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Essays on Music

THEODOR W. ADORNO

with Introduction, Commentary, and Notes


Selected,

BY RICHARD LEPPERT
New translations by Susan H. Gillespie

Uniaersity ot' CIifornia press


BERKELEY LOS ANGELES LONDON
On Jazz 474

over and over again by the bass drum. The rhythmic phenomena pertain
On lazz to the accentuation and the phrasing, but not the timing of the piece, and
even the accentuation consistently remains, related precisely through the
bass drum and the continuo instruments which are subordinate to it, a
fundamentally symmetrical one. Thus the principle of symmetry is fully
respected especially in the basic rhythmic structure [Grossrhythmikl. The
eight-bar period, and even the four-bar half period, are maintained, their
authority unchallenged. Simple harmonic and melodic symmetrical rela-
tionships correspond to this as well, broken down in accordance with half
and whole closures. The sound exhibits the same simultaneity of excess
and rigidity. It combines objectively maintained expressive and continuo-
like elements: the violin and the bass drum are its extremes. But its vital
component is the vibrato which causes a tone which is rigid and objective
-
The question of what is meant by "jazz" seems to mock the clear-cut to tremble as if on its own; it ascribes to it s
-i'!na'-,
'-'L4

definitive answer. Just as the historical origins of the form are disappearing this being allowed to interrupt the fixedness ''':'
a.?

into the fog of the recent past, so its range is disappearing within its am- just as the syncopation is not allowed to in
bivalent use at the present moment. For the purpose of providing a crude Europe the saxophone is considered representative of this soun{ thfin-
orientation, one could concede that it is that type of dance music-whether strument against which the resistance has concentrated its forces. In truth,
it be used in an unmediated or slightly stylized form-that has existed the instrument to which so much modernistic infamy is attributed and
since the war and is distinguished from what preceded it by its decidedly which is supposed to perversely subject the over-stimulated Western
modern character, a quality which itsell however, is sorely in need of nerves to the vitality of blacks [Negen:itIitt], is old enough to command
analysis. This modernity is perhaps characterized most strikingly by those respect. It was already discussed in Berlioz's treatise on instrumenttion;2
resistances-differing considerably according to region-which are en- it was invented during the nineteenth century when the emancipation of
. -\i)
\- countered in jazz and polarized along the lines of either its quality of the art of orchestration stimulated the demand for more refined transitions
"x!
\N
mechanical soullessness or a licentious decadence. Musically, this "mo- between woodwinds and the brass instruments, and has been used-clearly
\ not obligatorily-in pieces such as Bizet's UArlsienne Site, which has
long since been considered a classic. In many countries it has been used
for generations in military music, and therefore is no longer shocking to
anyone. Its actual significance for the practice of jazz may be secondary to
sot uses it), modifications which remain constantly permeated by this that of the trumpets to which a significantly greater diversity of playing
elemental form. The most commonly used modifications are the displace- methods is available than to the saxophone and which can therefore be
ment of basic rhythm through deletions (the charleston) or slurring (rag-
time); "false" rhythm, more or less a treatment of a common time as a
result of three & three & two eighth-notes, with the accent always on the
first note of the group which stands out as a "false" beat [Scheintakt]l
from the principal rhythm; finally, the "break*," a cadence which is similar
to an irrrplgylggtio!, mostly at the end of the middle part two measures
before the repetition of the principal part of the refrain. In all of these precise physical sense, and the physical model is well suited for repre-
syncopations, which occasionally in virtuoso pieces yield an extraordinary senting the historical and social phenomenon of jazz.
complexity, the fundamental beat is rigorously maintained; it is marked rLelthsglgqrelcgnsgtJ*t_f yEgf :be- jgtg-oSggykg-t4g'Jgej

470
le , L L(r,-,5 Jo )t!
< &-pp -1 eJ 5L7\z -
+72 Music and Mss Cubure a 1 On Jazz / +Zl

!v th functigesdrye
acknowledged itself as
ardently attempting to
proclaim its functior one that is exdusively abstract, even within the
formulae of dance music, so as to be able to practice it concretely, in secret, value of jazz, its suitability as a mass commodity, as a corrective to the
all the more unhindered. The unequivocal function of jazz therefore pre- bourgeois isolation of autonomous art, as something which is dialectically
sents itself to the dialectician as a puzzle. The clear elements of the material advanced and to accept its use value as a motive for the sublation
[Aut'he-
which contribute to the solving of this puzzle are as few as the forms which bungl of the object character of music, one succumbs to the latest form of
jazzhas cultivated. Much of what is accepted a s jazz-atleast by the public, romanticism which, because of its anxiety in the face of the fatal charac-
if not by the practitioners of. jazzitself-does not come up to the standards teristics of capitalism, seeks a despairing way out, in order to affirm the
for the crudest characteristic of rhythmic and tonal interference. This is feared thing itself as a sort of ghastly allegory of the coming liberation
true above all for the tangos which, rhythmically very primitive, only draw and to sanctify negativity-a curative in which, by the way, jazz itself.
on the elementary form of syncopation without ever making it a basic would like to believe. No matter what the situation might be for art within
principle. This is also true for that hyb;d form combining jazzand march the c'ontext of an approaching order of things; whether its autonomy and
music which, since "Valencia"3 appeared in t9z5 as a "six-eight"* piece object quality will be retained or not-and economic considerations pro-
and spread with uncommon rapidiry cultivated the march-like elements virie substantial grounds for the assertion that even the ideal
[richtig] so-
with increasing openness, and which inserted an unbroken continuous ciety will not be aiming to create pure immediary-this much is in any
rhythm in place of syncopation, and a homogeneous and "euphonious"
tutti-sound in place of the interference. It has never been sharply differ-
entiated from jazz practice and is played by orchestras that alternate be-
tween it and thoroughly syncopated "hot music.*" On the other hand, a
great deal of music is perceived asbeing jazz or related to jazz only on the
basis of its sound, without its being at all interested in the rhythmic prin-
ciples of jazz.The wide public success of the songs* of Kurt Weill was a
success or jazz, although the rhythmic profiling of its melodies in accor-
dance with the scansion of the composed verse lines is diametrically op-
posed to jazz practice-only the pervasive basic rhythm and the sound of
\I til
the saxophone have anything to do with jazzinthis case. Iazz is not what
l^in.**
individual taste, or even individual s
ot questrons marketability and veil its otyn cogrn
:,:i.'
$)\ 9z Lrrurs prr Ld'r' uuu wurl( ur arr/ Dut rather like those
-'A
1f!1 ^*FUrought to mind by the detective novel, with which jazz has in common
l!1.^*[1brought Xrke1q$+ry4. Holever -uch
( ,"" I the fact that it maintains an inexorably rigid stereorypology and at the '/"\--'- i.;\
Jazz may act lrke a product of "Newectivity" [N eu e S chlichkeit],4 llke
rj
.oo
t I same time does everything it can to let that stereotypology be forgorten something new, it is what any "objectivity" purports to attack most fe-
I by means of individualizing elemenrs, which are again themselves ulti- rociously-an artistic product-and its "objectivity,, is no more than a
\
fmately determined by the stereot)?ology. Just as in the detective nouil pasted-on ornament meant to deceive us about the extent to which it is
the question of the identity of the criminal is intersected with that which I merely an object.
is implied by the whole, so in jazz the question of the alien subect, whol Such deception is carried out above all in the interests of the bour-
both quivers and marches through it, is intersected by the question of whad geoisie. If [the bourgeoisie] has really reserved for itself the privilege of
474
-
Music and Mass Cuhure On Jzz I +lS

