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Human resource management and the study thereof is there to help individual
understand and motivate employees to do better and relate to situations. This
assignment focuses on four aspects of human resource management which have
been placed into four questions.

The first question focuses on effective group management and the group properties
that contribute to the effective functioning. A group is several unique individuals
coming together to work on a task. The properties that contribute to the effective
functioning are roles, norms, status, group size and composition, cohesiveness,
group leadership, decision making and communication. I will be explaining six of

The second question takes the form of an essay and critically analyses Frederick
Herzbergs perspective on motivating employees through his two-factor motivation
theory. Its factors are hygiene factor or extrinsic motivators and motivator factor or
intrinsic motivation. The essay uses examples to apply the factors and explains in
detail what the factors entail.

The third question names and discusses characteristics of transformational leaders

that many South African companies need. A transformational leader is someone who
creates an atmosphere for change and improves organisational visions while still
motivating employees.

The final question explains the roles of group members. Contradicting roles can
confuse other group members and lead to conflict. Task role and maintenance roles
have been tabulated and explained to be understood better.

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Effective group functioning

A group and a team are not the same thing. A group is several people who have
come together to reach a specific objective but have a sense of individuality (Nel,
2011:335). For example; working on a group assignment where every person has a
specific role. A team is two or people with skills which complement each other and
work towards a common goal as well as share common norms and identity (Nel,
2011:335). For example, a team of lawyers working together on a murder trial.

Not all groups of people conform to the definition of a group, which is mentioned
above, or work efficiently together. Internal effectiveness of a group such as its goals,
interaction patterns etc., progress over time and success of the group when
achieving goals and satisfying members needs is determined by the internal
functioning (Nel, 2011:343).

For groups to work successfully, they require certain qualities that will influence
performance. Group qualities include: roles, norms, status, group size and
composition, cohesiveness, group leadership, decision making and communication. I
am going to be focusing on six of them: roles, norms, status, group size and
composition, cohesiveness, group leadership (Nel, 2011:343).

Group size and composition: the size of a group affects its performance,
although is also depends on the group purpose. The bigger the group, the
more problematic it is for everyone to interact with one another. Nel
(2011:346) states that, large groups (12 or more members) are generally
preferred when a group has to produce divergent ideas or alternatives. This
means that bigger group bring a diverse amount of experience, knowledge,
abilities and ideas. However, social loafing is a negative impact of big
groups. This means that in big groups, some individuals may keep quiet
rather than giving ideas and input because they believe others will do it for
them. This is a negative impact as in groups, people still work as individuals
and should have their own perspectives of what is expected of them. Groups
of odd numbered members are preferred as it cuts out the event of a tie
should a vote occur. Five to seven members in groups is said to be ideal as it
can be considered both a big and a small group (Nel, 2011:346). Group
composition refers to how much members are alike or have things in

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common. Groups that share characteristics that are similar such as race, age,
gender, education, working experience, cultural background or society status
are known as homogeneous. A heterogeneous group is the opposite of a
homogeneous one in that group members have little to nothing in common.
Heterogeneous groups are the most common and are more probable to have
better productivity due to the variation of ideas which can be worked with (Nel,
For example, a group of diverse people chosen to do a survey that is equal
and fair to all gender, race, age, cultural backgrounds and so on. The group
however, should only consist of one person from each race and age for it to
be more accurate.

Group norms and conformity: A norm is a for the most part, an acknowledged
standard of conduct that every individual from the group should keep up. The
most influential norms apply to the types of conduct that the group individuals
see as the most essential (Nel, 2011:344).
Nel (2011:344) defines a norm as follows, norms can be defined as
acceptable standards of behaviour within a group that are shared by the
groups members. Norms might be formal, and openly expressed by the
leader of the group (Nel, 2011:344).
Norms can likewise be informal and go hand in hand with group member
interaction. Certain norms are esteemed higher than others, and individuals
from the group must comply to them. These norms are called obligatory
norms, and are probably not going to change (Nel, 2011:344).
There are additionally peripheral norms, and even though it is not compulsory
for individuals to hold fast to them, they are viewed as sound and worth the
energy. A norm that is viewed as imperative by one group might be
insignificant to another (Nel, 2011:345).
The achievement and proceeded survival of a group may rely on upon
whether the individuals hold fast to the group norms. Groups that have no
solid norms are probably not going to be as steady, seemingly continuous or
fulfilling for their individuals as group members with well-built norms that are
firmly kept by the members (Nel, 2011:345).
Conformity alludes to the acknowledgment of group norms by its individuals.
There is unity in the writing that a member of a group can respond to group
norms in three diverse ways: they may dismiss them, adjust to them or

