Voltage
Breaking Current
GEMC-400 500V/800V 400A 1200A 1250V/1600V
GEMC-630 500V/800V 600A 1800A 1250V/1600V
GEMC-800 500V/800V 800A 2400A 1250V/1600V
GEMC-1000 500V/800V 1000A 3000A 1250V/1600V
GEMC-1600 500V/800V 1600A 3200A 1250V/1600V
GEMC-2500 800V/1000V 2500A 5000A 1250V/1600V
GEMC-4000 800V/1000V 4000A 8000A 1250V/1600V
GEMC-6000 1000V/2000V 6000A 12000A 2000V/4000V
The dimension of cubicles is 2260*1000 (or 800)*1000 (or 800) (height*width*depth)

4.1.5 Installation Dimensions

The installation centre distance of bolts at the bottom of cubicles is 820mm (620mm)*900mm (700mm)
(width*depth). The diameter of four apertures is 22mm.

4.1.6 Main Configuration and Functions

This product consists of field circuit breaker, nonlinear or linear de-excitation resistor, and
over-voltage protection devices on AC and DC side.

Main Functions: During normal stop, this product can de-excite via inverted rectifier mode fast and safely.

For hydro power units above 50MW or thermal power units above 200MW, centralized blocking R-C
absorber is installed to restrain the over-voltage of the rectifier bridge on AC and DC side. For small units,

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Chapter 4 Operation Instruction of FDC

surge absorber circuit is installed to restrain the over-voltage on AC side, and spike pulse absorber circuit is
installed to restraint the over-voltage on DC side.

The use of nonlinear de-excitation resistor (linear de-excitation resistor is also available for thermal
power units) is to absorb the reverse over-voltage of rotor during accidental stop. (FR1 de-excitation
over-voltage protection circuit)

For hydro power units above 50MW or thermal power units above 200MW, Non-all-phase or large slip
protector is installed to absorb the obverse and reverse over-voltage during running. (FR2 Non-all-phase
absorber circuit)

The use of field circuit breaker(FMK) is to cut the field current loop and transfer the energy to
de-excitation resistor. Considering different rated excitation voltage, current and de-excitation capacity, the
field circuit breaker can be unipolar or bipolar, and has 1 to 4 fractures.

4.2 Operation Instruction

4.2.1 Operation Instruction

1. Closing Operation of FMK


a) Close the operation power supply switch 61DK.
b) Close the closing power supply switch 62DK.
c) Turn the FMK operation switch to ON.
2. Opening Operation of FMK
a) Close the operation power supply switch 61DK.
b) Turn the FMK operation switch to Trip.
3. Field-flashing Operation
a) Close the operation power supply switch 61DK.
b) Close the field-flashing power supply switch 63DK.
c) Operate according to start-up procedure of regulator.
4. Reset of Over-voltage Signal
If nonlinear resistor acts during de-excitation or over-voltage protection, the de-excitation cubicle
generates Over-voltage signal to central control room, and the over-voltage indicator is ON, which
indicates that de-excitation or over-voltage protection of de-excitation cubicle acts normally.

The Over-voltage signal is self-sustaining, and operator should press Over-vltg Reset button in central
control room or at the de-excitation cubicle door to reset this signal.

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Chapter 4 Operation Instruction of FDC

4.2.2 In-process Check

z Check whether the rotor current is in normal range.


z Check whether the rotor voltage is in normal range.
z Check whether the panel indicators are in normal state.
z Check whether the fuse in serials of spike pulse absorber is failed.
z Check whether the fuse in serials of nonlinear de-excitation resistor is failed.
In three days after device is put into operation, special attention should be paid to whether the fuses of
spike pulse absorber or nonlinear de-excitation resistor are failed.

4.3 Judgement and Handling of Abnormal Signals

4.3.1 Abnormal Events

Start-up fault.

4.3.2 Judgement and Handling of Field-flashing Failure.

1. Judgement

Regulator generates Start-up fault signal.

2. Handling

a) Check whether the field-flashing power supply is normal and whether the indicator of
field-flashing power supply on panel is ON.

b) Check whether FMK is close and whether the indicator of FMK closing on panel is ON.

c) Check whether field-flashing contactor acts normally.

d) Check whether FMK closes in position, and measure the fracture voltage of FMK using
multimeter.

4.4 Device Installation

4.4.1 Device Installation

4.4.1.1 Installation preparation

Prepare necessary technique, materials and instruments before device installation.

a) Out of box audit

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Chapter 4 Operation Instruction of FDC

i. Check whether the kind and quantity of goods in box accord with the packing list.

ii. Check whether the appearance of device is damaged badly.

iii. Check whether the internal parts of device are damaged badly.

b) Technical preparation

i. Be familiar with all drawings of this device.

ii. Read this operation instruction carefully.

iii. Plan installation scenario, and draw necessary operation loop schematic and terminal wiring
schematic.

c) Preparation of signal cables

Prepare necessary signal cables according to terminal wiring schematic. The requirements of cables
are as follows.

DC220V /110V operation power supply: armoured copper-core cable with 1.5mm2
conductor section.

DC220V/110V closing power supply: armoured cable with 16 mm2 conductor section.

DC220V/110V field-flashing power supply: armoured cable with 16 mm2 conductor


section.

Control signals: armoured copper-core cable with 1.5 mm2 conductor section.

Lead of rotor ampere meter: armoured copper-core cable high-voltage cable with 1.5 mm2
conductor section.

NOTE: The conductor section subjects to actual design.

4.4.1.2 Installation

The device can be installed after sufficient preparation. Installation includes installing cubicle in
position, connecting cables to terminals according to terminal wiring schematic, connecting primary cables
and bus bar and so on.

4.5 Maintenance
4.5.1 The maintenance of de-excitation and over-voltage protection system is very easy and convenient,
and no regular monitor and maintenance is needed during normal running.

4.5.2 Whether dust-removal is needed according to the dust accumulation condition on the component
surface in cubicle.

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Chapter 4 Operation Instruction of FDC

4.5.3 Test of nonlinear zinc oxide resistors.

Test of nonlinear zinc oxide resistors is needed during every major overhaul. The test method and
procedure are as follows.

a) Insulation resistor test of nonlinear zinc oxide resistors

Open de-excitation breaker FMK; cut off the connection cables or copper bar of FMK and rotor loop;
take away the fast fuse RD in series with nonlinear zinc oxide resistor; do insulation test of nonlinear
zinc oxide resistors using megohm meter.

Test result: the normal insulation resistor is larger than 1M.

b) Leakage current test of nonlinear zinc oxide resistors

If the insulation resistor of nonlinear zinc oxide resistors is normal, put voltage of 0.5 times of U10mA
to the nonlinear zinc oxide resistor, and measure the leakage current of nonlinear zinc oxide resistor.

Test result: the normal leakage current is less than 50A.

If the leakage current is larger than 100A, the nonlinear zinc oxide resistor is aging and it should be
replaced with a new one.

If capacity of useless components is more than 30% of total capacity of nonlinear zinc oxide resistors,
the whole components should be replaced.