the music through the medium of radio is even less impressive in


its effect
than- a lirr. orch""rt.a. It is, however, characteristic for
jazz as a form of
interference that its differentiated elements can be dispensed with without

'\'r."i
\',' ,J*
N
.l-, rr
"tt'- production. that
of jazz are
structure, the victims thus can take some solace in the fact that they
:r'). can t are,
" -r\. also partake of the commodities of the dominant class to the extent
that
these are intended to appeal to a mutilated instinctual structure.
As a sur-
:"lv hits have been secured, the
//edsn'/-i.e., a relatively up-to-date-
publishers consent to deliver
iot* piecefree of charge. After all, mass consumPtion of'hot music* cannot
excess of
be completely dispensed with-this is an expression of a certain
the demands of the market'
-ori."i proi,rcti.r" force which goes beyond virtuosity
The orchestras clamor for hot music*, in part to highlight their
but also in part because the perpetual repetition of the simplest things
bores them o d"g."" which they find unbearable. At the
same time,
"
however, artisanally produced hot mus
is also necessary for the promotion of
ceptance of hot music* allows the uppe
about its taste, the lack of understan

V\lQt' {"'l'61
\\
476 Music and Mass Culture On Jazz +77

shocked by this music lends to those who do listen to it the vague satis- reality within which the hit song is heard is not ordered systematica\;
faction of being themselves up to dte* and perhaps even confirms a sense space and time are capable of exerting more control over
the fate
rrrt
of having been erotically emancipated through that which is dangerously ",
/oLth"pdrr., form than does its own merit, so the consciousness those of
modern or perverse. This is all mere decorum; the only melodies that find \ *ho ,."i.r" it is unsystematic, and its irrationality is ptiori that of the
their way into the public memory are the melodies which are the most listene. But this is not a creative irrationaliry; rather, it is destructive.
It
easily understood and the most rhythmically trivial. For their broad re- is not a generaUve force, but a recourse to false origins under the control
.r r :----
ception, the hot* pieces perform at best the role of pseudo-modern painters f of destru"ct or(.1^an
'/- ideal society, a- correlation between quality and success
-^--^^+:^-l^^*^'oo-^,,oin,o.rl.rtrceqq
like van Dongen, Foujita, Marie Laurencin,z or, even bette, of cubist ad- I .o,rld perhaps be put forth, but in the false one, the absence of a correlative
vertisements I rehtionship i, .,.,so much proof of an occult quality as proof of the
fio I f"lr"r,"r, of societv.\
ar or of L If it is true th^i iuris attempting a recourse to false origins, then the
argument which revolves around the supposed irrationaliry of its
an illusory democrary because the propagandistic mechanism does not effect
function sufficiently for this. Hits cannot be "made," and therefore the talk intrinsic, "archaic forces burst-
lo, it, meaning, along with the about
theoretical prerequisites necessary for their success could not be adequately ing vvrll.rr rit,,, o:r wharever the phrases with which obliging
forth within
ur' Ivllrl
intel-
.
specified. Thus "Capri,"8 one of the biggest hits of the recent past/ was put lectuals justify its production. The belief in jazz as

ort by a small producer after the more important ones had rejected it, and with which an ostensibly decadent European music
_. -.
l it supposedly made its way on its own. If one asks jazz specialists for the ) is pure ideology.4he extent to which jazzhas anyt
reasons behind the great success of a hit, they will respond-and the
)rt- 5iL se
N" -:\r,r greater their business smarts, mo." enthusiastic
smrts. the more enrhrrciacti they -^.ill be
+l'o', will i- their
L- in d.-. tpe
response-with depraved magical formu
t-.
of art: inspiration, the concept of genius, bor co
\ forces, and other irrational justifications. of the formal elements of. jazzhave been completely
for this irrationalism may be, the moment of irrationality in the hit's by the caPitalist requirement that they be exchang
+lo
Even the much-invoked ,.I4s,
success cannot be overlooked. ha++
the hot*
which popular tunes are successful and
which are not can be predicted
icted with as little certainty as can the fate of '\ merelv ornamental in-their significance, and never part of the overallJ
stocks and bonds. But this irrationality !) "..
,on r.o.,io' o, determinant of theform. Not only is their placement, right
is their
down to the number of beats, assigned stereotypically; not only
m the present, theory c@ous necessary/ . duration and harmonic structure as a dominant effect completely prede-
6 also insufficient, conditions for ,,success,,, i.e., for a piece,s social termined; even its melodic form and its potential for simultaneous
com-
effect. Further analysis may then stumble on the ,,irrational,, moments, back to
binations rely on a minimum of basic forms: they can be traced
bN onto the question of why, in the case of two pieces which are formally the paraphrarir,g of the cadence, the harmonically figurative counterPoint.
rl.v exactly alike and otherwise equivalent, one takes off and the other does the ,"laionshif between jazz andblack people is similar to that between
?.r4-')
salon music the waniering fiddle players whom it so firmly
believes
".r suP-
it has transcended-the glrysies. According to Bartk, the gypsies are
unequal chances for propaganda and distribution, its arbitrary nature is cities; like commodity consumption itsell the
!lied with this music by ti-t;
the
itself an expression of a total social system, whose constituent elements .rr"r,rrf".to." [Herstelling] of jazzis also an urban phenomenon' and
,.
does the
include the tendenry to tolerate and demand anarchistic coincidence in all skin of the black *an furrctions as much as a coloristic effect as

silver of the saxophone. In no way does a triumphant vitality make


concrete individual manifestations in the midst of the most precise ten- its
dentious determinary. In the sphere of ideology as well, monopolization commodities; the European-American en-
,
lll
entrance in these bright musical
is in no way equivalent to a sublation [Aut'hebung] of anarchy. Just as the tertainment businesJ has subsequently hired the [supposed] triumphant
478 Music and Mss Culture j ''l On Jzz / +Zg