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acknowledge just the vital ones and overlook the peripheral norms. To
understand which individuals fit in with norms, relies on upon various
elements, for example, their esteem, identities, status, and requirements. At
the point when a member of a group opposes the norms of a group, they will
come across extensive pressure to accommodate, as detectable
nonconformity creates a risk to the groups principles steadiness and survival
(Nel, 2011:345).
For example, a group believes that you should always look presentable, avoid
cell phone use and no interruptions during group meetings, this falls under the
norms of the group.

Status: status is the place in society which a person holds. Status in a group
is vital as it is a factor that motivates and affects the behaviour of others.
Status can be known as formal or informal and falls into the following
categories (Nel, 2011:346):
Scalar status is the group members position in the group from which they are
given status (Nel, 2011:346).
Functional status is given based on tasks they have completed and how well
they have done so (Nel, 2011:346).
Achieved status is built off hard work and effort, and previous
accomplishments and experiences (Nel, 2011:346).
Ascribed status relates to ones characteristics which we cannot control such
as age, gender and physical features (Nel, 2011:346).
Difference in individual status in groups can either encourage or halt group
members interacting with one another. Higher status level individuals may
believe they deserve everything and lower status individuals may merely just
follow the examples of higher level status individuals in the hope of becoming
more like them (Nel, 2011:346).
For example, a group is created in a workplace consisting of lower, middle
and higher level members. It is assumed the higher-level members have
higher status levels but it is possible for another group member to have a
higher status than, say a manager, as the lower level member may have more
competencies and know how that the manager and will thus, perform better.

Cohesiveness: group cohesiveness or cohesion as it is also known, denotes

to how much individuals are pulled in to each other and encouraged to remain
in the group. It is frequently said that cohesive groups are more powerful

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because individuals for the most part concur and participate with each other in
the group (Bergh and Geldenhuys, 2013:254).
Group cohesion shows in various ways: a persons attractions to the task part
of the group, a persons attraction for the social part of the group, the degree
to which the group in general is combined as far as the task and the degree to
which the group is coordinated on a social level (Bergh and Geldenhuys,
Group cohesion is influenced by these factors:
Spending time together refers to the more time spent together, the increased
their productivity as well as their group cohesiveness, synergy, and their
knowledge, interests, abilities, attraction, general responsiveness and
attitudes toward each other will get better (Bergh and Geldenhuys, 2013:254)
Severity of initiation in the group explains the closeness of the group. Bergh
and Geldenhuys (2013:254) states that the more difficult it is to get into a
group, the more cohesive that group becomes. Screening of unwanted
members or those who do not want to do the work or arent capable of doing
the work fall under initiation rites and points out who truly wants to be in the
group (Bergh and Geldenhuys, 2013:254).
Group size says that the bigger the group the less cohesive it is. Small groups
or cliques within the large groups may occur which will lead to complications
(Bergh and Geldenhuys, 2013:254).
Gender is said to affect group cohesion. Women tend to be more cohesive in
a group than men because there is said to be less competition and bond
easier. However, if mixed gender groups have similar interest and abilities
then it is still possible for good group cohesiveness (Bergh and Geldenhuys,
External threats can cause the group to become closer and more cohesive as
external sources could attack and threaten the groups survival (Bergh and
Geldenhuys, 2013:254).
Previous successes will also bring the group together as it motivates them to
continue being successful. Successful groups will be able to find new group
member should they need to as the group will have a reputation for being
productive and successful (Bergh and Geldenhuys, 2013:254).
Group identity refers to the members of the group having a shared identity to
which they can relate and be more cohesive (Bergh and Geldenhuys,

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Productivity of groups relies on the cohesiveness. Although, groups that are
strongly cohesive can also have negative impacts such as loyalty to the group
could lead to members not doing the right thing in some situations (Bergh and
Geldenhuys, 2013:254).
Example of cohesiveness would be, a group of ladies who work together on
projects in their jobs become close and start spending time together outside of
work. This creates more group cohesiveness as the form closer bonds and
learn to trust and rely on each other. They do not feel threatened by one
another and get along well with one another.