ZnO Nonlinear De-excitation Resistors

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Chapter 5 Installation and Putting into Operation

Chapter 5 Installation and Putting into


Operation
5.1 Installation
After GEC-300 excitation control system is transported to field, installation can be carried out and the
operation procedure is as follows.

z Open packages of GEC, and check the kind and quantity of goods according to packing list.

z Put cubicles in position and fix them.

z Check whether the components and connection in cubicles are damaged.

z Connect external wirings of excitation control system according to drawings when power-off.

NOTE: Shielded twisted pair should be used for the CAN connection cable between regulator and IPU, and
fiber communication should be used if the distance between regulator and IPU is larger than 50m.

Shielded twisted pair should be used for the pulse power and pulse wires when GEC-300 regulator
cooperates with power rectifier cubicles from other manufacturers.

5.2 Static Check


Static check is prerequisite after GEC-300 excitation control system is installed, which checks whether
the internal components are damaged and whether the external wirings are correct. Please refer to
Debugging Outline of GEC-300 Excitation Control System for more information.

z Check all remote signals and operations.

z Check analogue channels.

z Check protection and limiter functions.

z Do open loop small current test.

z Do large current test (with necessary test conditions).

5.3 Test and Procedure before Putting into Operation


Following tests can be carried out when generator runs at rated speed and all switches of excitation
control system are close.

5.3.1 Short-circuit Test of Generator

- The anode voltage is from station service bus (primary of excitation transformer) or station service
380V (input bus bar of IPRC. The wirings of excitation transformer should be cut off to prevent

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Chapter 5 Installation and Putting into Operation

reverse electric transmission).

- Check the wirings of excitation transformer and phase sequence.

- Set parameters such as active power and reactive power of generator, V/F limiter, underexcitation
limiter and forcing excitation limiter.

- Increase voltage according to plant requirements until rated stator current is reached. Then check the
polarity of CT loop and set correction parameters of field current and stator current.

- De-excite and short-circuit test ends.

5.3.2 Close-loop Test under No-load

- Check field-flashing loop (including field-flashing power supply)

- Set excitation operation parameters (the start-up setpoint should not be larger than 0.3 when first
start-up)

- Start-up. Increase excitation to rated voltage, and set voltage correction parameter and Uc correction
parameter.

- Do 5% step test and record waveform. Confirm parameters of voltage loop PID and current loop PID,
and record waveform.

- Switch between dual power supplies; switch controller between SetA and SetB; switch voltage
regulation mode and do single rectifier bridge stop test. The stator voltage of generator should have no
distinct fluctuation. Record waveform.

- De-excite. Increase voltage to rated voltage. De-excite. Record waveform.

5.3.3 Frequency Characteristic Test (Optional)

- Set parameters of V/F limiter. Generator holds rated voltage under no-load.

- Change generator frequency and record waveform. Check the result with V/F characteristic curve.

5.3.4 Preparation before Connecting to Grid

Restore parameters of generator over-voltage protection, or demolish temporary over-voltage relay. Set
Protection to OFF (to prevent reverse polarity of stator CT, which may cause action of underexcitation
limiter and result in over-reactivepower of generator).

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Chapter 5 Installation and Putting into Operation

5.3.5 Test after Connecting to Grid

Check the signs of P and Q. If they are incorrect, reverse the CT polarity.

Increase and decrease reactive power, check characteristic curve of underexcitation limiter; do reactive
power difference test (measure difference coefficient. When increasing minus difference coefficent, the
reactive power of generator increases automatically); do load shedding test; do PSS test to confirm PSS
parameters; record waveform.

After all tests, restore all wirings, restore and check all switch positions, record all controller
parameters and write test report.

Please reverse the polarity of stator CT during no-load or stop. Open loop is
CAUTION
forbidden.

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Chapter 6 Operation and Overhaul

Chapter 6 Operation and Overhaul


6.1 Preparation before Start-up

6.1.1 Check GEC-300 Excitation Control System

No alarm/fault signal. If any alarm/fault signal exists, please refer to section 6.5 for more information.

6.1.2 Check GEC-300 Regulator Cubicle

- Launch PSS and Current distribution are ON correctly.

- Protection is ON.

- Set Manual and Debugging are OFF.

- Constant Q and Constant Cos are set correctly according to running mode.

- ECU unit runs normally.

- The AC and DC power supply switches of SetA and SetB are close.

6.1.3 Check GEKL IPRC and Related Switches

- Switch of pulse power supply is close.

- Switches of Self-func are off.

- Switches on AC and DC side of rectifier bridge ZK1, ZK2, ZK3, YK1, YK2 and YK3 are close.

6.1.4 Check GEMC Field De-excitation Cubicle

- Switches of operation power supply, closing supply and field-flashing power supply are close.

- FMK is close.

6.2 Normal Start-up Operation


- Close excitation PT switch and meter PT switch, and check primary and secondary fuses.

- Press Start-up button of excitation regulator at rated speed (for hydraulic generator, start-up is
automatic at 95% of rated speed).

- Increase and decrease excitation to adjust stator voltage, and connect to grid when
quasi-synchronization.

- Increase and decrease excitation to adjust reactive power.

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Chapter 6 Operation and Overhaul

After pressing Start-up button to increase voltage, GEC enters excitation close-loop
regulation. If abnormal condition happens or fault of any controller happens, press
CAUTION
De-excite button to stop, and then check and repair.

Start-up condition: Under no-load, FMK is close, no Start-up Fault alarm, and Start-up is available.

If start-up is successful, AVR controller enters excitation close-loop regulation state. If start-up fails
(the stator voltage Ut is less than setpoint Uts after 10 seconds), Start-up Fault signal is generated. Then,
operator should check related loop especially field-flashing loop, press Signal Reset button to clear alarm
signal and press Start-up button again.

6.3 Normal De-excitation Operation


- Decrease active power and reactive power to zero.

- Disconnect from grid.

- Press De-excite button to stop, and then excitation system keeps spinning reserve.

- Open FMK.

- Open switches on AC side of rectifier bridge YK1, YK2 and YK3, and switches on DC side of
rectifier bridge ZK1, ZK2 and ZK3.

- Open all power supply switches of excitation system and then excitation system enters cool reserve.

De-excitation condition: GEC-300 excitation system de-excites when it runs at normal state and one of
following conditions is met: FMK trips; De-excite is enabled under no-load; the frequency of generator
is less than 45Hz under no-load.

6.4 Faulty Stop Operation


- Open FMK.

- Open switches on AC side of rectifier bridge YK1, YK2 and YK3, and switches on DC side of
rectifier bridge ZK1, ZK2 and ZK3.

- Open all power supply switches of excitation system.

GEC-300 excitation system sets pulse trigger angle to 140 (inverting area) during de-excitation.