,\i victors to appear as their flunkies and as figures in advertisements, and be "justlike" and yet "original," a demand which cripples all productive
trt i their triumph is merely a confusing parody of colonial imperialism. To power. He who could accomplish both simultaneously would realize the
the extent that we can speak of black elements in the beginnings of jazz,
in ragtime perhaps, it is still less archaic-primitive self-expression than
{i the music of slaves; even in the indigenous music of the African interior/
syncopation within the example of a maintained measured time seems
only to belong to the lower [social] level. Psychologically, the primal
structure of jazz [Ur-Jzz] may most closely suggest the spontaneous seem to have played themselves out: since the tango and the foxtrot, noth-

{ singing of servant girls. Society has drawn its vital music-provided that ing new has been added to its fundamental characteristics. There has only

" I it has not been made to order from the very beginning-not from the been a modification of that which already exists. Even the "invention," the
'S\ I wild, but from the domesticated body in bondage. The sado-masochistic concept of which is equally problematic socially and in terms of aesthetics,
j\'t' I elements in jazz could be clearly connected to this. The archaic atance of remains dependent on previously successful models; it is as thoroughly
\
liazz is as modern as the "primitives" who fabricate it. The improvisa- and conventionally pre-formed as the basic types themselves. The "rew"
=tional immediacy which constitutes its partial success counts strictly rates only occasionally, appearing as individual nuance anleeT 7
t, among those attempts to break out of the fetishized commodity world
{ which want to escape that world without ever changing it, thus moving
a-----,.r-r'r".
i ever deeper into its snare. He who wants to flee from a music which has wnen rt rs precrsely notiii&fu".. S-ti-, lugtIi oes
become incomprehensible or fQm an alienating everyday situation into nofTappen in he m{ority of cases, th lement of the "new" brings the
- | jazzhappens greatest success, as in the case of the first six-eight* pieces, "Valencia," or
+t\.. 'lI to the others
,r with its dec
( 6* ^ I those human
'' -r1i jectivity plunges from the commodity world into the commodity world;
-,lt\tl ;;;;;i.;;.", not allow for a way out. whatever primordial instinct is
r-,:'"' I recovered in this is not a longed-for freedom, but rather a regression- the melodic shape alone; it is without exception astonishingly minor. One
i through suppression; there is nothing archaic in jazz but that which is detail of any kind-in "Valencia" it is the slight irregularity in the meter
"*/Liv i engendered out of modernity through the mechanism of suppression. It bf *hi.h rhe consumer is not aware-is enough. The publishers, just like
is not old and repressed instincts which are freed in the form of stan- any propagandists, are most concerned with the title, the beginning of the
C)v ij dardized rhythms and standardized explosive outbursts; it is new re- text, the first eight bars of the refrain, and the close of the refrain, which
pressed, and mutilated instincts which have stiffened into the masks of is usually anticipated as a motto in the introduction. They are indifferent
to everything else, i.e., to the development of the music. The old principle
of the rondo, which perhaps actually refers back to cult forms, is chosen
by jazz for its ability to be memorized and thus for its marketabiliry;
throughout, the couplets or uerses* are deliberately kept two-dimensional
stereotypology; the combination of wild agitation as the illusion of a dy- in contrast to the refrain or the chorus.
namic and the inexorability of the authority The simultaneity of th" .hglgggistic and the banal which is marked ('d.
tation. Predominant, however, is the law wh out in-JE l-ects not only the jazz pieces in and of themselves. To a much
!- z
much as it is that of myths: the illusion must sreater extent. this simultaneitv is realized in the relationshio between *("1.
while at the same time constantly simulating the "new" This becomes and
apparent in the paradoxical demand on the composer that his work always
@ ta*.q"t , tutfovi'r
48o Music and Mss Culture On Jazz +8a

gerate-is banal; its reproduction is characteristic, exquisite, virtuoso, of- breaking through within the composition itsell then he certainly cannot
ten disguising the piece to the point of unrecognizability. The composer do so within a reproduction which respectfully dresses up its bare walls in
must, oddly enough, answer for the conventional element in jazz. The one oder to disguise its inhumanity, but which helps to prolong this inhu-
who modifies it is the arranget who is affiliated sometimes with the pub- manity surreptitiously in doing so.
&,
lishers and sometimes with the orchestra, but who is most closely in touch In addition, howeve it seems as if one could consider the arrange-e.t I .'o- '
with those who reproduce the music. If one were to compare the perfor- of the working proces: as progressive, which n jazz oscillates between Ja?
mance of a good orchestra with the actual score of the piano version, for production and reproduction. It presents itself as an obvious distribution
example, one would be likely to conclude that the qualified musicians are of labor, which forms a "material" within a context of technical freedom
to be found among the arrangers and not the composers. It seems almost and rationality without being dependent on its coincidental nature, the 7
as if material which is completely indifferent is best suited to a jazz treat: coincidental nature of the conditions of production or those of the per- '
ment. One of the best-known virtuoso pieces for jazz, thel-'"Tiger R"g"dl formers. Somebody comes up with the "invention" or whatever is taken
that orchestras love to use to show off their talents, is ext.Iy*rmp for one; another harmonizes it and elaborates on it; then a text develops
in terms of its composition. Thus, jazz seems to be- progressive in two and the rest of the music is written and seasoned with rhythm and har-
,. directions-bgt! different with respect ro the d.rr"lop*"niffi@ mo'ny, perhaps already by the arranger at this point; finally, the whole is
cific to musi#ne aspect is the reintroduction into the composition of orchestrated by a specialist. Now, the intentionally exhibited division of
\ "*
tr'
those who are reproducing it. In "artistic" music, both [the composition labor does not take place in a systematic way in the sense of rationaliza-t6o'tC
and those who are reproducing it] are hopelessly alienated from one an- tion-this is just as little the case here as it is, for example, in film pro- J ' t, '
other; the instructions for playing the "New Music" allow no room for
freedom in the process of reproducing it-indee{ the interpretation dis-
appears completely behind the mechanical reproduction. In jazz, it seems
as if the reproducer has reclaimed his rights vis--vis the work of art:
man has reclaimed his rights over the object. This! in any case,how jezz.
is understood by the rnore conscientious among its apologists: the senti-
ment of Krenek's Jonny spielt ut' is proof of this. This sentiment is ro-
mantic, however-and Krenek was only being consistent when he followed
,.n Jorry
with the romantic pilog
of the interpreter or arran rmit,
,}r-*
')^ of the great stage actors s of th tic collective labor
{qt
.- . .*\ a/ give rise to a subjective proclamation. The stimulation and the artistic
piece, the new color and the new rhythm merely inserted along with wherein the te-brtfSgg ttr_"_Lf ir .o"rpi*o"r
,?'..,\\
are . The di-
inserted into the rigid sound and "r
vision of labor originates in the fact that the "invqqlgg" :[ggg!y;tem
element of interference in jazz is from amateu.r, fr* a great many outsid"rrffi
the composition. But its contours A"itffi"es orchestrate them f.or jazz and who often cannot even
remain the old ones. The schema can still be heard, even through the most set them down or score them, while, on the other end of the process, there
digressive breaks in the arrangement. He who is reproducing the music is the orchestras which are allied with the publishers and their particular
permitted to rug at the chains of his boredom, and even to clatter them, interests. The arbitrary nature of the original material is thus in no sense
but he cannot break them. Freedom in reproduction is no more present the result of its technical mastery, but, instead, through it, anarchy inter-
here than in art musi{Even if the composition were to allow it, the tra- venes in the process of production. It does not master the original material
dition of 1azz, which is prepared to give the slightest subjective nuance its so much as remain independent of it and its arbitrary nature; this sets a
prescribed name, would not tolerate such freedom. If man is incapable of limit for the rationality of the technique as well as for that of the result.
+82 Music and Mass Cuhure On Jazz 483