Roles: different roles in a group helps the functioning of the group and the
achievement of goals. Stated by Nel (2011:343) a role refers to a set of
expected behaviour patterns associated with someone in a given position in a
Certain roles have certain stigmas attached to them which create a role
identity. It is easy for some individuals to change and learn new roles to suit
the task at hand. Role perception and expectation is often confused with each
other. Role expectations is how one believe a person should act in a specific
role. For example, a sales person must be outspoken and put customers first.
Most of these expectations, however, are stereotyped.
Role perception is how we see ourselves carrying out a role (Nel, 2011:344).
Role conflict happens when one individual carries out numerous roles at a
time which could oppose one another. For example, in a small company,
almost everyone knows each other well. An employee is caught stealing and
the manager must fire him. This is a role conflict because as a manager, it is
his duty to fire the employee for theft but on the other hand the employee is
also a close friend. When a person belongs to more than on role identity, it
could cause unnecessary time wastage, tension and stress.
Task roles are those which help groups with goal achievement and
maintenance roles are those which create an atmosphere for everyone to
work as a single unit (Nel, 2011:344).

Group leadership: an individual that can inspire and motivate group members
to readily achieve goals is known as a leader. Their influence relies on how
they lead and which leadership and power type they conform to. The types of
leadership are: autocratic, democratic, transformational, team, cross-cultural,

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facilitative, laissez-faire, transaction, visionary, charismatic, women and
coaching leadership. The five power types are: reward, coercive, legitimate,
referent, and expert power. Each group should have a leader always even if
that person wasnt the originally chosen leader (Nel, 2011:343)
Effective leaders care about not only the task but the group members as well.
Expected actions of any leader are: planning, delegation, making decisions,
organising and keeping track. They should also be able to satisfy needs of the
group members when they need help, give encouragement, can resolve
conflict and communicate (Nel, 2011:343).
A good leader also needs to have good communication skills, technical
knowledge, and take responsibility for group actions to function effectively.
They also need to be knowledgeable about group dynamics so that the group
can reach full protentional. Group dynamics is how the group functions and
how to get group members to interact (Nel, 2011:343).
An example of good group leadership would be; a group of people have been
assigned to work on a project together, however they have never worked
together before so they are unsure of each other. They decide to elect a
person as a leader who plan, delegates and motivates them well. Each group
member has a chance to say why they deserve to be leader and the group
chooses from the candidates the best suitable person to lead.
Below, I gave added a diagram as an aid to understanding effective group



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Frederick Herzbergs two-factor theory of motivation

In 1954, Frederick Herzberg used what is called a critical incident technique to find
factors that employees were led to feel extremely good or extremely bad. In 1959,
Frederick Herzberg, a behavioural scientist, proposed a two-factor theory or
motivator-hygiene theory. Herzbergs theory is said to be based off Maslows
hierarchy of needs where hygiene factors are like to lower-level needs of Maslows
hierarchy and motivators are like the higher-level needs (Nel, 2011:294). Herzberg
stated that there are some employment factors that outcome is satisfaction while
there are other occupation factors that prevent dissatisfaction. As indicated by
Herzberg, the inverse of "Satisfaction" is "No Satisfaction" and the inverse of
"Dissatisfaction" is "No Dissatisfaction"
( [O]
[Accessed: 4 March 2017]).

Herzberg explained that intrinsic motivators and extrinsic motivators have an

opposing connection: intrinsic motivators are inclined to make motivation when they
are available, while extrinsic motivators are inclined to decrease motivation when
they are missing. An intrinsic motivator is also known as the motivator factor and
extrinsic motivators are also known as the hygiene factor. According to Herzberg,
intrinsic motivators and extrinsic motivators have an inverse relationship: intrinsic
motivators tend to create motivation when they are present, whereas extrinsic
motivators tend to reduce motivation when they are absent. Intrinsic motivators focus
on the more emotional side of the occupation such potential to grow, achievements,
recognition and so on. Extrinsic motivators deal with the more physical aspects of
the occupation such as salary, work security, interpersonal relationships, status and
so on. Intrinsic motivators are meant to improve motivation whereas dissatisfaction
occurs if extrinsic motivators are missing. Due to this reason, satisfaction and
dissatisfaction in the Herzberg two-factor theory are two separate ideas and most
probably will not affect one another. It is managements responsibility to find when
increase job satisfaction or intrinsic motivators are needed and where decreased job
dissatisfaction or extrinsic motivator are needed
two-factor-theory-239-6609/ [O] [ Accessed: 5 March 2017]).