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Chapter 6 Operation and Overhaul

6.5 Alarm/Fault and Handling Methods


Alarm/Fault
Meaning Handling Method
Indication
Find detailed fault information from ECU and
Regulator Faults
deal with correspondingly.
Restart controller, and replace CPU board if
Write ROM error
restart is useless.
Restart controller, and replace CPU board if
Abnormal Usd
restart is useless.
CAN communication Check CAN wiring and press Signal Reset
error button to clear alarm signal.
Decrease excitation until field current is not
Forcing excitation
larger than 1.1 p.u., and press Signal Reset
alarm
button to clear alarm signal.
Decrease excitation until field current is not
OEL(Overexcitation
larger than 1.1 p.u., and press Signal Reset
limiter)
button to clear alarm signal.
Increase excitation, and press Signal Reset
Underexcitation alarm
button to clear alarm signal.
UEL(Underexcitation Increase excitation, and press Signal Reset
limiter) button to clear alarm signal.
Abnormal
Decrease excitation or increase generator
Alarms/Faults Abno
V/F alarm speed, and press Signal Reset button to clear
of Regulator rmal
alarm signal.
Cubicle Alar
Decrease excitation or increase generator
(Local) ms/F
V/F limiter speed, and press Signal Reset button to clear
aults
alarm signal.
Check field-flashing loop and positions of all
Start-up fault switches, and press Signal Reset button to
clear alarm signal
Check station service AC power supply and
AC fault AC power supply loop of regulator, and press
Signal Reset button to clear alarm signal.
Check station service DC power supply and
DC fault DC power supply loop of regulator, and press
Signal Reset button to clear alarm signal.
1# (Bridge) fault The same as 1 # BridgeFault.
2# (Bridge) fault The same as 2 # BridgeFault.

3# (Bridge) fault The same as 3 # BridgeFault.


Check PT, related loop and fuses, and press
PT wire break
Signal Reset button to clear alarm signal.
During start-up under no-load, Check field-flashing loop and positions of all
Start-up Fault
start-up setpoint isnt reached switches, and press Signal Reset button to
(Remote)
in 10 seconds. clear alarm signal
Integrate Include forcing excitation
The same as Abnormal Alarms/Faults of
Alarm alarm, underexcitation alarm
Regulator Cubicle.
(Remote) and V/F alarm.
The difference between
PT Wire Break Check PT, related loop and fuses, and press
excitation PT and meter PT
(Remote) Signal Reset button to clear alarm signal.
isnt less than 0.125 p.u.

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Chapter 6 Operation and Overhaul

Limiter Act Include OEL, UEL and V/F The same as Abnormal Alarms/Faults of
(Remote) limiter. Regulator Cubicle.
Excitation PT wire break:
Check PT, related loop and fuses, press Signal
Protection Act switch to manual control,
Reset button to clear alarm signal, and switch
(Remote) switch to slave if current set is
Set Manual as OFFONOFF.
master.
Include synchronous signal
lost, fuse failed, Find detailed alarm information from ECU
1# Fault overtemperature, false forcing unit or IPU LCD, and check related loop of
(Remote) excitation protection, internal bridge 1. The same as Abnormal
fault, fan fault, CAN fault and Alarms/Faults of Power Rectifier Cubicle.
power supply fault.
2# Fault The same as Abnormal Alarms/Faults of
The same as 1# bridge.
(Remote) Power Rectifier Cubicle.
3# Fault The same as Abnormal Alarms/Faults of
The same as 1# bridge.
(Remote) Power Rectifier Cubicle.
Find detailed fault information from ECU and
IPRC Faults
deal with correspondingly.
Check the anode voltage, primary and
synchronous signal secondary voltage of synchronous transformer,
lost and press Signal Reset button to clear alarm
signal.
Check power rectifier cubicle, and replace
Fast fuse failed
failed fuses.
Check fan state, check whether field current is
Overtemperature. IPU too high, check overtemperature node of
switches to local mode rectifier bridge and deals with
automatically. correspondingly. Press Signal Reset button to
clear alarm signal.
False forcing
Check the state of whole excitation system,
excitation protection.
Abnormal and press Signal Reset button to clear alarm
Rectifier bridge stops
Alarms/Faults Abno signal if normal.
running automatically.
of IPRC rmal
(Remote and Alar
Internal faults
ms/Fa including frequency
Local Mode) Replace IPU control board.
ults measurement fault and
A/D fault.
Check wind pressure (the display of IPU LCD:
F10 and F20 should not be less than 0.8), fuses
Fan fault of power rectifier cubicle and related loop of
fan, and press Signal Reset button to clear
alarm signal.
Check CAN connection, and press Signal
CAN fault.
Reset button to clear alarm signal.
Check pulse generated by IPU and pulse
between control pole and cathode of thyristors,
and check IPU control board. If trigger pulse
Lost of pulse
surely loses, replace IPU control board,
otherwise press Signal Reset button to clear
alarm signal.
Over-voltage of
FDC (Remote Forward or reverse Find reason and handle it, and then press
and Local over-voltage exist on rotor. Signal Reset button to clear alarm signal.
Mode)

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Chapter 6 Operation and Overhaul

Spike Fuse of
Replace failed fuse with spare fuse, or contact
FDC Failed The fuse in SPA loop fails.
us.
(Remote Mode)
Surge Fuse
Replace failed fuse with spare fuse, or contact
Failed (Remote The fuse in RSA loop fails.
us.
Mode)
Check power supplies of SetA and SetB of
AVR cubicle; check AC power supply, DC
power supply and output relays of IPRC;
Power Supply
Power supply loop of check fuse behind IPU cubicle; check
Fault (Remote
excitation system has fault. operation power supply, closing power supply
Mode)
and field-flashing power supply of
de-excitation cubicle; check air switches and
station service power supply.

When GEC-300 excitation control system generates alarm/fault signal, if the active power and reactive
power of generator are stable, operator neednt adjust anything and just handle the alarm/fault according to
previous table. If the active power and reactive power of generator acutely swing (forcing excitation or
underexcitation) and cant return to stable state, operator needs to shed load or stop unit according to actual
condition. The alarm/fault signals of excitation control system are all self-sustaining, and operator should
press Signal Reset to clear them.

6.6 Normal In-process Check


The excitation system can detect and generate alarm/fault signal automatically. Redundancy design is
used (including controllers of regulator cubicle and rectifier bridges of power rectifier cubicle). Excitation
system doesnt switch off field breaker FMK under any fault, but only stop generating pulse or de-excite.
Operator should confirm that the alarm/fault is cleared and then press Signal Reset button to clear
alarm/fault signal (refer to section 6.5).

6.6.1 In-process Check Content

6.6.1.1 In-process Check Content in Central Control Room

- No alarm/fault signal.

- No regulator stops running.

- The system voltage, stator voltage, reactive power and field current are in normal range.

6.6.1.2 In-process Check Content of Device

- No abnormal alarm/fault signal.

- No abnormal meter swing.

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Chapter 6 Operation and Overhaul

- Fan runs normally.

- Current distribution of power rectifier cubicle runs normally.

- No unexpected noise and smell.


- The ambient temperature, humidity and vibration are normal.
- Judge whether excitation transformer runs normally according to noise.
In three days after device is put into operation, special attention should be paid to whether the
fuses of spike pulse absorber or nonlinear de-excitation resistor are fused, and whether
temperature of rectifier bridges is rising.