succeeding at it-this helplessness is just as important an ingredient [in


Jazz specialists respond to the public and to its representative in the pro-
duction process; the lattet however, opposes all technical consonance on its success] as the educated mundane consciousness of the habitu. After
principle. If this representative were an expert, the success lof. jazz]would all, the two belong together as the constitutive elements of. jazz: helpless-
ness and the average
The the i'bjective c
The amateur represents the extreme case of the public representative form belong as much
in the production of jazz, which as such is alienated from individuals. He following Karl Kraus's thoroughly verified view, typographical erros be-
is the test case for social authority in its real effect on musical practices long to the a priori of the newspaper.l2 Errors in musical orthography,
today. He is of exemplary importance even if one wants to keep the esti- grammar and syntax can be found in the piano scores-i.e., in the origi-
mate of the number of "tuned in" jazz amateurs low The significance of nals-of many of the most successful hits. They are continued in the finer
this is clearly not meant to be understood in the way that jazz ideology breaks which are characteristic of high-jazz pieces for compelling reasons
itself represents it. The amteur is not the uncompromised and unsullied since, in principle, alljazz is inconsistent. If the surface has begun to close
^:,fd in the more recent, and especially the American, writing; if there are fewer
tu*t person whose originality asserts itself against the routine of the business;
this idea is part of the mythic mystification of the black man. Neither does crass errors and the dilettantes are being shut out, this should not be
social reality, freed of image and illusion, intervene through him in the understood as representing "progress" in jazz. While it is beginning to
work of art. And neither is it true that through this intervention the work split off into its -two extremes, sweet music* anil ih" march, the core of
of art would itself become reality. As the representative of society in jazz, jazlrhot musi*, "_!ginq stabilized into a middle-of-the-road line of ar-
he is perhaps more the representative of its extremely illusory nature. tisanal scrupulousness and taste which estrains the improvi_sational ele-
Within the process of production he functions as a guarantor for the ap- ngrys 9f disruption whih were sporadically present in the original con-
perception of the product. His inventions are embodied within accumulated cept!qqfjazzintosymphonicsimplicityandgrandeur.S@is
conventions. Somewhat like the businessman who, thinking he has been tft which presents itself as "symphonic," as autonomorr, but whi.h
thus conclusively abandons all the intentions
".t,
transformed into a poet on-the occasion of a birthday celebration, will which previously had con-
feature himself suddenly and compulsively (but not because of his literary tributed to its appearance of collective immediary. It submits itself to the
innocence-instead he will offer an imitation of Heine or Scheffel or Wil- standards of art music; compared with it, however, lazz exposes itself as
helm Busch),l1 the amateur in like manner imitates the clichs of current Iagging far behind.
jazz music and guarantees the commercial opportunity to underbid it The "tastefulness" of jazz, the ferment of its modernity, antipole and
wherever possible. What legitimates precisely him and not just anybody corrective of the amateur, are artistically simple deception as much as its
in bringing this imitation into the public sphere to which he owes it is not reverse/ its immediary. Educated taste, which tests and refines the conven-
so much the individual qualification of his ideas as it is the fact that he has tional, has long since become conventional itself; modernity is based ex-
mustered the necessary hysterical lack of restraint to express that which dusively on the conventions of the music of the recent modern period.
he does not suffer. He invests in the production precisely that source of These are, roughly speaking, those of musical impressionism. The black
unconscious musical and extra-musical associations, expectations, catego- artist Duke Ellingto, who is a trained musician and the principal repre-
ries, and slippages which is eradicated in professional musicians by their sentative of today's "classical" stabilized jazz, has named Debussy and
training or is elevated to a conscious level and, once lost, can never again Delius as his favorite composers.l3 With the exception of. hot* rhythm, all
be reconstructed but which constitutes a substantial and perhaps the de- the more subtle characteristics of jazz refer back to this style, and it would
cisive prerequisite for exerting an effect on the public-an invaluable com,- hardly be exaggerated to observe that this style is making its way for the
first time into the broader strata of society through jazz. In Parisian night-
dubs, one can hear Debussy and Ravel in between the rumbas and Charles-
tons. The influence of impressionism is most striking in the harmonies.
Ninth-chords, sixte ioute, and other mixtures, such as the stereotyp-
484 / Music nd Mass Cuhure On Jzz 485