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Hygiene factors are factor that are needed for workplace motivation. However, they
do not lead to job satisfaction if sufficiently met, but rather just a neutral feeling about
a job occupation. On the other hand, if hygiene factors are insufficiently met, then it
leads to dissatisfaction. In this case, the opposite of dissatisfaction in no
dissatisfaction (Nel, 2011:293). Hygiene factors include: Salary how the salary is
set up should be suitable to job description, experience, qualification etc. and
sensible, not too high not too low. It should be the going rate for all in the same
qualification level or industry. Organisational policies and administration -
organisational policy should be fair, clear and not too strict. It should include working
hours, dress code, annual leave, etc. Additional benefits medical aid, family
member benefits, employee help programs, provident and pension fund, and other
benefits should be offered to employees where feasible. Working conditions -
working conditions should be safe, clean, hygienic and user friendly. Equipment -
should be the latest, safe for all and well-maintained. Status the status of an
individual within a company should be made known and kept the same unless a
higher status level is offered. Interpersonal relationships - of employee colleagues,
peers, superiors and subordinates should be suitable. Humiliation and conflict should
occur very little to not at all. Job Security should be given to all employees so that
they need not be on their edge all the time, wondering if they will lose their
employment (
motivation.htm [O] [Accessed: 4 March 2017]). For example, a new employee is
hired into a company. He is given an orientation program where the companies
policies are explained as well as an introduction to his new colleagues. The manager
has a private meeting with him to explain his salary and benefit options. He is shown
how to use equipment responsibly and safely and has a sense of job security. This
new employee will probably experience very little to no dissatisfaction in their job.
Another company who is famous for retrenching staff, hire an employee. The new
employee is shown nothing and has nothing explained to him, he is merely thrown
in the deep side. This employee will most probably feel dissatisfaction in their job.

Unfortunately, many hygiene factors are taken for granted and do not motivate
employees. This is where the motivation factor comes in. A motivated employee will
more than likely increase their input effort and achieve more than the goals expected
of them. A motivator is also known as a growth factor (Nel, 2011:293). Motivational

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factors lead to job satisfaction or no job satisfaction and find it rewarding.
Motivational factors include: Recognition - employees should be applauded made
an example of for their achievements and possibly even rewarded to encourage
others to do better. Achievement - employees should feel as though they have
accomplished something depending on job task and should get something out of
achieving goals and so on. Progress or growth growth and promotional
opportunities should be made available to motivate individuals to perform at their
prime. Responsibility managers should allow individual to have ownership of their
work and to take responsibility for it. employees must hold themselves responsible
for the work. Managers should minimise control but keep a close eye on processes.
Meaningfulness of the work interesting, challenging work motivate employees
more than normal boring work (
theory-motivation.htm [O] [Accessed: 4 March 2017]). For example, an employee is
given a task to do but is given free will to do the task how they want if it is done
correctly and in the given time. If the employee does a good job, they could
potentially be up for promotion and a bonus. This employee is likely to feel motivated
or satisfied. If an employee inn a different company is given a task to do but is told
how, with the manager breathing down their back and no reward or promotion is
offered. The employee will probably feel not satisfied and be unmotivated.

Herzberg claims that motivational problems are in the work design and that job
improvement comes from Herzbergs theory. If employees feel no pride when
achieving a goal then there is likely to be no motivation and only low level needs can
be met (Nel, 2011:294).

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Characteristics of a transformational leader

A transformational leader is also known as a visionary leader.

A transformational leader aims to assist in the defining of the organisational idea and
the connection between it and the management type and organisational values that
have been presented (Nel, 2011:322).
Visionary leaders can recognize the long-term capability of a thought or association,
and impart this thought or dream to other individuals in a persuading and motivating
way. They can, in addition, find ways and follows certain plans so that their goals are
accomplished (Nel, 2011:322).