6.7 Overhaul
Electrical components and rectifier devices may have contamination due to atmosphere environment
and field condition, and electric contacts may loose due to longtime running and vibration. Therefore,
periodical clear and maintenance is necessary.

6.7.1 Annual Maintenance

The Annual maintenance of excitation system should be finished between minor overhaul when unit
stops every year.

6.7.1.1 Excitation Transformer

Check appearance of excitation transformer. Clean surface contamination of excitation transformer


when unit stops. Use dry cloth, vacuum cleaner or compressed air (low pressure) to clean. Impregnant is
not allowed.

6.7.1.2 Regulator Cubicle

- Clean contamination in cubicle.

- Use brush, vacuum cleaner or compressed air (low pressure) to clean dust in cubicle and on air filter
screen.

- Tighten all electric nodes on terminal bus.

- Check whether all switches of power supplies are normal (switch on and switch off for 3 times).

- Check whether all digital inputs can act normally, whether relays act normally and whether indicators
are normal.

- Check whether remote alarm/fault signals are normal.

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Chapter 6 Operation and Overhaul

- Check whether any fuse fails.

6.7.1.3 Power Rectifier Cubicle

- Clean contamination and dust in cubicle, on fan and on radiator.

- Check whether fans have abnormal noise. General requirement: fan should be replaced after running
for 40000 hours.

- Check whether all switches of power supplies are normal and whether contact is good.

- Tighten all electric nodes on terminal bus.

- Check whether all digital inputs can act normally, whether relays act normally and whether indicators
are normal.

- Check pulse waveform and output waveform of power rectifier cubicle by small current test.

- Check whether any fuse fails.

6.7.1.4 De-excitation Cubicle

- Clean contamination and dust in cubicle and on field breaker.

- Check arc shield, and clean contamination using compressed air.

- Check whether all switches of power supplies and field breaker are normal and whether contact is
good.

- Use abrasive paper to clean carbonized wear particles on surface of field breaker.

- Spread appropriate lube on all sliding surface.

- Check whether de-excitation breaker contacts well, and whether oxidation and melting happen on
surface.

- Check whether valve fuse of de-excitation resistor fails (if fails, replace it; if capacity of failed fuses is
more than 30% of total capacity, all valves of de-excitation resistors should be replaced).

- Check whether any fuse fails.

6.7.1.5 Whole Device

- Check and tighten all bolts, bus connection and supporting board.

- Simply check whole characteristic.

Please refer to Test Report of GEC-300 Excitation Control System and Debugging Outline of GEC-300

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Chapter 6 Operation and Overhaul

Excitation Control System for more information about how to check digital inputs, digital outputs,
protection and whole characteristic of excitation system.

6.7.2 Maintenance during Major Overhaul

Besides annual maintenance content of excitation control system, following maintenance is suggested.

- Do whole test of regulator, and check limiter and protection functions of regulator.

- Check fan of power rectifier cubicle.

- Verify transducers, meters, CT and PT.

- Test nonlinear zinc oxide resistors in de-excitation cubicle, and the test method and procedure are as
follows.

a) Insulation resistor test of nonlinear zinc oxide resistors

Open de-excitation breaker FMK; cut off the connection cables or copper bar of FMK and rotor loop;
take away the fast fuse RD in series with nonlinear zinc oxide resistor; do insulation test of nonlinear
zinc oxide resistors using megohm meter, and the test voltage refer to design value of nonlinear
resistors.

Test result: the normal insulation resistor is larger than 1M.

b) Leakage current test of nonlinear zinc oxide resistors

If the insulation resistor of nonlinear zinc oxide resistors is normal, put voltage of 0.5 times of U10mA
to the nonlinear zinc oxide resistor, and measure the leakage current of nonlinear zinc oxide resistor
(take away fast fuses, and measure every group independently).

U10mA voltage: the voltage of nonlinear resistor when 10mA current flows through the resistor. This
value can be found from Test Report of GEC-300 Excitation Control System or the report from
de-excitation manufacturer.

Test result: the normal leakage current is less than 50A.

If the leakage current is larger than 100A, the nonlinear zinc oxide resistor is aging and it should be
replaced with a new one.

If capacity of useless components is more than 30% of total capacity of nonlinear zinc oxide resistors,
the whole components should be replaced.

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Chapter 7 Replacement Method of General Components

Chapter 7 Replacement Method of General


Components
7.1 GEC-300 Regulator Cubicle

7.1.1 Replacement of CPU Board (CPU32) of SetA

- Record control parameters of SetA.

- Open back door of GEC-300 regulator cubicle, switch off AC and DC power supply switches of SetA
(PAA, PDA).

- Pull out two terminal bars of CPU board (I-shaped screwdriver can be used), and pull out CAN
communication plug.

- Unscrew two fixing screws on CPU board using cross screwdriver.

- Poll out CPU board and replace it.

- Screw two fixing screws on CPU board.

- Plug terminal bars and CAN communication plug.

- Switch on AC and DC power supply switches of SetA, and close back door of regulator cubicle.

- Restore control parameters of SetA, switch SetA to master set, and then check whether running
variables such as UF, Ur, IL, P and Q are normal.

7.1.2 Replacement of Interface Board (PTCT16) of SetA

CAUTION To prevent open loop of CT, the interface board must be replaced during stop.

- Open back door of GEC-300 regulator cubicle, switch off AC and DC power supply switches of SetA.

- Unscrew fixing screws of PTCT16 terminals using I-shaped screwdriver, and pull out two terminal
bars.

- Unscrew two fixing screws on interface board using cross screwdriver.

- Pull out interface board a little, and disconnect CT wirings; replace interface board and connect CT
wirings according to terminal wiring schematic.

- Screw two fixing screws on interface board.

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Chapter 7 Replacement Method of General Components

- Plug two terminal bars and screw fixing screws.

- Switch on AC and DC power supply switches of SetA, and close back door of regulator cubicle.

- Switch on power supply and check.

7.1.3 Replacement of AC Power Supply Board (PWR24_A) of SetA

- Switch off AC power supply switch (2DK).

- Open back door of GEC-300 regulator cubicle.

- Unscrew fixing screws of terminal bars using I-shaped screwdriver, and pull out two terminal bars
(I-shaped screwdriver can be used).

- Unscrew two fixing screws on AC power supply board using cross screwdriver.

- Pull out AC power supply board and replace it.

- Screw fixing screws on AC power supply board.

- Plug terminal bars and screw fixing screws.

- Switch on AC power supply switch (2DK).

The replacement of DC power supply board of SetA (PWR24_D) can refer to the replacement of AC power
supply board.

The replacement of boards of SetB can refer to the replacement of boards of SetA.

7.2 GEC-300 Power Rectifier Cubicle

7.2.1 Replacement of IPU 1 Control Board (IPU16) in One Cubicle with Two Bridges

- Record control parameters of IPU1.

- Switch off pulse power supply of bridge 1, and switch off power supply of bridge 1.