ical blue chord*, and whatever jazz has to offer in the way of vertical singers which is the most difficult to integrate into a norm is almost in-
stimulation has been taken from Debussy. And even the treatment of mel- distinguishable fom that of the caf concert. The subjectivepole o.jazz-
ody, especially in the more serious pieces, is based on the impressionist subjectivity itself understood strictly in the sense of a social product and
model. The resolution into the smallest motif-formulae, which are not
developed dynamically but rather statically repeated, and which are only
rhythmically reinterpreted and appear to circle around an immovable cen-
ter, is specifically impressionistic. But jazz deprives it of its formal sense; broad and solid concepts of style, one could claim it of
as the combination
the impressionism which it appropriates is at the same time depraved. If, salon music and march music. The fomer represents an individuality
in Debussy, the melodic points form their coloration and temporal surfaces which in truth is none at all, but merely the socially produced illusion of
from out of themselves following the constructive command of subjectiv- it; the latter is an equally fictive community which is formed from nothing
ity, in jazz they are harnessed, like in the false beat of hot music*, into other than the alignment of atoms under the force that is exerted upon
the metric-harmonic schema of the "standard" cadence of the eight-bar them. The effectiveness of the principle of march music in jazz is evident. .a^
^
period. The subjective-functional distribution of the melody remains im- The basic rhythm of the continuo and the bass drum is completely in sync r1" t
potent by being recalled as it were, by the eight-bar condensation into a with march rhythm, and, since the introduction of six-eight" time, jazz
leading-voice form which merely toys with its particulars rather than com- could be transformed effortlessly into a march. The connection here is
posing a new form from them; this is true in the case of the complex historically grounded; one of the horns used in jazz s called the Sousa-
harmonies when they are caught again by the same cadence from which phone, after the march composer. Not only the saxophone has been bor-
owed from the military orchestra; the entire arrangement of the jazz
_their floating resonances want to escape. Even yesterday's music must first
be endered harmless by jazz, must be released from its historical element, orchestra, in terms of the melody, bass, obbligti, and mere filler in-
before it is ready for the market. Once on the market, these impressionistic struments, is identical to that of a military band. Thus jazz can be easily
trimmings function as a stimulant. Their effect, previously isolated in the adapted for use by fascism. In Italy it is especially well liked as is cubism
concert hall and the studio, is modern: a fine nuance within a crass schema. and artisanry. The ban against it in Germany has to do with the surface
For the broad public they are considered risqu and exciting in a way that tendency to reach back to pre-capitalist, feudal forms of immediacy and to
is barely comprehensible any more; they abstractly feign progressiveness. call these socialism. But, characteristically enough, this ban is a powerless
But the individual element which is inserted into jazz through impres- one. The struggle against the saxophone has been appeased by the musical
sionism does not generate or have control over itself. It has become rigid organizations and the instrument industry; jazz itself continues vigor-
formulaic, spent-the individual elements are now in just the same posi- ously, under other names, on the radio as well. Only the more advanced,
tion as social convention was previously. It is easy to rob it of its formal newly objectivela hot music* for the upper middle classes which the lay-
sense because that has already escaped of its own accord in post-Debussy man cannot understand has fallen victim to the ban. Not only is march-
epigone music; as a conventional element it can be fitted seamlessly into like jazz music tolerated, but the new marches, as they are sometimes
a convention. The individually modern element in jazz is s ilusory as the introduced through sound films, have themselves sprung directly from
collective archaic element. jur. :

The illusory character of the individual elements relates jazz to salon The relationship between the salon music and march music which are
music, toward which impressionism itself tended in its lesser representa- mixed together in jazz has its base in the demythologizing tendency of
tives. In its origins, jazz reaches deep down into the salon style. lts ex- dance itsell in the transformation of the dance into the bourgeois gait
pressitso stems from this style; to put it drastically, everything in it wants caried out whenever possible by individuals from the salons. The formal
to announce something soulful. The jazz vibrato was most likely taken precursors of. jazzbefore the war were referred to as steps*: the movement
over from the wandering fiddle player, who is then resurrected in the of accentuating a step in the process of walking gave it its name' The
tango. Impressionist harmonics spill over everywhere into the sentimental history of the social function of jazz, the tendency to disenchant the dance,
harmonies of the salon. The characteristic style of the whispering jazz has yet to be written, and to be transposed subsequently into its opposite,
486 I Musc nd Mass Cuhure On Jzz / +82

a new magic. The gait of the bourgeois individual which is no longer con- ment in jazz is what has provoked the hatred of petit bourgeois ascetic
nected with magic can be transformed, by the command of rhythm, into SrouPs.
a march. Insofar as dancing is synchronous movement, the tendency to This sexual moment is, however, deliberately emphasized in all jazz' In
march has been present in dance from the very beginning; thus jaz,z is contrast to the practice of psychoanalysis but using its terminologY, one
connected in its origins with the march and its history lays bare this re- would like to designate the symbolic representation of sexual union as the
lationship. At first, the casual gait which accompanies jazz presents itse-i mariifest dream content of jazz, which is intensified rather than censored
as the opposite of the march. It seems to release the dancer from the im- by the innueudo of the text and the music. One cannot free oneself of the
prisonment of exact gestures into the arbitrary naflrre of his everyday life, suspicion that t!9g! ancl
from which he no longer even escapes through dance, but which is playl conceals a and more
fully transfigured by dance as a latent order. With jazz, so it seems, the the material for
of individual existence asserts itself against its social standard"
o,\?'l contingency older operettas like the WIzertraum;76 the character of modernity which
l7;!'u- with the claim that it is fraught with meaning. lazz syncopation clear! is inherent in jazzwould not be affected by it' The second secret, however,
wants to obliterate the ritualized measure; at times it sounds as if the music may be assumed to be a social one. In order to exPose the latent dream
were sacrificing its distance and it and had stepped structuie, one may insist on the interrelatedness ol jazz and contingency.
it
l)' over into the physical empirical realm o
' In film, Its social significance does not merge into the sexual meaning; the social
jazz is best suited to accompany contingent actions which are prosaic in a must be forced from the sexual. Even socially, jazz has at first a simple
double sense: people pro*"rr"i.,g and chatting along a b"".h, *o*"r{ solution in store. This is its rondo comPonent, that of the couplet and
"
busying herself with her shoe. In such moments, jazz is so appropriate to refrain which it shares with traditional simple vocal music. The couplet
the situation that we are hardly conscious of it anymore. From this fact, and refrain are called in English the oerse* and the chorus*, and the name
too/ stems the significance of the hits of contingenry, where a chance word" , and subject matter betray the old relationship between the single lead
as a scrap of the everyday, becomes a jacket for the music from which it
spins forth: "bananas" and "cheese at the train station" and "Aunt Paula
who eats tomatoes"ls have often enough knocked their erotic and geo-
graphic competition out of the field.
This contingency can only be trusted to a very minor degree. All too
willingly, the hits give their contingency a sexual meaning which is by no
\r means an unconscious one; they all tend toward the obscene gesture. The which the public performs is _dull#ttltl
,r..:(l'
cheese then reminds us of anal regression; the bananas provide surrogate identification. idual in the audience experiences Prt$)$=-na-t
satisfaction for the woman/ and the more absurd the nonsense, the more and then feels himself transformed [aut'gehoben] ln the a1j.,,,,
immediate its sex appel*. The pace of the gait itself-language bears "r "i.trego, - with --T "'
refrain; he identifies himself with the collective of the refrain, merges
witness to this-has an immediate reference to coitus; the rhythm of the it in the dance, and thus finds sexual fulfillment- So much for the well-
gait is similar to the rhythm of sexual intercourse; and if the new dances known dream content of. jazz it resembles that of film, which has been
have demystified the erotic magic of the old ones, they have also-and treated as with fantasy again and again with all due trivial esprit. Like the
therein at.least they are more advanced than one might expect-replaced films which correspond -ts
it with the drastic innuendo of sexual consummation. This is expressed in the individual, who non
the extreme in some so-called dance cdemies*, where txi girls* are process. The production
available with whom one can perform dance steps which occasionally lead refrain over the couplet in that it is always written first and as the principal
to male orgasm. Thus, the dance is a means for achieving sexual sadsfac- component; the couplet is found later, only subsequently; the individual,
tion and at the same time respects the ideal of virginity. The sexual mo- the "hero" of the verse, is an indifferent element in its production. The
( (. i