Transformational leaders take on the role of a coach, role model, mentor and
inspirational model so that it allows individuals to eagerly partake in the
accomplishment of set out goals (Nel, 2011:322).
Transactional leaders do the following:

Are always keeping up and supporting organisational culture (Nel, 2011:323).

Are always ready to give encouragement and are grateful towards individuals
who positively contribute to the accomplishment of goals (Nel, 2011:323).
Monitor any change processes on regular intervals (Nel, 2011:323).
Get rid of any negative influences or external threats affecting the
achievement of goals (Nel, 2011:323).
Find ways for everyone to take part in organisation activities and plans and so
on (Nel, 2011:323).
Finds ways to align organisational culture with new ideas and goals (Nel,
Create plans to work towards goals and visions (Nel, 2011:323).
Let everyone know about dreams, visions and goals (Nel, 2011:323).
Recognise individuals who have potential (Nel, 2011:323).
Assist others to know why change needs to happen and what can be done to
implement change (Nel, 2011:323).

To determine if a person is a transformational leader, certain characteristics can be

used. There are many characteristics so it is almost impossible for one person to
have them all. The characteristics are merely a guideline. These are ten of the
characteristics familiar with transformational leadership:

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Keeping their ego in check: one should not let their ego become inflated
when they are in a position where they have influential power. A
transformational leader should control their ego and not let it affect the
best interests of the group or organisation. Keeping ones ego in check
allows a transformational leader to put the group or organisational needs
above their own so that maximum performance from all is achieved.
Self-management: a transformational leader can usually manage
themselves quite well. Transformational leaders are also highly
motivated which is used to lead organisations in the correct direction.
Ability to take the right risks: a transformational leader needs to trust
their instinct and use knowledge gained from others to make well
thought out decisions. They will take required steps to assess the
situation accordingly and ask group member for input when making a
risky decision.
Make difficult decisions: difficult decisions will always arise and need to
be dealt with, with diligence. Transformational leaders will not run from a
difficult decision but rather base their choices on values, goals, vision
and mission the organisation may have.
Share collective organisational consciousness: transformational leaders
comprehend and share the combined consciousness of the entire
organisation. This means that they are familiar with group member
feelings and helps them understand how and why employees behave in
the way they do. This characteristic helps them encourage growth and
create common visions for all.
Inspirational: transformational leaders are quite possibly the most inspire
out of all the leadership types as they can motivate others.
Transformational leaders do not just inspire people in the workplace and
praise them for their work, but also treat the people as individuals and
take time to personally motivate, value and understand them.
Entertain new ideas: transformational leaders need to be open to and
accept new ideas. They understand that new ideas bring a fresh take on
the organisational goals and more than likely, increase growth. They
ensure that they make the effort to accept and even encourage new
ideas and fresh approaches so that decisions can be made using greater

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Adaptability: transformational leaders understand the importance of
being able to adapt when change occurs so that they can keep others
ahead of the rest. They are willing to make adaptions to new
circumstances and find creative ways in which they can handle change.
Proactive: transformational leaders are hands-on when it comes to
handling situations. They are willing to take risks, and have an active
role in growing the organisation.
Lead with vision: transformational leaders can set accurate and
reachable visions. The share their visions successfully with others and
can inspire people to be committed to the visions. Transformational
leaders will guide the organisation along the correct path so that the
visons and goals can be met.

Some other characteristics also include lifelong learning, open-mindedness,

resilience, result orientated, ability to perform at high levels and many others
(Nel, 2011:323).
South Africa has been made a better place with transformational leader in the
like of Nelson Mandela, the man who, with several other people, went on to put
an end to the apartheid regime and become the first black president of the
Democratic Republic of South Africa, the rainbow nation we now live in.

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Member roles found within a group

For a group to function effectively and efficiently, each member need to have a
specific role and stick to that role. If they take on additional roles, it could confuse
situations and lead to conflict.

A task role relates to the actions a group member partakes in to complete the tasks
at hand
ml [O] Accessed: 4 March 2017). A maintenance role relates to the upholding of
relationships within a group
ml [O] Accessed: 4 March 2017).