- Switch off DC output switch ZK1 and AC input switch YK1 of bridge 1.

- Unscrew fixing screws of terminal bars using I-shaped screwdriver, and pull out all terminal bars.

- Unscrew four screws on back panel of IPU1 control board, take away back panel and connection
cables.

- Unscrew four fixing screws of IPU1 control board, pull out IPU1 control board and replace it.

- Screw four fixing screws of IPU1 control board, and connect connection cables.

- Fix back panel of IPU1 control board and screw fixing screws on back panel.

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Chapter 7 Replacement Method of General Components

- Plug terminal bars of IPU1, and screw fixing screws.

- Switch on AC input switch YK1 and DC output switch ZK1 of bridge 1.

- Switch on power supply of bridge 1, and switch on pulse power supply of bridge 1.

- Restore control parameters of IPU1, and check whether all analogue variables are normal.

When replace IPU1 board during running, AC 220V voltage exists on J4 terminal and
operator should pay attention to it.

The replacement of IPU16 in one cubicle with single bridge is easier. Switch off all switches and then
replace it, user can refer to the replacement of IPU1 control board in one cubicle with two bridges.

7.2.2 Replacement of Fan

- Switch off power supply switches of fan (11FDK, 12FDK or 21FDK, 22FDK or 31FDK, 32FDK), or
switch off fuses 2X-FUSE1 and 2X-FUSE2.

- Disconnect wirings of fan and wirings of terminals on top of power rectifier cubicle.

- Unscrew six fixing screws of fan cover, take off fan cover and replace it.

- Connect wirings of fan and wirings of terminals.

- Switch on power supply switches of fan (11FDK, 12FDK or 21FDK, 22FDK or 31FDK, 32FDK), or
switch off fuses 2X-FUSE1 and 2X-FUSE2.

- Check whether fan runs normally.

7.2.3 Replacement of Fast Fuse of Bridge 1

- Switch off ZK1 and YK1.

- Unscrew screws which fix fast fuse to thyristor.

- Unscrew screws which fix fast fuse to bus bar, and replace fast fuse.

- Screw screws which fix fast fuse to bus bar and thyristor.

- Switch on ZK1 and YK1.

7.2.4 Replacement of Thyristor of Bridge 1

The subassemblies of thyristor include thyristor, radiator, R-C absorber and pulse amplifier board.

- Switch off ZK1 and YK1.

- Behind cubicle. Unscrew screws which fix thyristor to fast fuse.

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Chapter 7 Replacement Method of General Components

- Behind cubicle. Unscrew screws which fix thyristor to bus bar.

- Behind cubicle. Disconnect wirings between thyristor and pulse amplifier board.

- Before cubicle. Unscrew screws which fix thyristor to cubicle or unscrew aviation plugs, and then pull
out thyristor and replace it.

- Before cubicle. Screw screws which fix thyristor to cubicle or screw aviation plugs.

- Behind cubicle. Connect wrings between thyristor and pulse amplifier board.

- Behind cubicle. Screw screws which fix thyristor to bus bar.

- Behind cubicle. Screw screws which fix thyristor to fast fuse.

- Switch on ZK1 and YK1.

The replacement of fast fuse and thyristor of bridge 2 and bridge 3 can refer to the replacement of
corresponding components of bridge 1.

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Appendix

Appendix
Appendix 1: Order Parameters
When ordering, user should provide following parameters of generator and excitation system to
manufacturer for design.

A1.1 Nameplate Parameters of Generator

Rated stator voltage of generator Un kV


Rated apparent power of generator Sn MVA
Rated active power of generator Pn MW
Rated reactive power of generator Qn MVAR
Rated rotor voltage of generator (full-load) Ufn V
Rated field current of generator (full-load) Ifn A
Rated rotor voltage of generator (no-load) Ufn0 V
Rated field current of generator (no-load) Ifn0 A
Rated power factor
d-axis reactance Xd p.u.
d-axis transient reactance Xd p.u.
Time constant of field winding Td0 second
Rotation inertia H second

A1.2 Parameters of Signal Interface

Ratio of primary PT of generator kV/100V


Ratio of primary CT of generator A/5A

A1.3 Other Technical Parameters and Requirements

Manufacturer generally consigns goods within 3 months after receive earnest money. User can contact
us if having special requirements.

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Appendix

Appendix 2: Running Conditions


Following conditions should be satisfied when GEC-300 excitation system runs.

1) Installation altitude 2000m

2) Ambient temperature: -5 ~ +45

3) Average maximum relative humidity is 90% during wettest month, and the average minimum
temperature of this month is +25.

4) Environment is clean. No explosion and biggish vibration. No corrosive gas and conductive dust
which may destroy metal and insulation.

5) Station service power supply: AC 380/220AV and permitted deviation is 15; DC 220/110V and
permitted deviation is -20% ~ +10%.

The service longevity and operation reliability of GEC may be influenced if previous conditions can not be
satisfied strictly.

Appendix 3: Manufacturer Guarantee


After the day that GEC-300 excitation system leaves factory and is put into operation, manufacturer
guarantee to freely keep it in good repair for one year. In this year, if user installs and uses the system
correctly but the system is damaged or can not run normally due to manufacture quality, the manufacturer
has the responsibility to replace damaged components and repair the system. Whereas following conditions
are exceptive.

- User disassembles the system or changes the system structure without permission.

- User keeps or uses improperly, such as over-voltage, strike and so on.

- Damages due to other man-made reasons.

Manufacturer provides lifelong repair service and technical support.

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Appendix

Appendix 4: Digital Values and Parameter Definitions of GEC-300


Regulator Cubicle

Digital Values of AVR Controller

Digital Input Values


Bit Meaning Description
1 INC Increase excitation setpoint (expected value)
2 DCR Decrease excitation setpoint (expected value)
Field circuit breaker is open, and AVR setpoint is set to minimum
3 FMK Trip
value.
4 No-load/Online Generator is no-load/Combined to grid.
5 Start-up Cmd AVR receives start-up signal.
6 De-excite Cmd AVR receives de-excite signal.
7 Signal Reset Reset alarm/fault signals of AVR and IPU.
8 PSS On AVR adopts PSS+PID control law, and PSS is launched.
AVR adopts constant field current control law, and protections
9 Manual On
are disabled automatically.
The master/slave state of SetA and SetB controller are switched if
10 Master/Slave
both of them are in gear.
Forcing excitation limiter, underexcitation limiter, V/F limiter
11 Protection ON
and PT wire break protection are enabled.
12 Debug On AVR runs under debugging state, and ECU is open to user.
13 ICD ON Intelligent current distribution is enabled in IPU cubicle.
AVR adopts constant reactive power control law when Set
14 Constant MVar
Manual is OFF.
AVR adopts constant power factor control law when Set Manual
15 Constant PF
is OFF.
16 AC Power Fault The AC power supply of current controller is faulty.
17 DC Power Fault The DC power supply of current controller is faulty.
18 Reserved
19 Reserved
20 Define SetA Define current controller is SetA
Digital Output Values
Bit Meaning Description
1 Working The hardware of AVR cubicle runs normally.
Integrate alarm, PT wire break, limiter action, protection action,
2 Abnormal Alarm rectifier bridge fault, field-flashing failure, power supply fault
and CAN fault.
3 SetA in Effect Current set is master set controller.