{! , , ,i \,, l\,.i, 'i;\,{e -


-:'urr :'*au' r"ki*' l''.o\ a'1
, .! ,'

-'rt'488
Music and Mass Culture On Jazz I +8g

verse often tells a simpleminded history of the development of the re- not so much interprets as ritualistically accompanies. The sacrificial mean-
frain just to provide a point of connection for the refrain. In orchestral ing of the jazz subject is now clearly mitigated under the pressure of dream
arrangements, the verse retreats altogether; the piece begins with the re- censorship. It falls out of the collective just as syncopation does from the
frain and the couplet is used only once in the rondo-only the chorus is regular beat; it does not want to be engulfed in the prescribed majority,
permitted to take part in the repetition and variations. Only it is sung. which existed before the subject and is independent of it, whether out of
Contrary to this, the piano scores which are aimed more at the private protst or ineptitude or both at once-until it finally is received into, or,
sphere contain the complete text and musically give the couplet as well better, subordinated to the collective as it was predestined to be; until the
as the refrain. music indicates, in a subsequently ironic manner as the measures grow
rounde that it was a part of it fom the very beginning; that, itself a part
of this society, it can never really break away from it; indeed, that its
If theory wants to go beyond such findings to penetrate the center of the seeming ineptitude is really a virtuosity of adaptation; that its "not-being-
social function of jazz,ot to put it in psychological terms, its latent dream able-to" (and this is clearly tied in with the sexual meaning here) really
content-that is, to point out the concrete historically determined con- indicates an "ability to," an "also-being-able-to," indeed, an "ability to do
stellation of social identification and sexual energy for which it is an it better."
arena-it must formulate the problem of contingency with regard to hot The most precise precursor of this jazz subject took shape on the prewar
music*, even though this music, at least in Europe, has reached only a variety stage-therefore the historical question of the extent to which the
fract'ion of the general public. Hot music* can be contrasted to the mini- ffrst tap-dances stem from the variety theater is factually of the utmost
mum of march and salon music as the achievable maximum; the "iea" of. importance for a comprehensive theory of jazz. The eccentric may be taken
jazz can be construed from it if it is to be construed at all. The scope of as a model for the jazz subject-one of the oddest and most famous pieces
the hot* elements extends from the artfully executed improvisation via of art music, a Debussy prelude that appeared before World War I, which
the brek* and false beats to the elemental component, the syncopation is similar to jazz bears the title Generl Laine, eccentric, with the subtitle,
which seems to stumble out of the basic rhythm. The maintained beat is dns Ie mouoement et le style d'un Cake-wlk ("following the movement
contrasted to it as the normative standard. These can lay a greater claim and style of. a cakewalk*").17 The eccentric can first of all be understood
to being the subject of jazz than does its archaic rudiment, the couplet; as the strict antithesis of the clown. If the clown is the one whose anar-

o individual contingency is embodied in their excess departures from the


norm. This jazz subject is inept and yet is inclined toward improvisation;
it is contrasted as Self against the abstract superimposed authority and yet
chistic and archaic immediary cannot be adapted to the reified bourgeois
life, and becomes ridiculous before it-fragmentary, but at the same time
allowing it to appear ridiculous-the eccentric certainly is just as much
can be exchanged arbitrarily. It lends this authority expression without excluded fom instrumental regulation, from the "rhythm" of bourgeois
softening it by this expression-in this way it is paradoxical. The fact that Iife. He is the crank and recluse, as much as the clown, and may well verge
it is itself preformed conventionally and only appears to be self-sufficient on the ridiculous. But his exclusion manifests itself immediately-not as
forces one to conclude, as does the musical expression of hot* passages/ powerlessness, but rather as superiority, or the appearance of it; laughter
that this subject is not a "free," lyrical subject which is then elevated into greets the eccentric only to die away in shoc! and, with his ridiculousness,
the collective, but rather one which is not originally free-a victim of the that of society also elegantly drops out of sight. The rhythm of his arbi-
collective. Here the sense of jazz's orig;nal refrain/couplet relationship trariness is subordinated without a rupture to a greatet more lawful
reappears in its own time, for the lead singer or principal dancer is nothing rhythm; and his failure is located not below but above the standard: to
other than a-perhaps superseded-human sacrifice. In this context, it obey the law and yet be diffeent. This type of behavior is taken over,
may be decisively illuminating that the only important composer who is bound up with the gradual abandonment of the traces of playful superi-
at all close to jazz is Stravinsky, whose principal wor! Le Sacre du prin- ority and liberal difference, by the hof* subject. Even externally, the jazz
temps, famous for its artful syncopation, makes the subject of the work a practice of the best orchestras always maintains eccentric elements. The
human sacrifice, that of the principal dancer-a sacrifice which the music juggling acts of the drummers, the lightning-fast switch from one instru-
+9o / Music nd Mass Cuhure
On Jzz / 49a