Below I have tabulated and explained the different member roles which include task
and maintenance roles:

Task roles Maintenance roles

Initiator: recommends or proposes to Encourager: acclaims, concurs with, and
the gathering new thoughts. They acknowledges the commitment of the
offer a perspective concerning others. They show warmth and solidarity in
issues, methodology, objectives, or their nature toward other group member,
arrangements. offers recognition and praise and in
different ways demonstrates
comprehension and acknowledgment of
different perspectives, thoughts, and
Information seeker: requests Listener: they listen carefully to what group
explanation of proposals made as far members are saying and pay attention
as their true ampleness, for always
legitimate data and realities
correlated to the issue being
Information giver: offers certainties or Peacemaker: facilitates the contrasts
speculations which are "definitive" or between different members, endeavours to
relates to their own experience accommodate contradictions, reduces
appropriate to the group issue. strain in conflict circumstances through

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jokes, a calming state of mind, and so on.
Procedural: speeds up group Follower: helps the development of the
development by getting things done group inactively, accepting the thoughts of
for the group, e.g. giving out others in some cases filling in as an
materials or setting up seats. audience.
Technician: has the know-how of Supporter: supports ideas of group
how aspects of the group work and members and encourages them to follow
can work through difficult situations. through with their ideas and guides them
where needs be.
Coordinator: appears or explains the Gatekeeper: tries to ensure communication
connections among different by inspiring or
thoughts and recommendations, tries attempts to keep communication channels
to draw thoughts and proposals open by encouraging or helping the
together or tries to organise the contribution of individuals.
exercises of different individuals from
Evaluator: measures the groups
performance by developed standards
expected of the group.
Recorder: records proposals, settles
on a record of cooperative choices,
or records the result of talk. The
recorder fills the part of "group
Adapted from: du Plessis, d., Poisat, S., Nel, W., Ngalo, O., Sono, T., Poisat, P. and
Nel, P. (2011). Human resources management. 8th ed. Cape Town: Oxford
University Press Southern Africa; Information added from: Context Institute. (2017).
Roles in Groups. [online] Available at: [Accessed
4 Mar. 2017].

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In conclusion, all the questions I have answered tie into one another and help
create a better understanding. Groups, leaders and roles all have something in
common and Herzberg relates to employee motivation where the fore
mentioned are likely to take place.

For a group to function effectively, it can be said from the above that all of the
properties mentioned and many more need to work together to achieve
effectiveness. If group members do not work together, there can be no
productive achievements.

Frederick Herzbergs theory ensure that managers know how and what to do to
improve motivation in the work place. Both hygiene and motivation factors
should be used together to maximise employee output.

Leaders are essential to any organisation or group. Transformational leaders

are one of the most influential and should thus be in top leadership roles top
ensure growth within the organisation and in the economy.

Role conflict is an unnecessary part of a group members role. Each person

needs to stick to their original role and group conflict will more than likely be
kept to a minimum.

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Glossary of terms

Divergent: tending to be different or develop in different directions.

Heterogenous: diverse in character or content.

Homogeneous: of the same kind; alike.

Model: a system or thing used as an example to follow or imitate.

Perspective: an attitude toward or way of regarding something; a point of view.

Stigmas: a mark of disgrace associated with a circumstance, quality, or person.

Synergy: the interaction or cooperation of two or more organizations, substances, or

other agents to produce a combined effect greater than the sum of their separate

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Reference list

Bergh, Z. and Geldenhuys, D. (2013). Psychology in the work context. 5th ed. Cape
Town: Oxford University Press Southern Africa (Pty) Ltd.

Boundless. (2017). Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory. [online] Available at:
two-factor-theory-239-6609/ [Accessed 5 Mar. 2017].

Context Institute. (2017). Roles in Groups. [online] Available at: [Accessed 4 Mar. 2017].

du Plessis, d., Poisat, S., Nel, W., Ngalo, O., Sono, T., Poisat, P. and Nel, P.
(2011). Human resources management. 8th ed. Cape Town: Oxford University Press
Southern Africa.

Executive Search Firm | Executive Recruiters Y Scouts. (2016). 10

Transformational Leadership Characteristics, Attributes and Traits. [online] Available
at: [Accessed 4
Mar. 2017]. (2017). Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory of Motivation.

[online] Available at:
motivation.htm [Accessed 4 Mar. 2017].

Porteus, A. (2017). Roles People Play in Groups. [online]

Available at:
ml [Accessed 4 Mar. 2017].

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