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Appendix

SetA in Effect
4 Start-flashing No-load, start-up command is available.
Excitation control system runs under constant field current
5 Manual State(FCR)
control mode.
The stator voltage is less than start-up setpoint after switching on
6 Start-up Fault
field-flashing power supply for after 10 seconds.
7 Integrate Alarm Underexcitation alarm, forcing excitation alarm, and V/F alarm.
8 PSS Active PSS is enabled.
9 PT Wire Break The excitation PT wire or meter PT wire are break.
Underexcitation limiter, forcing excitation limiter or V/F limiter
10 Limiter Act
are enabled.
11 Protection Act Protections such as excitation PT wire break.
12 1# Bridge Fault Bridge 1 of rectifier cubicle is abnormal.
13 2# Bridge Fault Bridge 2 of rectifier cubicle is abnormal.
14 3# Bridge Fault Bridge 3 of rectifier cubicle is abnormal.(Rotor Overtemp)
15 Reserved
16 Reserved

Control Parameters of AVR Cubicle

Default
No. Meaning unit Actual Value
Value
Voltage Loop PID
P00 Multiple of Amplification 30.0 times
P01 Differential time Constant 0.00 second
P02 Inertial time Constant 0.00 second
P03 Integral time Constant 5.00 second
P04 Inc/Dec Excitation Step 1.00
P05 Reserved Parameter 1.00 -
Current Loop PID
P10 Multiple of Amplification 20.0 times
P11 Differential time Constant 0.05 second
P12 Inertial time Constant 0.20 second
P13 Integral time Constant 5.00 second
P14 Reserved Parameter 0.00 -
P15 Reserved Parameter 0.00 -
PSS Parameters
P20 Time Constant 0.50 second
P21 Time Constant 4.00 second
P22 Time Constant 0.50 second
P23 Time Constant 0.05 second

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Appendix

P24 Multiple of Amplification 1.00 times


P25 Output Amplitude Limiting 0.02 P.U.
OEL(Overexcitation Limiter ) Parameters
P30 Multiple of Amplification 30.0 times
P31 Differential time Constant 0.10 second
P32 Inertia time Constant 0.50 second
P33 No-load field Current 0.60 P.U.
P34 Longtime field Current 1.10 P.U.
P35 Forcing Excitation Time 1.00 P.U.
UEL(Underexcitation Limiter) Parameters
P40 Multiple of Amplification 1.00 times
P41 Differential time Constant 0.20 second
P42 Inertia time Constant 1.00 second
P43 Active Power Intersection 0.85 P.U.
P44 Active Power Inflexion 0.20 P.U.
P45 Minimum Reactive Power -0.2 P.U.
V/Hz Limiter Parameters
P50 Rated Flux Density 1.10 P.U.
P51 Maximum Flux Density 1.15 P.U.
P52 Reset Limiter 1.05 P.U.
P53 Time Limit of Alarm 0.50 P.U.
P54 Time Limit of Action 2.00 P.U.
P55 Reserved Parameter 10.0 -
Excitation Operation Parameters
P60 Field-flashing Criterion 0.20 P.U.
P61 Field-flashing Setpoint(AVR) 1.00 P.U.
P62 Field-flashing Setpoint(FCR) 0.30 P.U.
P63 Step Length 0.05 P.U.
P64 PSS High-pass time 2.00
P65 Difference Coefficient 0.00 P.U.
Correction Parameters
P70 Stator Voltage 10.0 -
P71 Stator Voltage(Meter) 10.0 -
P72 System Voltage 10.0 -
P73 Stator Current 10.0 -
P74 Field Current 10.0 -
P75 Power Angle 15.0
Rotor Temperature Parameters
P80 Field Voltage
P81 Field Current
P82 Rated Temperature

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Appendix

P83 Temperature Correction


P84 Temperature Alarm
P85 Reserved
Unit Parameters
Active Power 30 MW
Power Factor 0.85 -
Stator Voltage 20 kV
Stator Current 10189 A
Field Voltage 200 V
Field Current 3000 A
System Voltage 220 kV
Slave Address of DCS 1 -

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Appendix

Appendix 5: Digital Values and Parameter Definitions of GEC-300 IPRC

Digital Values of IPU Cubicle

Digital Input Values


Bit Meaning Description
1 FMK Trip FMK is open, and pulse trigger angle is 140.
2 Local/Remote IPU runs independently.
3 DC Switch Off The DC output switch is open, and pulse trigger angle is 140.
4 AC Switch Off The AC output switch is open, and pulse trigger angle is 140.
Overtemperature of Overtemperature node of rectifier bridge is ON. IPU switches to
5
Rectifier Bridge local mode and load is limited.
6 Fuse Failed At least one fast fuse fails and rectifier bridge stops running.
7 Low Wind Pressure Wind pressure node is ON when fan runs.
8 Increase Excitation Increase excitation setpoint of current rectifier bridge.
9 Decrease Excitation Decrease excitation setpoint of current rectifier bridge.
10 Lost of Pulse Pulse loses more than 10 times in a second.
Launch Fan
11 Launch fan manually during debugging.
Manually
12 Reserved
Digital Output Values
Bit Meaning Description
1 Working IPU can generate pulse normally.
Synchronization wire break, fuse failed, overtemperature of
2 Abnormal Alarm rectifier bridge, mistaken forcing excitation protection, internal
fault, fan fault, CAN fault and pulse lost.
3 ICD ON ICD factor 95
4 Launch Fan 1 Launch power supply of fan 1.
5 Launch Fan 2 Launch power supply of fan 2.
6 Clear Pulse Lost Clear pulse lost signal if there is a pulse lost alarm signal.
7 Abnormal Alarm IPU is abnormal.
8 Reserved

Control Parameters of IPU Cubicle

Default
No. Meaning Unit Actual Value
Value
P00 Rectifier Bridge Number 1 bridge
P01 Base Value of Field Current 20.48
P02 Filter Time 5 second
P03 Amplification 10 times
P04 Integral Time 5 second
P05 Maximum Current Setpoint 1.2 P.U.
P06 Correction factor of Uc 0.27 P.U.
Base Value of
P07 7.5 P.U.
SynchronousVoltage

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Appendix

P08 Base Value of Fan Voltage 7.5 P.U.


P09 Correction Angle 5
P10 ICD Calculation Interval 2 second
Setpoint Limit During
P11 0.2 P.U.
Overtemperature
P12 INC/DCR Excitation Step 0.5

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Appendix 7 Standard Design Drawings of GEC-31X

Appendix 6: GEC-300 Parameter Modification Instruction


In GEC-300 excitation control system, AVR has 54 parameters, which are stored in three places. The
parameters stored in FLASH are called default parameters; the parameters stored in EEPROM are called
saveed parameters; the parameters stored in RAM are called running parameters.