ment to anothet improvisations which sound ridiculously off-beat at first anxiety; it sacrifices an individuality which it does not really possess, feels
and sound right only once the last beat has sounded a systematic stum-
itself, as a mutilated subject, at one with the mutilating authoriry and
transfers this authority onto itself in such a way that it now believes itself
bling over and turning around one another which is both ingenious and
to be "able." The opposing ego remains a part of the total sociery it is only
futile-the more virtuoso jazz practice has all this in common with the
concealed from itself at first, and the performance of. jazz is not so much
practice of the eccentric. The rhythmic categories o. hot music* are them-
its.dialectical modification and "transformation," properly speaking, as it
selves eccentric categories. The syncopation is not, like its counterpart, that
is the rigid ritual of the exposure of its social character. The elements of
of Beethoven, the expression of an accumulated subjective force which
its weakness are inscribed in the "parodic" or comic elements which are
peculiar to the lof+ sections-without, however/ anyone knowing what
exactly is being parodied. They represent at the same time, and still in the
sense of eccentricity, the playful superiority of the individual over society,
which precisely because of its exact knowledge of the rules of its game can
dare not to strictly maintain them. Only this ironic excess is suspect in
jazz, and this is indicated by its hatred for squeaks and dissonance-but
not the adaptation of syncopation; only it is eliminated within fascism, but
not the model of its rhythmic development. For the specification of the
individual in jazz never was and never will be that of a thriving productive
power, but always that of a neurotic weakness, just as the basic models of
a clown, the hot* ego begins to follow too weakly the standard of the
the "excessive" hot* subject remain musically completely banal and con-
collective which has been unproblematically set, reeling with uncertainty
like many of the figures of the American film grotesque genre, such as ventional. For this reason, perhaps, oppressed peoples could be said to be
especially well-prepare for jazz. To some extent, they demonstrate for the
Harold Lloyd and occasionally Chaplin himself. The decisive intervention
not yet adequately mutilated liberals the mechanism of identification with
of.jazz lies in the fact that this subject ofweakness takes pleasure precisely
in its own weakness, almost as if it should be rewarded for this, for adapting their own oppression.
itself into the collective that made it so wea whose standard its weakness lazz, the amalgam of the march and salon music, is a false amalgam:
cannot satisfy. In psychological terms, jazz succeeds in squaring the cirde.
the amalgam of a destroyed subjectivity and of the social power which
produces it, eliminates it, and objectifies it through this elimination. This
The contingent ego as a member of the bourgeois class is blindly aban-
doned on principle to social law. By learning to fear social authority and
is also true in coloristic terms of the unity of the pseudo-liberated and
pseudo-immediate and of the marchlike collective basic meter; the sub-
experiencing it as a threat of castration-and immediately as fear of im-
jective-expressive sound; a subjective tone which dissolves itself by re-
potence-it identifies itself wiT@isely this authority of which it is
vealing its mechanical aspect. Of all the instruments, this coloration is most
afraid. In exchange, however, it now suddenly belongs to it and can "dance
genuinely recognizable in the unbearable Wurlitzer organ. In it, the char-
along." The sex appeal* of jazz is a command: obey, and then you will be
acter of the jazz vibrato comes definitively to the fore. The other sound
allowed to take part. And the dreamthought, as contradictory as reality, in
characteristics of. jazz-the muted distortions of the horns, the chirping
which it is dreamt: I will only be potent once I have allowed myself to be
and vibrating tonal repetitions of the plucked instruments, the banjo and
castrated. The relationship between the jazz subject represented by hot*
the ukulele, and even the harmonica-are functionally equivalent to it in
. jazz elements and social authority, the prescribed metric law, is ambivalent
so far as they all modify an "objective" sound, but still only to the extent
from a material-musical perspective as well as from a social-psychological
one. Anxiety causes the subject to drop out and go into opposition, but
that this sound remains inevitably manifest; it is perhaps ironicized, but
opposition by an isolated individual, who represents himself in his isola-
mostly it ironicizes the whimpering which is helplessly testing itself within
tion as purely socially determined, is an illusion. Out of anxiety, individ- it. The objective sound is embellished by a subjective expression, which is
unable to dominate it and therefore exerts a fundamentally ridiculous and
ualiry like syncopation, is once again relinquished, which is itself pure
492 Music nd Mss Culture On Jazz I +gl
decorative frills." John Wlllet, Art and Politics in the Weimar Period: The New
heart-rending effect. The elements of the comical, the grotesque, and the
Sobrety, L9r.2-L9jj (New York: Pantheon, a978,), p. rrz. See further p. 437 n. 7.
anal which are inherent injazz can therefore never be separated from the
[iod]
sentimental elements. They characterize a subjectivity which revolts
against a collective power which it itself ls; for this reason its revolt seems
ridiculous and is beaten down by the drum just as syncopation is by the
beat. Only those positions which are characterizedby irony, when it is
directed against just anyone, and which suspects the expression of subjec- Benjamin's essay to Adorno's jazz essay-Adorno had hoped to see both essays
published together as a pair-see famie Owen Daniel, "Introduction to Adorn's
tivity when it doesn't matter whose it is, are unable to tolerate this sound. 'Onlazz,"' Discourse: Theoretical Studies in Media and Cubure rz no. r (Fall/
Then there appears in its place the militaristically noble, demonically har- Winter t989-9o), pp. 39-44. bodl
monious elements of the symphonic jazz marches, whose sheer compact- 6. This "being" is meant in the sense of everyday realiry and not in the sense
ness will no longer concede even the semblance of humanity its gap. At of a transcendent Heideggerian "Being." [jod]
7. Kees van Dongen @877-t968) was a fauvist painter well known for his
this point, jazz vr:,.ll have split off along the two poles of its origins, while,
in the middle, hot music,* too soon condemned to dassical status, will
continue its meager specialized existence. Once this happens, jazzvllbe
beyond redemption.
(t936; GS, vol. 17, pp.74<oo)
Translated by |amie Owen Daniel; modified by Richard Leppert PP.19a-92.
osz, was
NOTES BY RICHARD LEPPERT; States. It
ADDTTToNAL NOTES By JAMrE OWEN DANTET [IOD] "Wngy"
with Nat
r. Adorno regards Scheintakt as a kind of syncopation. He chooses the word, Gonella as vocalist. Thanks to Steve Gilmartin for identifying the song title.
which he uses repeatedly, as part of a larger rhetorical ploy to emphasize what he 9. "Tiger Rag" publishe in r9t7, has been recorded many times. felly Roll
regards as the thorough "falseness" of the German dance-band music-funda- Morton @89o-r94r) daimed authorship, though this has been disputed by some
mentally what he means here by " jazz"-thatis the subject of his essay. f . Bradford of his contemporaries. See Edward A. Berlin, Ragtime: A Musicil and Cukural
Robinson, "TheIazz Essays of Theordor Adorno: Some Thoughts on fazz Recep- History (Berkeley and Los Angeles: Universiry of California Press, r98o), p. r83
tion in Weimar Germany," Popular Music t3 no. r (fanuary a99, p. rz, points n. 16.
out that the term was coined by Weimar Germany's jazz theorists to account for
what is now known as a secondary rag "Scheintkfe, or'pseudo-bars,'are created
when crotchets or quavers are grouped in threes within a 4/4 metre and allowed
to produce three-beat patterns extending over the normal bar lines." Robinson
points out that Adorno misunderstood the nature of the Scheintkt when he de-
scribed it as a combination of 3 * 3 * z eighth-notes within a single 4/4 measure
measure
(which is the Charleston rhythm); in fact, the Schentakt must extend across a bar
Iine, otherwise it cannot be heard as such.
[ch. Kobmson
Robinson acknowledges Adorno's Ilarger
Iarger
nt, that the Scheintakf
point, Scheintakt ultimately
u.l resolves into the basc 4/ 4 of the piece.
z. Hector Berlioz, Treatise on lnstrumentation, e. Richard Strauss, trans.
Theodore Front (1843; znd ed. 1855; ;948 reprint New York: Dover, :99t),
pp.)9f4oo, under the category "New Instruments."
3. See p. 435 rL. zz.
4. Adorno here makes a dismissive reference to the artistic and literary move-
ment known as "New Objectivity," fashionable during the Weimar period, of rr. Adorno names three German artists whose works are known for their hu-
which he was critical. As fohn Willet has pointed out in his excellent study of the mor. Heinrich Heine (t797-r856), whose poetry is often trenchantly ironic and
period: "[A] 'Sche'is a fact, a mattet a'thing'in the more abstract sense. Its satirical, and commonly directed at German culture, which rendered him a con-
quality of'sachlichkei'then implies obectivity in the sense of a neutraf sober, troversial figure. Heine also wrore a number of prose works, including political
matter-of-fact approach, thus coming to embrace functionalism, utiliry absence of essays. foseph Victor von Scheffel (t826-t886), Iikewise a poet as well as novelist,
494 I Music and Mass Cuhure On Jazz / +gS