After AVR is power-on, save parameters are read out as running parameters. If the save parameters
have error or there is no parameters in EEPROM, the default parameters are read out as running
parameters.

When user modifies parameters, the parameters in ECU memory are modified firstly. After user
presses Confirm Modification button, the modified parameters are transmitted to the RAM of AVR, and
then used as running parameters. User can also choose Instant Modification mode by selecting Instant
Modification check box. Then user neednt press Confirm Modification button, and parameters modified in
ECU are transmitted to AVR instantly.

If running parameters are correct, user can press Save Parameter button to save them, and regulator can
read out these modified parameters after next power-on.

If user wants to restore running parameters from previously saved parameters, press Restore Parameter
button.If user wants to use default parameters, press Default Parameter button.

In the parameter page of ECU, the parameters of AVR regulator are divided to 9 groups with 6
parameters each group. There are three columns in each parameter group window, which display default
parameters, save parameters and running parameters separately. If running parameters are different with
save parameters, the different parameters in column of running parameters are displayed in green, and a
yellow Parameter Unsaved indicator remind use to save parameters.

There are two modifying step for each parameter: 0.1 and 0.01, and there are four modification buttons:
+0.1, -0.1, +0.01, -0.01. After selecting parameter to be modified, press +0.1 button to increase the selected
parameter by 0.1 (the same for other three buttons). These four buttons have anti-blocking function. In
other words, the maximum time to press a button uninterruptedly is 5 seconds. After this anti-blocking time,
the selected parameter doesnt change anymore, and user should release the button and press it again to
modify parameter.

The display and modification of parameters in ECU are for one set of AVR. User can switch between
SetA and SetB by pressing A/B Slider.

NOTE: Before modification, user must check whether the parameters to be modified are parameters of
SetA or SetB. Only qualified personal can modify parameters.

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Appendix 7 Standard Design Drawings of GEC-31X

A6.1. AVR PID Parameters

- Multiple of Amplification Kp

The proportion of voltage PID control law. No unit.

Kp is the basis of negative feedback. Increasing Kp can increase system response speed and decrease
stable error. Whereas large Kp is unfavourable for system stability.

- Differential Time Constant T1

The time constant of lead leak of voltage control law. The unit is second.

Increasing T1 can decrease system overshoot, and increase system dynamic response speed.

- Inertia Time Constant T2

The time constant of lag link of voltage control law. The unit is second.

Increasing T2 is favourable for system dynamic stability.

- Integral Time Constant Ti

The integral time constant of voltage control law. The unit is second.

Increasing Ti can decrease stable error, but also decrease system response speed.

- INC/DCR Excitation Step(Operation Step Length)

Represent the increased/decreased value of setpoint if pressing Increase Excitation button or Decrease

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Appendix 7 Standard Design Drawings of GEC-31X

Excitation button for one second. The unit is second and this parameter corresponds to percentage of
stator voltage. For example, 1.0 represents that if pressing Increase Excitation button or Decrease
Excitation button for one second, the voltage setpoint increases/decreases by 1.0%.

- Reserved P05

Reserved parameter for future use.

A6.2. FCR PID Parameters

- Amplification Kp

The proportion of current PID control law. No unit.

Kp is the basis of negative feedback. Increasing Kp can increase system response speed and decrease
stable error. Whereas large Kp is unfavourable for system stability.

- Differential Time Constant T1

The time constant of lead leak of current control law. The unit is second.

Increasing T1 can decrease system overshoot.

- Inertia Time Constant T2

The time constant of lag link of current control law. The unit is second.

Increasing T2is favourable for system dynamic stability.

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Appendix 7 Standard Design Drawings of GEC-31X

- Integral Time Constant Ti

The integral time constant of current control law. The unit is second.

- Reserved Parameter P14

Reserved parameter for future use.

- Reserved Parameter P15

Reserved parameter for future use.

A6.3. PSS Parameters

- Differential Time Constant T1

The time constant of first-order lead leak of PSS control law. The unit is second.

- Differential Time Constant T2

The time constant of first-order lag leak of PSS control law. The unit is second.

- Differential Time Constant T3

The time constant of second-order lead leak of PSS control law. The unit is second.

- Differential Time Constant T4

The time constant of second-order lag leak of PSS control law. The unit is second.

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Appendix 7 Standard Design Drawings of GEC-31X

- Differential Time Constant T5

The time constant of third-order lead leak of PSS control law. The unit is second.

- Differential Time Constant T6

The time constant of third-order lag leak of PSS control law. The unit is second.

- Amplification Kp

The proportion of PSS control law. No unit.

- Output Amplitude Limiting M

The output limit of PSS. Per-unit. This value is generally set to 5% or 10%.

A6.4. OEL Parameters

- Amplification Kp

The proportion of OEL. No unit.

- Differential Time Constant T1

The time constant of lead leak of OEL. The unit is second.

- Inertia Time Constant T2

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Appendix 7 Standard Design Drawings of GEC-31X

The time constant of lag leak of OEL. The unit is second.

- No-load Field Current If0

The allowed rotor current under no-load. Per-unit. The default value is 0.6.

- Longtime Field Current Ifx

The allowed longtime rotor current. Per-unit. The default value is 1.1.

- Forcing Excitation Time T

The allowed time for 2 times of forcing excitation. The unit is second.

A6.5 UEL Parameters

- Amplification Kp

The proportion of UEL. No unit.

- Differential Time Constant T1

The time constant of lead leak of UEL. The unit is second.

- Inertia Time Constant T2

The time constant of lag leak of UEL. The unit is second.

- Active Power Intersection P1

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Appendix 7 Standard Design Drawings of GEC-31X

The P value of intersection of underexcitation limiter characteristic curve and P axis, as shown in
previous figure. Per-unit. The base value of this parameter is the rated apparent power of unit.

- Active Power Inflexion P2

The P value of inflexion of underexcitation limiter characteristic curve. Per-unit. The base value of
this parameter is the rated apparent power of unit.

- Minimum Reactive Power Q1

The allowed reactive power during leading phase running when load is small. Per-unit. The base value
of this parameter is the rated apparent power of unit.

A6.6 V/Hz Limiter Parameters

The flux density of generator means the ratio of stator voltage (p.u.) and frequency (p.u.). Use M to
denote the flux density.

- Rated Flux Density M1

The allowed flux density of generator. No unit.

Only when the flux density of generator is larger than this value, V/Hz limiter may act.

- Maximum Flux Density M2

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Appendix 7 Standard Design Drawings of GEC-31X

The maximum flux density of generator. No unit.

If the flux density of generator is larger than this value, V/Hz limiter acts after 2 seconds.

- Reset Limit M3

The reset signal of V/Hz limiter. No unit.

After V/Hz limiter acts, the regulator decreases voltage setpoint gradually. After M equals to M3, the
regulator stops decreasing voltage setpoint.

- Time Limit of Alarm C1

Represent the delay alarm time of V/Hz limiter when M-M1=0.05. The unit is second.