is best known for his Der Trompeter oon Sckingen$85$, acomic epic poem, and
for the popular sentimental historical novel kkehard @85). Wilhelm Busch
(;.832-:2o8) was both a poet and a painter; he wrote satiric verse which he illus-
trated by drawings. He is regarded as the first fully professional comic-strip artist.
He is best known for his Max und Moritz, forerunner of "The Katzenjammer
Kids." Busch's work emphasizes farce, but with the dark potential for violence.
rz. Karl Kraws (t874-r936), Austrian critic-journalist, dramatist, and poe he matter, Ellington was also linked to Ravel and Stravins though Adorno's concern
was a skilled satirist and wrote in a highly idiomatic style, making him difficult to is to associate him with what he regarded as warmed-over impressionism. The
translate. Adorno cites him often. In particula see "Morals and Criminality: On purported link between Ellington and Debussy did not receive the stress in the
the Eleventh Volume of the Works of Karl Kraus," NL, vol. 2, pp. 457, concern- music press that was accorded to Ellington and Delius.
ing the conrinued relevance of Kraus's Sittlichkeit und Krminalitt (t9o8). ln r4. Another reference to "New Objectiviry" then very much in vogue. See n.
Adorno's words, Kraus "is a critic of ideology in the strict sense: he confronts 4, above. [od]
consciousness, and the form of its expression, with the reality it distorts. . . . He r5. The reference is to lies from popular commercial hits of the period. [od]
was guided by the profoun{ if unconscious, insight that when they are no longer :.6. Ein Walzertrum (:2o) is by Oscar Straus (r87o-t954), the Austrian op-
rationalized, evil and destructiveness stop being wholly bad and may attain some- eretta composer and conductor. His operetta Der tapt'ere Soldat (t9o8), based on
thing like a second innocence through self-knowledge" (p.43); and Kaus "is not George Bernard Shaw's Arms and the Man, was popular in the United States as
rendered obsolete by the worse things that came after him because he had already The Chocolate Soldier.
recognized the worst in the moderately bad and had revealed it by reflecting it. rT..Claude Debussy, Prludes, Book II (r9r3), number six in a collection of
Since then the average has revealed itself to be the worst, the ordinary citizen to twelve pieces.
be Eichmann" (p.52).
Regarding Adorno's comment about typographical errors, Adorno may have
had in mind the following anecdote Kraus published in his satirical journal Die
Fackel (t9r'z), titled "I Believe in the Printer's Gremlin" ["Ich glaube an den Druck-
fehlerteufe"l:
A hitherto unknown tragedy by Shakespeare was recently announced
in the advertising columns of a Skt. Gallen newspaper. It said that the
municipal theatre of Skt. Gallen was going to perform "King Leha"
a tragedy in five acts by W. Shakespeare.
This is no laughing matter. It's horrible. The printer was not trying
to make a joke. The word that he was not supposed to set, the association
that got into his worl is the measure of our time. By their misprints
shall ye know them. What may be read here is a Shakespearean tragedy.
(Kraus regarded Lehr's operettas as inane; the irony of the misprint is apparent
in the fact that the editor doesn't know the difference benveen the work of a second-
rate composer and one of literature's greatest tragedies.) The translation of this
excerpt from Die Fackel appears in In These Gret Times: A KarI Kraus Reader,
ed. Harry Zohn, trans. foseph Fabry et al. (Montreal: Engendra Press, 1976), p. 69.
See further Edward Timms, KarI Kraus: Apocalyptic Satirist: Cuhure and Catas-
trophe in Habsburg Vienna (New Haven: Yale University Press, t986).
r3. Duke Ellington's music was connected to music by Debussy and Delius as
early as 1932, in a critical essay on Ellington by R. D. Darrell, "Black Beaury"
published in disques, pp. t5z-4t. This essay is reprinted n The Duke Ellington
Reader, ed. Mark Tucker (Oxford: Oxford University Press, t993), pp.57-45.
Tucke p.57, points out that "Black Beauty" was the ffrst critical assessment of
Ellington's music. Its impact was significant, and the views expressed were
thereafter repeated. The following year Wilder Hobson in an essay in Fortune
(August 1933), "Introducing Duke Ellington," suggests that Ellington was reported
to have commented, "I'll have to find out about this Delius," after hearing com-
poser Perry Grainger repeat the connecrion (the essay is reprinted inDuke Elling-
ton Reader, pp.%-98; the quotation appears on p. 95). Enzo Achetti, "In Defense
of Ellington and His 'Reminiscing in Tempo,"' American Music Looer (t936),