For example, if C1=0.5s, M1=1.1, then when M=1.15 the V/Hz limiter acts after 0.5s.

If the difference between M and M1 doesnt equal to 0.05, the inverse time limit law is used for V/H
limiter alarm.

- Time Limit of Action C2

Represent the delay action time of V/Hz limiter when M-M1=0.05. The unit is second.

For example, if C2=2.0s, M1=1.1, then when M=1.15 the V/Hz limiter acts after 2.0s.

If the difference between M and M1 doesnt equal to 0.05, the inverse time limit law is used for V/Hz
limiter action.

- Reserved Parameter P55

Reserved for future use.

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Appendix 7 Standard Design Drawings of GEC-31X

A6.7 Excitation Operation Parameters

- Field-flashing Criterion P60

Used to judge whether to switch on field-flashing power supply and whether start-up fails. Per-unit.
This parameter corresponds to stator voltage.

After regulator receives start-up command, if stator voltage is less than P60, regulator switches on
field-flashing power supply. If stator voltage is still less than P60 after 10 seconds, regulator generates
start-up fault signal.

- Field-flashing Setpoint P61

The maximum voltage setpoint set by regulator after regulator receives start-up command. Per-unit.
This parameter corresponds to stator voltage.

For example, if P61=1.0, then regulator sets voltage setpoint to 0.8 firstly, and increases voltage
setpoint gradually in the following 2.5 seconds until voltage setpoint is 1.0.

- Field-flashing Setpoint P62

The maximum current setpoint set by regulator after regulator receives start-up command. Per-unit.
This parameter corresponds to field current.

For example, if P62=0.30, then regulator sets voltage setpoint to 0.25 firstly, and increases voltage
setpoint gradually in the following 2.5 seconds until voltage setpoint is 0.30.

- Step Length P63

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Appendix 7 Standard Design Drawings of GEC-31X

The increase/decrease step length of step command. Per-unit. This parameter corresponds to stator
voltage or field current, and its value range is 0.01 ~ 0.10.

The step length is half of set value under manual(FCR) mode.

- PSS High-pass Time Constant P64

sTw
The transfer function of high-pass filter is G ( s ) = . The unit is second, and the value range
1 + sTw
is 2.0 ~ 8.0.

- Difference Coefficient P65

No unit. The product of this parameter and reactive power is added to voltage setpoint Ur. If this
parameter is zero, regulator has no difference characteristic; if this parameter is positive, regulator has
positive difference characteristic; if this parameter is negative, regulator has negative difference
characteristic. The value range is -0.1 ~ 0.1.

A6.8 Correction Parameters

Correction parameters are used to compensate measurement error of system. By modifying correction
parameters, the measurement values can be equal to actual values.

The relationship of values before correcting and after correcting is as follows.

A = AP7x x 01234 1

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Appendix 7 Standard Design Drawings of GEC-31X

P=PCos q +QSin q 2

Q=PSin q +QCos q 3

where q is the included angle between voltage and current. q=P75/10.0.

Factory Debugging Procedure:

Input stator voltage is 100.0V, and adjust P70 to set Ut (display value) to 1.0000p.u.

Input meter voltage is 100.0V, and adjust P71 to set U1 (display value) to 1.0000p.u.

Input system voltage is 100.0V, and adjust P72 to set Us (display value) to 1.0000p.u.

Input stator current is 3.5A, and adjust P73 to set It (display value) to 1.0000p.u.

Input field current is 3.5A, and adjust P74 to set If (display value) to 1.0000p.u.

When stator voltage and stator current are rated values, and power factor is 0.85, adjust P75 to set
active power (display value) to 0.85p.u. and reactive power (display value) to 0.53p.u.

The field parameters should be set by both manufacture debugging personals and field technical
personals.

A6.9 Temperature Parameters

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Appendix 7 Standard Design Drawings of GEC-31X

- Field Voltage Uf

The rated field voltage of generator input to AD.Per-unit.

Input rated field voltage, and adjust P80 to set Uf (display value) to 1.0000p.u.

- Field Current If

The rated field current of generator input to AD.Per-unit.

Input rated field current, and adjust P81 to set If (display value) to 1.0000p.u.

- Rated Temperature Tre

The rated temperature of generator rotor.Per-unit.

- Temperature Correction Trx

- Temperature Correction Trw

- Reserved Parameter P85

Reserved for future use.

Appendix 7: Standard Design Drawings of GEC-31X

May refer to the Design Drawings provided by Beijing Jisi Electric Co., Ltd.

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Appendix 8 Main Parameters and Components of GEC-31X

Appendix 8: Main Parameters and Components of GEC-31X


NOTE: these tables are written by users for convenient reference.

A8.1 System Performance

(1) Excitation Type: Static excitation system


(2) Allowed Forcing Excitation Time: (s)
Full Bridges:
One Bridge quit:
(3) Voltage Regulation Precision:
(4) Voltage Response Time: (s)
Forcing Excitation:
Fast De-excitation:

A8.2 Excitation Transformer

(1) Manufacturer:
(2) Type:
(3) Rated Capacity:
(4) Voltage Ratio:
(5) Connection Mode:
(6) Short-circuit Impedance:
(7) Insulation Level:
(8) Temperature Rise:
(9) Cooling Method:
(10) Dimensions:
(11) Protection Degree:
(12) Noise:

A8.3 Field-flashing Parameters

(1) Field-flashing Voltage: (V)


(2) Field-flashing Current: (A)
(3) Field-flashing Time: (s)

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Appendix 8 Main Parameters and Components of GEC-31X

(4) Field-flashing Module Parameters (AC


Field-flashing)

A8.4 Rectifier Device

(1) Thyristor Type:


(2) Rated Average Forward Current of
Thyristor:
(3) Reverse Peak Voltage of Thyristor:
(4) Shunt Branch Number of Rectifier
Bridge:
(5)
(6) Current Distribution coefficient of
Shunt Branches:
(7) Allowed Junction Temperature:
(8) Cooling Method of Rectifier Cubicle:
(9) Fan Type and Parameters:
(10) Switch Type and Parameters on AC
Side:
(11) Switch Type and Parameters on DC
Side:

A8.5 De-excitation Device

(1) Field circuit Breaker Type:


(2) Rated Current of FMK:
(3) Rated Voltage of FMK:
(4) Fracture Number of FMK:
(5) Arc Voltage of FMK:
(6) DC Maximum Breaking Capacity of FMK:
(7) De-excitation Resistor Type:
(8) Capacity of De-excitation Resistor:
(9) De-excitation Voltage:
(10) Leakage Current of De-excitation Resistor:
(11) Nonlinear Coefficient of De-excitation
Resistor:
(12) Allowed Temperature Rise of De-excitation

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Appendix 8 Main Parameters and Components of GEC-31X

Resistor:

(13) Longevity of De-excitation Resistor:

(14) De-excitation Time:

A8.6 Excitation Regulator

(1) CPU of Regulator:


(2) Regulation Channel Structure:
(3) Regulation Law:
(4) Communication Interface:
(5) Power Supply and Power
Consumption:
DC Power
AC Power

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